Interventions

Document Sample
Interventions Powered By Docstoc
					Early Childhood Intervention Programs.wmv
The Carolina Abecedarian Early
     Intervention Project

    A longitudinal study to assess
    the efficacy of early childhood
        intervention programs
                       Purpose
   Potential benefits of early intervention

   Children of high-risk families

   Age of onset of education

   Duration of intervention
Project Design
Preschool Segment
K-2 Segment
                      Results
 Intelligence


 Academic   Achievement

 Success   in Life
IQ Assessment
        Reading Scores
Age 8
                Age 15
        Math Scores
Age 8
               Age 15
Life Successes
                 Related Links
   The Carolina Abecedarian Project: HOME

   Abecedarian Published Brochure

   New Adult Adaptation Study
                              References
   Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M. &
         Ramey, C. T. (2001). The development of cognitive and academic
         abilities: Growth curves from an early childhood educational
         experiment. Developmental Psychology, 37, 2, 231-242.
   Campbell, F. A. & Ramey, C. T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on
         intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of
         children from low-income families [Electronic Version]. Child
         Development, 65, 684-698.
   Campbell, F. A., Ramey, C. T., Pungello, E. Sparling, J., & Miller-
         Johnson, S. (2002). Early childhood education: Young adult
         outcomes from the Abecedarian Project [Electronic Version].
         Applied Developmental Science, 6(1), 42-57.
   Neisser, U. et al. (1995). Intelligence knowns and unknowns: Report of
         APA task force. American Psychologist, 51.
   Ramey, C. T., Campbell, F. A., Burchinal, M., Skinner, M. L., Gardner,
         D. M., & Ramey, S. L. (2000). Persistent effects of early childhood
         education on high-risk children and their mothers [Electronic
         Version]. Applied Developmental Science, 4(1), 2-14.
    Head Start




A look at the short-term and
      long-term effects
                   Background
   Created in 1965 under
    the Johnson
    Administration
   Initially served
    primarily African
    American students from
    very poor backgrounds
   Head Start now serves
    approx. 900,000
    students nationwide
   It has served more than
    23 million children since
    it began
                    Guidelines
   Head Start will accept any 3- and 4-year old children
    that are eligible
     • Often a very long waiting list
   To be eligible, families must fall under the poverty
    threshold.
     • For example:
       4 person family=$20,000
       5 person family=$23,400
    The 7 Objectives of Head
             Start
• To improve the child’s physical health and physical abilities
• To help the emotional and social development of the child
• To improve the child’s mental processes and skills;
• To establish patterns and expectations of success
• To increase the child’s capacity to relate positively to family
  members and others, while at the same time strengthening
  the family stability and capacity to relate positively to the
  child
• To develop in the child and his/her family a responsible
  attitude toward society, and to foster constructive
  opportunities for society to work together with the poor in
  solving their problems
• To increase the sense of dignity and self-worth within the
  child and his/her family
              Short-Term Results
       Study by Lee, Brooks-Gunn, and Schnur (1988)

                  Evaluated 3 groups of children:
    Head Start students, students who attended other preschool
        programs, and students who did not attend any preschool

Evaluated using 4 tests:
    1. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)
    2. Caldwell Preschool Inventory (PI)
    3. Motor Inhibition Test (MI)
    4. Eight Block Sorting Test
         Short-Term Results
   The Head Start students made the largest
    gain in scores in the PPVT, PI, and MI tests

   The Head Start students made the second
    largest gain in the Eight Block Toy Sort

   Head Start scores after 1 year were still
    below the 2 other groups on 3 tests, but Head
    Start group outscored both groups on the
    Motor Inhibition Test
          Long-Term Results
    Study by Garces, Thomas, and Currie (2000)

Examined non-experimental research on 4,000 children who had
         attended Head Start schools since its inception

 Aim: To discover whether or not participation in Head Start
     results in greater economic or social success later in life

                              4 Questions:
                   1.     Completion of High School
                      2.    Attended some college
                3.       Income (between age 22-24)
           4.         Charged or convicted of any crime
             Long-Term Results
                   *Controlled for family background*

High School Completion:
  Head Start 6.0% more likely than stay-at-home students
  Other preschool 3.0% more likely than stay-at-home

Attended Some College:
  Head Start 7.5% more likely than stay-at-home
  Other Preschool 2.3% more likely

Income:
  Head Start earned 17% more than stay-at-home
  Other Preschool earned 2% more than stay-at-home

Charged or Convicted of Crime:
  Head Start 1.2% more likely than stay-at-home
  Other Preschool 0.1% less likely than stay-at-home
Montessori
Education
Maria Montessori
 • 1896 – first female doctor in Italy
   – uneducable
 • 1900 – first school for “challenged”
 • 1907 – directed first daycares in slum
Philosophy
 • Multiple Intelligences
 • Empowerment
   – Equality
   – Community of Learners
     • Freedom within limits
 • Ability to choose
 • Intrinsic Motivation
Method
 •   Language
 •   Sensory
 •   Mathematics
 •   Culture
 •   Practical
 •   Peace corner
Method
 • Work plan
   – 3 hour uninterrupted period
 • Teacher guidance
 • Teacher observation
   – Small teacher to kid ratio
 • Two most common age groups
   – birth to 3
   – 3 to 6
Effectiveness
• Intrinsic motivation for academic tasks
    (Rathunde & Csikszentmihalyi, 2005)

• Case studies (Korfmacher & Spicer, 2002)
• Comparison studies (Miller & Bizzell, 1984)
  – Traditional, Bereiter-Englemann, DARCEE
• Disadvantaged children (Wexley et al., 2001)
Montessori
Activities
 South
America
Teaching Language
      Double Letter Sounds

 ai     eh       oa          que
 ar     er       oo          sh
 au     ie       or          th
 ee     no       oy          ue
Montessori
Activities