What Where When Whom and How

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					Introduction to Project
Management session 1
       Project management
      Over the course we will look at:
        • Projects and their features.
 • The project Life Cycle, Project Planning
       and the Project Manager‟s role.
• Over a dozen different tools and techniques
      for effective project management.
   Self Study (aka Homework)
• You will have a go at using the tools and
  techniques both in class and through
  homework, self-study which will be set at
  the end of each taught session. You‟ll need
  to allow a few hours each week to „do‟ the
  self-study homework.
    Self-study (aka homework)
• For this Project Management module it is
  really important for you to do the
  homework after each session, and before the
  next session. Project management is a
  practical as well as theoretical subject.
  Unless you practice, through the homework,
  the tools and techniques which we cover in
  the sessions, you will not fully learn the
  skills of effective project management.
   Project Management - pitfalls
• One of the pitfalls with project management
  is that there is a lot of jargon which can be
  used: Gantt Charts, network diagrams,
  activity on the arrow diagrams, critical path
  analysis, work breakdown structures, PERT,
  project scheduling, precedence diagrams,
  dependency diagrams, et cetera. This course
  will keep jargon to a minimum.
           An introduction to
          Project management
• This module will look at the tried and trusted tools
  and techniques of project management, the ones
  which actually work!
• Will also be doing some practical exercises; you
  learn effective project management by working on
  real life projects; it is not something you can learn
  just from reading a book.
• We will not be looking at Microsoft project
        Programme for today
Introductions and Expectations
Concepts of Project Management
Simulated project – Scoping
Comfort break ?
Simulated project – Stakeholders
Simulated project – Success Criteria
Summary and close
   Why do we need project
management tools & techniques?
Because we live in a world of limited
resources and not enough time.
There will always be more to do than time
and resources will allow.
Project Management tool & techniques, if
used regularly & appropriately, help us
make more effective use of our time.
  Introductions and Expectations
• Who are you?
     name, job and responsibilities
     what do you consider to be your strengths in
     the work environment (e.g. decisive, good
     communicator, assertive, good at
     empathising, good listener, etc)
• What previous experience do you have of
  managing projects?
• What are your expectations from today?
     The aims for today‟s session
• To clarify what we mean by the term

• To introduce you to some of the tools to
  begin defining and managing projects

• To give you the chance to try out some of
  these tools
      Project management

Concepts, Terms and Definitions.
   What does the term „project‟
         mean to you?

Class group exercise
• What does the term „project‟ mean to you
  and your group?
• What do you and your group think of or
  associate with the term „project‟?
         Definition of project
• “An activity with a fixed start and end
  point, managed with finite resources,
  involving change and often achieved by the
  collective effort of the team of people”
  Another definition of a project
• “A set of temporary activities conducted by
  ad hoc organisations” (D. Olson, 2001)
  Another definition of a project
• “ …..an endeavour in which the human (or
  machine), material and financial resources
  organised in a novel way, to undertake a
  unique scope of work, of given
  specification, within constraints of cost and
  time,so as to deliver beneficial change
  defined by quantitative and qualitative
  objectives” (R.Turner 1995)
 Yet another definition of project

• “A project is a sequence of unique,
  complex, and connected activities. Having
  one goal or purpose that must be completed
  by a specific time, within budget, and
  according to specification” (Artto, 2002)
Project Management – a definition ?

• Project Management might be defined as
  “the application of knowledge, skills, tools
  and techniques to project activities in order
  to meet (or exceed?) stakeholder needs and
  expectations from the project”
             Features of a project
•   A start and a finish
•   Is a unique activity with a visible output
•   May involve uncertainty and risk
•   Involves a team coming together specifically for the
•   A budget
•   Non repetitive tasks, sequential order
•   Use of resources (including human resources)
•   A single point of ultimate responsibility
•   Clearly defined team roles
•   Clear aims, objectives, goals
     Terms often confused with
• Process – a series of steps needed to
  perform a routine activity (e.g. purchasing).
  A project may contain many processes.
• Programme – work performed towards
  achieving a long term goal (e.g. a health
  awareness programme). Programmes may
  never achieve all their goals, and may
  comprise a series of projects.
Examples of types of project and
          their size
• Individual – decorating your bedroom
• Group – organising a wedding
• Organisation – construction company, building the
  Millennium bridge in London
• Project Organisation – creation of a separate
  independent organisation specifically for
  accomplishing a particular project, e.g. the
  Olympic games committee
• Multinational – design construction of Concorde
         The project life cycle

NOTE - We will be referring to this simple
model throughout the rest of the course
      Project Life Cycle
       (At its Simplest)
• DO                Plaaaaaaaaan-Do

                  Or Plan-Do, Re-plan, Re-do
           Project Life Cycle
•   Conception Phase (The Idea)
•   Definition Phase (The Plan)       PLAN
•   Initiation Phase (The Team)
•   Implementation Phase (The Work)   DO
•   Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up)    REVIEW
We will now consider each stage
and what it involves
The Conception phase – the idea
• Essentially - What are we going to do?
• For small projects an informal discussion might
• For larger projects, a more formal review and
  discussion processes required.
• Key questions to answer should be:
• Should you do it? What is the benefit and do the
  benefits outweigh the costs?
• Can you do it? Is it technically feasible and are
  there enough resources?
   So…………Let‟s get started
• That temptation at this point is to get started
  (after minimal planning). This is the
  traditional British approach.
• It gives the appearance of immediate
  activity and progress. We are busy „doing‟.
• But it leads to mistakes and waste.
• We end up with Plan-Do, Do-Re-Do, Re-
  plan, Re-Do, RE-Do, Re-Plan etc
             Project Life Cycle
• Consequently…
  – Projects over runs
  – Cost too much
  – Don‟t achieve desired result
• So we...
  – Hunt for the guilty
  – Persecute the innocent
  – Promote the uninvolved
    But I am too busy to spend time
  planning!…Planning allows you to:
• Ensure that people only work on activities which
  are needed, and do them correctly the first time,
  not waste time doing unnecessary activities.
• Anticipate potential problems and take
  preventative action to deal with them before they
• Do things in the right order at the right time,
  which should prevent things going wrong later.
What can go wrong !
   The project manager‟s adage
     (a light hearted motto)
You can have any two of three things in a project:
   – You can get it done on time
   – You can get it done within budgeted cost
   – You can get it done properly/well
• If you are willing to wait, you can get the job
  done right, within cost.
• If you are willing to spend the money, you can get
  the job done on time.
• Or you can get the job done on time and within
  budget; only it might not do what it was supposed
  to do.
Why do so many projects fail to
     meet expectations?
A study by Hughes (1986) identified three
  main reasons for projects failing.
• 1 a lack of understanding of project
  management tools and an over reliance on
  project management software
• 2 communication problems
• 3 failure to adequately adjust to changes
  that occur during the course of the project
Why do so many projects fail to
     meet expectations?
• Hughes notes that many managers are apt to
  lose sight of the project. By focusing on the
  project management software and managing
  this rather than the actual project!

• Michalski (2000) observes that
  “good communication is the key successful
  project management”.
“If you fail to plan, you fail to do”.

“Proper Planning Prevents Poor performance”
     So we will use a Project Life
           Cycle like this
•   Conception Phase (The Idea)
•   Definition Phase (The Plan)       PLAN
•   Initiation Phase (The Team)
•   Implementation Phase (The Work)   DO

•   Evaluation Phase (The Wrap-up)    REVIEW
    The Definition phase – the plan
•   Review the reasons for the project.
•   Describing detail what results are to be produced.
•   Create a list of all the work to be performed.
•   Produce a detailed project schedule.
•   Calculate budgets.
•   Describe how risk is to be managed.
•   Identify any assumptions about the project.
•   Identify and define the roles of the project‟s team
 The Initiation phase – start up
• Assign people to project roles, ensure they are
  available when needed. Negotiation may be
• Give and explain all tasks to team members.
• Set up systems and accounts to track personnel
  information and financial expenditure.
• Announce the project‟s start, what it will produce.
  When it will start when it will finish
Implementation phase – the do
• Doing the tasks as laid out in your plan
• Regularly comparing the actual
  performance with the plan, knowing and
  anticipating when things are not going
  according to schedule
• Fixing problems that arise.
• Keeping everyone informed
   The Evaluation phase – the
       wrap up or review
• Get the customer‟s approval of final results.
• There may be formal project hand over to
  the client
• Complete any paperwork.
• Hold a post project evaluation to recognise
  achievements and discuss lessons learned
      Roles in projects – who is
       responsible for what?
One of the the benefits of project management
  techniques is the opportunity to clarify roles.
• Project sponsor – person who‟s paying for it
• Project champion - person who wants to see it
• Project manager – will ensure it happens
• Project team – will make it happen
• Stakeholders – those affected by it and with an
  interest in it, but not necessarily part of it.
• Audience – we‟ll consider them later!
Attributes of an effective project
Group exercise
• What you think are the attributes/qualities
  required to be an effective project manager?
    Attributes of an effective project
         manager – typically are
•   Excellent time management skills
•   „Can do‟ proactive attitude
•   Adaptable, flexible.
•   Fair – respecting different people‟s viewpoints
•   Committed to the team and the project‟s goals
•   Decisive and realistic
•   Excellent communication skills
•   Leadership
•   Assertiveness
   Attributes of an effective project
        manager – typically are
• Be prepared to „roll up their sleeves and get
  their hands dirty‟
• Foresight
• Planning skills
• Knowledge of the subject / area of work
• Be prepared to walk, if necessary i.e. leave!
• A sense of humour ?
      The tools of & for project
• There are numerous tools which can be for
  managing projects, some of them complex,
  some of them simple.
• We will look at over a dozen tried and
  tested tools and techniques which can be
  used for effective project management.
          Our tools for today
• QUAD Chart analysis
• The QUAD chart is a very simple yet
  extremely effective tool. Project scoping –
  enables you to define what you do before
  you start.
• Stakeholder analysis – simple version helps
  you understand and manage the different
  relationships that matter to the project.
           The QUAD chart
• A very simple yet powerful tool.

• Used to help us clarify exactly what our
  project is all about.
Quad Chart
          Project Management
          Simulation Exercise
• We will carry out a simulated project
         Project Management
         Simulation Exercise
     “The Gourmet Breakfast”

• We are going to use a relatively simple
  example of something that you should be
  familiar with in order for you to be able to
  understand and practice on a real life
                 The Problem
• Just got up?
• Feeling kind of hungry?
• Fancy a nice breakfast ?
• What choice do we have?
Decisions, Decisions
Let‟s make a full cooked English
   Class exercise - Your Mission
• To produce a simple project plan for producing a
  full English Breakfast.

• We will be using this project to illustrate the use of
  the following:
   – Quad Chart Analysis including
      •   Project Scoping
      •   Stakeholders and Stakeholder Analysis
      •   Desired Outcomes (Critical Success Factors)
      •   Secondary benefits
             Why a breakfast?
• We will use the Breakfast as it‟s a simple example
  of something where you should all have a similar
  level of basic knowledge.

• Let‟s view making the breakfast as a project in its
  own right.

• It meets most of the criteria for/attributes of a
  project doesn‟t it? Does it? Let’s check
            Attributes of a project
•   A start and a finish
•   Is a unique activity
•   May involve uncertainty and risk
•   Usually involves a team coming together specifically for
    the project
•   A budget
•   Non repetitive tasks
•   Use of resources (including human resources)
•   A single point of ultimate responsibility
•   Clearly defined team roles
The Quad Chart
                 Guided Tour

         WHAT FOR?           WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?

        GOALS!                 WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?
   PROJECT A SUCCESS?               HOW DO I
                                 MEASURE SUCCESS?
First a simple example for making a
cup of tea.
Our first QUAD chart could look
something like the one on the next
Example - Make A Cup of Tea
To make a cup of tea!

1. To make a cup of tea    1. The tea maker
2. To quench the thirst    2. The tea drinkers
3. To stimulate the mind
     Example - Make A Cup of Tea
    To make a cup of tea to quench the thirst and stimulate the mind

    1. To make a cup of tea                     1. The tea maker
    2. To quench the thirst                     2. The tea drinkers
    3. To stimulate the mind

                                         1. Audible noises of satisfaction from
1. Made an acceptable cup of tea         drinkers. Requests for a second cup
2. Quenched the thirst
                                         2. Increased conversation
3. Stimulated the mind
                                         Absence of snoring or yawning
But first another technique
Tool and Technique
• Brainstorming was coined in the 1940s by Alex
  Osborne a US advertising executive.
• It works by temporarily removing the social
  blocks which we all have which prevent us from
  being creative. Blocks such as:
   – Feeling our ideas will be ridiculed
   – Feeling we don‟t know enough to voice an opinion
   – Focusing on simple solutions rather than taking a risk
• Brainstorming is essentially a method for
  being creative in groups, particularly useful
  for creative problem solving.

• „Popcorning‟ is the new name for
     The rules of brainstorming
• No judgement or criticism of an idea
• Quantity of ideas is more important than quality
• Freewheeling - rapid a spontaneous ideas
• Mutating and combining ideas – one person‟s idea
  stimulates ideas from another person
• No answer or idea belongs to a person, they
  belong to the group
• Answers and ideas must be produced rapidly
    Brainstorming how to do it
• 1 question or problem is posed
• 2 people in a group take turns to answer
• 3 each suggestion is written down by a note
• 4 repeat the process until the group run out
  of ideas
• 5 Select, filter and choose the most
  appropriate ideas.
               Your Mission
• Class exercise

• To produce a simple project plan QUAD and
  associated List of Assumptions for approval by
  Andrew for producing a full English Breakfast.

• We will do a brainstorm first and then in groups
  you will have a go at producing a QUAD chart.
• You can try one of the following projects if
  you prefer.
• Organise a stag do or hen party night out
• Plan a staff away day social event
• Plan a family holiday
                 Guided Tour

         WHAT FOR?           WHO WILL BENEFIT (OR NOT)?

        GOALS!                 WHEN ARE WE FINISHED?
   PROJECT A SUCCESS?               HOW DO I
                                 MEASURE SUCCESS?
• If we assume too much then we make an ass of
  you and me (ass u me)

• So….make a list of assumptions which go with
  your QUAD chart. Then we can be sure that we,
  as project manager, have the same base set of
  assumptions and understandings as everyone else
  involved in the project.
            Mind your Language !
“The project is structured around a multifaceted incremental
  work plan combining novel content design based on new
  pedagogical paradigms blended with the e-learning
  environments to facilitate hybrid mode of delivery”
Extract from GENIUS project based at Reading University –
  one of nominees for a Golden Bull award for
  gobbledygook from Plain English campaign 2005
Make sure you use appropriate language – Plain English is best

Plain English web site also has free guide on alternative words to use
      Stakeholder - definition
A stakeholder is, for our purposes at the
moment, “a person or organisation who is
affected by or impacted by what you are
trying to do”
  – This may of course be negatively as
    well as positively!
  – It includes the members of the Project Team
    and the Customer(s)
      4 things to do with them
• List them
• Try to understand their likely perspective -
  how might they react to the project?
• Assess their relative importance
• Act appropriately with the stakeholder
  throughout the project – identify and decide
  what action you may need to take
• In the next session we will look at
  stakeholders in more detail – and compare
  stakeholders with audiences

• Taking account of them and their views is
  important to the success of your project.
             Group exercise
• Produce a stakeholder analysis chart, using
  the simple version on the next slide, or the
One version of the stakeholder
    Website has other versions
• www.hull.ac.uk/workbasedlearning/
Where Have We Been?
       Were might we go ?


                     WHAT IS THE
               PASSION            ETHICS

     What Does This Give Us?
• The beginnings of a project definition

• A document to confirm that what we (as
  Project Manager) see the project as, is what
  the Line Manager/Customer was thinking
• Remember we have NOT started „doing‟
  the project yet. We are still planning it.
             Next Session
• Stakeholders or Audience and categorising
  them further
• Risk and how to categorise it
• Clarifying your project‟s definition
• We will review the homework self study.
     Your homework self-study
• Produce your own QUAD chart, either for a
  project which you are going to do, or for a project
  which you have completed in the past, or for a
  project which you are currently working on.
  Produce a list of assumptions.
• Once you have done it leave it for 2 days and then
  review it; and amend it. Save a copy. Keep on re-
  refining it. Developing a good project definition
  using the QUAD chart is an iterative process
  which requires thinking time.
• Also have a go at doing a simple stakeholder
  analysis grid
       Homework self-study
Remember that you need to use the tools and
 techniques in order to learn them and should
 start practising them. Will be building upon
 homework in future weeks – it is important
 that you get started.
Also remember that project management
 requires good time management skills and
 an ability to work under pressure.
What if you can‟t think of a project?

• Make up a realistic scenario.
  For example:
• Cleaning and servicing your car.
• Installing a bathroom suite
• Marketing a new product
• Digging up and concreting over the garden
• The choice is yours……
         Website with forms
• http://www.hull.ac.uk/workbasedlearning/

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