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  Three Kinds of Memory
1). Episodic: memories
 of the events that
 happen to a person or
 take place in the
 person’s presence
 Breakfast,   Thanksgiving,
   Three Kinds of Memory
2). Semantic: general
 Concerns meanings
 History dates, authors,   facts
Remember =episodic
  Three Kinds of Memory
3). Procedural: (skill
Knowledge of ways of
 doing things
 Ride a bike, drive a car
 Persevere even when you
 haven’t used it in a while
Mnemonic Device
Systems for remembering
    in which items are related
     to easily recalled sets of
         symbols such as
      acronyms, phrases, or
   ESP-episodic, semantic, procedural
Three Processes of Memory

1). Encoding:
 The first stage of information processing
 Modifying information so that it can be placed in
 Exercise 1:Recall list of letters
    a) Visual code-mental image
    b) Acoustic code-sequence of sounds
    c) Semantic code-mental representation of
    information according to its meaning
Three Processes of Memory

2). Storage: the
 maintenance of
 information over time
 Maintenance rehearsal-mental
 repetition of information in
 order to keep it in memory
Three Processes of Memory

3). Retrieval: the location of
 stored information and its
 return to consciousness

Not able to retrieve list because:
 Not encoded the list in a useful way
 Not entered the encoded information
  into storage
 Stored the information but lacked the
  proper cues for remembering
Three Stages of Memory
                Linda? Janet?    File Cabinet:
This is Linda    Tina? Lane?    People met at

Sensory Short-term Long-term
Memory        Memory   Memory
                    Storage
Sensory                  &
 Input    Attention  Retrieval
Three Stages of Memory
1). Sensory Memory: the type
 or stage of memory first
 encountered by a stimulus.
 Sensory memory holds
 impressions briefly, but long
 enough so that series of
 perceptions are
 psychologically continuous
Sensory Memory
 Iconic- a mental representation of a
  visual stimulus that is held briefly in
  sensory memory
   – Accurate, photographic memory for
     brief time
 Eidetic imagery- maintenance of detailed
  visual memories over several minutes
   – Declines with age
 Echoic memory- sensory register that
  briefly holds mental representations of
  auditory stimuli
Three Stages of Memory
2). Short-term Memory:
 (working memory)
  the stage of memory that can hold
  information for up to a minute or so
  after the trace of the stimulus
 phone #’s, told a name at the party
 Fade significantly after 10-12
  seconds if not rehearsed
Short-term Memory
   Exercise 2: Quarter Lists
 Serial-Position Effect:
The tendency to recall more
  accurately the first and last items
  in a series
   Primacy effect:
Tendency to recall the initial items in a series
   of items
   Recency effect:
Tendency to recall the last items in a series of
Short-term Memory
 Exercise 3 & 4:
 Chunking:
A stimulus or group of stimuli that are
   perceived as a discrete piece of
   Exercise 3-tic tac toe grid
   Exercise 4-move dash to left
Short-term Memory
 Rote learning:  mechanical
  associative learning that is
  based on repetition
 Interference/Displace: to
  cause chunks of information
  to be lost from short-term
  memory by adding new
Long-term Memory
 The third stage of
  processing of information
 capable of relatively
  permanent storage
 vast storehouse of
  information containing
  names, dates, places
Long-term Memories
   How accurate?
   Elizabeth Loftus:
    -memories are distorted by
    our biases and needs and
    by the ways in we
    conceptualize our worlds
  A way   of mentally
 representing the world,
    such as a belief or
  expectation, that can
 influence perception of
  persons, objects, and
       Loftus:
    –    Showed video on car crash
    –    Questionnaire asked how fast the
         cars were going at the time of the
    –    “Smashed” 41 mph
    –    “Hit”34 mph
    –    Words “hit” and “smashed”
         caused people to organize their
         knowledge about the crash in
         different ways
Eye-Witness Testimony

   Words chosen by an
  experimenter and those
    chosen by a lawyer
  interrogating a witness
     can influence the
     reconstruction of
Eye-Witness Testimony
 Hypnosis-can amplify   and
  distort memories
 Identification of criminals-
  people pay more attention to
  clothing rather than height,
  weight, facial features
 Improvement-describe what
  happened rather than pump
  witness with suggestions
Short-term to Long-term
       Maintenance rehearsal-repetition
        but not effective way to place info
        in permanent storage
       Elaborative rehearsal:
        relating new material to
        well-known material
    –     Vocabulary
Flashbulb Memories
   Exercise: First Kiss or Love
   We tend to remember
    events that occur under
    unusual, emotionally
    arousing circumstances

 Ex. 5-Write down your 3 most vivid
 Ex: September 11th, first kiss, death of
  a loved one, heartache
Tip-of-the-tongue Phenomenon

 The feeling that information
 is stored in memory
 although it cannot be readily
 Incomplete or   imperfect
 May not know exact answer but
  we know something
 Ex.6-List the 7 dwarfs
Seven Dwarfs
        Sleepy Sneezy

          Dopey Doc

   Grumpy Bashful Happy

 Two S’s, Two D’s, Three Emotions
Context-Dependent Memory

   Information that is better
    retrieved in the context in
    which it was encoded and
    stored, or learned
   Ex: Yen’s room? Scene of
    crime, under water
   How many of you visualize where you were
    when trying to remember a concept?
State-Dependent Memory

   Information that is better
    retrieved in the
    physiological or emotional
    state in which it was
    encoded and stored, or
   Ex: under the influence,
    mood-happy, angry, sad
   Failure to recognize a
    nonsense syllable that
    has been read before
  We don’t encode info we don’t consider
   useful (questions)
 Memory tasks used in measuring
1) Recognition
2) Recall
3) Relearning
Exercise 7: Encoding Failure
1)   Which letters do not appear on the
     telephone dial?
2)   Most wooden pencils are not round. How
     many sides do they typically have?
3)   In what hand does the Statue of Liberty
     hold her torch?
4)   What is pictured on the back of a $20?
5)   What four words besides “In God We
     Trust” appear on most US coins?
1)   Which letters do not appear on the
     telephone dial? (Q, Z)
2)   Most wooden pencils are not round. How
     many sides do they typically have? (6)
3)   In what hand does the Statue of Liberty
     hold her torch? (Right)
4)   What is pictured on the $20? (White
5)   What four words besides “In God We
     Trust” appear on most US coins? (United
     States of America)
   Easiest type of memory
    task, involving
    identification of objects
    or events encountered
   Ex: multiple choice questions
   Recognize photos of old
    classmates easier than recalling
    their names
 Retrieval or reconstruction
  of learned material
 More difficult than
  recognition (Ex.8-Draw both sides of a

 Recall task-person must
  retrieve a syllable with
  another syllable serving as a
  cue (fill in the blank)
 Meaningful links help
A measure of retention.
 Material is usually
 relearned more quickly
 than it is learned initially

 Ex: Future Psych   classes
Interference Theory

   We forget material in
    short-term and long-
    term memory because
    newly learned material
    interferes with it
   Retroactive vs. Proactive
Retroactive Interference

   New learning
    interferes with the
    retrieval of old learning
 Ex: Italian interfered with
  Spanish when I returned
 Your examples?
Proactive Interference

Old learning    interferes
    with the capacity to
    retrieve more recently
    learned material
   Ex: Spanish made learning Italian more

   Your examples?
 Freud:
  – We are motivated to forget
   painful memories and
   unacceptable ideas
   because they produce
   anxiety, guilt, and shame
Infantile Amnesia
       Exercise: Write down your
        earliest memory
       Inability to recall events
        that occur prior to the age
        or 2 or 3
    –    No meaningful stories or
    –    No reliable use of language to
         symbolize or classify events
Anterograde Amnesia

 Failure to remember events
  that occur after physical
  trauma because of the
  effects of the trauma
 H.M.-couldn’t transfer info
  from short-term to long-
Retrograde Amnesia
 Failure to remember
 events that occur prior
   to physical trauma
 because the effects of
       the trauma
Which one?
  Anterograde Amnesia


  Retrograde Amnesia

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