GATRONOVA NOVATEX LIMITED Prepared for WINTER INTERNSHIP PROGRAM Prepared by Muhammad Nabeel Ahmed (0323-2402336) Majid Akbar (0321-5019439) Sami ur Rehman (0345-3137969) Muhammad Waqas (03322570735) Ahmedullah (0333-3225814) DATE: 30-12-2010 COMPANY HISTORY AND OVERVIEW Novatex Limited is a part of G & T group, which is in business since 1955. It covers an area of 66 acres. It is the only pet resin bottle grade manufacturer of Pakistan with a brand name “Gatronova”. The group is in polymer production since 1988 and in pet resin since 1997. The total pet resin production capacity is 125000 metric ton per year out of which over 80 % is exported to more than 45 countries of the world mainly western Europe countries. It is certified to meet FDA and EEC standards. Pet performs are also made in Novatex Ltd, with a capacity of producing 1.5 billion performs per year. More than 50% performs manufactured are exported to foreign countries. Textile and film grade polyester chips are also manufactured in Novatex Ltd, which are used for both domestic and export purpose. The company is ISO 9001 and ISO 14001 certified. Novatex plant consist of 2 poly condensation units namely POLY 1 and POLY 2 whose capacities are 300 ton per day and 600 to per day respectively, 2 S.S.P units, 2 power houses, 1 quality lab, 1 moulding department and an independent fire fighting unit. 1 PROCESS DESCRIPTION The basic raw materials for the polyester formation are Terepthalic acid and Ethylene glycol. The reaction that proceeds is known as esterification. The forward reaction is favored by continuous removal of product. Chain length is increased in polycondensation units and different grades of product, as measured by its intrinsic viscosity, are obtained as required by the customers. Wet and uncrystallized chips at ambient temperature are conveyed from the storage silos to the surge silo of the unit. This proceeds to gravity feeder unit where throughput is adjusted. The chips then enter the precrystallizer unit where the fines are heated up. Circulating nitrogen fluidizes the chips. This nitrogen flows through the heat exchanger and precrystallizer. Dust is separated from the circulating nitrogen by means of a twin cyclone. The dedusted chips are fed into the two crystallizers before being fed to the reactor. In the reactor solid state polycondensation takes place and chain length is increased. Solid polycondensation involves high temperature treatment of PET chips in oxygen free environment for sufficiently long enough residence time to permit the desired conversion. Removal of reaction products and volatile impurities such as acetaldehyde is accompanied by diffusion to the chips surface and hence into the carrier gas stream (nitrogen). The reactor is a continuous stirred tank reactor with a heating jacket to avoid heat losses. Heat transfer medium is Diathermic oil. Nitrogen enters the reactor and flows through distribution rings and flows counter current to the chips through the reactor. The gas stream coming from the reactor and first crystallizer, after a dedusting cyclone, is mixed with nitrogen from the precrystallizer. An equal amount of gas is taken from the mixed stream and sent to purifying section. Hydrocarbon byproducts are combusted and nitrogen is dried and recycled. From the nitrogen purification unit a wet stream is taken out and sent to the second crystallizer. After leaving the tubular reactor the chips are cooled down. Feeding first a cooler deduster fluidized bed under cold nitrogen and then a static cooler where PET chips are cooled by means of circulation of cooling water. The additives are added such as blue and red toner to alter appearance. Intrinsic viscosity is altered so multiple grade products could be obtained. The chips are then conveyed, sliced through cutters and finally to product storage silos. 5 POLYCON AND SOLID STATE POLYCONDENSATION DEPARTMENT PASTE PREPARATION: For textile grade PTA, MEG, poly condensation catalyst SbAC3 and TiO2 are fed and for bottle grade DEG, IPA, cobalt acetate (red toner), blue toner (optical brightener) and TiO2 are fed in the mixing vessel at a definite ratio. The paste is made by agitating the continuous streams of PTA powder coming from PTA silo and MEG coming from mother vessel. ESTERIFICATION: At this stage the pure terephthalic acid and mono ethylene glycol react to form Mono/Di ethylene glycol terephthlate (DGT), while water is split. Polycondensation reaction is also initiated here due to which MEG split off. Thermal stabilizer, phosphoric acid (H3PO4) for amorphous chips production and TiO2 solution for textile grade production are also fed 2nd esterification reactor. The parameter involved in controlling degree of esterification and polycondensation are pressure, temperature and residence time. The water form during esterification and a part of MEG are discharged from the reactor in the form of vapor and subjected to separation column. The separated water is discharged at the top of column where it is condensed and further treated in stripping column. Main amount of water is discharged as waste water and remaining amount is refluxed to the process column and stripping column. The process column and reactor internal coils are heated with liquid heat transfer medium (HTM) from secondary HTM circuits. All vapor lines are heated by HTM vapor system. PRE-POLY CONDENSATION: The poly condensation initiated in the esterification is continued further in the pre poly condensation and a low molecular weight PET is formed. For this purpose, the product leaving the esterification is going to an unagitated pre-condensation reactor and then to second pre- condensation reactor with agitator, under a step down vacuum and elevated temperature. The degree of poly condensation is set by maintaining the vacuum, temperature and residence time at an appropriate level. The EG split off during poly condensation is removed in the form of vapor, condensed in a spray scrapper condenser by a cold glycol circulation. The non condensable are removed by suction through a vacuum pump system. 7 The poly condensation-I reactor’s internal coils are heated with liquid HTM. The vapor lines are heated by HTM vapor system. Two pre-polymer filters are installed between pre poly condensation and final poly condensation reactor. FINAL POLYCONDENSATION: Low molecular PET is poly condensed further to higher molecular PET in this poly condensation section. For this purpose, the poly condensed product is directed to DISC ring reactor (DRR) where the reaction takes place under agitated and increased vacuum condition at an elevated temperature. The degree of poly condensation and the viscosity is obtained to the desired final value by maintaining the vacuum, temperature, agitator speed and residence time at an appropriate level. The MEG vapor are removed by suction with the aid of spray scrapper condenser circuit and MEG vapor jet ejection, condensed with the cold MEG and finally sucked by the vacuum pump. The spent MEG is stored in the tank from where required amount is feed to the EG tank for paste preparation. The polymer result is fed to the chips production by means of product discharge pump. The product filter, product line and disc ring reactor are heated by liquid HTM circuit while jet system by HTM vapor. CHIPS PRODUCTION: The hot and highly viscous polymer melt is cooled and cut into chips. The polymer extruded through die heads and passed in the form of strands (laces) through strands guide. The polymer strands are cooled down by de-mineralized water and solidified where upon they pass from chips cutter for cutting into chips granulates. Chips are then cooled down with water cooling pipe to normal temperature. Water is removed from the chips by de-watering sieves, which is an integrated part of granulator dryer. The chips are dried by air supplied by blower. The uncut long polymer laces and small undersize chips screen out in the over length separator located on the downstream of dryer. The right size chips passes through the separator to silos or bagging area for bag filling. 8 POWERHOUSE 1 Powerhouse 1 fulfills power requirements for SSP 1, PP1 and auxiliaries. The power is provided by 6 engines, 4 of which are gas engines and 2 diesel engines. The diesel engines are used as a standby and provide power to Polycon 1. GAS ENGINE: A high load internal combustion engine with 8 pistons on each side (16 total per engine) are used to rotate an alternator which produces electricity. SAFETY AT THE POWERHOUSE: Gas alarms are installed in the powerhouse 1 so that leakages can be detected. Concentration sensors give readings of the accumulated gas in the engine room. When the gas concentration rises above 20% the situation is alarming and alarm sounds. Powerhouse 1 is also equipped with firefighting hose, DCP and Carbon dioxide fire extinguishers to combat any fire during operation. POWER REQUIREMENTS OF THE PLANT: POWER SUPPLIED BY A GAS ENGINE = 1278 KW POWER SUPPLED BY A DIESEL ENGINE = 1005 KW (Only when required) POWER SUPPLIED TO POLYCON 1 = 1800 KW POWER SUPPLIED TO SSP 1 = 850 KW POWER SUPPLIED TO AUXILARIES = 250 KW LOAD PER ENGINE= 700 KW SPARE POWER = 2500 KW 10 TYPICAL DATA FOR A GAS ENGINE: LUBRICATING OIL PRESSURE = 4.40 bar OIL TEMPERATURE INLET = 86 degrees C JACKET WATER TEMPERATURE INLET = 75 degrees C JACKET WATER TEMPERATURE OUTLET = 82 degrees C RECEIVER TEMPERATURE = 40 degrees C AIR TEMPERATURE INLET = 24.4 degrees C (Subject to weather) SUPPLY VOLTAGE = 26 V ENGINE SPEED = 1500 /min COMBUSTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURES: A1 = 348 deg C B1 = 410 deg C A2 = 394 deg C B2 = 445 deg C A3 = 348 deg C B3 = 430 deg C A4 = 325 deg C B4 = 384 deg C A5 = 330 deg C B5 = 425 deg C A6 = 327 deg C B6 = 370 deg C A7 = 360 deg C B7 = 397 deg C A8 = 361 deg C B8= 366 deg C LOAD VALUE= 52 % SET POINT = 376 deg C ACTUAL VALUE = 377 deg C 11 POWERHOUSE 2 Powerhouse 2 was built to power Poly 2, SSP 2 and Molding departments. It has 13 engines, 10 of which are gas engines and 3 are diesel engines. The gas engines are based on German technology while Diesel engines are based on American technology. Diesel engines are used as a standby as per requirement of energy. Two diesel engines can provide 1.6 MW while one diesel engine can provide 1.4 MW of energy. Seven gas engines deliver 1 MW while remaining can deliver 1.4 MW of energy. Overall the energy requirement of the departments is 6.5 MW while maximum power which can be delivered by powerhouse 2 is 14 MW. Safety provisions are same as for powerhouse 1. The gas engines comprise of 20 pistons (10 each side) which rotate the alternator to produce electricity. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS: Polycon 2 = 3 MW SSP 2 = 900 KW Molding = 2 MW Auxiliaries = 500 KW Powerhouse 2 is also equipped with 2 waste heat recovery systems. The sensible heat of the flue gas is utilized by decreasing its temperature from 490 deg C to around 390 deg C. The temperature is further dropped to around 290 deg C for the chiller unit. ENERGY ANALYSIS: OPERATING CUBIC METER GAS (X10) = 2732106 m3 NORMAL CUBIC METER GAS = 4112698 Normal m3 ACTIVE ENERGY = 14070.9 MWh REACTIVE ENERGY= 4112700 Normal m3 GAS DELIVERY PRESSURE = 9 psi MAINTAINAINCE PERIOD FOR AIR FILTER = 500 hours MAINTAINANCE PERIOD FOR OIL FILTER = 2000 hours 12 RAW MATERIALS TEREPHTALIC ACID: Terephthalic acid is the organic compound with formula C6H4(COOH)2. This colorless solid is a commodity chemical, used principally as a precursor to the polyester PET, used to make clothing and plastic bottles. Several billion kilograms are produced annually. It is one of three isomeric phthalic acids. Terephthalic acid is poorly soluble in water and alcohols. Terephthalic acid is produced by oxidation of p-xylene by oxygen in air: The oxidation is conducted using acetic acid as solvent and a catalyst composed of cobalt and manganese salts, using a bromide promoter. The yield is nearly quantitative. The most problematic impurity is 4-formylbenzoic acid, which is removed by hydrogenation of a hot aqueous solution. The solution is then cooled in a stepwise manner to crystallize highly pure terephthalic acid. Virtually the entire world's supply of terephthalic acid and dimethyl terephthalate are consumed as precursors to polyethylene terephthalate ETHYLENE GLYCOL: Ethylene glycol (IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an organic compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze and a precursor to polymers. In its pure form, it is an odorless, colorless, syrupy, sweet-tasting liquid. Ethylene glycol is toxic, and ingestion can result in death. Ethylene glycol is not to be confused with diethylene glycol, a heavier ether diol, or with polyethylene glycol, a nontoxic polyether polymer Ethylene glycol is produced from ethylene (ethene), via the intermediate ethylene oxide. Ethylene oxide reacts with water to produce ethylene glycol according to the chemical equation- 2 C2H4O + H2O → HOCH2CH2OH In the plastics industry, ethylene glycol is important precursor to polyester fibers and resins. Polyethylene terephthalate, used to make plastic bottles for soft drinks, is prepared from ethylene glycol. ANTIMONY TRIACTETATE: Antimony(III) acetate is a metal complex compound. It has the appearance of a white powder and is used as a catalyst in the production of synthetic fibers. It can be prepared by the reaction of antimony(III) oxide with acetic acid: Sb2O3 + 6 HC2H3O2 → 2 Sb(C2H3O2)3 + 3 H2O TITANIUM DIOXIDE (CATALYST): Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula TiO2. When used as a pigment, it is called titanium white, Pigment White 6 Titanium dioxide is the most widely used white pigment because of its brightness and very high refractive index (n = 2.7), in which it is surpassed only by a few other materials. Approximately 4 million tons of pigmentary TiO2 are consumed annually worldwide. When deposited as a thin film, its refractive index and colour make it an excellent reflective optical coating for dielectric mirrors and some gemstones like "mystic fire topaz". TiO2 is also an effective opacifier in powder form, where it is employed as a pigment to provide whiteness and opacity to products such as paints, coatings, plastics, papers, inks, foods, medicines (i.e. pills and tablets) as well as most toothpastes. In paint, it is often referred to offhandedly as "the perfect white", "the whitest white", or other similar terms. Opacity is improved by optimal sizing of the titanium dioxide particles. COBALT ACETATE (RED TONER): Cobalt (II) acetate is the cobalt (II) salt of acetic acid. It may also be found as the tetrahydrate. It may be formed by the reaction between cobalt oxide or hydroxide and acetic acid: CoO + 2 HC2H3O2 → Co(C2H3O2)2 + H2O 3 DOWTHERM: A heat transfer fluid is a eutectic mixture of two very stable compounds, biphenyl (C12H10) and diphenyl oxide (C12H10O). These compounds have practically the same vapor pressures, so the mixture can be handled as if it were a single compound. DOWTHERM A fluid may be used in systems employing either liquid phase or vapor phase heating. CO-MONOMERS: PURE ISOPHTHALIC ACID (PIA): Isophthalic acid is a colorless crystalline solid. It is used as an intermediate primarily for unsaturated polyester resins and alkyd and polyester coating resins; other applications include use in aramid fibers, as a component of copolyester resins and in high-temperature polymers. At one time, some producers sold isophthalic acid/terephthalic acid mixtures, which contain from less than 1% to 30% terephthalic acid. In recent years, however, the trend has been toward nearly pure isophthalic acid with a purity of >99.8%. This material is called purified isophthalic acid or PIA. PIA has three major uses: PET copolymer, which is used in bottle resins and to a much lesser extent, for fibers. PIA reduces the crystallinity of PET, which serves to improve clarity and increase the productivity of bottlemaking manufacture. Unsaturated polyester resins, where the addition of PIA improves thermal resistance and mechanical performance, as well as resistance to chemicals and water. Polyester/alkyd surface coating resins, where PIA increases resistance to water, overall durability and weatherability. DIETHYLENE GLYCOL (DEG): Diethylene glycol (DEG) is an organic compound with the formula (HOCH2CH2)2O. It is a colorless, practically odorless, poisonous, viscous, and hygroscopic liquid with a sweetish taste. It is miscible in water, alcohol, ether, acetone and ethylene glycol. DEG is a widely used solvent. Diethylene glycol is used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resins, polyurethanes and plasticizers. 4 MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT: Mechanical department is recognized as the “back bone” of any industry. It generally deals with the maintenance of the plant and its equipment like pumps, compressors, agitators, heat exchangers etc. It also provides maintaining facilities at the workshop. MAINTAINANCE DEPARTMENT: Maintenance at the plant is classified as preventive maintenance and predictive maintenance. Preventive Maintenance: Preventive maintenance is defined as the scheduled maintenance that prevents breakdowns. It is done to ensure that worn out components are repair or replaced before they malfunction. Predictive Maintenance: Predictive maintenance is the measurement of equipment under operating condition to detect symptoms that are out of line with physical parameters and classify the causes. It includes planning and scheduling the right repair at right time. The devices used for predictive maintenance are: 1. Vibration pan 2. Temperature gauge 3. Audio meter 4. Visual inspection JOBS OF MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT AT THE PLANT: 1. Cleaning of cooling tower and cooler. 2. Maintenance of plate cooler and heat exchanger. 3. Cleaning of equipment ( pumps, agitators, compressor etc) 4. Greasing of bearings, sliding surfaces, joints, shafts etc. Application of oil and grease is done according to the proper method by using oil can and grease gun. 13 TYPES OF PUMPS USED AT THE PLANT: 1. Gear pump 2. MAG pump 3. Screw pump 4. Nemo pump (screw pump) 5. Dosing pump 6. Vacuum pump 7. Sump pump 8. PIT pump 9. Barrel pump CENTRIFUGAL PUMPS: 1. NIT pump 2. CNH pump 3. CNR pump 4. KSB pump TYPES OF AGITATORS: 1. SNR type 2. SDR type 14 UTILITIES MAIN COMPONENTS OF THE PLANT: 1. Water treatment plant 2. Nitrogen generation plant (pure=tech N2) 3. Air compressor 4. Chiller 5. Air handing unit 6. Fresh water system 7. Waste water system 8. Chemical treatment of coolig water WATER TREATMENT PLANT:- SOFT WATER SET:- We have to two cation/anion exchanger set for the preparation of soft water. One set is kept in operation while second set remain as a standby. The quality of water is monitored automatically by measuring the electrical conductivity. Required conductivity is 20 S/cm. When it rises above the limit, stand by unit starts up. Exhausted unit is then regenerated. 1. Pumps (two centrifugal, one used as a standby) 2. Two plate coolers 3. Blower (free CO2 in soft water) SOFT WATER CONSUMERS:- 1. Cooling towers 2. Demin plant 3. HTM circulation pump-primary 15 4. Filter cleaning area 5. Bottom discharge pump 6. TIO2 & additive feed lance at 21m REGENERATION OF CATION AND ANION EXCHANGE:- 1. Reverse flushing of cation exchange 2. Filling of HCL 3. Rinsing of cation exchanger 4. Backwashing of anion exchanger 5. Filling of NAOH 6. Slow rinsing of anion exchanger 7. Fast rinsing of cation anion exchanger Consumption of HCL regeneration = 346kg Consumption of NAOH regeneration = 200 kg DEMINERALIZED WATER PLANT 1. It consists of cation filter and an anion filter 2. Conductivity limit value is set at 1.5µS/cm 3. Two pumps are used (one as stand by), when the pressure reaches up to set value of 5 bar, both pumps stop automatically and we keep the switch on O-mode 16 CONSUMER OF THE DEMINERALIZED WATER: 1. Pelleting plant 2. Centifuge 3. Cutter section REGENERATION OF DEMINERALIZED WATER: The quality if pure water is monitored by measuring its electrical conductivity. If its conductivity exceeds the limit value, the desalinator is regenerated. Both cation and anion exchangers are regenerated in the same way as done in soft water treatment plant. DOSING UNITS: o To control the corrosion rate Nalco73.404 (a corrosion inhibitor) is used through the continuous dosing pump and the operation of water set. o To increase the pH range (7.5-8.5) NaOH is added to the water through the dosing unit during the operation of soft water plant. o Greasing of pumps bearings is carried out according to the schedule (after 6 months).The bearing life is considered as 16000 operating lines. Monitoring is done on weekly basis. Any abnormality which is observed is recorded and corrective action is taken. CHILLERS: MAIN COMPONENTS 1. Two semi-hermatic trane compressors 2. Water cooled condenser 3. Evaporator 4. Refrigeration circuits and two starter and control panels 17 CONSUMERS OF THE CHILL WATER Pearl Mill Water Cooler Air handling units (2) Nitrogen booster compressor. Air chemical laboratory. 18 ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENTATION Department of electrical and instrumentation serves mainly as a troubleshooting department where all major and minor electrical and electronics breakdowns are rectified to ensure smooth operation of equipments installed. The production of Polycon 1 is around 600-700 tons per day and that of Polycon 2 is around 300 tons per day and for such a high production rate breakdowns are frequent. The MCC room is located at the ground level of Polycon department having variable aswell as fixed frequency drive motors. There are also standby motors for emergency. Variable frequency drive allows the operator to alter the speed of the motor which is sometimes essential for the operation. There are 3 phase 380V AC aswell as single phase AC with very few DC circuits. The MCC room controls major equipments like pumps along with level, temperature, viscosity, flow and pressure controllers. These equipments can also be controlled from DCS system which enhances its flexibility. Major transmitters installed for temperature are PT-100. These consist of a platinum rod which has a very high electrical conductivity. Its variation in resistance is calibrated against temperature and then used as sensing element. Very small variation in temperature can also be observed at DCS system allowing easy and accurate monitoring of temperature. Thermocouples are installed in few areas also but they are not so common. Along with temperature level controllers are also installed in majors units. These generally work on the principle of hydrostatic pressure exerted by the fluid on the sensor. In vacuum vessels like DRR reactor special technique is adopted which makes use of a radioactive element cobalt 60. This is a source of gamma radiation. Gamma radiation detects the level in the reactor just as SONAR works on the principle of ultrasonic waves. Flow measuring devices generally include rotameters and micromotion. Micromotion has a very thin strip which obstructs the flow. Its frequency of vibration is then calibrated against flow to detect flow in the pipe. The final control elements are generally gate and globe valves. Globe valves have TV proportionator installed and it acts as a temperature maintaining element aswell. This is controlled by a 12P converter. There are also special moisture analyzers installed in SSP plant. 19 PIPELINE COLOR CODING: RAW WATER = DARKISH GREEN COOLING WATER = LIGHT GREEN (SEA GREEN) SOFT WATER = GRAY FIRE FIGHTING WATER = DARK RED COMPRESSED AIR = NAVY BLUE (DARK SHADE) INSTRUMENT AIR = SKY BLUE (LIGHT SHADE) TECHNICAL NITROGEN = BROWNISH RED PURE NITROGEN = WHITE DRAIN LINE = BLACK RAIN DRAIN LINE = GRAY NATURAL GAS = YELLLOW 20 QUALITY LAB Quality assurance is the utmost priority for any company. The composition of product or raw materials along with procedures to determine them is managed in quality lab department. The main tests conducted in this lab are: 1. Determination of DEG in ethylene glycol vapor condensates, bottoms and head products of the glycol distillation. 2. Determination of DEG concentration in the sample by gas chromatography using an external standard. 3. Determination of the acid number of Pure Terephthalic acid and EG. 4. Determination of water content in PTA, EG and product using KARL FISCHER titration. 5. Determination of colour number (APHA) of PTA, EG and product by spectrophotometer. 6. Determination of ash content of high purity Terephthalic acid, EG and product. 7. Sieve analysis of PTA for particle size. 8. Intrinsic viscosity determination for product samples by both ASTM and Zimmer standards. 9. Sulphate concentration in Ethylene glycol. DIFFERENTIAL SCALING CALORIMETER: Differential scaling calorimeter is used to monitor melting point, crystallization temperatures and glass transition temperatures for the polymer. The range is provided as: Melting point (248-250 deg C) Crystallization temperature (150-160 deg C) PET glass transition temperature (70-82 deg C) Heater heats the chips and a plot of power (mW) against time (min) is obtained which in turns give the indication of these temperatures. Heating rate is fixed that is 10 deg C/min. 21 COLOR TESTING: For color testing three parameters play an important role. 1. Lightness or brightness (L scale) 2. Red or green tone (a scale) 3. Yellow or blue tone (b scale) The instrument is calibrated against a standard sample whose color index is pre-determined. A typical plot obtained is as follows: 22 REQUIRED RANGE FOR AMORPHOUS= L (78-81) and b (-1.5 to -2.5) REQUIRED RANGE FOR SSP= L (82-84) and b (<1) GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY: Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytic chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations; GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture. In gas chromatography, the moving phase (or "mobile phase") is a carrier gas, usually an inert gas such as helium or an unreactive gas such as nitrogen. The stationary phase is a microscopic layer of liquid or polymer on an inert solid support, inside a piece of glass or metal tubing called a column (a homage to the fractionating column used in distillation). The instrument used to perform gas chromatography is called a gas chromatograph (or "aerograph", "gas separator"). 23 The gaseous compounds being analyzed interact with the walls of the column, which is coated with different stationary phases. This causes each compound to elute at a different time, known as the retention time of the compound. The comparison of retention times is what gives GC its analytical usefulness. At Novatex, Gas Chromatography is performed to check acetaldehyde concentration in sample which is produced as a result of temperature variation in the process. This technique is both reliable and accurate. The procedure for checking a sample is: 1. Cut the preform into small chips for easy grinding. For small chips this is not necessary. 2. Put the chips into a grinder and pour liquid Nitrogen to make it hard. 3. Grind the sample to about 500 mm. 4. Seal it in vails for checking. 5. Put the vails in the sample injection unit for pyrolysis. This will take one and half hour. The flow diagram of GC technique is as follows: The required acetaldehyde concentration is: FOR AMORPHOUS = 70-80 ppm FOR SSP CHIPS = less than 1 ppm FOR PET = less than 10 ppm 24 DETERMINATION OF INTRINSIC VISCOSITY (IV) OF SAMPLE: Intrinsic viscosity is the resistance to flow of a material when its mass concentration approaches zero. In polymer chemistry intrinsic viscosity relates to chain length of a polymer. This also determines the strength of the polymer. During the initial process a basic IV of 0.58-0.603 dL/g is maintained which is further increased as crystallization and polycondensation processes proceed. For bottle grade polymer an IV of 074-084 dL/g is desired and for textile grade an IV of around 0.65 dL/g is acceptable. Intrinsic viscosity is measured using a concept of relative viscosity which is tabulated as: Relative viscosity= time of flow of polymer/ time of flow of solvent The relative viscosity obtained is then converted to Intrinsic viscosity using a conversion chart. There are basically two methods of determining the relative viscosity. ASTM method employs a constant temperature of 30 deg C with phenol and 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane used as a solvent. This method is used for checking bottle grade IV. Zimmer method is employed to check relative viscosity of SSP chips. Here a constant bath temperature of 25 C is maintained with phenol and 1, 2 dichlorobenzene being used as a solvent. Blank Time is noted which the time obtained at zero percent concentration of the polymer followed by a mean time of same concentration samples. The ratio of these times then gives the relative viscosity which provides a value in conversion chart. The ratio of that value to the weight of the sample then gives the Intrinsic viscosity of sample. 25 MOULDING Novatex moulding unit has state-of-the art machines which include extruders, air heating and cooling systems and die heads to make preforms. There are 7 moulding machines 4 of which have a capacity of making 144 preforms at a time while 3 have a capacity of making 72 preforms at a time. The power requirement of each machine is around 650 KW and therefore sometimes separate generators are required to withstand fluctuating loads on the machines. At full load, 5 million preforms can be made per day. There are around 52 defects which can occur during a production cycle. 30 of such defects are mentioned below: 1. Black specs and contamination. 2. Bubbles (trapped air). 3. Burn marks. 4. Color streaks. 5. Degradation (Yellow preforms). 6. Flash. 7. Gate Crystallinity. 8. Gate Deformation. 9. Gate Dimpling. 10. Gate Flaking. 11. Gate Tearing/ Peeling. 12. Gate void. 13. Haze. 14. High wall thickness variation. 15. Knit line/ weld line. 16. Long gate vestige. 17. Malformed top sealing surface. 18. Moisture marks. 26 19. Parting line indentation. 20. Pinhole in Gate. 21. Preform buckling. 22. Pulled gate vestige. 23. Scratches/ Surface blemishes. 24. Short Shot. 25. Sink Marks. 26. Splay Marks. 27. Stringing. 28. Surface Peeling on colored preforms. 29. Unmelts. 30. White Spot in neck finish. 27 SAFETY “Safety is a cheap and effective insurance policy.” Health safety and environment department has 40 safetymen. They provide first aid and also control fire fighting system. FIRE STATION: There is one fire station in NOVATEX which has one fire tender, which provide mobile fire fighting facility. FIRE TENDER: Fire tender used for mobile fire fighting. Fire tender consist on, DRIVER’S CABIN The cabin shall be fabricated with two cabs-first to accommodate 1 driver and one Leading Fireman (LFM) & second row of seats for 4 Firemen. Each cabin shall have two doors; the seats shall be properly cushioned & upholstered with good quality Rexene. WATER TANK The water tank mounted on the chassis shall be capable of carrying 7000 liters water. The water tank with all its fitments shall withstand hydrostatic and also be fitted with a removable strainer. The drain cock with a ball valve. The drain pipe shall be taken down to a point well below the chassis, without reducing effective ground clearance when fully loaded and shall discharge water away from the wheels. (b) One overflow pipe of dome type should be provided. (c) One isolating butterfly valve shall be fitted in between pump and outside suction source (d) The tank shall be connected to the pump and hose reel. A provision shall also be made to run pump from hydrant through adaptors. Control valves shall be provided in such a way that all the following operations are possible: (i) Hydrant to Tank. (ii) Hydrant to Reel. (iii) Tank-Pump-Reel (iv) Pump to Tank. 28 HOSE REEL The hose used for the hose reel should be rated for minimum 150 bar working pressure (200 bar test pressure) and shall be of minimum 16mm ID. 2 Sets of hose reels of minimum 60 m lengths each, shall be mounted at the rear of the vehicle complete with geared winding system. At the discharge ends of both the hose reels, the high pressure fog guns of capable of discharging – min 75 LPM @ 100 bar/min 150 LPM @ 40 bar in jet or Fog patterns, as required shall be connected. The jet range shall not be less than 20 mtrs. And Fog shall be of min 50 microns water. PUMP A single/double stage pump shall be mounted at the suitable place in the rear of the vehicle. The pump specifications shall be of centrifugal type. FOAM TANK A foam compound tank of 700 liters capacity shall be mounted on the chassis. The foam tank shall be separate and distinct unit which can be removed separately for replacement. FOAM MONITOR A Foam monitor shall be mounted on the roof of locker just behind the cab in such a manner that it can be manually operated by a member of the crew. The monitor shall be capable of traversing through 360 degree in the horizontal plane & elevating from horizontal to 60 degree in the vertical plane.The monitor shall be capable of projecting the foam discharge to an effective distance of not less than 35 mtrs in still air when operated at 9 kg/cm pressure in straight jet pattern. Monitor assemble should be of light aluminum allow material with locking system. EXTENSION LADDER: Fire tender has extension ladder of length 32ft but its working height is 28ft. 29 SAFETY ARRANGEMENT: There is fire alarm, fire hydrant, and different types of fire extinguisher on each floor. In power house gas detectors are used to detect the leakage of gas. FIRE EXTINGUISHER: A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an out-of-control fire, Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to extinguish a fire. There are two main types of fire extinguishers: stored pressure and cartridge-operated. Fire extinguishers are further divided into handheld and cart-mounted, also called wheeled extinguishers. Handheld extinguishers weigh from 0.5 to 14 kilograms and are hence, easily portable by hand. Cart-mounted units typically weigh 23+ kilograms. 30 Classes of fire: Class A fires involve organic solids such as paper and wood. Class B fires involve flammable or combustible liquids. Petrol, grease and oil fires are included in this class. Class C fires involve flammable gases Class D fires involve combustible metals. Class E fires involving electrical appliances (no longer used as when the power supply is turned off an electrical fire can fall into any category) Class F fires involve cooking fat and oil. 31 Suitable for use on fire classes Type code colour code (brackets denote sometimes applicable) Water Signal red Signal red A Red with a cream panel above the Foam Cream A B operating instructions French Red with a blue panel above the Dry powder (A) B C E blue operating instructions Carbon Red with a black panel above the Black B E dioxide CO2 operating instructions Not yet in Red with a canary yellow panel above Wet chemical A (B) F use the operating instructions 32 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all we would like to thank Almighty ALLAH, all wisdom belongs to Him, Who gave us knowledge, wisdom and courage to complete our internship. We like to thank, Mr Inayat Ullah Memon, Chairman, Chemical Engineering Department, NED University, who selected us for internship at Novatex Limited thereby providing us with an opportunity to gain firsthand practical experience of problems faced at the plant. We deeply thank the management of Novatex Limited who catered our thirst for knowledge and guided us in every way possible. We especially extend our gratitude to: Mr. Chaudary Anees (G.M Novatex Ltd.) Mr. Wajid Mr. Muhammad Khalid (Internship Trainer) Mr. Dilpazeer (Polycon 1) Mr. Saleem (Polycon 1) Along with management, we also like to thank all people whose names are not mentioned and whose support was invaluable to our learning experience. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. COMPANY HISTORY AND OVERVIEW……Pg 1 2. RAW MATERIALS…………………………………..Pg 2 3. PROCESS DESCRIPTION…………………………Pg 5 4. POLYCON AND SSP DEPARTMENT…………Pg 7 5. POWERHOUSE 1……………………………………Pg 10 6. POWERHOUSE 2……………………………………Pg 12 7. MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT………………….Pg 13 8. UTILITIES……………………………………………….Pg 15 9. ELECTRICAL AND INSTRUMENTATION…..Pg 19 10. QUALITY LAB…………………………………………Pg 21 11. MOULDING……………………………………………Pg 26 12. SAFETY…………………………………………………..Pg 28 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The report focuses mainly on informational content with little or no analysis. Major departments covered in this report are Polycon, SSP, Moulding, Quality Lab, Powerhouse and Mechanical. In Polycon and SSP department we studied about the esterfication and polycondensation processes along with associated equipments. PET is produced and then its IV is increased to produce different grades of the polymer. Acetaldehyde concentration is reduced by counter flow of Nitrogen which acts as a medium for both mass and heat transfer. The power requirements of the whole plant are discussed in powerhouse section. The industry is powered by gas engines with diesel engines acting as a standby. Powerhouse 1 can provide maximum power of around 7 MW while 14 MW can be provided by Powerhouse 2. Powerhouse 2 also has 2 waste heat recovery units in operation. Maintenance of the mechanical equipments (both predictive and preventive) is done by mechanical department. Typical jobs include greasing and cleaning of units. Utilities department handles the plant requirement of water. It consists of soft and de-mineralized water treatment plants based on ion exchange technology. Chilled water is also supplied by chillers to certain units. At quality lab, product quality so that international specifications can be met. Tests done in lab include checking IV of sample, acetaldehyde and water concentration, color and ash content. Water testing is also done on weekly basis. A detailed explanation regarding safety is provided. The abstract provides information regarding emergency situations and how to handle them.