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					LITERACY in NEWFOUNDLAND and
           LABRADOR
     Implications of Findings
        from IALSS 2003



                           Presented by
                         Satya Brink, Ph.D.
           Director, National Learning Policy Research
               Learning Policy Directorate, HRSDC
                                                         1
                             June 2006
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                    Introduction
                                    Key Questions
• What is the level of literacy proficiency in Newfoundland
  and Labrador?
• How does Newfoundland and Labrador compare to
  Canada, the provinces and other territories?
• How proficient are residents of Newfoundland and
  Labrador in the different component skills?
• How is literacy performance distributed in the working age
  population of Newfoundland and Labrador/Atlantic?
• How do age and education affect the literacy and
  numeracy performance?
• How is literacy performance distributed in the labor force,
  immigration, occupations, industries and earning groups?
• What are the demographic characteristics of people with
  low literacy proficiency and where are they located in
  Newfoundland and Labrador?                                 2
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                                    Introduction
    Literacy proficiency: the ability to understand and
    employ printed information in daily activities, at home,
    at work and in the community. It is not about whether
    or not one can read but how well one reads.
  4 Domains, measure skills at five levels :
- Prose: The knowledge and skills needed to understand and use
  information from texts including editorials, news stories, brochures
  and instruction manuals.                                                •Level 1 0 - 225 points
- Document: The knowledge and skills required to locate and use           •Level 2 226 -275 points
  information contained in various formats, including job applications,   •Level 3 276-325 points*
  payroll forms, transportation schedules, maps, tables, and charts.      •Level 4 326 -375 points
                                                                          •Level 5 376 -500 points
- Numeracy: The knowledge and skills required to apply arithmetic
  operations, either alone or sequentially, to numbers embedded in
  printed materials, such as balancing an account, figuring out a tip,    * Proficiency level for
  completing an order form or determining the amount of interest on         modern economy
  a loan from an advertisement .                                            and knowledge-based
                                                                            society
- Problem Solving: Involves goal-directed thinking and action in
  situations for which no routine solution procedure is available. The
  understanding of the problem situation and its step-by-step
  transformation, based on planning and reasoning constitute the
  process of problem solving. (Only four proficiency levels)                                    3
      HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                                  Introduction

Background information of importance for IALSS results:
             Newfoundland and Labrador
 Total population (2003)                    518,500                Gender Distribution
 Population/square km                       2 app.                      (15-64, 2005)
 Population 15-64 (2005)                    367,400           Males                181,700
 Population 65 and over (2005)              67,700            Females              185,800
 Immigrant population (2001)                8,030

  Population by mother tongue                   Population 15 years and over by highest
              (Census 2001)                                level of schooling
                                                                 (Census 2001)
English only                    499,750
                                               Less than high school             177,505
French only                         2,110
                                               High school graduate               39,415
Non-official languages only         5,495
                                               Trade Vocational cert.             11,140
English and French                   330
                                               College education                 103,925
Eng. And non-off language            310
                                               University                         87,025
                                                                                             4
                                                     Source: Statistics Canada
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                   5
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                     Newfoundland and Labrador performance

    Comparisons of provinces and territories based on
                    average scores.
Prose, population 16 and older, 2003
                        Y.T.      Sas.     Alta.    B.C.    N.S.     N.W.T      Man.     P.E.I.   Can.   Ont.   Que.   N.B.   N.L.   Nvt
Jurisdiction

Yukon Territory

Saskatchewan

Alberta.

British Columbia

Nova Scotia

Northwest Territories

Manitoba

Prince Edward Island

Canada

Ontario

Quebec

New Brunswick

Newfoundland and
     Labrador

Nunavut
                           Mean proficiency significantly higher than comparison jurisdiction
                           No statistically significant difference from comparison jurisdiction
                           Mean proficiency significantly lower than comparison jurisdiction                                         6
     HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                           Newfoundland and Labrador literacy performance


 Proficiency varied across domains and population age
            in Newfoundland and Labrador.
Average proficiency scores, population 16 and older and population 16 to 65, Newfoundland and Labrador, 2003



                                                                                                Problem
                             Prose              Document               Numeracy
                                                                                                Solving*

  16 and older                263                    261                    251                     255

  16 to 65
                              271                    269                    259                     262
  years of age


               - Below level 3

* Proficiency levels are defined differently for problem solving


                                                                                                               7
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                  Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                                         Newfoundland and Labrador performance
 In Newfoundland and Labrador, the distribution of prose literacy proficiency was more
   favourable in the working age population compared to 16 and over, similar to most
                               provinces and territories.
Percent of population aged 16 and older and 16-65 at each prose level, 2003
                                                    Level 2     Level 1       Level 3        Level 4/5

  80



  60
       27   29        23                  24
                 21             26                   20                  19
                           23        21                                            20        20        19
                                               17         20   21   17        17        17        17              15          14        14
  40                                                                                                         13          12        12


                                                                                                                                             8    8
  20   39   40   40   42        39   39   43   38    42                  41        39        38
                           37                             35   37   37        35        35        34   38         37          36        35
                                                                                                             33          33        32
                                                                                                                                             20   20

   0

       23   22             23   21
                 26   25             27   26   28    27   26   26   28   27   28   27   27   26   30   29                                    26   26
                                                                                                             32   33     31   32   33   34
  20
       11   9                   14
                      10   17             7
                 14                  14              12        17        13        15        16
                                               17         19        18                  21             14
                                                                              20                  20
  40                                                                                                              16          19        17
                                                                                                             22          24        23
                                                                                                                                             47   46

  60

                      16 and over                             16-65
  80



 100
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  HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                                       Source: IALSS, 2003
                                            Newfoundland and Labrador performance

Newfoundland and Labrador had average scores at level at 2 in document
       and prose literacy and in numeracy (population 16-65).

  Province or Territory               Document   Prose      Numeracy
                                      literacy   literacy
  Newfoundland and Labrador           269        271        257           Below level 3
  Prince Edward Island                281        282        269           in 3 domains
  Nova Scotia                         284        286        272           Below level 3
                                                                          in numeracy
  New Brunswick                       270        273        262           but not in
  Quebec                              273        275        269           literacy.

  Ontario                             279        279        270
  Manitoba                            283        283        271
  Saskatchewan                        294        294        284
  Alberta                             290        289        281
  British Columbia                    290        288        279
  Nunavut Territory                   234        232        220
  Northwest Territory                 280        280        269
  Yukon Territory                     294        296        283
                                                                                     9
   HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                            Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                      Newfoundland and Labrador performance
 Yukon had the lowest proportion overall (31%) of prose literacy below level 3.
In Newfoundland and Labrador, 50% of the working-age population (16-65) had
             an average prose literacy proficiency below level 3.
      Percent of population 16 to 65 at each prose level by provinces and territories, 2003

                                     Level 2    Level 1    Level 3   Level 4/5
    Percent
      100
        80
        60    29    24      26       23    20    19       20   20          19
                                                                     21          15     14      14
        40
        20    40    43      39       42    42    41       39   38                                      8
                                                                     37    38    37     36      35
                                                                                                      20
         0
        20
        40
        60
        80
      100


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                                                                                                             10
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                      Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                         Newfoundland and Labrador performance
Yukon had lowest proportion of working-age adults below level 3 in
 numeracy (41%). In Newfoundland and Labrador the proportion of
     working-age adults below level 3 in numeracy was 62%.
   Percent of population 16 to 65 at each numeracy level by provinces and territories, 2003

                                     Level 2   Level 1    Level 3       Level 4/5
   Percent
      100
       80
       60
                20   20        20   21
       40                                17     14       17     15       16      15        14     11      10
       20       39   38        36   35   33     35       33     35       33      33        32                       7
                                                                                                  29      28
                                                                                                                   16
        0
       20
       40
       60
       80
      100




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                                                                                             Source: IALSS, 2003        11
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                  Newfoundland and Labrador performance
           Impact of low literacy in the population 16-65.
Prose                           Level 1                     Level 2                Total
                          %           Number          %          Number      %         Number
Newfoundland and         18.8         70,000         31.6        119,000    50.4           189,000
Labrador
Prince Edward Island     14.0         13,000         28.8        27,000     42.8            40,000
Nova Scotia              11.9         75,000         26.5        168,000    38.4           243,000
New Brunswick            16.6         85,000         33.8        173,000    50.4           258,000
Quebec                   15.6         800,000        33.0       1,700,000   48.6       2,500,000

Ontario                  16.2        1,300,000       26.0       2,100,000   42.2       3,400,000
Manitoba                 12.7         90,000         27.0        200,000    39.7           290,000
Saskatchewan              6.6         41,000         26.4        162,000    33.0           203,000

Alberta                   9.7         209,000        25.3        544,000    35.0           753,000

British Columbia         13.8         400,000        20.9        600,000    34.7       1,000,000
Yukon                     9.0             2,000      21.9         4,000     30.9             6,000
Northwest Territory      16.5             4,000      26.1         7,000     42.6            11,000
Nunavut                  45.8             6,000      26.4         3,000     72.0             9,000
                                                                                               12
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                  Total 8,849,000
                                                 Newfoundland and Labrador performance

          Impact of low numeracy in the population 16-65.
                            Numeracy level 1         Numeracy level 2                  Total
                           %          Number         %        Number             %         Number
Newfoundland and         26.8         101,000       34.3      107,000        61.1              208,000
Labrador
Prince Edward Island     19.2         18,000        34.8      33,000         54.0               51,000
Nova Scotia              19.7         125,000       30.9      196,000        50.6              321,000
New Brunswick            23.1         118,000       37.2      191,000        60.3              309,000
Quebec                   20.0        1,026,000      33.1     1,697,000       53.1         2,723,000
Ontario                  21.3        1,759,000      29.1     2,403,000       50.4         4,162,000
Manitoba                 18.2         131,000       32.1      230,000        50.3              361,000
Saskatchewan             11.8         73,000        30.2      186,000        42.0              259,000
Alberta                  15.1         324,000       29.3      629,000        44.4              953,000
British Columbia         16.7         471,000       27.0      762,000        43.7         1,233,000
Yukon                    14.1          3,000        26.4       5,000         40.5                8,000
Northwest Territory      22.0          6,000        29.0       7,000         51.0               13,000
Nunavut                  54.7          7,000        22.6       3,000         77.3               10,000

                                                                                                   13
                                                           Source: IALSS, 2003
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                    Total 10,681,000
                                                          Newfoundland and Labrador performance
                 GDP per capita and Numeracy and numeracy proficiency
         Gross domestic product (GDP) per capitaProficiency, 2003
                IALSS 2003, 16-65 Canada and Provinces (population 16-65)
          average score in 2003, years

                 55000
                                                                                    AB


                 50000
GDP.per.capita




                 45000



                 40000                                ON
                                                           Canada
                                                                                           SK
                 35000          NL                                             BC
                                                    QC
                                                           MB
                                                            NS
                 30000                  NB
                                                    PEI


                 25000
                         255      260         265     270           275          280         285
                                                     Numeracy                                              14
                 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                         Sources: IALSS 2003 and Statistics Canada
                                   15
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                    Newfoundland and Labrador performance
Newfoundland and Labrador residents with university education scored better in
       prose literacy than counterparts in 8 provinces and territories
                         ( population 16 and older).
    Literacy proficiency by educational attainment, Canada, 2003

           400
           350
           300
           250
           200
           150
           100
            50
              0
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                     Less than high school   High school   Trade Vocational   College   University
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                                                                                                       16
                                                                                 Source: IALSS, 2003
    HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                        Newfoundland and Labrador performance
     Newfoundland and Labrador residents with university education had
     higher scores in prose literacy than the Canadian average. However,
   those with less than high school education performed below Canadians
                             in the same situation.
 Mean prose proficiency scores by education level, population 16 and over, Canada, provinces and
 territories, 2003
                           Less than                Trade
                          high school High school vocational College                 University
                          Mean S.E. Mean S.E. Mean S.E. Mean S.E.                   Mean S.E.
Newfoundland and Labrador 219 (3.4) 265 (4.0) 286 (3.8) 290 (5.1)                    321 (3.9)
Prince Edward Island       230 (6.8) 280 (5.5) 279 (5.5) 303 (5.5)                   319 (7.9)
Nova Scotia                241 (4.4) 281 (4.2) 288 (3.2) 305 (3.5)                   319 (4.2)
New Brunswick              223 (4.6) 265 (5.1) 276 (7.1) 286 (4.5)                   311 (7.2)
Quebec                     227 (2.0) 262 (2.3) 275 (2.1) 290 (2.2)                   305 (2.5)
Ontario                    223 (4.9) 268 (3.9) 279 (3.9) 295 (4.1)                   303 (3.1)
Manitoba                   246 (5.5) 273 (3.4) 291 (4.4) 293 (3.4)                   312 (4.4)
Saskatchewan               256 (6.2) 282 (7.0) 294 (3.3) 309 (4.3)                   336 (5.2)
Alberta                    241 (7.1) 279 (4.5) 290 (3.8) 295 (4.0)                   319 (4.2)
British Columbia           239 (4.8) 277 (4.8) 290 (3.4) 306 (4.3)                   316 (4.4)
Yukon                      241 (7.5) 288 (5.6) 297 (4.5) 308 (4.7)                   326 (4.7)
Northwest Territories      227 (6.3) 280 (7.6) 280 (3.6) 301 (4.0)                   324 (6.3)
Nunavut                    199 (6.1) 269 (7.8) 241 (8.5) 290 (12.3)                  311 (6.2)
Canada                     230 (1.8) 270 (1.8) 282 (1.7) 296 (1.8)                   309 (2.0)
                                                                                             17
                                                                       Source: IALSS, 2003
   HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                                  Youth in Newfoundland and Labrador

In Newfoundland and Labrador, close to 60% of youth had prose
            literacy proficiency at level 3 or above.
Distribution of proficiency level on the prose literacy scale for youth age 16-25, Canada, provinces and territories, 2003

    80

    60

    40

    20

      0

    20

    40

    60

    80

  100




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                                                              Level 2   Level 1   Level 3   Level 4/5
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                                                                                                        Source: IALSS, 2003              18
      HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                   Seniors in Newfoundland and Labrador

The majority of seniors (67,700, 13%) in Newfoundland and
             Labrador had low literacy skills.
  Distribution of proficiency level on the prose literacy scale for those older than 65 years, provinces and territories, 2003

                 40

                 20

                 0

                 20

                 40

                 60

                 80

               100




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                                                                                              Source: IALSS, 2003          19
  HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                     Performance by Age, Newfoundland and Labrador
In Canada, prose literacy scores declined with age; In Newfoundland and
      Labrador, the scores were slightly lower at every age group.


         A verage Prose Literacy Scores by Age Group; Canada, Newfoundland
                                      and Labrador, 2003
300       288           292    290
                284                      281
290                                                    278
280                                            272
270                                                            261
                                                                     258
260
                                                                           242
250
240
230                                                                                     221
220                                                                                              211
210
200
           16-25         26-35            36-45         46-55         56-65                65+


                      Canada       Newfoundland and Labrador

                                                                                                  20
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                 Source: IALSS, 2003
                                              Number of people by proficiency level
     About 189,000 (50% of the population 16-65) residents of
Newfoundland and Labrador had prose literacy scores below level 3.


            Population distribution of proficiency, 16-65, Canada
                  and Newfoundland and Labrador, 2003

    100%                             4.2m        14,0%    53,000
                           19,5%
      80%
                                                 35,7%    134,000        Level 4/5
      60%                  38,6%     8.2m
                                                                         Level 3
      40%                                        31,6%    119,000
                           27,3%     5.8m                                Level 2
      20%
                           14,6%     3.1m        18,7%    70,000         Level 1
        0%
                                    21.4m                376,000
                         Canada             Newfoundland and
                                                Labrador

                                                                                    21
                                                              SourceL IALSS, 2003
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                                                                                                               Literacy performance and employment

             47% of those at level 1 and 60% of those at level 2 in the
                             Atlantic were employed.
              Percent of employed population in each document literacy level, population 16 to 65, Canada and
              Regions, 2003
             100
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     90
             90
                                                                                           81                                        82                              81 81                                               81                                82                                                  81
             80                                  76                              75                                        77                              76                                                                                                                                        76
                                                                                                                 73                                                                                            74
                                       70                              68                                                                                                                                                                                                                  70
                                                                                                                                                                                                     67                                         68
% Employed




             70                                                                                                                                  66
                             60                                                                        62
             60                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  57
                                                             54
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     50
             50    47                                                                                                                                                                      47

             40
                   Level 1
                             Level 2
                                       Level 3
                                                 Level 4/5
                                                             Level 1
                                                                       Level 2
                                                                                 Level 3
                                                                                           Level 4/5
                                                                                                       Level 1
                                                                                                                 Level 2
                                                                                                                           Level 3
                                                                                                                                     Level 4/5
                                                                                                                                                 Level 1
                                                                                                                                                           Level 2
                                                                                                                                                                     Level 3
                                                                                                                                                                               Level 4/5
                                                                                                                                                                                           Level 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Level 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                               Level 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Level 4/5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Level 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Level 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Level 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Level 4/5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Level 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Level 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Level 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Level 4/5
                             Atlantic                                  Quebec                                    Ontario                                   Prairies                        British Columbia                                    Territories                                 Canada

                                                                                                                              Docum ent Literacy Dom ain
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       22
              HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                                                                                                                                                       Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                 Literacy performance and employment
 In the Atlantic provinces, unemployed people and people not in the labour force
 scored on average at level 2 in prose literacy, while employed people scored on
  average at level 3. In Newfoundland and Labrador, the unemployed people and
people not in the labour force scored lower than their counterparts in the Atlantic.

            Average prose literacy by labour force status; New foundland and
                              Labrador, Atlantic and Canada
   290                                  286                286
                   283
   280
                                                  267 266
   270                              266 262
   260       256
                   251
                                                                         Not in the
   250                                                                   Labour force
                                                                         Unemployed
   240
   230                                                                   Employed

           Newfoundland               Atlantic      Canada
           and Labrador

                                                                                     23
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                               Source: IALSS 2003
                                                       Low literacy performance
            Main characteristics of people at level 1 and 2
           in prose IALSS in Newfoundland and Labrador
                         (population 16-65).
Level 1                                 Level 2
• 70,000                                • 119,000
• Most of them were non-                • Most of them were non-
  immigrants.                             immigrants.
• 61% were male and 39% were            • 53% were male and 47% were
  female                                  female
• 39% were employed                     • 52% were employed
• 24% were unemployed                   • 15% were unemployed
• Education:                            • Education:
     •73% less than high school             •35% less than high school
     •19% had completed high                •37% had completed high
     school                                 school
     •8% had post-secondary                 •28% had post-secondary
     education                              education
• Mother tongue:                        • Mother tongue:
     •English for almost all of them        •English for almost all of them
                                                                                 24
                                                           Source: IALSS, 2003
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                               Low literacy and employment
Persons with low prose literacy were concentrated among certain
     industries, Canada and Newfoundland and Labrador.
                          (Population 16-65)

                 Canada                             Newfoundland and Labrador
    Industries         Level 1      Level 2       Industries                   Below level 3
Manufacturing          445,000      696,000
                                                  Trade, finance,                         19,072
Trade, finance,                                   insurance, real estate and
Insurance, real        325,000      951,000       leasing
estate and leasing
                                                  Health care and social                   8,919
Accommodation                                     assistance
                       189,000      323,000
and food services                                 Manufacturing                            6,237

Construction           158,000      287,000       Transport and                            7,239
                                                  wharehousing
Health care and                                   Forestry, fishing, mining,               6,848
                       140,000      409,000
social assistance                                 oil and gas

     Total:          1,257,000 2,666,000             *These industries employed roughly
                                                     55% of the workers below level 3.        25
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate     Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                                           Literacy performance- Occupation
About 85% of knowledge experts scored at level 3
    or above in prose literacy in the Atlantic.
 Percent of Labour force population at prose levels 3 and 4/5 by type of occupations, population 16 to
 65, Canada and regions, 2003
  Per cent                                                 Level 3   Level 4/5
             100


             80


             60


             40


             20


              0
                   1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

                     Canada      Atlantic         Quebec             Ontario         Prairies    British Columbia   Territories


                                                           Regions and Occupation Types



  1   Knowledge expert               2      Managers                           3   Information high-skills
  4   Information low-skills         5      Services low-skills                6   Goods
                                                                                                                                  26
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                                   Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                                                                                                                Literacy performance- Occupation
                                   Workers in knowledge-related occupations tended to engage more
                                   often in writing at work than did low-skill information, services and
                                                        goods production workers.
           Index scores of writing engagement at work on a standardized scale (centered on 2) by aggregated occupational types,
           labour force population, 16 to 65, 2003

                                                 25th Percentile          .95 Confidence interval (lower)                      m ean        .95 Confidence Interval (upper)                    75th Percentile
                                   4.0
                                                                                                    Legend Occupation Types
                                                                               1 Knowledge expert             2 Managers
                                                                               3 Information high-skills      4 Information low-skills
                                                                               5 Services low-skills          6 Goods

                                   3.0
Writing Engagement at Work Index




                                   2.0




                                   1.0




                                   0.0
                                         1   2    3   4   5   6   1   2    3   4     5   6   1   2    3   4   5   6   1   2    3   4    5   6   1   2    3   4     5   6   1   2   3   4   5    6   1   2   3   4   5   6

                                                 Canada                   Atlantic                   Quebec                   Ontario                   Prairies           British Columbia             Territories



                                                                                                                                                                               Source: IALSS, 2003                      27
                                   HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                                    Literacy performance- Industry
   Knowledge intensive sectors had higher proportions of adults with document
    literacy proficiency above level 3. At least 50% of workers of all knowledge
       intensive industries in the Atlantic had proficiency levels above level 3.
Percent of labour force populations (16-65) at document literacy Levels 3 and 4/5, by type of industry, 2003
                                               Level 3 Level4/5
                                                                                                                    Knowledge-intensive
                                                                                                                  1 market service activities
  100                                                                                                               Public administration,
                                                                                                                    defense, education and
                                                                                                                  2
   90                                                                                                               health

                                                                                                                    Other community, social
   80                                                                                                             3 and personal services

   70                                                                                                                High and medium-high-
                                                                                                                  4 techonology manufacturing
% 60                                                                                                                industries
                                                                                                                    Low and medium-low-
   50                                                                                                             5 technology manufacturing
                                                                                                                    industries

                                                                                                                  6   Utilities and Construction
   40
                                                                                                                    Wholesale, retail, hotels
   30                                                                                                             7 and restaurants

                                                                                                                  8 Transport and storage
   20
                                                                          Primary industries
        123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789 9

           Canada     Atlantic    Quebec           Ontario            Prairies   British Columbia   Territories
                                           Region and Industry type
                                                                                                                                    28
        HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                                Source: IALSS 2003
                                                                                   Literacy performance- Industry
  In all industrial sectors in the Atlantic, at least 35% of
workers had proficiency levels above level 3 in numeracy.
Percent of labour force population at numeracy levels 3 and 4/5, by type of industry, population 16 to 65,
Canada and regions, 2003
                                              Level 3 Level4/5                                                     Knowledge-intensive
                                                                                                                 1
                                                                                                                   market service activities
                                                                                                                   Public administration,
   80                                                                                                            2 defense, education and
                                                                                                                   health
                                                                                                                   Other community, social
   70                                                                                                            3
                                                                                                                   and personal services
                                                                                                                    High and medium-high-
                                                                                                                   techonology manufacturing
   60                                                                                                            4
                                                                                                                   industries
                                                                                                                   Low and medium-low-
 % 50
                                                                                                                 5 technology manufacturing
                                                                                                                   industries
   40
                                                                                                                 6 Utilities and Construction
                                                                                                                   Wholesale, retail, hotels
   30                                                                                                            7 and restaurants

                                                                                                                     Transport and storage
                                                                                                                 8
   20
        123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789                                          9 Primary industries

          Canada     Atlantic    Quebec           Ontario            Prairies   British Columbia   Territories
                                          Region and Industry type


                                                                                                   Source: IALSS, 2003            29
   HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                               Literacy performance-Labour force

   Those with higher average scores earned more
                               Prose   Document   Numeracy       Problem Solving
Male       Less than 20,000     270      274         271                 267

           20,000 to 40,000     266      270         267                 262

           40,000 to 60,000     289      294         290                 284

           60,000 and more      303      309         308                 297

                               Prose   Document   Numeracy       Problem Solving
Female     Less than 20,000     274      269         255                 266
           20,000 to 40,000     286      280         266                 275

           40,000 to 60,000     309      305         290                 297

           60,000 and more      323      319         307                 309


                                                           Source: IALSS, 2003   30
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                     Literacy performance- Civic engagement

      There is a positive relationship between
       prose literacy and civic engagement
Civic engagement index by prose literacy level, population aged 16 and older, Canada, 2003
        Per cent
           100

            80

            60

            40

            20

             0

            20

            40

            60
                       Level 1             Level 2             Level 3            Level 4/5


                                           Not engaged   Engaged

                                                                                                  31
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                              Subgroups - Immigrants
   A signficantly higher proportion of immigrants had low literacy
compared to their Canadian-born counterparts, and the proportion did
              not vary by their length of stay in Canada
   Distribution of recent immigrant, established immigrant and native born populations by level of
                          prose performance, population 16-65, Canada, 2003
                               Level 2    Level 1   Level 3   Level 4/5

     80

     60
                                         10 years or less         More than 10 years
     40

     20

      0

     20

     40

     60

     80

   100
                  Native
             Canadian born                     Recent                     Established

                                                                      Source: IALSS, 2003   32
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                       Subgroups - Immigrants

The literacy performance of immigrants was higher among
those with mother tongue the same as the language of test
                                  (population 16-65)
                                                                          Problem
                                      Prose   Document   Numeracy
                                                                          solving


Immigrant status                      Mean     Mean       Mean              Mean


Canadian born                         280       278        269              273

Immigrants - mother tongue
same as test language
                                      269       269        259              257

Immigrants - mother tongue
different from test language
                                      234       238        235              230

                                                             Source: IALSS, 2003   33
   HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                          Literacy performance- Adult training participation
  In all provinces and territories there was a substantial
  difference between the participation rates in training of
    those with the lowest and highest levels of literacy.
Percent of population receiving adult education and training during the year preceding the interview, by
document literacy levels, 16-65, Canada and regions, 2003
     80



     60



  % 40




     20



       0
            Canada        Atlantic     Quebec        Ontario      Prairies     British      Territories
                                                                              Columbia
                                          Level 1     Level 2    Level 3     Level 4/5

                                                                               Source: IALSS, 2003        34
  HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                            Literacy performance- Adult training participation

    About 36% of workers participated in adult training in Newfoundland and
        Labrador compared to 50% in Canada. Only, 14% took courses.
Percent of population receiving adult education and training the year preceding the interview, by type of
participation, population 16 to 65, Canada, provinces and territories, 2003

                                    Total participation      Took program      Took course

     60

     50

     40

     30

     20

     10

      0




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                                                                                                 Source: IALSS, 2003              35
    HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
                                                                                                 Literacy performance-ICT
62% of Newfoundland and Labrador residents had access to
a computer at home compared to 76% of Canadians aged 16
                      to 65 years.
 Computer and Internet access at home Per cent of adults aged 16-65 who report having access to a
 computer and the Internet at home, Canada, provinces and territories, 2003

       100


                                                             79                          81       79
       80     76                                                                                         77
                                                                      72       74
                              67      70     68       70
                                                                                                                 66
                      62
       60
   %




                                                                                                                         41
       40


       20


        0
             Canada   N.L.   P.E.I.   N.S.   N.B.    Que.    Ont.     Man.   Sask.       Alta.    B.C.   Y.T.   N.W.T.   Nvt.

                                                    Computer access    Internet access




                                                                                                                                36
  HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                                       Source: IALSS, 2003
                                                                                  Literacy performance- Health
    Generally, 16 to 65 year-olds in poor health had
       lower average document literacy scores.
 Physical Component Summary (PCS) scores by mean document literacy proficiency by age groups,
 Canada, provinces and territories, 2003
                                                                                                              1       16-65
                                                Poor    Fair, Good or Excellent
                                                                                                              2       66 and older


  350
  300
  250
  200
  150
  100
   50
    0
        1   2   1   2   1   2   1   2   1   2   1   2   1   2   1   2   1   2     1   2   1   2   1   2   1       2    1      2

        Yuk.    N.W.T   Nun.     Alb.    N-B    Can.    Ont.    Sas.    Man.      B.C.    Nfld Lab Que    P.E.I.        N.S.


Note : Orders the provinces and territories by the size of the difference in average document literacy between
those in poor health and those in excellent health.
                                                                                                                                  37
  HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                             Source: IALSS, 2003
                                           Improving Literacy in Newfoundland and Labrador
  Policy sensitive targets should be directed toward those with less than
high school and those with a mother tongue other than English or French.

               Best options for improvement by points gained/lost, Canada and Newfoundland and Labrador
      Regression analysis.
 30
 20            * Significant at 10%
                                                                               Canada
 10                                                                            New foundland and Labrador
  0
-10
                                                                                     Base group:
-20
                                                                                        -26-45
-30                                                                                     -Those with high school
-40                                                                                     - Mother tongue English or
-50                                                                                       French


       16-25          46-65              Less           Post-           Mother tongue other
                                         than           secondary       than English or French
                                         high
                                         school         education
                                                                                                                 38
 HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate                                                                    Source: IALSS 2003
                                    Low literacy performance

 Concentration of people at levels 1 and 2 in prose in
Newfoundland and Labrador (IALSS population 16-65).




                                                        39
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
        Concentration of people at levels 4 and 5 in prose literacy in
                       Newfoundland and Labrador
                         (IALSS population 16-65)




                                                                         40
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
  Contact Information:

  Satya Brink, Ph.D.
  Director, Policy Research
  Learning Policy Directorate
  Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
  Place du Portage, Phase IV, 3 Floor
  140 Promenade du Portage
  Gatineau, QC
  K1A 0J9
  Tel: 819-953-6622
  Fax: 819-997-5433

  Satya.Brink@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca




                                                  41
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate
Invest in your future…

          Build on your strengths…




                                     42
HRSD-Learning Policy Directorate

				
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