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Islamic Banking Internship report

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Islamic Banking:

Islamic banking has been defined as banking in consonance with the philosophy
and value system of Islam and governed, in addition to the conventional good
governance and risk management rules, by the principles laid down by Islamic
Shariah. Interest free banking is a narrow concept denoting a number of banking
instruments or operations, which avoid interest.        Islamic banking, the more
general term is expected not only to avoid interest-based transactions, prohibited
in the Islamic Shariah, but also to avoid unethical practices and participate
actively in achieving the goals and objectives of an Islamic economy.
The Islamic Banking system employs the concept of participation in the
enterprise, utilizing the funds at risk on a profit-and- loss-sharing basis. This by
no means implies that investments with financial institutions are necessarily
speculative. This can be excluded by careful investment policy, diversification of
risk and prudent management by Islamic financial institutions.

Islamic Shariah prohibits „interest‟ but it does not prohibit all gains on capital. It
is only the increase stipulated or sought over the principal of a loan or debt that is
prohibited. Islamic principles simply require that performance of capital should
also be considered while rewarding the capital. The prohibition of a risk free
return and permission of trading, as enshrined in the Verse 2:275 of the Holy
Quran, makes the financial activities in an Islamic set-up real asset-backed with
ability to cause „value addition‟.

Islamic banking system is based on risk-sharing, owning and handling of physical
goods, involvement in the process of trading, leasing and construction contracts
using various Islamic modes of business and finance. As such, Islamic banks deal
with asset management for the purpose of income generation. They will have to
prudently handle the unique risks involved in management of assets by adherence
to the best practices of corporate governance. Once the banks have stable stream
of Halal income, depositors will also receive stable and Halal income.

                                          1                       M. Waqas Yousaf
The forms of businesses allowed by Islam at the time the Holy Quran was
revealed included joint ventures based on sharing of risks & profits and provision
of services through trading, both cash and credit, and leasing activities. In the
Verse II:275, Allah the Almighty did not deny the apparent similarity between
trade profit in credit sale and Riba in loaning, but resolutely informed that Allah
has permitted trade and prohibited Riba.

Profit has been recognized as „reward‟ for (use of) capital and Islam permits
gainful deployment of surplus resources for enhancement of their value. However,
along with the entitlement of profit, the liability of risk of loss on capital rests
with the capital itself; no other factor can be made to bear the burden of the risk of
loss. Therefore, financial transactions, in order to be permissible, should be
associated with goods, services or benefits. While at micro level this feature of
Islamic finance leads to generation of real economic activity and stable growth, at
macro level it can be helpful in creating better discipline in conduct of fiscal and
monetary policies.

Besides trading, Islam allows leasing of assets and getting rentals against the
usufruct taken by the lessee. All such things/assets corpuses of which are not
consumed with their use can be leased out against fixed rentals. The ownership in
leased assets remains with the lesser that assumes risks and gets rewards of his

                                           2                      M. Waqas Yousaf
Major Modes of Islamic Banking and Finance:


Literally it means a sale on mutually agreed profit. Technically, it is a contract of
sale in which the seller declares his cost and profit. The parties negotiate on the
margin or the rate of profit on the cost. Islamic banks have adopted this as a
mode of financing. As a financing technique, it involves a request by the client to
the bank to purchase certain goods for him. The bank does that for a definite
profit over the cost, which is stipulated in advance.

Ijarah is a contract of a known and proposed usufruct against a specified and
lawful return or consideration for the service or return for the benefit proposed to
be taken, or for the effort or work proposed to be expended. In other words,
Ijarah or leasing is the transfer of usufruct for a consideration which is rent in case
of hiring of assets or things and wage in case of hiring of persons.


It is a contractual agreement for manufacturing goods and commodities, allowing
cash payment in advance and future delivery or a future payment and future
delivery.   Istisna can be used for providing the facility of financing the
manufacture or construction of houses, plants, projects and building of bridges,
roads and highways.


Musharkah means a relationship established under a contract by the mutual
consent of the parties for sharing of profits and losses in the joint business. It is
an agreement under which the Islamic bank provides funds, which are mixed with
the funds of the business enterprise and others. All providers of capital are
entitled to participate in management, but not necessarily required to do so. The
profit is distributed among the partners in pre-agreed ratios, while the loss is
borne by each partner strictly in proportion to respective capital contributions.

                                           3                      M. Waqas Yousaf
History & Introduction of
                            Islamic Banking Services
Islamic Banking was launched under the brand 'Askari Islamic Banking', by
opening 6 dedicated Islamic Banking branches in major cities of the country.
Further expansion is planned with improved capabilities for offering products
conforming to the Shariah principles. Now it has fourteen branches in the big
cities of Pakistan .Askari Islamic Banking opens the doors for Halal banking
Objective of ABL-IBB

“Is to put in place an efficient banking system supportive to economic justice and
                   welfare of society in line with Shariah standards”
A comprehensive range of Islamic Banking products and services is being
offered, in order to meet customer's demand of Shariah Compliant Banking, in the
following areas:

      Islamic Corporate Banking
      Islamic Investment Banking
      Islamic Trade Finance
      Islamic General Banking
      Islamic Consumer Banking

Islamic Banking products have been approved by the Bank's Shariah Advisor. As
per Shariah requirements, funds and products of Islamic Banking are managed
separately from the Conventional Banking side. All funds obtained, invested and
shared in Halal modes & investments, under supervision of the Shariah Advisor.

                                           4                      M. Waqas Yousaf
Askari Islamic Bank in Gujranwala

Askari Islamic bank was established on December 28, 2007 in Gujranwala. As
Gujranwala is popular because of Agriculture and Domestic Industry. The
purpose of ABL –IBB is to provide more and more facilities of Islamic Banking.

So that people of Gujranwala can perform their business matters according to
Shariah, as trade has got special place in Islam.

The staff in Gujranwala Branch is expert and highly educated. And they have
special skills and awareness about the entire region. So ABL-IBB offer total
security and protection to the people of Gujranwala.

Shariah Advisor

An eminent scholar and recipient of the president‟ medal for president of
performance for the year 2004, Professor Dr. Muhammad Tahir Mansoori, has
been appointed as the Shariah advisor of this bank.

He is presently chairman of Islamic law department at the Islamic research
institute of the international university, Islamabad

He has taught and written on Fiqh and usool-e- Fiqh matters for over two decades.
He has also responded to a large number of queries issued religious rulings I-e
Fatwa‟s on various matters pertaining to Islamic law, especially in the field of
commercial law.

                                          5                   M. Waqas Yousaf

“Establish Islamic banking as banking of first to facilitate implementation of an
equitable economic system, providing a strong foundation for establishing a fair
                         and just society for mankind”.


   “To be An Islamic banking offering a one-stop for innovative value-added
  products and services to our customers within the bounds of Shariah, while
 optimizing the stakeholders‟ value through an organizational cultural based on
    learning, fairness, respect for individual enterprises and performances”.

                                        6                      M. Waqas Yousaf
Goal of my internship:

        Increase knowledge of subject matter.
        Develop work skills and improving self confidence.
        Increase levels of intercultural proficiency and Personal Development.
        Evaluate academic experiences in a professional field setting.
        Explore possible career choices and establish relationships that may
         result in future employment.
        Opportunity to understand the structure and operation of a working
        Causing interaction with a variety of individuals, systems, and
        Using a variety of learning styles and frequently challenging
         participants to use new ways of learning and thinking.

                                        7                     M. Waqas Yousaf
Branch Network

  1. Rawalpindi Branch
  2. Peshawar Branch
  3. Queeta Branch
  4. Multan Branch
  5. Faisalabad Branch
  6. Gujranwala Branch
  7. Sailkot Branch
  8. Islamabad Branch
Lahore Branches
  9. Cavalry Ground Branch
  10. Gulberg Branch
  11. DHA Branch
Karachi Branches
  12. Jodia Bazar Branch
  13. DHA Branch
  14. North Nazimabad Branch

                               8   M. Waqas Yousaf
           Branch Hierarchy in Gujarnwala:

                                  Branch Manager
                                   Zahid Ibrahim

       Manager                   Incharge Foreign              INCHARGE CAD
 Operation Department            Trade                      (Mr. Bilal Humayun Butt)
   (Mr. Muhammad                  (M. Atif Khokhar)

                                                             Officer Corporate
Incharge General Banking                                     (Muhammad Bilal
(Salman Nawaz Warriach)                                      Mehar)

                                                                In charge Car Ijarah
   Cash Officer
 (Zohaib & shaista Begum)

 Incharge Remittances                                        Officer Car Ijarah
  (Mr. Shahzad)                                                    (Bilal Maher)

                                         9            M. Waqas Yousaf
Products and services in ABL-IBB Gujranwala
Askari Halal saving Account:
       It is an easy to open checking account having special features of no
restriction of withdrawals or number of transactions.
Current Account:
            A complete business account which provides instant access of funds at
all branches without any restriction on withdrawals or number of transaction.
Basic Banking Account:
This account will be open for salaried person .every month client must do the two
transactions .if the transition exceeded then RS 75 charged of this account.
Term certificates:
        Askari Islamic Investment Certificates (AIIC)
        Askari khas Islamic deposit account (AKIDA)
        Askari Islamic term quality deposit (AITQD)
        Askari Halal certificate of Aasan monthly Mudarbah (AHCOAMM)
        Askari wakalah –tul- istimal
All terms and conditions are same but difference in all terms of time period

                                         10                     M. Waqas Yousaf
Service Quality:
Askari Islamic bank is committed to delivering its Products and Services within
the highest service quality parameters. The Bank prides itself for the restless
pursuit of excellence in all the spheres of its activities.
The defining value in Islam itself to inculcates, in the essence the source of what
Service Quality itself means. Honesty, Complete transparence, Effective delivery,
Fair pricing, Respects and Recognition for the consumer are all clear aspects of
our faith and belief.
The Service Quality mission of Bank itself clear defines the parameters of this
“To delivered Service Cultural which ensures the consistent of our Products
        and Service, within the highest Service Quality service parameters,
   promoting Islamic values and ensuring recognition and quality banking
                           experience to our customers”.

                                           11                  M. Waqas Yousaf
12   M. Waqas Yousaf
Hierarchy of Departments


      Clearing         Cash             Accounts         Accounts

                           Credit Admin


                              Car Ijarah

                           Trade Finance

       Import                  Export               Foreign Exchange

                              13              M. Waqas Yousaf
Hierarchy of Operation Department


                     Customer service

Remittances            Accounting       Accounts         Cash


                             14              M. Waqas Yousaf
Account Opening, Closing and Clearing
This section is also called Front office. It basically divided into four sub-
   1. Remittances & Clearing (Inward & Outward)
   2. Account
   3. Customer service/Account opening
   4. Cash
All these are separate departments but collectively known as
Operation department.
I worked first week for operation department. And different department in-
charges guided me in the different working fields. The first section I started work
in account opening and clearing section. Sir Safdar helped me and told me how to
account open and also told me what types of documents are require for the
account opening procedure.
During this practice I filled the account opening forms and issuance the cheques
book to the account holders. It is also called the Customer Service Section.
In the Bank the first step is Account Opening. It is contractual agreement between
bank and customer after which both concerned parties indulge in a mutually
beneficial business relationship. And both are interact directly. If the any person
who wants to transaction through the Bank firstly he opens the account than he
can proceed further.
Types of Accounts

   1. Askari Halal saving Account
   2. Current Account:
   3. Basic Banking Account
Documents Requires
     I practically saw all the necessary documents which are required for
 opening of Account.

                                        15                      M. Waqas Yousaf
Individual Account:
      Copy of CNIC/NICOP/POC
      Any job /business proof (if applicable)
Students Account
    All the documents which are necessary for the Individual Account that are
same for the students Account but a little bit documents are different that are:
      Student‟s ID card
      Copy of the B form
      And copy of the Guardian
For Limited Company account
      Copy of Certificate of Incorporation
      Memorandum & Articles of Association
      Board Resolution
      Latest copy of Certified Form-29
      List of Directors
      Copies of CNICs of all Directors Certificate of Commencement of
       Business (for Public Ltd co).
Partnership account
    Partnership Deed (certified copy)
    Letter of Authority & Mandate
    Copies of CNICs of all partners
    Account Opening Request.
Proprietorship account

      Copy of CNIC.
      Copy of NTN Certificate
      Account opening Request & Proprietorship Letter
Club / Society / Association and Trust account
      Copy of Rules / By-laws
      Copy of Registration (if applicable)

                                         16                      M. Waqas Yousaf
      List of Executive Members / Management committee/ Management Board
      Certified copy of Resolution CNICs of all members of Management Body

How to Close an Account
The customer can close the account. The customer is required to submit an
application for closing the account. Then the account is closed out and his balance
is paid to him after deducting the Closing charges i.e. Rs.200 and the application
is filed in Account closing file. Cheques book is returned back to bank and the
officer cancel and the remaining cheques in cheques book.

Procedure of account opening

 Account Opening          Introduction        SSC                 Cheques Book
      Form                                                         Application

    Bank Register entry               Account

                                                             Issuance of Cheques
    System Input             ID card Verification                   Book

                          Completion Account                   Cash Deposit or cheque

                                         17                    M. Waqas Yousaf
Remittance and Clearing
After the account opening section I worked in the Remittance and Clearing
section. I saw the representations of Cheques which come for clearing. Sir
Shahzad helped me in this section and told me the basic steps of clearing and
remittance. During the working of this department I filled vouchers of many
account holders in this bank.

There are two types of Clearing.


          OBC                             Inward                           Outward

In intercity section the Cheques are drawn to other bank that is out of cities by
ABL-IBB       In intercity NIFT directly present Cheques in the concern bank if
clearing then the bank clearance stamp on this Cheques and State Bank transfer
amount to the other bank‟s account. NIFT charges on this RS. 150. Bank gets
commission on it RS.250 per Cheques.

Local clearing is free means that bank does not charge by its clients for clearing
and pay for it by self. It can be said that it is free for customers.

                                           18                           M. Waqas Yousaf
Inward Clearing means the Cheques drawn from ABL-IBB another banks. Where
as clearing branch to branch is done through online.
In outward clearing I saw how the Cheques drawn on other banks with in city
OBC (Outward Bank Collection)
The OBC Cheques drawn by another banks outside city. ABL-IBB does not take
NIFT services but send Cheques to other branch. And that branch does clearing
IBC (inward Bank Collection)
IBC Cheques drawn on ABL-IBB from other city. Branch of that city confirm
about that Cheques through fax which drawn on ABL-IBB Gujranwala. After
clearing ABL-IBB Gujranwala transfer funds in the Nostro Account.
Services Charges
NIFT perform all clearing services Intercity and local both. It charges for return
report and clearance report RS.150.
          Return report means if Cheques is not clear by other bank NIFT returns
           this to the particular bank.
          Clearance Report means if Cheques clear by other banks NIFT report to
           the particular bank to which that Cheques belong.

Three types of stamps are pasted on Cheques at the time of clearing. Those two
stamps are:
    1. Crossing stamp
    2. Clearance stamp
    3. Pay account will be credited on realization

                                           19                  M. Waqas Yousaf
Crossing stamp used for ownership whereas Clearance stamp used for clearing
that indicate that this Cheques complete in all aspects and fulfill all requirements.
Procedure of Inward & Outward Clearing:
Inward clearing:

       Receive instrument payable by us in inward clearing
       Time is the essence of clearing, if not returned unpaid then it is presumed
        to be paid
    Check the total number of instrument matches with the clearing schedule
       and get signature on it.
Out ward clearing Procedure:

           Receive cheques on the counter and examine it on the following lines
           Cheques is drawn on a bank that is a member of clearing-house
           It is deposited in an account that is being maintained in the branch
           It is in order as to the name of payee, date, amount in words and figure
            and correctly endorsed where required.
           Check the pay-in slip and counter foils are correctly filled in.
           Put the banks special crossing stamp & clearing stamp of the next day
           Banker discharge
           Detach cheques from pay-in slip
           Sort out cheques bank wise and branch wise.
           Input in system for each bank
           Prepare clearing schedule
           Attach the cheques with clearing schedule
           Handover the instruments to NIFT
           Realization entries.
Account Department:
It deals with      transfer entries, Bank statements (customer information about
account), day to day expenses, postage expenses, taxes, Debit, credit, ledger
accounts and received mail from courier and passed the entries in register for

                                          20                      M. Waqas Yousaf
record. This department also performs account verification means that when the
account opening form come from the customer service department this particular
department verify that whether this form is complete or not. If complete then send
letter of thanks to accountholder‟ house if not then come back to the customer
service department. It counts the total debit and credit in the whole working report
of the bank. Practically I worked in this department passed the entries in recording
Account department responsible to manage the following
Transfer Entries:
Local transfer:
Local transfer is the transfer of funds from one account to another within branch.
Day to day expenses include:

           Office stationary
           Repair and maintenance
           Office equipment
           Advertising expenses
           Electricity bills
           Gardener salary
           Telephone bills
Postage expenses include:
           OSC
           TCS
           DHL

When all these expenses are occurred account department present these through
expense vouchers.

                                         21                     M. Waqas Yousaf

Sir Awais Chisti is responsible of the entire Operation department and supervises
rechecks all the activities of the operation department. If he realizes any mistake
in any activity, then he returned it to the concern section for remove the
deficiency and after supervised this finally.
At the end of the day the related person In-charge checks all the activities to the
Operation Department Head (Sir Salman warrich) but in the day routine if any
discrepancy exist then he solves it at that time.

                                          22                   M. Waqas Yousaf
Corporate deals with funded and non funded facility. In other
words it can be said that it covers with both long-term and short-
term requirements.Murabaha meet working capital needs whereas
Ijarah and Diminishing Musharkah fulfill long-term financing
requirements for plant and machinery. Corporate is divided into the following




     Murabaha                               Ijarah                   Diminishing

                                       Non- Funded

        Sight LC                            Usance LC                     LG

                                       23                     M. Waqas Yousaf
   “The Murabaha transaction was prevalent in the day of
   Prophet               .”
       Islamic banks therefore use a sale-based transaction (Murabaha) instead of
        loan-based transactions for financing purchase of assets by their clients.
       Over 70% of all advances made by Islamic banks comprises of Murabaha
       Murabaha is a particular kind of sale
       Islam prohibits charging interest on money, but permits charging profit on
        sale of goods
       Where the transaction is done on a “cost plus profit” basis i.e. the seller
        discloses the cost to the buyer and adds a certain profit to it to arrive at the
        final selling price
       The distinguishing feature of Murabaha from ordinary sale is: the seller
        discloses the cost to the buyer and a known profit is added.
       Prohibition of: Major Uncertainty (Gharar) and Sale of debt
       Subject matter of sales must conform to Shariah rules:        Be in existence,
        Possession by seller either physically or constructive.
Valid Sale:
   A valid sale contract exhibits two features:
       Knowledge; i.e. parties‟ full knowledge of the object of sale.
       Existence; a concrete sale object.
       Absence of these features introduces Gharar in the transaction
   The profit may be added: On a lump sum basis & as a percentage of cost
Payment of Murabaha price may be
   1) At spot
   2) In installments
   3) In lump sum after a certain time

                                           24                      M. Waqas Yousaf
    Hence, Murabaha does not necessarily imply the concept of deferred
Basic rules for Murabaha financing:
1. Asset to be sold must exist.
2. Sale price should be determined.
3. Sale must be unconditional.
4. Assets to be sold: should not be used for un-Islamic purpose, should be in
ownership of the seller at the time of sale, and should be in physical or
constructive possession of the seller.
    Quranic view on Gambling & Risk

believers! Intoxicants and gambling and Al Ansab (Animals sacrificed for idols)
and Al Azlam (arrows for seeking luck or decision) are an abomination of Satan's
handiwork. So avoid them in order that you may be successful. Satan wants only
to excite enmity and hatred between you with intoxicants and gambling and
hinder you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So, will you not
then abstain? (Al Maidah 90 – 91)

Ahadith on Gambling & Risk
       “Whoever buys foodstuff let him not sell it until he has possession of
        them”. (Bukhari)
       “Do not buy fish in the sea, for it is Gharar”. (Bukhari)
       “He who purchases food shall not sell it until he weighs it”. (Muslim)

                                         25                         M. Waqas Yousaf
     “The Prophet forbade the sale of grapes until they become black and the
      sale of grain until it is strong.” (Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood,

Procedure of Murabaha Financing in Askari Islamic bank:
  Step # 1
         Client and bank sign an agreement to enter into Murabaha

                         Bank                                Client
                                          Agreement to

  Step # 2
         Client appointed as agent to purchase goods on bank‟s behalf.

                  Bank                                    Client
                              Agreement to Murabaha



                                     26                    M. Waqas Yousaf
  Step # 3

    Bank gives money to agent/supplier for purchase of goods.

                          Bank                            Client
                                    Agreement to


              Disbursement to the agent or supplier


  Step # 4

The agent takes possession of goods on bank‟s behalf.

       Transfer of Risk                                       Delivery
                                     Vendor                   of goods

             Bank                                                  Agent

                                      27                      M. Waqas Yousaf
   Step # 5
Client makes an offer to purchase the goods from bank through a declaration.

              Bank                                      Client

                             Offer to


   Step # 6

       Bank accepts the offer and sale is concluded.

                          Murabaha Agreement
                           Transfer of Title

              Bank                                           Client

   Step # 7
   Client pays agreed price to bank according to an agreed schedule. Usually
   on a deferred payment basis (Bai Muajjal)

               Bank                                     Client

                              Payment of Price

                                        28                       M. Waqas Yousaf

There are a number of documents involved in a Murabaha financing transaction.
The most essential of these documents are:
      Master Murabaha/Istijrar Finance Agreement.
      Agency Agreement.
      Draw down notice.
      Description of assets.
      Summary Payment Schedule.
      Declaration.
Master Murabaha:
      It‟s an agreement between the client and the Bank whereby the client
       agrees to purchase goods from the Bank from time to time as per the terms
       and conditions of this agreement.
      This is an over all facility agreement under which various Sub-Murabaha
       may be executed from time to time.
      Hence it needs to be signed once at the time the facility is sanctioned.
Agency Agreement:
      The client is appointed by the Bank as its agent to purchase goods. This
       agreement needs to be signed once between the client and the bank.
    The disbursement of funds is done under this agreement.

      Declaration is to be signed by the customer immediately after it has
       purchased the goods.
      This document establishes the actual sale transaction, i.e. transfer of
       ownership of goods from the Bank to the customer.
      At this stage the specific details of the assets must be known i.e. quantity,
       quality etc.
      Proper timing of declaration is extremely important.

                                        29                      M. Waqas Yousaf
Import Murabaha:
       LCs opened and subsequently financed by ABL-IBB is an ideal example
        of a direct payment Murabaha.
       The customer opens the LC from ABL-IBB as an agent of the Bank (i.e.
        places order with the foreign supplier on behalf of ABL-IBB.
       Upon receipt of documents ABL-IBB makes payment to the foreign
       ABL-IBB sells the goods to the customer on Murabaha (i.e. cost plus
        profit basis)
Credit Administration Department (CAD):
The Credit Administration Department (CAD) is involved in security
documentation monitoring and accounting for all banking products and services.
Furthermore, CAD monitors the documentary compliance of Shariah related
requirements on an ongoing basis. CAD also ensures that SBP regulations and/or
legal requirements of the transaction are adhered to at all times. CAD also handles
a large volume of back end operations for Corporate, Consumer and SME related
This department is also responsible for the issuance / cancellation of guarantees
and centralized SBP reporting for various activities. As per our Shariah
requirements, the complete preparation and maintenance of pools for the
liabilities products and the Islamic export refinance are also part of this
department. Particularly I match all the documents of Murabah financing with
check list.

                                        30                     M. Waqas Yousaf
For Corporate, Consumer and SME:

               Corporate        Trade            Car Ijarah

                     Credit Administration Department

What is Credit?

We do not dish out the money to everybody. For bankers it is a matter of

      Trust, faith, belief.

      Trust that money lent will come back.

      That the transaction booked will prove rewarding for the bank.

      This trust comes through

      Ability & integrity of credit officer.

      Good repute of the borrower.

      Honesty & intention to repay.

      Ability.

      Solvency.

                                          31                  M. Waqas Yousaf
  Foreign Trade Department:
  The Trade finance department is: divided into three parts:

                          Foreign Trade

Import                        Export                             Remittances

  There are following three basic modes of export:
        Export on Collection Basis
        Export on Advance Payment
        Export by Negotiation
  Exporter comes to the bank to issue E-FORM for shipment. Shipment goes first
  then foreign bank sends money to the exporter‟s bank. All the risk bear by
  exporter in collection base export.
  Two terms used in Collection base export
      C A D (cash against documents)
        D A (Documents against Acceptance

                                        32                     M. Waqas Yousaf
Procedure of Collection Base Export:
     Exporter comes to the Bank to issue E-FORM for shipment.
     Exporter fills E-FORM and returns it to the Bank for certification.
     Bank certifies E-FORM and gives it to the exporter for shipment.
     Exporter goes to the custom for shipment with shipping documents.
     Custom stamp on the E-FORM of shipping bill number. Custom keep
      original E-FORM copy.
     After that he goes to shipping company and after verification of the
      documents, shipping company issues Bill Of Lading. He keeps duplicate.
     E-FORM copy.
     Shipment goes
     After shipment, Exporter comes to the bank and returns the Bill Of Lading
      and copy of all other documents. Bank keep triplicate E-FORM copy and
      give the Quard –duplicate to the exporter.
Advance Payment:
  Foreign bank sends money to the exporter on the account of export advance
  payment. Exporters bank receives the payment and asks the exporter to give
  the purpose of this payment. Get the “Advance Payment Voucher” signed by
  the exporter and finally realize the payment
Procedure of Advance Payment in Export:

     When advance payment comes.
     Advance payment voucher sign by the exporter.
     Voucher report to the SBP.
     Exporter prepares shipment.
     When shipment ready.
     Exporter comes to the Bank to issue E-FORM for shipment.
     Exporter fills E-FORM and returns it to the Bank with other shipping

                                       33                     M. Waqas Yousaf
     Bank certified E-FORM and gives it to the exporter for shipment.
     Exporter goes to the custom for shipment with shipping documents.
     Custom stamp on the E-FORM of shipping bill number. Custom keep
      original E-FORM copy.
     After that he goes to shipping company and after verification of the
      documents, shipping company issues Bill Of Lading. He keeps duplicate
      E-FORM copy.
     Shipment goes.
     Exporter comes to the bank and returns the Bill Of Lading and copy of all
      other documents. Bank keep triplicate E-FORM copy and give the Quard
     Bank report to the SBP with triplicate E-FORM.

  Exporter comes to the bank and submits the shipping documents along with
  LC (letter Of Credit) exporter bank received the documents with LC. Checks
  the documents with LC, take indemnity or guarantee from the exporter and
  after approving from the branch manager and head office, gives value of the
  documents to the exporter. In other words negotiation means payment of
  documents in export by the bank to the beneficiary (exporter). When the
  exporter submits the shipping documents along with the export.

                                      34                    M. Waqas Yousaf
            Difference between Collections, Advance Payment,

                                   And Negotiation

         Collection              Advance Payment               Negotiation
     Without LC.                  Without LC.              With LC.
     Foreign             bank     Foreign        bank      Exporter‟s bank
        sends    money.            sends money.                 gives money.
     Payment         comes        Payment       comes      Payment comes
        after shipment.            first.                       first.
     Shipment            goes     Shipment       goes      Shipment goes
        first.                     after.                       after.

Shipping Documents
    Shipping documents are the documents that must required for export/import.

    1) Commercial invoice
    2) Packing list
    3) Shipping certificate
    4) Certificate of origin
    5) Bill of lading
These are the documents that are required for all types of export.
    I.C.C Rules for Foreign Trade :( International Chamber of
         URC 522 (uniform rules for collection). Foreign Trade done all over the
          world according to the rules and regulations of URC 522.

         UCP500 (uniform custom practices) whereas all the parties follow
          UCP500 rules and regulations in foreign trade.

                                            35                  M. Waqas Yousaf
 Terms of contract/sale:
 In negotiating a contract, an exporter must determine who is to meet the various
 charges as they are incurred. The more common terms of contract are:
    1. CIF
    2. C & F
    3. FOB

CIF (cost, insurance, freight)
 It means that the price will include all the cost of goods, insurance and freight
 incurred until the goods are delivered at the port or airport of destination named in
 the contract. Essential documents are:
       Commercial invoice.
       Insurance policy or certificate.
       A full set of bills of lading marked “Freight Paid” evidencing that the
        goods have been shipped on board the carrying vessel, or alternative
        documents of title to the goods.
  C & F (cost and freight):

 It means that the price will include the cost of goods and freight paid in
 connection with the delivery of goods on board the carrying vessel for unloading
 at the port or airport of destination named in the contract. Documents needed are:

       Commercial invoice.
       A full set of bills of lading evidencing that the goods have been shipped on
        board the carrying vessel and stating that freight has been paid by the
 FOB (free on board):
  It means that the exporter has only arranged the space and shipped the goods
 without payment of freight. Thus the freight charges are to be paid by the
 consignee at the port or airport of destination.

                                           36                     M. Waqas Yousaf
There are three types of import:
  1. Letter of credit
  2. Firm‟s contract
  3. Advance payment
Letter of credit means guarantee to pay by the issuing Bank if either of the parties
(importer or exporter) defaults/unable to pay at sight (immediately /arrival of
documents) or at payment in due date in acceptance.
Types of LC:
  1. Sight LC
  2. Usance LC (day acceptance)
Differences between the Sight and day acceptance LCs:
In Sight LC payment within 7 days whereas in Usance LC payment at maturity
LC Process:
Related field In-charge told me about the process of LCs and what
types of steps are involve in it. Those steps are:
   1. LC issuance
   2. LC lodgment
   3. Retirement
LC Issuance:
Issuance of LC the following steps are necessary:

   1. The importer submits Performa invoice and signs LC application form on
        the basis of Performa invoice to the LC issuing bank.

Issues the LC, one copy is send to the SWIFT department for advising Bank. One
copy is given to the applicant (importer).

                                         37                     M. Waqas Yousaf
                   Recover LC opening charges as follows.
Customer AC           DR
 (As per Bank schedule of charges)
                             LC commission C R
                              SWIFT charges       C

   2. The issuing Bank books liability in his own favor on account of the
       applicant. The process of booking liability is as under:

   I. Convert the foreign currency amount mentioned in Performa invoice by
       applying TT Selling Rate.
LCs Lodgment:
LCs lodgment means the arrival of shipping documents against the LC in our
Bank. If the documents are clean and have no any type of discrepancy. Then LC
issuing Bank has 7 days to pay against the documents according to UCP 500.
LC Retirement:
The customer arranges the funds required by the bank to retire the documents
along with retirement charges. The Bank after receiving the import documents
have 7-working days
Either to pay if the documents comply with LC. Otherwise send SWIFT to the
negotiating bank that the documents are discrepant. If the Importer pays to the
bank within these days then the bank charge no Profit otherwise the Profit will be
charged and then return the documents to the Importer.
Revalidation of LC (letter of credit):
In case of you LC date is expired and till there is no shipment of the commodity,
in this condition customers revalidate the LC or renew his “LC”. In revalidation

of LC following expense incurred:

   1. Change for LC.
   2. SWIFT messages.
   3. Liability Booking.

                                        38                        M. Waqas Yousaf
Amendments (Before expiry of LC):
There are four types of amendments that we can do in our LC.

   1. Validity Period: extend expiry and shipment date before the shipment
      date is expired.
   2. Enhancement of Amount: you can increase the amount of money of
      the commodity but in this case book new liability

   3. Change quality: quantity and price but not to change the commodity.
   4. Beneficiary may change but on the acceptance of the applicant (Importer).

                                      39                     M. Waqas Yousaf
Export Import goods

                      40   M. Waqas Yousaf
Export Import Procedure

                          41   M. Waqas Yousaf
   Remittances are of two types
    1. Inward Remittance.
    2. Outward Remittance.


            Inward                                               Outward

Inward Remittance:
The Bank receive inward message through SWIFT for credit to the beneficiary
account being maintained either in Pak rupees or FC account. In case of Pak
rupees account mentioned in the SWIFT Message. The receiving bank converts
the FC account into Pak rupees by applying TT Buying Rate of the value date of
that day.

    In case of FC received in FC account, we credit the same FC amount in the
    FC account. Conversion rate will not be applied.

                                        42                 M. Waqas Yousaf
   Foreign Bank sends                            FC in Pakistan through SWIFT


Converted in
Pak Rupees                                                 Applying       TT
      buying rate

   Outward Remittance:
   Until or unless special approval an Remittances
      Remittances are of two types
       3. Inward Remittance.
       4. Outward Remittance.


            Inward                                               Outward

                                        43                  M. Waqas Yousaf
   Inward Remittance:
    The Bank receive inward message through SWIFT for credit to the beneficiary
   account being maintained either in Pak rupees or FC account. In case of Pak
   rupees account mentioned in the SWIFT Message. The receiving bank converts
   the FC account into Pak rupees by applying TT Buying Rate of the value date of
   that day.

       In case of FC received in FC account, we credit the same FC amount in the
       FC account. Conversion rate will not be applied.

   Foreign Bank sends                                FC in Pakistan through SWIFT


Converted in
Pak Rupees
                                                               Applying       TT
      buying rate

   Outward Remittance:
      Until or unless special approval and permission have been granted by SBP.
      The FC amount can be duly remitted through FC account only by depositing
      FC cash.

                                           44                   M. Waqas Yousaf

    FC                                                                       FC
                       NO conversion rate will be applied

    FC                                                                     Pak
                        Conversion rate will be applied
          Foreign exchange means must be converted into Pak rupees.

Reporting to SBP:
   1. Import
   2. Export
   3. Remittance
I-Form will be prepared at the time of payment to foreign bank against the
documents of Import. In the month of which we transferred the foreign currency
to the foreign bank, at the end of the month, we will send I-Form, copies of bill
of lading and commercial invoice.
When we receive the foreign currency from foreign bank, after getting this
amount, we will send E-Form along with copies of bill of lading and commercial
invoice to SBP.
All the inward remittance will be reported to SBP on IRV-Form (inward
remittance voucher).
Profit on FC account:
Monthly profit paid to foreign currency accountholders will be reported to SBP
on M-Form.

                                       45                     M. Waqas Yousaf

E-Form                        Export                    Inward
I-Form                        Import                   Outward
IRV (inward remittance voucher)                         Inward Remittance
Permission has been granted by SBP. The FC amount can be duly remitted
through FC account only by depositing FC cash.


    FC                                                                       FC
                      NO conversion rate will be applied

    FC                                                                     Pak
                        Conversion rate will be applied
     Foreign exchange means must be converted into Pak rupees.

Reporting to SBP
   4. Import
   5. Export
   6. Remittance
I-Form will be prepared at the time of payment to foreign bank against the
documents of Import. In the month of which we transferred the foreign currency
to the foreign bank, at the end of the month, we will send I-Form, copies of bill
of lading and commercial invoice.

                                       46                     M. Waqas Yousaf
When we receive the foreign currency from foreign bank, after getting this
amount, we will send E-Form along with copies of bill of lading and commercial
invoice to SBP.
All the inward remittance will be reported to SBP on IRV-Form (inward
remittance voucher).
Profit on FC account:
Monthly profit paid to foreign currency accountholders will be reported to SBP
on M-Form.

E-Form                      Export                    Inward
I-Form                      Import                   Outward
IRV (inward remittance voucher)                       Inward Remittance

                                      47                   M. Waqas Yousaf
Car Ijarah:

       Ijarah means “to give something on rent.”

Mode of Financing:
The chosen mode of financing would be the Ijarah agreement,
where the Bank acquires an asset (vehicle) and the rents it to the client for an
agreed period.

Car Ijarah in ABL-IBB
    A rent arrangement is executed between the Askari Islamic Bank and
       applicant (customer), where the Bank will provide an asset (vehicle) after
       the mutual agreement to the term laid down the Ijarah contract.
    The customer agrees to a monthly payment (rent) to the Bank for use of
       the vehicle.

At the completion of the agreed period, the Bank gives the customer an option to
purchase the asset (vehicle).

                                       48                     M. Waqas Yousaf
The following table details some of the macro-features of the applicable mode
of financing:
Parameters                     Detail
Role of ABL-IBB                To purchase a vehicle and rent it to a customer
                               under an Ijarah agreement.
Ownership (Title)              Ownership lays with ABL-IBB
Periodicity                    Pre-determined monthly rentals.
Period of facility             3 years to 5 years.
Mode of payment                Through post dated cheques or direct debit
Purchase option to       the At the end of the Ijarah agreement period, ABL-
customer                       IBB will make an offer to the customer to purchase
                               the asset at a pre-determined value.

Basic documents which are require:
    1. New I.D. card copy of the applicant.
    2. One photograph of the applicant.
    3. Latest Paid utility bills of residence.
    4. Latest 6 months Bank Statement from any Bank (signed & stamped).
    5. Specimen Signature form.
    6. 2 References new I.D. cards copies
    7. Driving license (optional).
    8. Business Proof.
After Approval:
    9. Cheques.
    10. Security Deposit.

                                          49                     M. Waqas Yousaf
The vehicle will be registered and insured in favor of ABL-IBB before its
physical possession is given to customer. In cases where the Approving authority
feels the need, they may direct that additional security be taken from the applicant
before execution of the transaction.
Deposit Margin:
          For New Vehicles:
         Minimum 15% of cost of the vehicle.
         Maximum 50% of the cost of the vehicle.
For New Vehicles:
Under the ABL-IBB‟s Car Ijarah scheme the vehicle should not be more than 8
years old at the time of maturity of lease. This means that if a car id 5 years old, it
should not be leased more than 3 years and its 4 years old, it can be leased fir a 3
or 4 year term. This scheme is valid for both vehicles manufactured in and outside
the country.
Insurance premium will be paid by the bank and will be recovered through lease
rentals charged from the customer.
Repayment of Lease Rentals:
Monthly rentals to be paid through post-dated cheques in favor of ABL-IBB or
through Standing Instructions to debit account on due date if ABL-IBB account
Processing Charges:
Non-refundable processing charges to be collected at the time of collection of
legal documents. These include the cost of legal documents, address verification
and CIB report & vehicle appraisal (in case of second hand vehicles

                                          50                      M. Waqas Yousaf
In case, where applicant wants to change his/her vehicle after approval has been
given by credit approving authority, a non-refundable Rs. 1,000/- will be charged
for the change/replacement of approved asset.
Documentation Charges:
To be charged at actual and will be recovered in rental. This amount includes
registration charges, number plate related expenses, taxes and other government
levies and cost of legal documents.
Pre-mature Termination:
In Case of pre-mature termination of the Ijarah contract, the client will pay the
purchase price as mentioned in the Terminal-value schedule forming part of the
lease documents. The purchase price takes into consideration the following

Normal Vehicle:

    The principal outstanding as determined by the amortization schedule of
       the lease.
    For the first 6 months, a sum calculated at 10% of the cost of the vehicle
       (net of customer‟s Security Deposit). For the rest of the Ijarah period, a
       sum is calculated at 5% of the principal outstanding (net of customer‟s
       Security Deposit).
    The un-recovered portion of the insurance premium paid by ABL-IBB

                                       51                     M. Waqas Yousaf
   Process of car Ijarah:
        The customer approaches the Bank with the request for financing and
         enters into a promise to lease agreement.
        The Bank purchases the item required for leasing and receives title of
         ownership from the vendor.
        The Bank makes payment to the vendor.

                                                 .    .
           VENDO                      ISLAMIC         BANK        Agreement-1     CUSTOMER


        The Bank leases the asset to the customer after execution of lease
        The customer makes periodic payments as per the contract.
        Title transfers to the customer.

                                                                                  .    .
                                      ISLAMIC        BANK    Agreement-2
           VENDOR                                                               CUSTOMER

                                            52                  M. Waqas Yousaf
Plus points of ABL-IBB Car Ijarah as compared to other Non-Islamic Banks
      No Advance Rental.
      No Advance Insurance.
      We get the vehicle registered before delivery and bear those expenses.
      We stop Rentals in case of vehicle gets stolen/snatched.
      No late Payment charges if the applicant has some genuine problem (he
       has proves that).
      We stop Rentals in case vehicle declared total loss.
      In case of booking the applicant do not have to pay Rentals until the
       vehicle appears from booking.
      Fix amount of Rentals throughout the period of Ijarah.
      In case if the applicant can not afford to pay Rentals he can return vehicle
       and get his security deposit back
      Most of all 100% Islamic Mode of facility.

                                           53                     M. Waqas Yousaf
54   M. Waqas Yousaf
Operation Department:

Ist Week:

                              Account opening:

      Fill Account opening form & Account closing form.
      Issuance of check book.
      Fill deposit slip.
Remittances (Clearing)
Check practically all the procedure of:
      Inward Clearing.

      Outward Clearing.

      Role of NIFT in Clearing.

      Check process of Inward Bill of Collection & Outward Bill of Collection.

      Pay order procedure.

      Stamp of Signature verified.

      Stamp of cash paid.

      Two signatures must be mention cashier.

      Paid cash to the customer
2nd week & 3rd week:


      Procedure of Voucher stitching and checking.
      Procedure of branch expenses voucher.
      Deduction of all types of taxes and then credit to Government account.
      salaries procedure of all employees
Car Ijarah:
      Security/ Property Documents.
      Ijarah Repayment & Schedule.

                                          55                  M. Waqas Yousaf
      Fill post dated checks.
      Calculate the average Balance of Claims in Bank Statements.
      Monthly accruals of Car Ijarah.
4th, 5th & 6th week:
Foreign trade:
      Practically check Shipping Documents.
      Check practically LC Process: LC Opening to LC Retirement.
      Check practically all the modes of Export except Negotiating.
      SBP Returns & Reporting.
Check practically of the process of Murabaha & its documentation
      Financials of the firm.
      Security Documents.
      Legal Opinion.
      Valuation.
      Approval/Sanction advice.
      Offer Letter.
      BBFS (Borrower Basic Fax Sheet)

                                         56                   M. Waqas Yousaf
57   M. Waqas Yousaf
Internal Analysis:


      Highly qualified and financial sector experienced members of the Shariah
       Board; they have their own Shariah Board.

      Skilled & professional employees committed to Islamic Banking.

      Excellent relationship with the regulators.

      Strong balance sheet and reserve base.

      Low processing charges of Car Ijarah as compare to other banks.

      All products are Riba-Free products.

      Trained staff


      Limited scope of Islamic Banking products.

      Uncertainty about the Shariah compatible banking products.

      Small branch network and the high cost of building a network.

      Inability to fixed rates of return on deposits, due to Shariah constraint.

      Small capital base limits ability to deal with multi-nationals/large

      Limited marketing /Lack of advertisement.

      No facility traveler‟s cheques.
      No facility of ATM

      No credit card facility.

      Unable to capture market even after launching the highest number of
      Congested place of branch

                                         58                      M. Waqas Yousaf
External Factors:
     Still a largely un-tapped market for Shariah compatible products.

     High demand of consumer financing and SME business.

     Create awareness about market for Shariah compatible products.

     Training and development of business.

     Government of Pakistan‟s focus to promote Islamic banking.

     To capture the new market of interest conscious people.

     Extension of network and also branch place.

     Potential of investment in the Shariah compatible asset management

     Potential competition from the new entrants in the Islamic Banking

     Employees turn over in the face of new competition.

     Uncertainty about implementation of Islamic banking.

     Lack of awareness among people about Islamic Banking.
     Small Network.

                                      59                        M. Waqas Yousaf
Askari Islamic bank is new in Islamic banking systems. So it needs a lot of
improvement in its sectors. Some of the recommendations & suggestion to the
bank would be as follows:

                                  60                    M. Waqas Yousaf
 There is immediate need, to reconstruct the personnel policies. Selection
    should be through newspaper advertisements.              In this way more
    intelligent, efficient and qualified staff can be formulated.

   It is strongly recommended that ABL-IBB should go for computerization
    rather than manual work, which is very slow and time, consuming process.
    In this age ABL-IBB even does not have a partially computerized system
    where as other new competitor banks are now going towards on-line
    banking services.

   Govt. should take keen interest to promote Islamic Banking.

   Along with the officers, the training must also be given to the clerical

   Present training program for its officers is need to be improved, as this
    program instead of improving the efficiency of officers is merely a burden
    for the bank in the form of heavy T.A. , D.A. and cost.

   Working conditions must be improved for the employees. Bank will
    definitely get more benefits after some expenditure on the working
    conditions as it improves efficiency and productivity of the employees.

   ABL-IBB should flourish certain marketing plans to attract the customers
    by giving them certain incentives and beneficial schemes to the customers
    as other competitor banks are doing so.

   There is also a need of proper recruitment and selection program. New
    young talent should be introduced to inject the new ideas.

   Deterioration in efficiency is mostly due to promotion without merit. So
    promotions must be awarded on merit and also when due.

                                      61                       M. Waqas Yousaf
   Special attention should be given to the behavior of the employees
    towards the customers, as customer is the most important person for any

To motivate the employees of the bank, regular bonuses and incentives should
be given to them.
   There must be a friendly environment among all the employees as it
    enhances the trust and sincerity.

   At the moment the bank is not providing ATM facility to its customers.
    Bank should start giving this facility in order to highlight the value added
    features offered along with the basic product. As the bank has the good
    image, they can use that image as a benefit in this regard. To stay in the
    competition the bank should introduce its ATM cards soon.

   The number of Fax machines and photocopying machine in the bank are
    also less than they are needed. For photocopying one has to go downstairs.
    So there should be more machines and also their placement should be at
    the right place.

                                        62                  M. Waqas Yousaf
During my internship in Askari Islamic Bank G.T. Road Gujarnwala,

for one and half month I have worked as a member of the organization

in different departments i.e. account , foreign trade , account opening

department, CAD department etc . The behavior of the staff with

clients and me was perfect. They want to capture the market by

providing good services. They also try to provide more and more

facilities like Business Loan, Car Ijarah facility to their valued clients.

I have viewed the last six month performance of the bank. The bank‟s

profit ratio is going higher day by day. It is all due to better

management policies and good implementation and co-operation of

the staff members. This branch is not only maximizing its profit every

month but also controlling its expense ratio and it is a good sign for a

branch‟s good reputation. . After drawing my conclusion I am feeling

pleasure to announce that:-

                                 63                     M. Waqas Yousaf
Banks Ability as Going Concern
    There is no doubt about the bank‟s ability to continue as a going

    concern. This branch is not only competing with other banks but also

    making its reputation in the market as early up going concern. This is

    all due to ability and handwork of staff and branch manager.

    Employees Behavior:
    The employees are hard worker and keen to capture the clients on the

    basis of their fair dealing. The do not waste any single opportunity to

    get a good deposit from their valued clients. The staff also tries to

    provide full respect to every kind of customer, whether he is a young

    person or he is an elder person. This helps them to create not only

    good relations but also increase the overall deposits of the branch.

    Management towards the innovation:
    The bank‟s management is fully aware of the today‟s innovation in the

    banking industry and taking necessary measures to keep pace with the

    competitors in the market. The management always tries to offer new

    schemes for their valued clients.

                                    64                    M. Waqas Yousaf
65   M. Waqas Yousaf
66   M. Waqas Yousaf

Accounts: A record of financial transactions for an asset or individual, such as
at a bank, brokerage, credit card company or retail store.

AOF: Account opening form (AOF) is used by the customers to complete the
written requirements for the records to open an account in a bank.
Automated teller machines – ATM: Short form for automated teller
machine, a machine at a bank branch or other location which enables a customer
to perform basic banking activities (checking one's balance, withdrawing or
transferring funds) even when the bank is closed.
Balance: The amount of money in an account equal to the net of credits and
debits at that point in time for that account. Also called account balance.
Bank Rate: The discount rate set by a central bank.
CAD: (Cash against Documents).A transaction in which the buyer assumes
the title for the goods being purchased upon paying the sale price in cash.
CAD: Credit Administration Department
CNIC: Computerized National Identity Card.
Current account: The net flow of current transactions, including goods,
services, and interest payments, between countries.
DD: Demand Drafts are the most economical way to make payments or transfer
funds overseas. Customer can purchase demand drafts in just about any currency
and they can be cashed worldwide.

                                         67                      M. Waqas Yousaf
Exchange Rate: Rate at which one currency may be converted into another
also called rate of exchange or foreign exchange rate or currency exchange rate.
FC: Foreign Currency.

Growth Rate: Year-over-year change, expressed as a percentage.


Interest Rate: A rate which is charged or paid for the use of money.

Joint Account: Any account owned by two or more people.
Letter of Credit: (L C) a binding document that a buyer can request from his
bank in order to guarantee that the payment for goods will be transferred to the
Maturity: The date on which a debt becomes due for payment also called
maturity date.
Mortgage: A loan to finance the purchase of real estate, usually with specified
payment periods and interest rates.
Nominal Interest Rate: Currant stated rates of interest paid or earned.
PLS: Profit and loss sharing
Remittances: Transfer of money is known as remittances.

                                        68                     M. Waqas Yousaf
Savings Account: A deposit account at a bank or savings and loan which pays
interest, but cannot be withdrawn by check writing.
Trade Finance: This program improves market-based access to, and delivery
of, SME finance, including the regulatory and credit information infrastructure.
Term Finance Certificates: A certificate of deposit with a longer time to
maturity is TFC.
Voucher: A document which acknowledges a liability or provides authorization
to pay a debt.
Working Capital Loan: A short-term loan which provides money to buy
earning assets.

                                        69                     M. Waqas Yousaf

  All the information provided by making this Internship Report has been
  gathered during doing Internship in Askari Islamic Bank and from the
  following sources:

          Website of Askari Bank
          Meezan bank
          From the Branch Manager Mr. Zahid Ibrahim
          Operation Manager Mr. Muhammad Ramzan
          Trade Finance Manager Mr. Atif Khokhar
          Incharge Car Ijarah Mr. sheraz
          Clearing Officer Mr. shahzad
          Accounting Opening Officer Mr. Safdar Chughtai
          CAD department officer Mr.Bilal Butt
          Account Officer Mr.Ijaz

                                     70                M. Waqas Yousaf
71   M. Waqas Yousaf

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