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									FAST: A Faceted Application
  of Subject Terminology

   Classification Crosswalks Workshop
   Joint Conference on Digital Libraries
               June 28, 2001
          Presented by Ed O’Neill

Enormous volume and rapid growth of
 resources available on the World Wide Web.

Emergence of numerous metadata schemes
 have spurred a re-examination of the way
 subject data is to be provided for web
 resources efficiently and effectively.

Simplicity refers to the usability by non-
 catalogers to allow the creation of metadata
 records by persons not necessarily trained in
 sophisticated methods of bibliographic control.

Semantic interoperability enables users to
 search across discipline boundaries and,
 desirably, also across information retrieval and
 storage systems.
 Be simple and easy to apply and to comprehend,

 Be intuitive so that sophisticated training in subject
  indexing and classification, while highly desirable, is
  not required in order to implement,

 Be logical so that it requires the least effort to
  understand and implement,

 Be scalable for implementation from the simplest to
  the most sophisticated.
Options for Metadata

We are limited to three basic choices in selecting
an indexing/subject heading schema for

 The use an existing schema(s),
 Adapt or modify an existing schema.
 Develop new schema(s),
Objective of FAST Project

Develop a new subject heading schema
based on LCSH suitable for metadata
which is easier to use, understand, and

 Minimized the need to construct
 Simplify the syntax,
 Retain the richness of the vocabulary.
Simplify the Complex Syntax
and Rules
Ed O’Neill, OCLC
Diane Vizine-Goetz, OCLC
Kerre Kammerer, OCLC
Eric Childress, OCLC
Rebecca Dean, OCLC
Lois Mai Chan, University of Kentucky
Lynn El-Hoshy, Library of Congress


              Library of
Advantages of LCSH
 Rich vocabulary covering all subject areas,
 It has the strong institutional support of the Library of
 Synonym and homograph control,
 Has been extensively used by libraries, contained in
  millions of bibliographic records,
 Has a long and well-documented history.
Card Format

Originally created
for card catalogs—a     Z693.5
                                Chan, Lois Mai.
                                     Cataloging--United States.
                                  Cataloging and classification: an

3x5 card environment,           introduction / Lois Mai Chan. -- 2nd ed.
                           Z693.5 Chan, Lois Mai.
                                New York : McCraw-Hill, c1994.
                                     Cataloging ill. ; 24 cm.
                           U6C48 xxii, 519 p. :and classification: an
                                   introduction / Lois Mai Chan. -- 2nd ed.
Pre-coordinated                  Includes : McCraw-Hill, references (p.
                                   New York Lois Mai.
                              Z693.5 Chan,bibliographical c1994.
                                493-502) Cataloging: and classification: an
                                          and index. ill. ; 24 cm.
                              U6C48 xxii, 519 p.
                                  ISBN introduction / Lois Mai Chan. -- 2nd ed.
vocabulary,                          Includes bibliographical references (p.
                                       New York : McCraw-Hill, c1994.
                                   493-502) and index. ill. ; 24 2.
                                  1. Cataloging--United States. cm. Class-
                                         xxii, 519 p. :
                                     ISBN 0-07-010506-5
                                ification--Books. I. Title.
                                        Includes bibliographical references (p.
Design limits                       1. Cataloging--United States. 2. Class-
                                      493-502) and index.
                                   ification--Books. I. Title.
                                        ISBN 0-07-010506-5

number of entries.                      1. Cataloging--United States.
                                      ification--Books. I. Title.
                                                                        2.   Class-
Coverage of LCSH Topical
Authority File
Coverage of Geographic
Authority File
Patterns Subdivisions

 Pattern subdivisions, like free-floats, are subdivisions
 which have general application. However, the scope
 of patterns is limited to particular types (patterns) of

 Patients is one of several hundred subdivisions that
 can be used with headings for individual or types of
 diseases and other medical conditions …

 Burns and scalds x Patients
Combining Pattern Subdivisions

Burns and scalds x Patients
   x Family relationships

Burns and scalds is an established heading,
Burns and scalds is covered by the disease pattern,
Patients is authorized under the pattern for diseases
Burns and scalds x Patients
  becomes a class of persons,

Family relationships
  is authorized under the pattern for classes of persons.
FAST Requirements
 Usable by people with minimal training and
 Enables a broad range of users to assign subject
  terminology to web resources:
   – Bibliographers
   – Faculty
   – Reference staff

 Amenable to automated authority control,
 Compatibility with use as embedded metadata,
 Focus on making use of LCSH as a post-coordinate
  system in an online environment.

                Personal Names
Geographic      Corporate Names

  Ohio—Dublin   Conference/Meetings

Form            Uniform Titles

  1901 - 2000
FACET: Topical
LCSH main headings from topical headings
All associated general ($x) subdivisions from
 any type of LCSH heading,
Period subdivisions containing topical
 aspects from any type of LCSH heading,
All topical headings will be established in an
 authority file.
FAST: Topical Headings
Industrial project management—Data
Colombian poetry
Epic literature—History and criticism.
Pets and travel
Quartets (Pianos (2), percussion)
Natural gas pipelines—Economic aspects
School psychologists
Blood banks
Loudspeakers—Design and construction
FACET: Geographic
 Geographic name will be established and applied in
  indirect order, [Ohio—Columbus not Columbus (Ohio)],
 First level geographic names will be limited to names
  from the Geographic Area Codes table (e.g., Ohio,
  France, Great Lakes, etc.)
 Other names will be entered as subdivisions under the
  smallest first level name in which it is fully contained
  (North America—Maya Forest)
 Qualifiers are only be used to identify the type of
  geographic name (Kingdom, Satellite, Duchy, Princely
  State, etc.).
 All geographic headings will be established in an
  authority file.
Charlevoix Search Example
  Charlevoix (LCSH headings)
Charlevoix (Mich.)                                Michigan—Beaver Island (Charlevoix County)
Charlevoix (Quebec)                               Michigan—Charlevoix
Charlevoix County (Mich.)                         Michigan—Charlevoix County
Charlevoix County (Quebec)                        Michigan—Charlevoix Region
Charlevoix Harbor (Mich.)                         Michigan—Charlevoix, Lake
Charlevoix Region (Mich.)                         Michigan—Deer Creek Watershed
Charlevoix Region (Quebec)                           (Charlevoix County)
Charlevoix Site (Mich.)                           Michigan—Horton Creek (Charlevoix County)
Charlevoix, Lake (Mich.)                          Michigan—Lake Charlevoix
Charlevoix-Est (Quebec :                          Michigan—Marion (Charlevoix County)
    Regional County Municipality)                 Michigan—Peaine Township (Charlevoix County)
Charlevoix-Est (Quebec)                           Michigan—St. James Township
Charlevoix-Est County (Que.)                          (Charlevoix County)
Charlevoix-Est County (Quebec)                    O'Neill Site, Charlevoix County, (Mich.)
Charlevoix-Ouest (Quebec)                         Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix
Charlevoix-Ouest County (Que.)                    Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix Co.
Charlevoix-Ouest County (Quebec)                  Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix East
Clermont (Charlevoix-Est, Quebec)                 Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix Region
Deer Creek Watershed (Charlevoix County, Mich.)   Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix West
Holy Island (Charlevoix County, Mich.)            Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix-Est
Horton Creek (Charlevoix County, Mich.)           Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix-Est
Horton Creek Marsh, Charlevoix County, (Mich.)        (Regional County Municipality)
Lake Charlevoix (Mich.)                           Quebec (Province)—Charlevoix-Ouest
Lake Charlevoix (Michigan)                        Quebec—Charlevoix Region
Marion (Charlevoix County, Mich.)                 Quebec—Charlevoix-Est
Charlevoix (FAST headings)
Michigan--Charlevoix County
Michigan--Charlevoix County--Deer Creek Watershed
Michigan--Charlevoix County--Holy Island
Michigan--Charlevoix County--Horton Creek
Michigan--Charlevoix County--Beaver Island
Michigan--Charlevoix County--Marion
Michigan--Charlevoix County--O'Neill Site
Michigan--Charlevoix County--Peaine Township
Michigan--Charlevoix Harbor
Michigan--Charlevoix Region
Michigan--Lake Charlevoix
Quebec ………………………….
FACET: Forms

Uses table developed based on LC
 documentation (e.g., SCM, FFS:AAI), and
 independent correspondence,
LCSH tagged headings not containing $v will
 be processed for correction prior to validation,
All form headings will be established in an
 authority file.
Example of Forms
Translations into French
Controversial literature—Early works to 1800
Translations into Russian
Textbooks for foreign speakers—English—Juvenile
Correspondence—Juvenile literature
FACET: Period
Chronological headings will reflect the actual
 time period of coverage for the resource,

Chronological headings will be expressed as
 a numeric date or date range.

Authority records will be created for period
 subdivision except when necessary for notes
 or cross-references.
Example of Faceting (DC view)

650       0   Slavery $z United States
              $v Fiction.

Subject            Slavery
Coverage.spatial   United States
Type               Fiction
Interoperability between LCSH and

 Separating syntax from semantics, the
  syntax can be simplified while retaining the
  richness of vocabulary in LCSH is retained,

 FAST and LCSH can co-exist.
For more information:

Chan, Lois Mai et. al. ―A Faceted Approach to Subject
Data in the Dublin Core Metadata Record.‖ Journal of
Internet Cataloging. Volume 4, no. 1-2, 2001, p. 35-47.

O’Neill, Edward T. et. Al. ―Form Subdivisions: Their
Identification and Use in LCSH.‖ Accepted for publication
in Library Resources & Technical Services.

For a copy of this presentation:

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