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					Early Childhood Intervention Programs.wmv
The Carolina Abecedarian Early
     Intervention Project

    A longitudinal study to assess
    the efficacy of early childhood
        intervention programs
   Potential benefits of early intervention

   Children of high-risk families

   Age of onset of education

   Duration of intervention
Project Design
Preschool Segment
K-2 Segment
 Intelligence

 Academic   Achievement

 Success   in Life
IQ Assessment
        Reading Scores
Age 8
                Age 15
        Math Scores
Age 8
               Age 15
Life Successes
                 Related Links
   The Carolina Abecedarian Project: HOME

   Abecedarian Published Brochure

   New Adult Adaptation Study
   Campbell, F. A., Pungello, E. P., Miller-Johnson, S., Burchinal, M. &
         Ramey, C. T. (2001). The development of cognitive and academic
         abilities: Growth curves from an early childhood educational
         experiment. Developmental Psychology, 37, 2, 231-242.
   Campbell, F. A. & Ramey, C. T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on
         intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of
         children from low-income families [Electronic Version]. Child
         Development, 65, 684-698.
   Campbell, F. A., Ramey, C. T., Pungello, E. Sparling, J., & Miller-
         Johnson, S. (2002). Early childhood education: Young adult
         outcomes from the Abecedarian Project [Electronic Version].
         Applied Developmental Science, 6(1), 42-57.
   Neisser, U. et al. (1995). Intelligence knowns and unknowns: Report of
         APA task force. American Psychologist, 51.
   Ramey, C. T., Campbell, F. A., Burchinal, M., Skinner, M. L., Gardner,
         D. M., & Ramey, S. L. (2000). Persistent effects of early childhood
         education on high-risk children and their mothers [Electronic
         Version]. Applied Developmental Science, 4(1), 2-14.
    Head Start

A look at the short-term and
      long-term effects
   Created in 1965 under
    the Johnson
   Initially served
    primarily African
    American students from
    very poor backgrounds
   Head Start now serves
    approx. 900,000
    students nationwide
   It has served more than
    23 million children since
    it began
   Head Start will accept any 3- and 4-year old children
    that are eligible
     • Often a very long waiting list
   To be eligible, families must fall under the poverty
     • For example:
       4 person family=$20,000
       5 person family=$23,400
    The 7 Objectives of Head
• To improve the child’s physical health and physical abilities
• To help the emotional and social development of the child
• To improve the child’s mental processes and skills;
• To establish patterns and expectations of success
• To increase the child’s capacity to relate positively to family
  members and others, while at the same time strengthening
  the family stability and capacity to relate positively to the
• To develop in the child and his/her family a responsible
  attitude toward society, and to foster constructive
  opportunities for society to work together with the poor in
  solving their problems
• To increase the sense of dignity and self-worth within the
  child and his/her family
              Short-Term Results
       Study by Lee, Brooks-Gunn, and Schnur (1988)

                  Evaluated 3 groups of children:
    Head Start students, students who attended other preschool
        programs, and students who did not attend any preschool

Evaluated using 4 tests:
    1. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)
    2. Caldwell Preschool Inventory (PI)
    3. Motor Inhibition Test (MI)
    4. Eight Block Sorting Test
         Short-Term Results
   The Head Start students made the largest
    gain in scores in the PPVT, PI, and MI tests

   The Head Start students made the second
    largest gain in the Eight Block Toy Sort

   Head Start scores after 1 year were still
    below the 2 other groups on 3 tests, but Head
    Start group outscored both groups on the
    Motor Inhibition Test
          Long-Term Results
    Study by Garces, Thomas, and Currie (2000)

Examined non-experimental research on 4,000 children who had
         attended Head Start schools since its inception

 Aim: To discover whether or not participation in Head Start
     results in greater economic or social success later in life

                              4 Questions:
                   1.     Completion of High School
                      2.    Attended some college
                3.       Income (between age 22-24)
           4.         Charged or convicted of any crime
             Long-Term Results
                   *Controlled for family background*

High School Completion:
  Head Start 6.0% more likely than stay-at-home students
  Other preschool 3.0% more likely than stay-at-home

Attended Some College:
  Head Start 7.5% more likely than stay-at-home
  Other Preschool 2.3% more likely

  Head Start earned 17% more than stay-at-home
  Other Preschool earned 2% more than stay-at-home

Charged or Convicted of Crime:
  Head Start 1.2% more likely than stay-at-home
  Other Preschool 0.1% less likely than stay-at-home
Maria Montessori
 • 1896 – first female doctor in Italy
   – uneducable
 • 1900 – first school for “challenged”
 • 1907 – directed first daycares in slum
 • Multiple Intelligences
 • Empowerment
   – Equality
   – Community of Learners
     • Freedom within limits
 • Ability to choose
 • Intrinsic Motivation
 •   Language
 •   Sensory
 •   Mathematics
 •   Culture
 •   Practical
 •   Peace corner
 • Work plan
   – 3 hour uninterrupted period
 • Teacher guidance
 • Teacher observation
   – Small teacher to kid ratio
 • Two most common age groups
   – birth to 3
   – 3 to 6
• Intrinsic motivation for academic tasks
    (Rathunde & Csikszentmihalyi, 2005)

• Case studies (Korfmacher & Spicer, 2002)
• Comparison studies (Miller & Bizzell, 1984)
  – Traditional, Bereiter-Englemann, DARCEE
• Disadvantaged children (Wexley et al., 2001)
Teaching Language
      Double Letter Sounds

 ai     eh       oa          que
 ar     er       oo          sh
 au     ie       or          th
 ee     no       oy          ue