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					The International Association of Plastics Distributors




        Amorphous and Semi-Crystalline
          Commodity Thermoplastics
             Materials, properties and applications.




                         Prepared by the IAPD Education Committee (Module 3)
                                Presented courtesy of Modern Plastics, Inc.

The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Amorphous Commodity Thermoplastics
  Key Characteristics

                  •   Low cost
                  •   Low temperature resistance
                  •   Low strength
                  •   Good dimensional stability
                  •   Bonds well
                  •   Typically transparent




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



    Amorphous Commodity Thermoplastics
    Materials


                  •   Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
                  •   Polystyrene (PS)
                  •   Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
                  •   Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
                  •   Polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG)
                  •   Cellulous acetate butyrate (CAB)




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Acrylic (PMMA)
  Strengths

               • Availability of all ranges of optical
                 transparency, including opacity
               • Rigidity
               • Surface hardness
               • Half the weight of glass
               • Heat resistance




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Acrylic (PMMA)
  Limitations

              •   Grain effect
              •   Discolor with high UV exposure
              •   Attacked by organic solvents
              •   Limited chemical resistance
              •   Poor wear and abrasion resistance
              •   Low impact strength




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Acrylic (PMMA)
  Applications
         •   Protective glazing
         •   Windows
         •   Toys
         •   Point of purchase (POP) displays




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Polystyrene (PS)
  Strengths

                 •    Inexpensive
                 •    Easy to bond
                 •    Quick to bond
                 •    Easy to decorate




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



   Polystyrene (PS)
   Limitations

                • Low impact resistance
                • Brittle after UV exposure
                • Cannot be used at elevated temperatures
                • Mechanical stress




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




   Polystyrene (PS)
   Applications
              • Refrigeration
              • Disposable beverage glasses
              • Medical devices
              • Disposable laboratory products
              • Wood replacement products




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
  Strengths

                   • Good impact resistance
                   • Easily formable
                   • Many different formulations




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
  Limitations

             •   Grain effect
             •   Will discolor with high UV exposure
             •   Attacked by organic solvents
             •   Hygroscopic (absorbs moisture)




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
  Applications

                   •   Aircraft interiors
                   •   Computer housings
                   •   Cassette holders
                   •   Mass transit components
                   •   Wall coverings
                   •   Consumer electronics
                   •   Appliances
                   •   Automotive


The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  Strengths

            •   Low cost
            •   Good chemical resistance
            •   Versatile
            •   Naturally UV resistant
            •   Good strength




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  Limitations

            • Heat sensitive
            • Low impact strength
            • Poor wear resistance




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
  Applications
          • Pipe, valves and fittings
          • Thermoformed parts for transportation, exhibits and
            machinery parts
          • Point of purchase displays
          • Pollution control equipment parts
          • Packaging




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors


  Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate
  Glycol (PETG)
  Strengths

                • Optical transparency
                • Good toughness
                • Easy to fabricate
                • Easy to form
                • Ability to be sterilized




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors


   Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate
   Glycol (PETG)
   Limitations

                  • Limited UV resistance
                  • Cannot be used above 60°-66°C/140°-150°F
                    range
                  • Low softening point precludes sterilization




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Modified Polyethylene Terephthalate Glycol
  (PETG)
  Applications

                     • Packaging
                     • Graphic arts
                     • Point of purchase (POP) displays




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB)
  Strengths

                • Tough at low temperatures
                • Compounded easily for unique applications




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB)
  Limitations

                 • Not compatible with other materials
                 • Not self-extinguishing




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




   Cellulose Acetate Butyrate (CAB)
   Applications

               •   Cash register keys
               •   Tool handles
               •   Windshields
               •   Thermoformed signs
               •   Trim stripping
               •   Window well covers




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Semi-Crystalline Commodity Plastics
  Key Characteristics

                  •   Low cost, strength and temperature resistance
                  •   Excellent chemical resistance
                  •   Low COF
                  •   Near zero moisture absorption
                  •   Very good electrical properties
                  •   Good toughness




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Semi-Crystalline Commodity Plastics
  Materials

                   • Polyethylene (PE)
                         – High density polyethylene (HDPE)
                         – Low density polyethylene (LDPE), (LLDPE)
                   • Polypropylene (PP)
                   • Polymethylpentene (PMP)




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



 Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP)
 Polymethylpentene (PMP)
 Key Characteristics

          • Partially crystalline, partially amorphous
          • Largest family are the polyolefins
          • Cost, benefits and limitations are different for each




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




 Polyethylenes (PE)
 Key Characteristics

                 •    Classified by density and molecular weight
                 •    Excellent chemical resistance
                 •    Zero moisture absorption
                 •    Light weight (1/8 weight of steel)
                 •    Excellent insulator
                 •    Low COF
                 •    High impact strength




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Polyethylenes (PE)
  Applications

              • Packaging
              • Wire and cable
              • Industrial




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
Key Characteristics

             •   Good chemical resistance
             •   Very flexible
             •   High impact strength
             •   Low heat resistance (60-79°C/140-175°F)
             •   Used extensively in packaging industry and for
                 prosthetic devices




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




 High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
 Key Characteristics

             • Higher rigidity and tensile strength than low and
               medium density polyethylenes
             • Good formability
             • Slightly lower impact strength than LDPE
             • Virgin grades are FDA and USDA approved




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



  Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE)
  High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)
  Applications
               •   Films
               •   Industrial trash bags
               •   Liners
               •   Shipping bags
               •   Marine industry
               •   Playgrounds
               •   Bathrooms
               •   Pipe
               •   Automotive
The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors



 Polypropylenes (PP)
 Key Characteristics

            • Excellent chemical resistance
            • Excellent fatigue strength — referred to as ―living
              hinge‖
            • Lower impact strength than polyethylenes
            • Available in homopolymer and co-polymer
            • Co-polymer offers better impact, clarity and cold
              temperature properties



The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




    Polypropylenes (PP)
    Applications

           •   Packaging
           •   Automotive
           •   Consumer/durable goods
           •   Vacuum formed parts
           •   Fiber/carpet




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




 Polymethylpentene (PMP)
 Key Characteristics
        • High transparency, even in thick sections
        • Very light weight (.83 specific gravity)
        • Higher heat resistance than other grades in this
          group—compares favorably to PTFE up to
          148.89°C/300°F
        • Good electrical properties
        • Low-temperature impact strength
        • Very brittle
        • Poor UV resistance
        • USDA compliant
The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




  Polymethypentene (PMP)
  Applications

                • Medical products
                • Food processing equipment
                • Microwavable packaging




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3
The International Association of Plastics Distributors




The IAPD Plastics Primer, Module 3

				
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