Taylor's Kant- Cliff Notes

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					                                                Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason
                                                     (Outline By Taylor Block)

                    Kant claims that there are two sources of knowledge—
                    concepts and intuitions or reason and sense. Unlike the
                    Rationalists and Empiricists who believed in Knowledge
                    required one faculty, Kant believed both are necessary to
                    form concepts, evaluate logical arguments in order to gain
                    knowledge.                   –taken from Bernstein Lectures

            Influences for the Critique of Pure Reason:

                                   Rationalism: Everything is known through logic (reason)

                    Descartes- You can know everything through reason, no experience necessary

                    Leibniz- We are all windowless monads- we all have our own perception of the world
                            which is an illusion trapped in our own heads.

                                 Empiricism: Everything is known through experience (sensibility)

                    Hume- Causal Principle- universal statements are inductive and only probable
                          Kant Criticizes Hume’s Skepticism: mathematical truths are necessary (absolute)

          Concept – Mediate “marks” for the determination of an object (ex. Apple: Fruit, round, etc.)

          Intuition – Immediate empirical representations of anything (ex. Seeing a rotten apple)

                    ―Intuitions have the power of being a potential representation of an
                    object, but it only actualizes that potentiality when it is brought
                    under a concept.‖ -Bernstein

                                                     Concepts       :          Intuition

                                          (i)         Form          :         Matter
                                                  (what orders)             (what is ordered)

                                         (ii)   general/universal   :         Particular

                                         (iii) Spontaneous/active :           Passive

                                         (iv)       Intelligible        :     Sensible

                                  ―Concepts without intuitions are empty
                                 Intuitions without concepts are blind.‖

Analy    Analytic- Known in Self-Contradiction or Containment (its marks)           A Priori – Known outside Experience
 ynthe   Synthetic- Subject And Predicate related through intuition A               A Posteriori – Known After Experience
                      (not contained in the concept. ex. Apple is Ripe)
          Modalities       Necessary          Actual        Probable
          Evaluation       A priori           vs.           A posteriori
          Types            Analytic           vs.           Synthetic

Synthetic a priori – Reasoning which requires that universal formulas be applied to specific cases
                     Ex. math, science, geometry

                                  Transcendental Idealism

   -We can only know things through their appearances and our representations of them
Copernican Turn--> drawing a boundary between our representations and the “things in themselves”
     (So… in Kant’s theory we have no access to knowledge of “things in themselves”)

                                  Transcendental Aesthetic

                 -Given conditions which provide the possibility of all experience

                                         Pure Intuitions
              Space                                                     Time
Reasons it’s given a priori:                        Reasons it’s given a priori:
   (1) not an empirical concept                         (1) not an empirical concept
   (2) a priori representation                          (2) an a priori representation
   (3) defined by its limitations                       (3) has one dimension (successive)
   (4) has an infinite given magnitude                  (4) different times are part of the same
       -not a container (Newton)                            time (not a concept)
   (5) not a concept (all parts within itself)          (5) given as unlimited

-Form of all appearances of outer sense             - Form of all appearances of inner sense

                                    Transcendental Logic

Sensibility- the capacity for receiving representations (sensory manifold)
             *Required in order to have intuitions

Judgment- Bring intuitions under concepts, mediate knowledge of an object
         (ie. a representation of a representation of an object)

Synthesis- the act of putting different representations together-> it gives us knowledge.

Understanding- how an object is thought (through its representations)

General Logic: Rules of thought
         -Pure: Deals with the forms of thought
         -Applied: understanding under subjective empirical conditions.
                                     Transcendental Analytic
           -Principles need to give rise to pure knowledge yielded by the understanding

Table of Judgments: A reference for the form of understanding or the function of thought
         -Logical Function of the Understanding

Table of Categories: Used to show how subjective conditions of thought have objective validity
         -Pure Concepts of the Understanding
         It has fours classes and two Groups:
         1) Mathematical- pure or empirical objects of intuition
         2) Dynamical- Existence of objects in relation to each other
         -Third category in each class is a combination of the first two

                                   Transcendental Dialectic
         -general logic treated as an organon for objective assertions, it’s misapplied logic
                                       “logic of Illusion”

                                Transcendental Deduction
                -How pure concepts of the understanding relate a priori to objects


This is where I left off, I will finish this after read the section.

(Version A)

Synthesis of Apprehension in Intuition
The Synthesis of Reproduction in Imagination
The Synthesis of Recognition in a concept
Association of Representations
Affinity of Appearance

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