Introduction of Company by mnmgroup



Proctor and Gamble of Pakistan is a subsidiary of Procter and Gamble USA
established in1990 and started production in 1991.The P&G Company were
founded in 1837 in Cincinnati, Ohio and from the very beginning have been a
leading manufacturer and marketer of the consumer goods. Company sells more
than 250 brands in more than 130 countries and its operations are in more than 70
countries. It is therefore also rated in the top 25 of the FORTUNE 500 companies.

Procter and Gamble is actually the name of two persons William Procter and
James Gamble. Both of them wives were sisters and their father in-law asked
them to become partners. In the start Procter’s business was candle making and
Gamble’s business was soap making. The Partnership year 1837 was a difficult
time to start the business although Cincinnati was a bustling market place; the
nation was gripped by financial panic. Hundreds of banks were closing around the
country. In the 1850s, despite rumors of an impeding civil war in the US, they built
a new plant to sustain their growing business.
Later they pioneered one of the nation’s profit sharing programs and were among
the first in American industry to invest in the research laboratory. By 1890, the
fledgling partnership between the Procter and Gamble had grown into multi
million dollar corporation .Television in USA introduced in

1939and P&G is the only company that commercialize its product just after five
months .With the passage of time P&G acquire different other companies to
enhance the business. In 1980, as it approached its 150 th anniversary, P&G was
poised for a most dramatic period of growth in its history. Company serves
106000emloyees allover the world.
    P&g is a recognized leader in the development, manufacturing and marketing of
    superior fabric & home care, baby care, feminine care, tissues & towel, beauty
    care, health care, and food.

   The first branded products
   The first profit sharing program
   The first vegetable oil
   The first market research department
   The first company to introduce brand management
   The first company to introduce the concept of soap operas advertising
   Crest, the first toothpaste with fluoride
   P&G literally invented the disposable diaper category

    Company is divided into two geographic entities

 United States
 International

                        MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE:

    CEO:                              Mr. Edwin L Artz

    General Manager in Pakistan: Mr. Hans Peter Heissien

    Brand Manager:                    Mr. Tahir Malik

    Human Resource Manager:            Ms Ghazala Nadeem

    P&G started its operations in Pakistan in 1991. First it introduces its brand of
    Head& Shoulder After that it gave brand of Vicks and Olay oil.
    Now company has eleven brands in Pakistan .The yearly sales consistently doubled
    during the past three years. P&G Pakistan establish local manufacturing base.

                            BRANDS IN PAKISTAN:

   Head & Shoulder
   Pert Plus
   Vicks
   Pentene
   Rejoice
   Camay
   Safeguard
   Pampers
   Always
   Ariel

                         TOTAL SALES OF P&G IN PAKISTAN:

    In 1991 =1.1Billion Rs
    In 2001= 12 Billion Rs

    There are 300 employees with 12 managers serving on 150,000 stores in Pakistan.
    And all over the world the no of employees is 106,000.


    P&G's growth achievement include:
    Doubling unit volume every years
    Achieving share growth in the majority of its categories
    Delivering total shareholder return that ranks P&G over time among the top third
    of its peer group.
    Most importantly, P&G's goal is to continue to provide products of superior quality
    and value to the world's consumers. As a result, P&G's business, people,
    shareholders and the communities in which they live and work will prosper.

                                   SAFEGAURD & P&G
P&G is the world’s renowned manufacturer of different kinds of detergents. The
company first introduced tide detergent in 1947 after years of research to
determine how to make a cleanser work well in hard water. Since that time, they
have introduced variety of laundry and cleaning products with respect to demand
and environment of different countries. After a thorough research, the Company
introduced/launched its Safeguard brand in Pakistan in 1995.
Safeguard is differentiated from other products. Safeguard has captured the
remarkable market share in soap industry since it has been launched. Safeguard has
also got share from soap market by shifting the beauty s users to the safeguard
             Safeguard is available in two sized in the market i.e.
*        75 grams        (Price Rs. 14)
*        125 grams       (Price Rs. 21)

“To be a leading consumer goods company and to improve the lives of world
consumers by providing valuable and innovative products”.
Ten years ago Procter and gamble started the journey to improve the lives of
Pakistani consumers by providing them with world famous quality brands. P&G
want to be an outstanding organization with a passion for winning that would felt
by everyone everyday; in the office, in the field every where P&G vision is to lead
    business growth by proactively identifying opportunities and positively
    contributing to volume growth.


    We will provide products and services of superior quality and value that improve
    the lives of the world's consumers.
    As a result, consumers will reward us with leadership sales, profit and value
    creation, allowing our people, our shareholders, and the communities in which
    we live and work to prosper.

    These are the Principles and supporting behaviors, which flow from their Purpose
    and Values.

   They show respect for all individuals

   The interests of the company and the individual are inseparable.

   They are strategically focused in their work.

   Innovation is the cornerstone of their success.

   They are externally focused

   They value personal mastery

   They seek to be the best.

   Mutual interdependency is a way of life
 Think globally act locally

 Build major global brands through strong programs based on local understanding.

 Improve the environmental quality of its products, packaging and operations
   around the world.

 Produce quality products at very competitive costs.

 Build superior relationships with all the parties who contribute to fulfilling their
   corporate purpose, including their customers, suppliers, universities and

 Bring together transactional activities such as accounting and order management in
   a single organization to provide services to all p&g units at best in class.

 Remains on the cutting edge of the industry.

 To be a thought leader within each corporate function.

 To be the first consumer goods company in Pakistan.

 Be competitive with other high quality companies in order to help, attract, motivate
   and retain the talent needed to lead and grow P&G’s business.

 Strive to be best in all areas of strategic importance to the company.

   Organization’s culture is a pattern of basic assumption invented, developed by a
   given group as it learn to cope with its problem of external adoption and internal
   integration. Values, principles, policies, and structure of the organization are the
   main miles stones to analyze the company’s strength.
   P&G is its people and the Core Values by which they live.
   P&G PEOPLE: They attract and recruit the finest people in the world. They build
   their organization from within, promoting and rewarding people without regard to
   any difference unrelated to performance. They act on the conviction that the men
   and women of Procter & Gamble will always be their most important asset.
   LEADERSHIP: They are all leaders in their area of responsibility with a deep
   commitment to deliver leadership results. They have a clear vision of where they
   are going. They focus their resources to achieve leadership objectives and
   strategies. They develop the capability to deliver their strategies and eliminate
   organizational barriers.
   OWNERSHIP: They accept personal accountability to meet the business needs,
   improve their systems and help others improve their effectiveness. They all act like
   owners, treating the Company’s assets, as they’re own and behaving with the
   Company’s long-term success in mind.
   INTEGRITY: they always try to do the right thing. They are honest and
   straightforward with each other. They operate within the letter and spirit of the law.
   They uphold the values and principles of P&G in every action and decision. They
   are data based and intellectually honest in advocating proposals, including
   recognizing risks.
   PASSION FOR WINNING: they are determined to be the best at doing what
   matters most. They have a healthy dissatisfaction with the status quo. They have a
   compelling desire to improve and to win in the marketplace.
   TRUST: they respect their P&G colleagues, customers, and consumers and treat
   them, as they want to be treated. They have confidence in each other’s capabilities
   and intentions. They believe that people work best when there is a foundation of
   These are the principles and supporting behaviors, which flow from their Purpose
   and Core Values.
 They show respect for all individuals.
 The interests of the Company and the individual are inseparable:
 They are strategically focused in their work:
 Innovation is the cornerstone of their success
 They are externally focused:
 They value personal mastery:
 They seek to be the best:
 Mutual interdependency is a way of life:

   P&G Safeguard is operating in a complex and stable environment, complex
   because there is a number of factors in its environment, about which less
   information, stable, because the changes in these factors is predictable factors,
   which makes its environment complex are:
   A group having strong influence over the opinion of the consumers regarding
   which soap should be purchased. This group is becoming more and more concern
   to their own incentives/margin.
   Small soap manufacturing units, having no or very low overhead charges, under fix
   tax system or hidden units evading tax and growing like mushroom, involve in the
   low price soap war, exploiting consumers through retailers.
   People having social influence on their neighbors also affect on the sale of soap.

Moderate changes in the technology of soap manufacturing decrease the PLC of
Increase in rate of urbanization especially in Pakistan has made the environment
more complex of soap industry.

Rapid changes in the political scenario of the country along with the uncertain
policies of the Government have made the whole business community as uncertain.
    Also there is terrorism prevailing in the important cities of the country like Karachi
    and Afghan War, which are affecting the business activities. Policies about taxes
    are changing continuously due to changing government.

    Increasing inflation in the country, persistently reducing the purchasing power of
    the people and dropping people from high price soap to low price soap and
    providing more fuel for expansion of local Producers.
    Increased import duties on the finished goods and raw material have increased the
    price of the product, along with this, increasing inflation in the country have made
    it difficult for soap industry to transfer the whole increased cost at the consumer,
    thus forcing the industry to operate at a very low margin.
     Sanctions imposed by the developed nations on Pakistan due to nuclear
    experimentation create the uncertainty in business activities.

    The greater the tendency towards urbanization in Pakistan, the living standard
    which is forcing the people to use standardized product and people are diverting
    from the beauty soap to anti bacterial soap.

     No major and rapid breakthrough in the technology of soap and their
    manufacturing process, but innovations is required so that the product does not
    become obsolete.
 Heavy and impressive promotional plan for safeguard.

 Strong social & corporate image of P&G.

 Strong financial position of company.

 More concern towards total quality management.

 Highly health caring product, safeguard gives protections against germs.

 Direct contact with customers.

 P&G’s good relations with the supplier.

 Strong emphasis on environmental prosperity.

 Worldwide research and technology, engineering and manufacturing.

 Well-established and renowned distributors.

 Highly enthusiastic sales team of the company.
 They identified directly influence group such as wives and children in their target

 Fifth-lowest Injury/Illness Rate for employees.

 Fourth-lowest lost Workday Rate for employees.

 Fifth-lowest property loss.

 Safeguard is available in limited pack sizes; only two sizes are available. One is
   125 gm and other is 75 gm.

 Unwilling to serve low-income market. Price is especially very high towards lower
   income groups.

 Due to limited manufacturing facility, they cannot reduce production cost of the
   safeguard. But now expansion is being made in hub plant to increase production of
   safeguard. One Plant start production since 10th of April.

 According to the information obtained by Chamber of Commerce and Industry
   Lahore, the soap market is growing at an annual rate of 9.8%. The main reasons for
   this growth are:
 Rapid growth in population,
 High urbanization
 Increase in awareness among people about new advancements.

   Due to this growing market, there are lots of opportunities for P&G to exploit this
   growing market by introducing new soaps.

 P&G has a good corporate image among consumers. Therefore, they can get
   maximum share from the soap industry by introducing multiple brands of soaps
   because they have already different soaps in their international health and beauty
   care product line.

 Due to rising awareness among people, switching trend toward health care soaps is
   high. Therefore, it is a good opportunity to capture this segment through efficient
   marketing practices.

 Increasing market share of local Producers. The local Producers are playing an
   important role in soap industry, because they are providing low price soaps and try
   to penetrate in their local market by replacing the branded products.

 Threat of new entrants is also present. As Lever Brothers is a potential threat in
   soap industry, because they are already involved in different related businesses and
   providing raw material for soap production to different manufacturing companies
   like Colgate Palmolive, etc.

 Increasing inflation in the country is also a major threat of P&G because it is
   reducing the purchasing power of consumers.
         Structural analysis helps to analyze the competitive process as well as the sources
         of competitive pressure. In the structure analysis, certain questions like what are
         the strengths of these pressures, what type of competition is prevailing and what
         future competitive conditions will be included. Generally, there are five forces
         which affect the competitive position in an industry and these forces are as
1)       Competitive rivalry
2)       Buyer’s power
3)       Supplier’s power
4)       Threat of new entrants
5)       Substitute products

         Competition is concerned with the degree of rivalry within the industry. Danger of
         rivalry is greater when the competitors are of equal size. In the soap industry, the
         competitors are;
        Lever Brothers Pakistan Limited
        Colgate-Palmolive Ltd.,
        Reckit Benckiser
So competition is very tight. Rivalry is greater between these three firms due to
their equal sizes. Soap industry shows growth rate, which is 9.8% per annum. It
seems that it offered very lucrative business opportunities but these opportunities
also carry threats with them. Because to capture the high market share, an
organized distribution channel is required for this industry which carry heavy cost.

It is generally said that the industry where the threat of new entrants is low, the
industry is considered to be secure and attractive. In the case of soap industry, the
barriers to new entrants are large initial capital requirements and product
differentiation as well.
Also the available soaps have a strong image among consumers and it is very
difficult for new comers to break that image. Due to these reasons, the threat of
new entrants is low but not zero. Because, there are chances that ICI may enter into
the soap industry. Anyhow, it is very difficult for new comers to enter into the soap

Substitute means a product which can perform the same functions as the original
product can perform. Substitute of the anti bacterial soap is beauty soap. Since the
quality of these substitutes is not comparable. So there is low threat of substitute to
the soap. But due to rise in inflation in the country,

threat of the substitute of high price soap like Safeguard is gradually increasing.

   When there are a few number of buyers those purchase the large portion of a
   company’s sale, then in this case, they have maximum power. But in the case of
   soap industry, the buyers are the distributors, to whom bulk amount of products is
   sold and this sale is maximally on the cash basis. So the buyers have no handsome
   power to interrupt or interfere in the Soap industry.

   Supplier’s power is less because they are having support from their parent
   company for raw material and technological assistance.

         Competitors of Safeguard can be categorized into two segments:-
1. Competitors in organized sector
2. Competition with local Producers

                         COMPETITORS IN ORGANIZED SECTOR
   One other major competitor is doing excellent business in soap industry along with
   safeguard that is direct competitors of Safeguard.

   Lever Brother Limited is the oldest company in Pakistan. It is operating in Pakistan
   since its independence. They introduced soap with the name Lifebuoy Gold 1997,
   which became the lot selling soap.
   Their target market is upper class, middle class and lower class. They have
   produced products for each class with respect to different prices. For example,
   lifebuoy with 95gms is a lower price product for lower income people, while
   lifebuoy 140gms is high price quality product for upper class.
   Lever Brothers Limited emphasizes on the direct approach to the consumer and
   they have well-established sales force, and distribution channel. Mostly they are
   following Pull Strategy. They company offers 6% profit margin to retailers on
   retail price. No bonus is given to retailers. Also no discount is available on bulk
   purchases. There is no scheme for retailers of any kind. Distributor’s full force
   reaches almost every retailer irrespective of the size and delivers the product to
   him or her. Distributors also distribute the products to villages also after taking into
   consideration the budget as well as the business level of that village. There is a
   campaign started by company in order to cover the rural population, as most of the
   population lives in the villages. For this purpose, they have made rural cluster
   zones. They have

   heavily advertised their products on mass media. They display their product
   brochures at every retailer.
   The company has strong financial background and has much excess budget for
   launching a new product, because their market share is maximum in soap industry
   and they are carrying marvelous profits.

                            COMPETITORS IN LOCAL MARKETS
   As local Producers of the soap industry, there is large number of producers and
   each producer has a minor share in total share of the local Producers. So, it’s
   difficult to isolate the major firms of this segment. Therefore, instead of this, we
   can see the overall characteristics of this segment.
 They are successful in exploiting domestic customers on behalf of price

 Low overhead expenditures due to unorganized production operation.

 These are the firms under the protective tax policy of the government and even
   most of them are not paying tax.
     Local based brands activate more sales.

     By using promotional tools, which cannot be used by the firms in organized sector,
       they are offering small monetary incentive to the retailers, etc.

       Marketing resources are very critical for every organization because it leads to the
       performance of a company. An organization with worthwhile marketing resources
       can fetch high sales and profit. Marketing resources include following ingredient: -
       Breadth and depth of product line
       Market share
       Marketing information system
       Distribution channel
       Market coverage
       Company image
       P&G is doing concentrating efforts on the best quality growth opportunity in the
       whole soap market.

       P&G has launched one soap in the market of Pakistan in 1997, named safeguard. It
       is available only in two weight sizes.
       *      75 grams            Rs. 14/-
       *      125 grams           Rs. 21/-

       Therefore, they have different product depths are available providing by P&G as compared to
       their competitors in case of soap. In the depth they have:-
    Safeguard pink
    Safeguard green
    Safeguard white
    Safeguard Beige

    P&G Pakistan is determined to create a way of working that release the energy and
    talents of everyone in the company and strips away everything that stifles
    creativity. It aims to be a company in which very employee knows what is
    expected of them, has the freedom to take initiatives, is accountable for the results
    and is properly rewarded for success.
    At present more than 300 employees are employed in P&G Pakistan, and in order
    to enable their employees to achieve what is expected of them, the company has a
    well established program for the training and a system for the measurement of their
    Human Resources ensure that P&G has the employees, organizational design and
    work culture to deliver business productivity and to continually improve consumer,
    employee and shareholder value.

    “It is our policy to continue pushing the envelope when it comes to developing,
    validating, and using new alternative test methods so we can reduce our need to do
    animal testing, and our ultimate goal is to eliminate it.”

    Shareholders are important stakeholders at P&G. P&G has 1.3 billion shares of
    stocks outstanding. Large institutions and mutual funds, retirement programs,
    individual investors and employees throughout the world own these shares.
Individuals hold approximately 50 percent of their shares, with nearly 20 percent
held by employees and retirees. They work to increase the value of P&G stock for
all their shareholders in a variety of ways, including growing the company’s sales
and earnings each year. They measure for tracking their success for shareholders is
total shareholder Return (TSR). TSR measures how much value their investors
receive as a result of owning P&G stock. They track TSR against 29 companies in
similar industries, such as consumer, health care and beauty products. P&G tracks
performance to compensate key managers based on how well they increase
shareholder value. Their Shareholder Relations team is available every day to
answer questions, listen to shareholder feedback and provide perspective on
Company decisions.

Success of marketing plan depends upon the marketing information system of the
organization. In this way MIS servers as a critical resource of any organization.
P&G has developed a marketing information system. with the help of this system,
P&G gets market information, which leads to better marketing planning.
Moreover, sales force of P&G is served as source of information about the market
in different segments because its sales force has direct contact with the customers.

Distribution channel of a company is a very important for its survival, and
especially in soap industry, they have to make it excellent, because if they will not
make it easily available to the consumer, all is useless. So providing needs,
satisfying goods at the right place is very important.
P&G itself has no distribution channel for safeguard rather they are distributing the
safeguard through International Brands Limited (IBL), which is a renowned
  distribution company in Pakistan and they have their distribution network in all
  major cities of the country.

  P&G is a multinational company and is using its corporate image as a marketing
  resource. So this is beneficial for the safeguard in each segment.

  At present, P&G is famous for its quality product, but it has implemented different
  strategies to improve its image in future. Because just providing quality products
  are not enough. They have to show concern for their

 Society
 Customers
 Employees

   P&G has adopted all its ways to achieve this aim, which will lead to a better
  corporate image of the company in future. If they got a chance to see the
  advertisement of P&G’s safeguard customer satisfaction and environmental safety
  are emphasized.
  For environmental safety, they have the motto of cleanliness and protection from
  the germs.
  As explained above that company image can be used as marketing resource. Due to
  the image, people are attracted to P&G. That’s why market helps the sales force to
  persuade the customers. In this way, P&G is using corporate image as a marketing

  As far as safeguard is concerned, P&G is emphasizing only on urban areas, while
  rural areas are neglected, because their target market is middle and upper class and
      this class is mostly located in urban areas. Therefore, due to their product features,
      their market coverage is better.

      P&G has launched a new promotional program for safeguard. For this purpose,
      they followed two methods.
i)     Health education programs in schools.
ii)    Seashore protection.

      According to this program, P&G hires doctors who go to schools and address
      children regarding cleanliness and germ protection through safeguard.

      According to this program, P&G personnel take children to the seashore and
      arrange different amusement programs and deliver lectures how to dispose waste
      and how to promote cleanliness in the environment.

      With respect to R&D, P&G Pakistan has a strong back from the P&G worldwide
      network of research and development P&G’s innovations is a major competitive
      strength and is driven by the market place. The company sets out to deliver the
      customers the right science with the right processes at the right place. It must be
      seen to provide a quality of service, which is the best in the market.
P&G is spending millions of dollars in R&D worldwide, while they have R&D
cells in the countries in which the operations of business are going on. These R&D
cells are responsible to identify the technological breakthrough, taking place in
these countries. They are mostly customer oriented for which they test the products
in the market and then introduce it to the whole target market.

The safeguard business accounts contribute nearly 6.3% of the company’s profit.
The impressive growth recorded by the soap industry enabled it to make this
contribution. This is due to increase in sales of safeguard in 1999.
SALES VOLUME (Rs. in 000)
Year                 1999                2000                2001
Sales                276,558             308,915             358,525

A financial analysis for the last three years is:

Year                                      1999        2000          2001
                                          6.2%        6.7%          5.9%
Operating Profit
Asset Turnover                            8.3 times   8 times       6.6. times
Return on Assets                          35%         34.4%         32%
Increase in Sales                         60%         50%           112%
Increase in Assets                        120%        125%          128%
   Along with this internal resource generation, corporate name is at its back as sound
   credit worthiness for any borrowed fund.


   P & G is facing the problems in the following areas:

 There is gradual increase in the substitution of Safeguard due to its higher price.
   There is also great competition in the local Producers due to low price soap and
   also great competition in the organized sector due to equal size of the competitive

 As far as safeguard is concerned, P&G is emphasizing only on urban areas, while
   rural areas are neglected.

 P & G is Unwilling to serve low-income market. Other competitors in the soap
   industry are serving in each class with respect to different prices & their target
   market is upper class, middle class and lower class, each class with respect to
   different prices. Safeguard’s Price is especially very high towards lower income
 P&G itself has no distribution channel for safeguard rather they are distributing the
   safeguard through International Brands Limited (IBL). This is also the reason for
   the high price.

   P&G is following different strategies in different marketing practices for safeguard.


   P&G gives high emphasis on direct approach to customers. Its sales teams visits
   schools after schools along with the medical practitioners and demonstrate
   experiments of hand and face washing in comparison with other soaps. They
   involve children and house wises in their campaign and then asks them to give
   comments. This way they create awareness and demand for the safeguard.
   They try to satisfy the customer at the spot and then sell a small size of 75 gm pack
   for trial basis. They also advertise these practices on television, often sponsors
   famous plays on dramas on TV. P&G gives high media coverage to Safeguard.
   Regarding the commercials on TV, they follow the policy that their commercials
   will not be executed right before and after the commercial of competitors.

   As described earlier that P&G is distributing safeguard through International
   Brands Ltd., distribution network which is a renowned distribution company. In
   each IBL office, there is an Area Sales manager of P&G who is responsible to
watch the activities of IBL regarding distribution of Safeguard and make direct
contact with customers to obtain the complaints.

P&G always emphasizes safeguard as quality product and they try to differentiate
it as compared to competitors. But they have set the price of 125 gm of Safeguard
Rs. 21 which is equal to the major competitor product Detol soap having price of
Rs. 21 for 125 gm pack. Therefore, we can say they are somewhat following
competitive price strategy.

Safeguard is quality product as described earlier and P&G do not compromise on
quality. Therefore, in product strategy, they are following differentiation strategy.

There are the marketing strategies of safeguard but there are a group of strategies,
which determine the strategies of company regarding a product.

Market Share

  High 100                                Safeguard
                              STAR                         QUESTION



       Low          CASH COW                    DOG
               10                   1                          0.1

Market share

The BCG Matrix tells about the position of the products either as star, cash cow,
question mark or dog. The two dimensions of this matrix are the relative market
share and on y –axis industry growth rate.
The market share of safeguard (P&G) in soap industry is lower than their
competitors because of price sensitivity and its market share is increasing. Second,
the market growth rate of soap business is faster than general economy, which is
9.8% per annum. This is due to increasing population and urbanization in the

The above analysis shows that safeguard is a question mark in soap industry. It is recommended
for question mark to follow growth-oriented strategies and more investment. P&G have
resources to move it towards star. For growth strategy, company should seek out new
opportunities. So they are now spending $ 3 million to expand the Hub plant where safeguard
is manufactured. From the 10th of April another production unit has started production for safe
guard to meet the expanding marketing needs.
General Electric Company (GEC) Matrix uses the dimensions of industry
attractiveness and business strengths to identify the current position of the
company and suggests which type of strategy should be used.
To measure each dimension, certain factors are selected. In soap industry,
following factors are applicable:

                                            Weight    1=High      Score

Company’s relative market                   25        .50         12.5

Price competitiveness                       15        .60         9
Financial strength                          30        .90         27
Knowledge of customers and market           15        .60         9
Technological Advancement                   15        .70         10.5
Total                                       100                   70
                               Weight 1=High      Score

Market size and growth rate     30         1       30

Intensity of competition        20        .90      18

Profitability                   10        .60       6

Capital requirement             15        .70     10.5

Opportunities and threats       15        .75     11.25

Barriers to entry and exit      10        .50       5

Total                           100               80.75

                SPACE MATRIX
  Strategic Position and Action Evaluation Matrix is useful for determining the
current strategic position of the organization with reference to its environment and
 helps deciding the strategy profiles for the company. In the context of P&G, the
        factors considered and intensity of their influence is given below: -

                            COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE
                                                       Rating     -
                Market share                           -4
                Product quality                        -1
                Customer loyalty                       -3
                Control     over   distributors   and -2
                Promotional activities                 -1
                Product price                          -3

                Technical know-how                     -1

                TOTAL                                  -15

                Average                                -2.14=-2
                                           Rating     -
           Technological changes           -3
           Rate of inflation               -2
           Barriers to entry into market   -3
           Competitive pressure            -1
           Demand variability              -5
           Price elasticity of demand      -3
           Total                           -17
           Average                         -2.83=-3

              Growth potential                        +5
              Profit potential                        +3.5
              Financial stability                     +4
              Technological know how                  +5
              Resources utilization                   +2.5

              Ease of entry into market               +4

              Total                                   +24

              Average                                 +4

        Competitive Advantage           =    -2
          Industrial Strength       =   +4
          Total Score on x-axis     =   -2(+(+4)=+2
        Financial Strength              =    +5
          Environmental Stability =     -3
          Total Score on y-axis     =   -3 +(+5) = +2
          Coordinates (+2_+2)
    The direction vector points towards the aggressive quadrant. Therefore, the
    suitable strategies for P&G safeguard are:-
    Market penetration
    Market development
    Product development

    Market penetration means to exploit the available consumer efficiently to achieve high market
    share. This is probably done for a product, which is at the growth stage. Market penetration can
    be done through heavy advertisement and by providing products of different sizes and types for
    different consumers. For this purpose, highly extensive distribution channel should be used.

    In market development strategy, organization should find the new uses of product,
    new segments and entering into new geographic areas. Still safeguard is being used
    for germs protection purpose, focusing on urban areas and more emphasis on
    middle and upper class. Therefore, they should identify the new such as for
    crockery purpose and explore the new and potential customers.

    For product development, development of internal resources is emphasized.
    Therefore, P&G should acquire one more product or manufacturing plant for the
    production of safeguard to capture the wide market.

    For safeguard P&G is intensifying the efforts to increase the market share in
    growing industry because soap industry is growing with an annual rate of 9.8%.
    Therefore, we can say they are following consolidation strategy for safeguard,
    because they are intensifying their efforts on advertisement and promotional
The practice of incomplete market coverage should not be followed because you
cannot hijack other company’s customers and new customers as well. All these
problems require following strategies:

P&G is emphasizing on urban areas while it has neglected the suburban areas,
which is also a big market for soaps like safeguard. For this purpose, they should
efficiently utilize their Marketing Information System to collect information about
the demand and attitudes of the people in these areas. By using this strategy,
safeguard can fetch the customers of competitors and will be successful in building
new customers.

It describes to develop new products or modify the existing products with respect
to size, color, packaging, etc.

Safeguard is a well-perceived product among the customers, and at this moment, it
is available in two sizes; 75gm and 125gm, which cannot satisfy
the demand of every segment. While the products of the competitors are available
in multiple sizes which provide abundant choices for purchases to customers for
example Lifebuoy Gold has 140gm and 95gm and Medicame has 80gm soap
available in the market This provide an opportunity to the customer to have
multiple choices. It can be a threat for the market share of safeguard. On the other
hand, in case of safeguard the choice to customer is very limited. This is what they
have analyzed through market survey. Therefore, it is necessary that safeguard
should be available in maximum possible sizes to meet the selection criteria of the
As far as launching of new product is concerned, it is not necessary for P&G at this
moment, but in future, they will require taking this step as well because they have
some other soap like ivory, and zest which are very famous in international market.

It describes that a company tries to sell more of its product by introducing new
supplementary uses. Safeguard is that product, which contains such chemicals
useful for beauty care as well. This characteristic, we have analyzed through its
product formula. Therefore, it is more useful to supplement this idea with existing
safeguard or introduce safeguard into different pack sizes especially for capturing
the female customers.

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