Commercial Communications Satellite Development.ppt

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					                         Unclassified




                   An Overview of
                 Commercial Satellite
                    Development
                      Cal Laurvick
                     September 2000



September 2000            Unclassified   Cal Laurvick
                           Unclassified



                        OBJECTIVE



To discuss, at a top-level, the developments in the commercial
satellite industry and how existing systems are evolving and
planned systems are doing in getting funding, licensing, and
their business models to enter into service




 September 2000             Unclassified             Cal Laurvick
                                             Unclassified


                           Talk Outline September 2000
  - (1) The volume commercial satellite business, has it materialized or will it materialize?

  - (2) How is the launch industry and the government being affected by the delays and
  cancellations with commercial systems? Will there EVER be economy of scale?

  - (3) Which of these systems are "vaporware" and which are "real"?

  - (4) How has the bankruptcy of Iridium and ICO affected the investment community
  and their interest in pushing for such projects?

  - (5) Where is Teledesic going and how are they going to get there?

  - (6) Are any of these commercial launch systems going to survive to provide cheap access to
  space?

  - (7) How have mergers and acquisitions affected the vendor community? (e.g. the sale of Hughes
  Space and Communications to Boeing.)

  - (8) What technology issues are the commercial vendors pushing? is there anything the
  government can leverage from these developments?

  - (9) How are the commecial satellite systems faring in trying to compete with the terrestrial wireless
  industry, fiber industry, cable industry, and telephone companies in delivering narrowband and
  wideband services around the globe?

  - (10) Updates on Expressway, Globalstar, Ellipsat, Teledesic/ ICO-revived, and more.



September 2000                                 Unclassified                               Cal Laurvick
                                 Unclassified


                      Example Satellite Systems

• ACES/Garuda - (P.T. Asia/ Lockheed Martin) [1999]
• Astrolink - (Lockheed Martin) [2003]
• Celsat -(Celsat, Inc.) [2000]
• Constellation/ ECO-8 -(Constellation Communications) [2001]
• Champ -(German OHB Systems of Bremen and Israeli EL-OP Electro
          Optics Industries Ltd. Of Rehovoth) [2000]
• Early Bird - (EarthWatch, Inc./ Ball Aerospace) [1997]<---Failed Launch
• Ellipso - (MCHI/ Spectrum Net Sys.) [2002]
• Expressway (Hughes) [2002]
• Final Analysis - (Final Analysis, Inc.) [2002]
• Globalstar - (Loral/ Qualcomm/DASA/Alcatel/Dacom) [1999]
• New ICO - (Inmarsat/ Comsat) [2003] <--- Sold to McCaw/ Teledesic
• Ikonos - (Space Imaging, Inc./ LMSC) [1999]
• Landsat - (NASA & Space Imaging, Inc.) [Vehicle 7-1999]
• Iridium - (Motorola/ Sprint/ STET/ BCE/ DDI) [1997]


   September 2000                 Unclassified                Cal Laurvick
                                  Unclassified


                    Example Satellite Systems (Continued)

• LEO One - (LEO One USA) [TBD]
• Motient- (Hughes/ Singapore Telecomm/ Mtel/ McCaw-former AMSC) [1995]
• Orbcomm - (Orbital Sciences/ Teleglobe)[1995]
• OrbView - (Orbital Sciences/ Tracor) [1995]
• QuickBird - (EarthWatch, Inc./Ball Aerospace) [1999]
• RIMSAT - (RIMSAT Ltd.) [1994]
• SkyBridge - (Alcatel/ Loral) [2002]
• Skystation - (Skystation International) [2002]
• SPACEWAY - (Hughes Space and Communications) [2002]
• Spot Imaging, Inc. (Spot Image/ Matra) [Veh 5-2002]
• Teledesic - (Microsoft/ McCaw/ AT&T) [2003] <-- bought ICO
• VisionStar - (VisionStar, Inc./ Orbital Sciences) [2002]
• Vitasat - (VITA) [1997]
• Worldspace - (WorldSpace Inc. & Alcatel) [1998]



   September 2000                  Unclassified           Cal Laurvick
                                            Unclassified


                        U.S. Space Market                             International Space Market
                              (1958)                                        Russia (1957)
   National         Military         Civil           Commercial
    Space            Space           Space             Space                France (1965)
   Systems          Systems         Systems           Systems
Reconnaissance    Surveillance     Earth Science     Communications        Australia (1967)
 - IMINT          Communications   Remote Sensing    Imagery
 - SIGINT         Navigation       Interplanetary    Remote Sensing
 - MASINT         Space Defense    Communications    Navigation              Japan (1970)
Buy Launch Sys.   Launch Systems   Launch Systems    Launch Systems

              Spacecraft            Launch                                  China (1970)
              - Design              - Design
              - Fabricate           - Fabricate                              U.K. (1971)
              - Integrate           - Integrate
              - Test                - Test
                                                                             India (1980)
              Operations            R&D
              & Maintenance
                                                                             Israel (1988)

       September 2000                         Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                                   Unclassified
                             Top 50 Global Space Companies (1-25)                                              Rank
Source: Space News 07Aug00                                        1999 Space   1999 Total   1998 Space Space   Last
                                                                   Revenue      Revenue      Revenue Employees Year
   #1      Boeing, Co.                            U.S.              $6.80B      $58.00B      $6.90B     37,100   2
   #2      Lockheed Martin Corporation            U.S.              $5.81B      $25.50B      $6.71B      N/A     1
   #3      Hughes Electronics Corporation         U.S.              $5.56B      $5.56B       $3.48B     9,000     3
   #4      TRW, Inc.                              U.S.              $4.74B      $16.97B      $4.69B      N/A      4
   #5      Raytheon                               U.S.              $2.64B      $19.80B      $2.17B     12,600    5
   #6      European Aeronautic Def. & Space       France            $2.50B      $33.17B       N/A        N/A     NR
   #7      Loral Space & Communications           U.S.              $1.86B      $1.86B       $1.69B     4,000    10
   #8      EchoStar Communications Corp.          U.S.              $1.60B      $1.60B       $983M       N/A     NR
   #9      United Space Alliance                  U.S.              $1.46B      $1.46B       $1.41B     10,275    8
   #10     Alcatel Space                          France            $1.34B      $1.34B       $1.50B     5,600     6
   #11     Intelsat                               U.S.              $977M       $977M        $1.02B       700    NR
   #12     Arianespace                            France            $925M       $925M        $1.03B       350    12
   #13     Orbital Sciences Corporation           U.S.              $875M       $914M        $730M      4,950    15
   #14     Honeywell, Inc.                        U.S.              $870M       $13.50B      $360M       N/A     29
   #15     NEC Corporation                        Japan             $702M       $39.63B      $590M       N/A     13
   #16     PanAmSat Corporation                   U.S.              $788M       $788M        $737M       N/A     14
   #17     Mitsubishi Electric Corporation        Japan             $702M       $39.63B      $590M       N/A     23
   #18     Societe Europeenne des Satellites SA   Luxembourg        $687M       $687M        $490M       N/A     21
   #19     Comsat Corporation                     U.S.              $618M       $618M        $617M       N/A     19
   #20     Alenia Spazio SpA                      Italy             $583M       $508M        $504M      3,000    18
   #21     Computer Sciences Corporation          U.S.              $557M       $9.37B       $509M      4,830    24
   #22     Snecma                                 France            $523M       $4.57B       $603M      2,400    20
   #23     Alcoa Industrial Components Group      U.S.              $500M       $2.51B        N/A        N/A     16
   #24     Alliant Techsystems                    U.S.              $436M       $1.10B       $395M      1,650    31
   #25     Litton Industries, Inc.                U.S.              $415M       $5.50B       $400M      1,850    27
         September 2000                              Unclassified                            Cal Laurvick
                                               Unclassified
                             Top 50 Global Space Companies (26-50)                                    Rank
Source: Space News 07Aug00                               1999 Space   1999 Total   1998 Space Space   Last
                                                          Revenue      Revenue      Revenue Employees Year
  #26    GenCorp Aerojet                    U.S.            $410M      $615M        $508M      2,200   25
  #27    Inmarsat Ltd.                      U.K             $406M      $406M         N/A        N/A    NR
  #28    Harris Corporation                 U.S.            $375M      $813M        $400M       N/A    26
  #29    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries        Japan           $368M      $24.1B       $417M       N/A    28
  #30    Gilat Satellite Networks, Ltd.     Israel          $338M      $338M        $155M       N/A    39
  #31    Ball Aerospace & Tech. Corp.       U.S.            $330M      $383M        $327M      1,874   30
  #32    United Technologies Corporation    U.S.            $300M      $24.1B       $590M       N/A    22
  #33    Trimble Navigation Ltd.            U.S.            $271M      $271M        $268M       N/A    32
  #34    JSAT Corporation                   Japan           $251M      $251M        $226M        200   34
  #35    Space Communications Corp.         Japan           $226M      $226M        $217M        189   35
  #36    Northrup Grumman Corporation       U.S.            $225M      $9.00B       $228M        800   33
  #37    L3 Communications                  U.S.            $200M      $1.45B       $155M      1,000   38
  #38    JSAT Corporation                   U.S.            $193M      $4.60B       $262M       N/A    36
  #39    Toshiba Corporation                Japan           $164M      $53.35B      $110M       N/A    45
  #40    Telesat Canada                     Canada          $163M      $163M        $149M        165   44
  #41    MAN Technologies AG                U.S.            $151M      $194M        $155M         37   37
  #42    BF Goodrich Aerospace              U.S.            $139M      $5.53B       $105M       972    48
  #43    New Skies Satellites NV            Netherlands     $136M      $136M        $117M       N/A    NR
  #44    Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Indus.   Japan           $133M      $9.23B       $137M       237    40
  #45    EMS Technologies, Inc.             U.S.            $120M      $242M        $101M      1,126   50
  #46    Primex Technologies, Inc.          U.S.            $109M      $544M        $129M      750     41
  #47    Asia Satellite Telecom. Co, Ltd.   Hong Kong       $104M      $104M        $116M        70    46
  #48    Swales Aerospace                   U.S.              $92M      $92M         $85M      683     NR
  #49    Com Dev International              Canada            $90M     $162M         $99M      560     NR
  #50    Electronics Group IAI              Israel            $86M     $906M         $43M      220     NR
         September 2000                          Unclassified                        Cal Laurvick
                                           Unclassified
         U.S. Spending on Space Products & Services



                           Government Sales                Commercial Sales


                                                                      Total

                 1997                      $25.2B            $6.9B    $32.1B



                 1998                      $23.4B           $8.4B     $31.8B



                 1999                      $23.4B            $8.6B    $32.0B




Source: Aerospace Industries Association




September 2000                              Unclassified                 Cal Laurvick
                                          Unclassified

                     Space Insurance Claims 1980-1998
                                                                                          $1.9B
   $1.8B


   $1.6B

   $1.4B

   $1.2B


   $1.0B


  $800M


  $600M


 $400M


 $200M




           1980   1982    1984     1986    1988     1990   1992   1994   1996   1998
Source: Assicurazioni Generali and AGF

 September 2000                            Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                         Unclassified

      Rapid Growth Projected in Mobile Satellite Service (MSS)

                        1997   $727M

                        1998   $1.134B

                        1999       $3.398B

                        2000             $7.123B

                        2001                 $9.735B

                        2002                            $13.324B

                        2003                                       $23.304B

                        2004                                            $27.279B

                        2005                                                  $29.181B

                        2006                                                   $30.603B

Source: Merrill Lynch   2007                                                    $31.579B

      September 2000                      Unclassified                   Cal Laurvick
 DeHavilland A/C (1985)
   Argo Systems (1987)
                                Consolidation within U.S. Aerospace Industry
       UTL (1990)                                                             [sold to Boeing 13Jan00 $3.75B]
 Litton Prec. Gear (1995)                                                   Hughes Space & Comm (2000)
GD FtWorth(1992)($1.5B)                                                   $28B/Year                    Boeing Aircraft Company
MEL (1991)                                                                                                         (238,000 People)
Sanders Associates (1987)   Boeing
                                                                                                                                                          $58.0B/Year
GE Aero (1993) ($3.05B)
                            Rockwell*                            $7B/Year                                                                                    [1999]
                                                                                                [Rockwell Int‟l to Boeing (1996)$3.2B]
GD Space (1994) ($200M)     McDonnell Douglas*                         $15B/Year
Gould Ocean Sys (1988)                                                                          [McDonnell Douglas to Boeing (1997)$13.3B]

RCA Aerospace (1988)        Lockheed                               $10B/Year
                                                                                                          Lockheed Martin Corporation
 Ford Aerospace (1990)      Martin Marietta                       $8B/Year                                               (180,000 People)
 IBM Fed (1994) $1.58B                       [1993]
 Goodyear Aero (1987)       GE Aerospace                        $6B/Year                                                                                $25.5B/Year
 Xerox Def./Aero (1984)                                                                                                                                    [1999]
 Honeywell EO (1990)
                            Loral                               $6B/Year                                 [Loral Aerospace to L-M (Jan1996)$9B]
                                                                                                         [N-G to L-M $11.6B Merger Failed (Jul 1998)]
 LTV Missiles (1992)
 UnisysDef(1995)($862M)
                            General Dynamics* [1994]                $11B/Year
 Fairchild Weston (1989)                                                              REMCO SA (1990)
 Narda Microwave (1983)                                                               STC-PLC-Nav (1991)                            Raytheon
 Hycor (1986)                                                                         TRW LSI (1992)
 Librascope (1991)
                                                                                                                                   (110,000 People)
                            Raytheon*                            $7B/Year             Corporate Jets (1993)
                                                                                                                                                          $19.8B/Year
 GDMisiles(1992)($450M)
 CAE-Link(1994)($155M)
                            Texas Inst.-DSEG*                 $3B/Year                                                   [E-Systems to Raytheon (1996)$2.3B] [1999]
                                                                                                                         [Chrysler Tech to Raytheon (1996)$455M]
 Magnavox(1994)($370M)      GM Hughes                             $9B/Year                                               [T.I. Defense to Raytheon (1997) $2.95B]
 BET PLC (1988)                        [Hughes to GM 1985]
                                                                                                                         [Hughes ElexDef to Raytheon(1997)$9.5B]
                            E-Systems                        $2B/Year
 HRB Systems (1990)
 ERA, Inc. (1990)
                                                                      [BDM (1998) $1.0B Lucas (1998) $7.0B]                            TRW
                                                                                                                                 (122,258 People)
 ESL, Inc. (1984)           TRW                                   $8.17B/Year                                                                            $17.0B/Year
                                                                                                                                                            [1999]
                                                                                 LTV A/C (51%) (1994) $130M
                                                                                     INRI (1998) $55M

LTV-A/C (49%)(„92)$45M      Northrup                             $7B/Year      Ultrasystems            Logicon
                                                                                                                                    Northrup-Grumman
                                                                               Geodynamics               1997                               (50,000 People)
UT Norden Sys. (1994)       Westinghouse ESG *                $3B/Year                                                                                 $8.9B/Year
                                                                                                                                                         [1998]
                            Grumman                            $4B/Year      [Grumman to Northrup (1994)$2.17B]
                                                   1990                      [Westinghouse Def to N-G (1996)$2.9B]        1999
                                    * aerospace/                                                 Orion Net Sys                                           $1.50B
                                                                                                                             Loral Space & Comm
                                                                                                 (1997) $490M                                            [1999]
                                    defense unit
                                                                                                   DSI ,CTA,                     Orbital Sciences
                                                                                                                                                         $685M-$1B
                                                                                               Fairchild, Magellan                                         [1999]
                        Consolidation within U.S. Aerospace Industry
                                                                                      XEN Corporation          CACI
                    Teledyne Elex (1995)                                                                (Nov 99)

                       TASC (1998)                                               Linkabit            (1981)          founded
                       ITEK (1983)                                                                                     1981
                                                                      (~$17M)    Div.CtrlSys      (May „96)
                     Varian SSD (1991)        Litton
                                                                      (~$20M)    Unidyne          (May „96)
                                            Industries
                     IMO Ind(EO)*(„91)                                           Eldyne Corp.     (May „96)
                                                                      (~$20M)
                       Dalmo Victor                                   (~$25M)    DBA Systems (27Feb „98)
                     (Singer/Textron)      $4.8B/Year
                          (1988)             [1999]                   ($18.9M)   Validity      (31 Mar „98)
                        PRC (1998)                                     ($19M)    Horizons Tech     (Jul „98)

                                                                       ($25M)    Visicom       (24 Aug „98)

                                                                      ($22.5M) Delfin Systems(23Oct„98)               Titan
    ($9.5M-Jul98)       Welkin Assoc.
                                            Nichols        CSC                                                     Corporation
   ($17.5M-Jul98) Adv Marine Ent.          Research      $5.1B/Year    ($9.8M) TransNat‟l Part (Jan „99)
                                            Corp.          [1999]                                                  $1.0B/Year
    ($12M-Jul98)       Mnemonic Sys.                                   ($35M)    Sys. Res.Corp.(9 Jun „99)          [2000 est.]
                                              ($391MSep99)
    ($44M-Jul98)          Txen, Inc.                                   ($18M)    Atlantic Aero.    (Jul „99)

                                                                       ($15M)    Sol.forGrowth (Dec „99)
                                                         $31B/Year
($11B Oct99)    General Instruments        Motorola        [1999]      ($13M)    ASSIST-C.Tech (Dec „99)

                                                                      (~$20M)    LinCom Corp. (Jan „00)
                Calspan SRL (1997)
                                                                      ($175M)    Adv.Com.Sys (25 Feb‟00)
                    Veda Int‟l (1997)
                                                                      (~$20M)    Pulse Engr.      (Mar „00)
                    Rail Co. (Feb „98)
                                                                      ($205M)    AverStar         (Mar „00)
                Datumtech (Sep „98)
                                                                                 Appl PwrAs. (11May „00)
                                            Veridian
               Pacific Sierra (Oct „98)    Corporation                           SenCom        (01Jun „00)
     ($87M)     Trident Data (9/99)        $600M/Year                            IvoireTele.   (07Jun „00)
     ($87M)                                   [1999]
                     Erim Int‟l (9/99)

    ($130M)     MRJ Tech Sol (9/99)                                                                                               $64B/Year
                                                                         ($221M)      GRC Int‟l (Feb00)            AT&T
                                                                                                                                    [1999]
                                   Unclassified

       Consolidation within European Aerospace Industry
 to                                                                          1999 TRW Total
TRW
         (UK)            Lucas Varity PLC             1997 Total $7.0B          $17.0B
                                                                         1999
      (France)             Alcatel Space                                 Space
                                                                       $1.34B
      (France)    Aerospatiale (Satellite Activity)                  Alacatel Space
      (France)        Thomson CSF (Space)
      (France)         Matra Marconi Space                           1999
                                                                     Space
      (France)              Aerospatiale                            $1.82B
  (Germany)       Daimler-Chrysler Aerospace AG                     Astrium
                                                                   European Aeronautic
                                                                   Defence & Space Co.
         (UK)      British Aerospace Elex (BAE)

        (Italy)    Alenia Aerospazio SpA (in 2001)    1999 Space   $583M
       (Spain)            CASA (late 2000)
  September 2000                    Unclassified                   Cal Laurvick
                           Unclassified

                  Total European Space Market

  1999 European Aerospace Business:             $61.69 billion

  1999 European Aerospace Employees:            437,701

  1999 European Aerospace Profitability         7%

  Civil Aerospace Business: 69% Military Aerospace: 31%

  European Aerospace Exports to US:             $7.57 billion

  European Aerospace Imports from US:           $9.06 billion

  European Aerospace R&D Expenditure:           $8.97 billion

  Source: AECMA
September 2000              Unclassified             Cal Laurvick
                                                                            Unclassified
                                                     Projected U.S. Launch Activity
                         1996   1997   1998   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   2011   2012   2013   2014   2015   Totals
   Cape Canaveral
      (ELV Totals)       21     21     12     18      19    21     19     17     15     15     15     15     15     15     15     15     15     15     15     16      329
ELV
 Atlas                   10      5      3      5       3     2      2      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      95
 Delta                    6     11      5      5      11    13     12      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      115
 Titan II                 4      3      2      2       0     2      1      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      14
 Titan IV                 0      0      0      0       2     3      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      3      34
 EELV                     0      0      0      0       0     1      1      2      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0       4
 Lockheed                 1      2      2      2       0     0      0      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      33
 Med-Lite                 0      0      0      4       3     0      1      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      34
Space Shuttle             7      7      7      7       8     8     10      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      7      145
Ballistic
 Trident                  7      6      4      4      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      53
 UK Trident               0      0      1      0      1      0      1      0      1      0      1      0      1      0      1      0      1      0      1      0       9

     Vandenberg
     (ELV Totals)        17     17     10     12      14    11      6     12     12     13     13     13     12     12     13     13     13     13     13     13      252
ELV
 Atlas                    8      4      2      4      1      1      1      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      4      73
 Delta                    5      9      4      4      4      6      1      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      3      72
 Titan II                 3      2      2      2      2      1      1      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      13
 Titan VI                 0      0      0      0      2      1      1      1      1      2      2      2      1      1      2      2      2      2      2      2      26
 EELV                     0      0      0      0      0      0      0      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      26
 Taurus                   0      0      0      0      2      1      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0      0       3
 Pegasus                  1      2      2      2      3      1      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      2      39
Ballistic Missile
 MX                       0      0      0      0      3      6      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      79
 Minuteman                0      0      0      0      4      6      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      5      80

Mission Year ELV Total   38     38     22     30      33    32     25     29     27     28     28     28     27     27     28     28     28     28     28     29      581



                          • ~29 ELV Launches/year over 20 Years (16 ETR, 13 WTR)
                          • +7 Shuttle Launches/year (7 ETR)
                          • +11Ballistic Missile Tests/year (3 ETR, 8 WTR)
                                                                                                                  Source: Aerospace America June 2000
               September 2000                                                  Unclassified                                     Cal Laurvick
                                    Unclassified


              Emerging Commercial Launch Vehicles




   Roton Rocket                  VentureStar
                                                                X-34




                      X-Prize
                      Vehicles
                                                    Kelly Eclipse Astroliner
Beal Launch Vehicle                 Kistler K-1
  September 2000                     Unclassified               Cal Laurvick
                                                            Unclassified
                                        Launch History and Forecasts
                             Total U.S. Space Launches -- Quantity of Launches
                           Actual                                          Forecast
                     80          1998 Forecast                                                  Commercial Lower
                                                                   Current
Number of Launches




                     70                                                                         Confidence Band
                                                                   Forecast
                     60
                                      1996 Forecast
                     50
                     40                                                                          Commercial
                     30
                                                                                        Civil
                     20
                     10
                                                                              DoD
                      0



                                     Bow wave continues to shift to the right
                          Forecast indicates government will remain a prominent player

                           Sources: National Launch Forecast, Space Launch Manifest, NASA Forecast, SV and LV
                                          Contractor Manifests, Space Launch Information Center


                     September 2000                          Unclassified                           Cal Laurvick
                                                   Unclassified
  Satellites Planned for Launch, Launched, or Attempted 1990-2004
                                          (excluding Russian satellites)



1990    67*
1991    49*
1992    44*
1993    46*
1994    49*
1995    63*
1996    66*
1997   119*
1998   128*
1999   107*
2000   114**
2001   129**
2002   140**
2003   167**
2004   166**    „90     „91   „92   „93      „94    „95    „96     „97     „98   „99   „00   „01   „02   „03   „04




                                          Sources: * Aerospace America-March 2000
                                                  **The Teal Group

       September 2000                               Unclassified                             Cal Laurvick
                                               Unclassified

         Relative Flux Levels of Van Allen Radiation Belts

                                                                                         10

                                                             100
                                                   1000
                                     10,000
                        10,000



             MN
    GN              10,000

                                 4     6       8     12                         24            Circular Orbit Period (hours)
                                                          Geomagnetic Equator

     Earth                       2         3         4         5       6             7        Distance (earth radii)


                  LEO                      MEO                                  GEO




September 2000                                  Unclassified                                  Cal Laurvick
                                                    Unclassified


                     Proposed System Orbits
                   1050              900
                                                         750                                        INCLINATION OF
   1200                                                                                             ORBIT PLANE
                                                                         600                        (DEGREES)
            VITAsat/Gemnet
                             Teledesic

Ellipso-Borealis
                                                                                     450
                                                                Spaceway (MEO)
                                         FAI              Skybridge
                                                                               ICO

                                                          FAI           Globalstar            300
                                         Iridium
                                                                      LEO-One
                                                                      Orbcomm

       Sun Synchronous
       Champ                                                                                        150   Geosynchronous
       Earlybird                                                                                          Aces/Garuda
       Ikonos                                                                                             AMSC
       Landsat                                                                 Ellipso-                   Astrolink
       Orbview                                                          ECO-8 Concordia                   Celsat
       Quickbird                                                                                          Expressway
       Spot                       Skystation       10           100       1,000      10,000   100,000
                                                                       Altitude (km)                      Rimsat
                                                                                                          Spaceway (GEO)
                                                                                                          VisionStar
                                                                       LEO        MEO      GEO
                                                                                                          Worldspace


September 2000                                          Unclassified                                 Cal Laurvick
                     Unclassified




                 Communication

                   Satellites




September 2000        Unclassified   Cal Laurvick
                                           Unclassified
                                     ACeS/ Garuda
• IOC:                Late 1999 with initial launch on Proton D-1e
• Sponsorship:        Lockheed Martin (25%), Pasifik Satelit Nusantara (PSN) - Indonesia (25%),
            Phillipine Long Distance Carrier (25%), Jasmine International PLC - Thailand (25%)
            [ASIA Cellular Satellite System (ACeS), Garuda 1 & 2]

• Mission: Telephone service in Asian region; Lockheed Martin Telecommunications -
Sunnyvale, CA is building the satellites; Telefon LM Ericsson - Molndal, Sweden is
supplying the satellite and terrestrial dual-compatible handsets; provide voice, FAX,
and pager services to Southeast Asia, India, China; Suppliers include Mitsubishi, NEC
Toshiba, Hitachi and Fujitsu. Use the Lockheed Martin A2100AX satellite bus; 11,000 circuits
per satellite. System Cost $800 million.
• Orbit: 2 Geostationary satellites
• Ops Concept: Voice, Data, Fax, paging service
• POC:                  Lockheed Martin Telecommunications
                        1272 Borregas Ave.
                        Sunnyvale, CA 94089                        Lockheed Martin Global Telecom
                                                                 6801 Rockledge Ave.
                      P.T. Asia Cellular Satellite               Bethesda, MD 20817
                      Sentra Mulia, Suite 1201                   (301) 807-6740
                      JI.H.R Rasuna Said Kav X-6 No.8
                      Jakarta 12940, Indonesia
                      Phone: (62-21) 522-2050 - FAX: (62-21) 522-2044

   September 2000                           Unclassified                         Cal Laurvick
                                          Unclassified
                                        Astrolink
• IOC:                2003 (first launch 2002)

• Sponsorship:      Liberty Media; Lockheed-Martin Global Telecommunications; Telespazio;
TRW; FCC license granted May 1997; (as of Apr00 $1.33 billion raised)

• Mission: 4 Geostationary S/C (initially); eventually 9 S/C in five orbital slots (2E, 21.5W, 97W,
130E, 175E); Broadband services, voice, data, video conferencing, telecommuting, wireless LANs,
distance learning, Tele-medicine, corporate training, interconnection of communities/ businesses
worldwide; $3.6 billion total system cost; A2100 spacecraft bus design; 10,500W, 2,128 kg (4,681
Lb.), 12-Year mission life.

• Orbit: Geosynchronous orbit

• Ops Concept: Ka-band (30 GHz Uplink @ 20 Mbps, 20 GHz Downlink @ 226 Mbps); 6.5 Gbps
total capacity per satellite; Three ranges of uplink service - 400 kbps, 2 Mbps, 20 Mbps; Four
Regional Network Control Centers (RNCC); One Master Network Control Center (MNCC); Two
Satellite Operations Control Centers (SOCC); Three TT&C facilities; 30-50 Regional Gateways up
to 110 Mbps; Service terminals estimated to cost $1,000 to $8,000; use onboard processing and
spot beams (similar to NASA ACTS). Sep 97 request to operate at 40 GHz range.

• POC:     Astrolink - 6701 Democracy Boulevard, Suite 1000
           Bethesda, MD 20817 Phone: (301) 581-4000 http://www.astrolink.com

  September 2000                           Unclassified                         Cal Laurvick
                                    Unclassified

                                   CelSat
• IOC:             2000
• Sponsorship:     Celsat America, Inc., Air Touch Communications - S.F.;
                   Northern Telecom - Mississauga, Ontario

• Mission: Three Geosynchronous Spacecraft; Voice, data, video service to North
America; $500 million system development cost; Agreement with Hughes Space &
Communications July 96 to build spacecraft.

• Orbit: Geosynchronous Orbit (76W, 116W and one other slot)

• Ops Concept: 100,000 satellite circuits (w/ 3 S/C); 149 Satellite Beams;
QPSK modulation; Forward Link Channelized CDMA; Return Link Channelized
CDMA; 1.25 MHz channels; Uplink 1.61 - 1.6265 GHz and Downlink 2.4835-2.5
GHz; $0.10/ minute for low rate data services; $7.00/minute for video services;
$300 Terminal Cost, 20 meter dishes on S/C to reach handheld terminal users.

• POC:   CelSat America, Inc.;
         3460 Torrance Blvd, Torrance, CA (310) 316-1339
                                       26Sep97 FCC Filing - 3 S/C - Cellular-like system operation

  September 2000                     Unclassified                          Cal Laurvick
                                            Unclassified

                          Constellation (Aires)/ ECO-8
• IOC: 2002
•Sponsorship: Constellation Communications, Inc., Funding from Raytheon, Bell Atlantic,
SpaceVest; Technical Team: Orbital Sciences (S/C builder); Raytheon/ E-Systems - Dallas, TX
(Ground Station Builder), TELEBRAS (Brazil), Brazilian Space Agency, Space Research National
Institute (INPE) (Brazil), Aerospatial Technical Center (CTA) (Brazil) Texas Instruments, Bell
Atlantic. Arianespace selected for launch June 1999; L-M ground contractor April 1999; Brazilian
operating license awarded by ANATEL - April 1999.
• Mission: 12 spacecraft (11 operational, 1 spare) [Equatorial ECO spacecraft]; spacecraft (Polar
Aires spacecraft); 1,000-1,250 voice chanels (CDMA) per S/C, Voice, RDSS, FAX, data, paging; S/C
500 kg (1,100 Lbs) each; $1.0 billion Total System Cost.
• Orbit: ECO - Qty 12 S/C - 2,000 km altitude (circular) 0 degrees inclined <--- Funded
           Aires - Qty 48 S/C - 1,020 km altitude (circular) 90 degrees inclined <--- Unfunded
• Ops Concept: 5 year MMD, 7 beams + Service Link per spacecraft; user terminal 300 mW, cost
$1200 each, omni-antenna, $10.00 month; $0.75/minute; Uplink 1.61 - 1.6265 GHz; Downlink 2.4835
- 2.5 GHz and 5.16 GHz
• POC:      Constellation Communications, Inc. (CCI) Telebras (Joao Mello da Silva) 011-55-61-215-2345
            12500 Fair Lakes Circle, Suite 260             Bell Atlantic (Nancy Stern) (703) 351-4595
            Fairfax, VA 22033
            Phone: (703) 227-7140
            FAX: (703) 818-8240 Website: http://www.cciglobal.com/ (Web address down)
            01 Jul 98 - Orbital Sciences invests $150M in Constellation Communications,
            Inc. CCI awards OSC a $500M contract to construct 12 satellites
     September 2000                          Unclassified                         Cal Laurvick
                                                Unclassified
                                                Ellipso
• IOC:                    2002
• Sponsorship:            MCHI - Washington, DC/ Ellipsat International, Inc.; Israeli Aircraft Industries;
Venture First II LP, HarbourVest Partners; the Boeing Company $200M

• Mission: 17 Spacecraft, up to 600 users (FDMA/CDMA), Narrowband mobile telephonic system, RDSS, 5
Year MMD, $1.5B System Development Cost; 300 kg spacecraft, lightweight composite structure, 500 Lb
payload, 150 sq-ft of nadir-facing mounting area, 3,000 W, GaAs/Ge solar cells, NiH2 batteries, Dual
radiation-hardened 32-bit spacecraft processors with fault-tolerant architecture and 1553B T&C bus,
autonomous management and fault protection, active 3-axis attitude control.

• Orbit:     10-HEO (Borealis) 633 x 7605 km (elliptical) - 116.6 degrees inclined
             7-MEO (Concordia) 8,050 km (quasi-circular) - near equatorial orbit

• Ops Concept: Lockheed Martin - Ground Infrastructure 20-40 Gateways planned.; Boeing - Spacecraft;
Harris Corp. - Comm. Payload; Interdigital Comm. Corp. - User Terminals; Israeli Aircraft Industries -
Components; Spectrum Astro - Power Subsystems; L-3, Inc. - Ground Systems Software; 350,000 users
required to break even; Terminal cost $300, $0.50/ minute connect time + $50.00/mo. Subscription; Uplink
1.61 - 1.625 GHz; Downlink 2.4835 - 2.5 GHz; each S/C 61 antenna beams. 9.6 kbps user data rate

• POC:       Mobile Communications Holdings, Inc./ Ellipsat International, Inc. 1133 21st Street NW 8th
floor, Washington, DC 20036 Phone (202) 466-4488 FAX (202) 466-4493, Website: http://www.ellipso.com
The Boeing Company - Information & Communications Systems - 2600 Westminster Blvd, SK71 - Seal
Beach, CA 90740-7644 - Phone: (562) 797-5989, FAX: (562) 797-2043

                                 Ellipso 2G filed with FCC 64 kbps service
                                 operating at S, C, and Ku-band

  September 2000                                 Unclassified                               Cal Laurvick
                                    Unclassified

                                Expressway
• IOC:             2002, FCC Filing 14 July 1997

• Sponsorship:     Hughes Space & Communications; $3.9 billion total system

• Mission: Ku-band and V-band, broadband communications.

• Orbit: 14 Geosynchronous Spacecraft

• Ops Concept: Deliver up to 588,000 high speed lines at 1.5 Mbps.
             Maximum predicted data rates are about 155 Mbps per user.

• POC:   Hughes Communications, Inc., P.O. Box 92424 Los Angeles, CA 90009


                             06 Oct 1997 - Hughes announced two additional 40 GHz range systems
                             in addition to Expressway. SpaceCast (6 GEO) video and multimedia
                             systems operating in Ku-band and V-band costing $1.7 billion. StarLynx
                             a mobile/portable service satellite system with 4 GEO S/C and 20 MEO S/C
                             at a system cost of $2.9 billion.



  September 2000                     Unclassified                            Cal Laurvick
                                      Unclassified

                                 Final Analysis
• IOC:    2002 using the Russian Cosmos launch vehicle; License awarded 01Apr98

• Sponsorship: Final Analysis, Inc.; General Dynamics Corporation; Projected
system cost $400 million; two experimental satellites have been launched to date.

• Mission: Global Data Communications Services; 32 satellites plus 6 orbiting spares
(current FCC license only has approved 26 + 4 spares); GDIS space processors (based
on Motorola PowerPC) and/or RAD-6000 processors (20 MIPs); 128Mbytes storage.
Secondary payload program announced for space experimenters; VHF and UHF
transponders; 150 kg spacecraft. 7-10 year Design Life.

• Orbit: LEO, Two satellites inclined at 83 degrees/ 1000 km; 6 satellites in each of 6
planes inclined at 51 degrees (one spare per plane); 100 minute orbit.

• Ops Concept: Low Earth Orbit Data Communications Services, planning primary
and secondary Master Ground Station and a network of tracking stations.

• POC:    Final Analysis, Inc.
          Lanham, MD               Website: http://www.finalanalysis.com/
          (other facilities: Logan, UT and Andoya, Norway
  September 2000                       Unclassified                     Cal Laurvick
                                                     Unclassified
                                                 Globalstar
• Launch: First four S/C assembled Feb 97 and Launch 4 S/C Feb 98 (Delta); Initial
Service 10Oct 99 16 nations; 45 nations - 01Jan00; 80 nations 31Mar00 ; Final FCC
approval 26 Nov 96. [80% European build, 20% U.S. built]

• Sponsorship: Globalstar LP, Inc. [Loral Space Systems & Qualcomm] Strategic Partners: AirTouch Comm. (S.F.),
Alenia Spazio (Rome), Alcatel (Paris), Hyundai (Seoul), DACOM (Korea), Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG (Munich),
Elsag Bailey (Genoa), France Telecom (Paris), Vodafone Group plc (England), & China Telecom (Hong Kong)

• Mission: 48 LEO Spacecraft + 8spares, 5000 channels, (FDMA/CDMA), voice, RDSS, FAX, data, messaging - 9600
bps data rates; $3.3B system cost; Loral anticipating 2.7 million subscribers by 2002 with annual revenues of $1.6B
(IPO 14Feb95 $200M at $20/share; by mid-1995 $494M raised), 33 million subscribers anticipated by 2012; 7.5 year
S/C life; 450 kg spacecraft, 1,100 W power; $2.6B system cost.

• Orbit: 1,414 km (750 nm) altitude, 52 degree inclination, 8 orbital planes; 16 spot beams from each spacecraft; 3,000
mile footprint diameter; service 98% of earth; 113 minute orbit period; 3-axis S/C; 1 degree pointing.

• Ops Concept: “Bent Pipe” relay to local gateways, L-band Uplink 1.61-1.625 GHz (user to S/C) S-band Downlink
2.4835-2.5 GHz (S/C to user) C-band Uplink 5.091-5.25 GHz (gateway to S/C) and C-band Downlink (S/C to
gateway); $1.50-$2.99 per minute; $1,500 per user handset with handsets built by Qualcomm, Ericsson & Telit;
Raytheon GaAs MMIC TR modules (16 beam Phased Array Antennas on S/C); Lockheed Martin- onboard computer
elements; Alcatel-Payload modules; Alenia-Final S/C integration; Daimler-Benz-solar arrays, power & propulsion;
Hyundai-electronic components; Qualcomm-transmission technology and software; 38 Gateways planned. IS-95 and
AMPS dual-mode service. Estimating 600,000 handsets will be sold worldwide in 2000.

• POC: Globalstar Telecommunications, Ltd.- 600 Third Avenue - New York, NY 10016 - Phone: (212) 697-1105 FAX:
(212) 338-5662; http://www.globalstar.com;
       September 2000                              Unclassified                          Cal Laurvick
                                                  Unclassified                          Globalstar Launch Line
                                    Globalstar (Continued)                              (408) 933-4000 (option 3)
Related News Regarding Loral Aerospace
06Oct97 - Globalstar LP proposes an 80 satellite constellation called GS-40 that will expand the first generation
Globalstar system and will include voice, data, paging, and FAX services. Loral announces 10-S/C GEO satellite
system - CyberPath - to provide broadband services. Total system cost $1.8 billion. Operate at 40 GHz range.
13Oct97 - Globalstar reported beginning construction of two satellite gateways to be built and used in Canada.
Gateway buildings to complete in Jan „98 and begin testing in July 1998. Loral plans to offer Geostationary satellite
services using its Cyberstar spacecraft (with partner Alcatel), Skynet (bought from AT&T $478M - currently 3 S/C
with 7 by 2000), and Orion Network Systems (merger $490 million announced on 07Oct97). [Telstar-5 S/C will be
used to initiate Cyberstar services 2nd quarter 1998]
20Oct97 - Loral is Joint Partner in SkyBridge system with Alcatel. Globalstar LP reported difficulty in getting launch
insurance for Zenit.
27Oct97 - Telefonica Autrey (Mexico) and Loral (USA) bid $688M for SatMex system to provide North American,
Television. Bid was accepted by the Mexican government which owned the system. Globalstar LP reported borrowing
las $325M to complete financing of the $2.6 billion Globalstar satellite system.
14Feb98 - (1st) Four Globalstar satellites Launched on Delta II Rocket (on Orbit Total 4)
24Apr98 - (2nd) Four Globalstar satellites Launched on Delta II Rocket (on Orbit Total 8)
           First Operational Globalstar Call between Irwin Jacobs (Qualcomm) and Bernard Schwartz (Loral)
10Sep98 - Twelve Globalstar satellites lost on Zenit Rocket (Loss will cost partners $100M)
09Feb99 - (3rd) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar Rocket (on Orbit Total 12)
15Mar99 - (4th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar Rocket (on Orbit Total 16)             Stock
15Apr99 - (5th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar Rocket (on Orbit Total 20)
10Jun99 - (6th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II Rocket (on Orbit Total 24)               Symbol:
10Jul99 - (7th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II Rocket (on Orbit Total 28)               GSTRF
25Jul99 - (8th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II Rocket (on Orbit Total 32)
17Aug99 - (9th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Delta II Rocket (on Orbit Total 36)
22Sep99 - (10th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar Rocket (on Orbit Total 40)
18Oct99 - (11th) Four Globalstar satellites launched on Soyuz-Ikar Rocket (on Orbit Total 44)
Nov 99 - (12th) Launch; Dec 99 (13th) Launch
      September 2000                                 Unclassified                              Cal Laurvick
                                     Unclassified
                         Globalstar (Continued)

• Analysts say Globalstar will have only 150,000 subscribers by Dec 2000 and
   only 1.25 million subscribers by Dec 2002
• Bernard Schwartz, CEO Globalstar claims they will have 500,000 subscribers by
  Dec 2000 and will generate revenues of $300M/year. Globalstar projects 2.0 million
  subscribers by Dec 2002
• Mobile satellite services are expected to deliver about 1-2% of the total wireless
  communications revenues. (2010 about 8.5-17 million MSS customers)
• Globalstar stock price 31Dec99 = $44.00/share, 19Sep00 = $12.00/share
• Loral stock price      31Dec00 = $24.31/share, 19Sep00 = $6.87/share




  September 2000                      Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                                 Unclassified
                       New ICO Global Communications
• IOC:       Service start 2003

• Sponsorship: ICO Global Communications Ltd. (separated from INMARSAT in 1995); Comsat General; U.S.
and Argentina $114M; Germany $94M; Netherlands, Switzerland, Spain $100M; Mexico, Portugal, Brazil $134M;
Saudi Arabia, UAE, Kuwait, Oman, Lebanon $150M; China $94M; India $94M; Japan $94M; Korea $80M;
Singapore $94M; Thailand $65.4M; 60 investors, 51 countries, 6 continents (5 investors from Latin America) $1.5
billion raised in first round of financing. [Reported Oct 97 additional $225M raised from India, Japan, South
Korea, UAE]; Capitalized Jan 99 at $2.5B; Data distribution agreements with 129 territories. July98 - I.P.O.
[Bankruptcy Protection filed for: 27August 1999. $1.2 billion offered Nov 99 by Craig McCaw, Eagle River
Investments LLC, and Teledesic, Inc.; 8Nov99-$225M, Jan00-$275M, May00-$700M]

• Mission: 10 MEO S/C (+2 spares) ; Voice, RDSS, FAX, Data, Messaging; Worldwide Maritime, Aeronautical,
Land, mobile phone service; 76 countries participating; $4.5-$10.0 billion System Cost; $1.37 billion contract
awarded Jul 95 to Hughes Space and Communications for 12 S/C (in two planes) based on HS-601, 6,000#, 3-axis
stabilized bus - C & S Band to support 4,500 simultaneous TDMA phone calls; onboard digital channelizer and
beam former - 163 spot beams.

• Orbit: 10 S/C, 2-planes of 5 each; 10,390 km alt, circular (6 hr) orbit; 45 deg inclined.

• Ops Concept: Complement 4/5 Inmarsat-F Geosynchronous spacecraft; $1.00-$2.00/ minute; $1000 Terminal
Cost with handsets built by Hughes Network Systems and Panasonic; $30.00 Monthly Charge.

• POC: ICO-Teledesic Global Ltd. - 1 Queen Caroline Street, Hammersmith, London
        W6, 9BN FAX: 0181-563-7872; Website: http://www.icoglobal.com/
                                                                           06 Oct 1997 - ICO requested frequencies set
                                                                           aside at 2 GHz for planned services
   September 2000                                  Unclassified                                Cal Laurvick
                                           Unclassified
               Craig McCaw – an Empire on Land, Sea and Air
                          (ICO-Teledesic, Nextlink, Concentric, Nextel)

                                            ICO/ Teledesic Satellites

                                                               Mobile
      Nextlink                                                 Voice &
    16,000 mile                                                 Data
   Fiber Network
 (60 U.S. Markets)

                                  PSTN
                                  Connections

      Office                      Office
                                                 Submarine Cable
                                                    (Planned)

Submarine Cable
   (Planned)                                                             Nextlink/Concentric Networks
                 Nextel
                Wireless                                                        Fiber Network
                Network
           (5.6 million users
          5th Largest in U.S.)

                                                                                Source: Forbes 12Jun00
     September 2000                             Unclassified                              Cal Laurvick
                                               Unclassified

                                               Iridium
• Launch: First 5 Spacecraft Launched 5 May 1997

• Sponsorship: Iridium Inc. (Holding Company)/ Motorola, Inc./ Iridium Canada -BCE/ Great Wall Industries
Corporation (China)/ Iridum Africa, Inc./ Iridium Sud America (Venezuela)/ Iridium India Ltd./ Nippon Iridium
Corporation/ Raytheon/ Sprint/ STET-SFT (Italy)/ DDI (Sony, Mitsubishi, Mitsui)/ Pacific Iridium Telcom
(Taiwan)/ Thai Satcom Ltd./ VEBACOM (Germany)/ Korean Mobile Telecom/ Iridium Middle East
Corporation/ Krunichev Space Center (Russia). 20 Organizations Invested in IRIDIUM.

• Mission: 11 S/C in six planes (66 spacecraft), 3800 channels (TDD/TDMA/FDMA), Voice, RDSS, FAX,
Data, Messaging; $4.7B system cost; (as of Feb96) raised $1.9B, 1500 Lb spacecraft, 5 year MMD, Master
Control Facility - Leesburg, VA opened Dec 96, 4 Remote Facilities (TTACs) Yellowknife and Iqualuit - NW
Territories, Oahu, HI, and Sjonolt, Iceland (Temp.), 12 Gateway Facilities.

• Orbit: 420 nm/ 780 km altitude, 86.4 degree inclination

• Ops Concept: 1987 concept developed, 1990 FCC filing, (L-band) Uplink 1.616-1.6265 GHz and (Ka-band
Uplink) 29.1-29.3 GHz; (Ka-band) Crosslink 23.18-23.38 GHz; (L-band) Downlink 1.616-1.6265 GHz and
(Ka band) Downlink 19.4-19.6 GHz; $50.00/month; $2.00-$3.00/ minute air time; $2,500-$3,000 terminal
cost with handsets built by Motorola and Kyocera, subsystem production started 06/95; LMSC-structures;
Motorola-Comm P/L; Raytheon-Main mission antennas; ComDev-Crosslink antennas; Gorca Systems, Inc.-
S/C sys development and design.
• POC:                 Iridium, Inc. 1401 H. St. NW #800, Washington, DC 20005
                       (202) 326-5600 FAX (202) 842-0006 Website: http://www.iridium.com/
                                                                              (Web address dead)
     September 2000                             Unclassified                           Cal Laurvick
                                               Unclassified                           Iridium Launch Line
                                                                                      (888) 952-8624
                                     Iridium (Continued)                              (602) 441-6406
Iridium Launch Sequence to Date:
 1st Launch - 5 May 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)         - Total on Orbit (5)
 2nd Launch - 18 Jun 1997 - Seven S/C launched on Proton (Baikonur)            - Total on Orbit (12)
 3rd Launch - 09 Jul 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (17)
 4th Launch - 20 Aug 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (22)
 5th Launch - 13 Sep 1997 - Seven S/C launched on Proton (Baikonur)            - Total on Orbit (29)
 6th Launch - 26 Sep 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (34)
 7th Launch - 08 Nov 1997 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (39)
 8th Launch - 08 Dec 1997 - Two S/C Launched on Long March (Taiyuan)          - Total on Orbit (41)
 9th Launch - 20 Dec 1997 - Five S/C Launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (46)
10th Launch - 18 Feb 1998 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (51)
11th Launch - 25 Mar 1998 - Two S/C launch on Long March (Taiyuan)            - Total on Orbit (53)
12th Launch - 30 Mar 1998 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (58)
13th Launch - 06 Apr 1998 - Seven S/C launched on Proton (Baikonur)           - Total on Orbit (65)
14th Launch - 02 May 1998 - Two S/C launched on Long March (Taiyuan)          - Total on Orbit (67)
15th Launch - 17 May 1998 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)        - Total on Orbit (72)
                 May 1998 - Live First Call Bob Kinzie (Switzerland) with Durrell Hillis (AZ)
                  Jul 1998 - Two more Iridiums fail - bring total failed to Seven (7)
16th Launch - 19 Aug 1998 - Two S/C launched on Long March (Taiyuan)         - Total on Orbit (74)
17th Launch - 08 Sep 1998 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandenberg)       - Total on Orbit (79)
              01 Nov 1998 - Iridium Service declared operational - VP Gore calls Grosvenor
18th Launch - 06 Nov 1998 - Five S/C launched on Delta II (Vandendberg)      - Total on Orbit (84)
              17 Nov 1998 - Global Paging/Messaging Service announced
19th Launch - 19 Dec 1998 - Two S/C launched on Long March (Taiyuan)         - Total on Orbit (86)
20th Launch - 11 Jun 1999 - Two S/C launched on Long March (Taiyuan)         - Total on Orbit (88)
                  http://www.mot.com/gss/sstg/projects/iridium/launch_history.html
   September 2000                                Unclassified                             Cal Laurvick
                                          Unclassified

                                    Leo One USA
• IOC:   TBD

• Sponsorship: Leo One USA (former cellular/ paging company), 2/13/98 Little LEO
               License Granted

• Mission: 48 spacecraft, near-real-time tracking and messaging

• Orbit: LEO - 950 km, circular - 50 degrees inclined, 6 S/C in 8 planes

• Ops Concept: 5-7 year MMD; UHF/VHF uplink; UHF downlink; single earth
coverage beam; 125 kg (275 Lb) spacecraft weight; design life 5-7 years; 2.4-9.6 kbps
Uplink; 24 kbps Downlink; Gateway 50 kbps Uplink/Downlink; 104 minute orbit;
210W (end-of-life)
• POC:             Leo One Corporation
                   150 North Meramec Avenue, Suite 620
                   St. Louis, MO 63105 (800) 807-5361 (314) 746-0567
                   FAX: (314) 746-0566 Website: http://www.leo1.com/
         06 Oct 1997 - LEO One USA requested additional frequency in the 40 GHz range.
         The extra frequencies would be built into satellites of the original system.


  September 2000                           Unclassified                           Cal Laurvick
                                            Unclassified
                                                                      (formerly AMSC)
                               Motient Corporation
• IOC:     1995 (First Launch     MSAT-1 successful on 07Apr95 on Atlas ELV)                Stock
           1997 (Second satellite MSAT-2 leased 04Dec97 to ACTEL for $38M/year)
                                                                                            Symbol:
• Sponsorship:       Hughes (27%=$119M)/ Singapore Telecom (13.6%=$69.1M)/                  MTNT
MTEL (7%=$25.7M)/AT&T-McCaw (12.5%=$45.9M)/ General Dynamics
(1.7%=$13.6M)/ Public (34.6%=$185.7M) [Formed 1988, FCC License 1989]
[03Aug99 - Public offering raised $125 million]

• Mission: Mobile Voice, FAX, and Data Services “Skycell - TM”; Service to
  U.S., Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands. [Also owns ARDIS Network of Wireless Data
Services 1,750 base stations in 427 cities - two-way packet services, eLink Wireless Email Services]

• Orbit: Two Geosynchronous orbit (70 Ft. long, 3500# Hughes HS-601 S/C)

• Ops Concept: Hughes built S/C, Westinghouse Ground Segment, Trimble Navigation GPS
Receivers, AMSC Gateway to PSTN to Cellular Gateway, Six spot transmission beams from S/C; L-
band Uplink (Mobile); Ku-Band Downlink; $0.99 - $1.45/ Minute; $2,000 Terminal Cost; QPSK
Modulation; Forward Link FDMA/TDMA; Return Link Channelized CDMA; 5.5 MHz channels

• POC: American Mobile Satellite Corporation, 10802 Parkridge Blvd, Reston, VA
22091 Phone: (703) 758-6000 FAX: (703) 758-6111 Website: http://www.ammobile.com


     September 2000                          Unclassified                         Cal Laurvick
                                         Unclassified

                                       Orbcomm

• IOC:     1998; Launch 03 Apr 95 Pegasus/L-1011 of first two satellites; Orbcomm 2
had reported problems immediately with the Gateway Communications subsystem;
Orbcomm 1 had reported problems 15Apr95 with the subscriber communications subsystem.
(Orbcomm 1 restored 13 June 95, Orbcomm 2 restored in May 95). FCC License Oct 1994.
• Sponsorship: Orbital Sciences Corporation ($80M)/ Teleglobe, Inc. ($70M) (Canada);
                TRI, Inc. (Malaysia) Total system cost expected to be $220 M.

• Mission: 24 spacecraft (+4 spares) cost ~ $2.5M each; up to 74 channels FDMA; Two-Way data
for Monitoring, Paging, Tracking, Messaging; 87 Lb spacecraft; Main body 38”x 7” disk; 7 Ft to
(two) solar panel edges; 12 Ft to extended antennas. 160 W BOL power.

• Orbit: 970 kilometer altitude

• Ops Concept: TT&C facility - VA; Twenty gateway earth stations; NY, GA, AZ, WA; Service
distribution agreements with IWL Comms, Inc. (TX); Electronic Marine Systems, Inc. (NJ); $15-
$30/month; $0.007/byte for usage over basic monthly service inclusion; User equipment $600
($150-$200 in quantity); VHF - Uplink 148 - 150 MHz (2.4 kbps); VHF - Downlink 137-138
MHz (4.8-9.6 kbps). Modems for Earth Stations provided by Torrey Science Corp. - San Diego, CA

• POC: Orbital Sciences Corporation - 21700 Atlantic Blvd., Dulles, VA20166 Phone (703) 406-
5000 FAX (703) 406-5552, Website: http://www.orbcomm.com

    September 2000                        Unclassified                       Cal Laurvick
                                        Unclassified

                                Orbcomm (Continued)
 Orbcomm Launch Sequence to Date:
 1st Launch 03 Apr 1995 - Two S/C launched on Pegasus                - Total on Orbit (2)

 2nd Launch    23 Dec 1997 - Eight S/C launched on Pegasus XL - Total on Orbit (10)

 3rd Launch 10 Feb 1998 - Two S/C launched on Taurus                 - Total on Orbit (12)

 4th Launch    02 Aug 1998 - Eight S/C launched on Pegasus XL - Total on Orbit (20)

 5th Launch    23 Sep 1998 - Eight S/C launched on Pegasus XL - Total on Orbit (28)

 6th Launch    xx xxx 1999 - Seven S/C                               - Total on Orbit (35)

200,000 total subscriber units as of Dec 1999, 190 countries covered by service providers

              06 Oct 1997 - OSC proposes a 7-satellite $900M broadband system Orblink
              from a MEO altitude as early as early as 2002

              11 Jan 99 - Orbcomm interference in France

   September 2000                        Unclassified                      Cal Laurvick
                                      Unclassified

                                    RIMSAT
• IOC:   1994; RIMSAT-1 (Gorizont 29) Launched 18 Nov 1993 (130E)
               RIMSAT-2 (Gorizont 30) Launched 20 May 1994 (142.5E)
• Sponsorship: RIMSAT, Ltd.; funding from Celcom and Technology Resources,
Inc.-Kuala Lampur (Malaysia); Sep 1995 operation of both satellites taken over by
INTERSPUTNIK due to complex legal battle.

• Mission: Voice, Data, Video services to Asia-Pacific region; 5 year MMD Qty 2
Russian built “Gorizont” satellites; Gty 10 Russian built “Express” satellites under
contract with INFORMCOSMOS. 2,120 kg; 1300W; 3-5 year MMD

• Orbit: Geosynchronous Orbit (Using slots GEO slots owned by Tonga)

• Ops Concept: (Multiple) C-band and (One) Ku-band Transponders; Voice, Data,
Video services provided to Iran, India, Hawaii, Australia, New Zealand, China

• POC: INTERSPUTNIK - 2 Smolensky Lane 1/4 - Moscow, 121099 CIS
Phone: +7-95-244-0333; FAX: +7-95-9906; Email: dir@intersputnik.msk.ru
INFORMCOSMOS - 16 Kazakova Street - Moscow 103064 Russia
Phone: +7-095-261-5494; FAX: +7-095-261-0090

  September 2000                       Unclassified                     Cal Laurvick
                                          Unclassified

                                        SkyBridge
• IOC: S/C construction to begin 1999; Launch 2002
•Sponsorship: Alcatel Espace (Toulouse); Loral Space & Communications Ltd (New York)
$30M; Sharp Corporation (Japan) $10M;Toshiba Corporation (Japan) $10M; Mitsubishi Electric
Corp. (Japan) $10M; CNES ($10M); started 12 Nov 1997.
• Mission: 80 LEO satellites planned; Data, voice, and video communications; $6.7 billion
system cost for space, ground-control, monitoring services and development costs for terminals
and gateways (each of 200 gateways can handle 350,000 users per visible satellite; each satellite
800 kg; ATM broadband operation; anticipate being able to handle up to 20 million users
worldwide; 2,500W per S/C; 8 year mission life;
• Orbit: LEO - 2 constellations of 40 satellites -1,469 km altitude, 55 deg. inclination
• Ops Concept: Ku-band (14 GHz Uplink/ 12 GHz Downlink) satellite system, use of about
200 gateway stations; 45 beams; 70% of traffic network customers, 30% residential; Subscriber
plan 15-20 million by 2006; Terminal equipment (residential) $700/each; Subscription fees $30;
10-Year Satellite Lifetime; total system capacity 200 Gbps; Downlink data rate per user from 2-
20 Mbps
• POC: Skybridge GP, Inc.                Website: http://www.skybridgesatellite.com/
          5, rue Noel Pons - 92737 Nanterre Cedex - France (Toulouse, France)
          Phone +33 (0) 1 46 52 65 00; FAX: +33 (0) 1 46 52 62 76

          Skybridge GP, Inc. - 3 Bethesda Metro Center, Suite 700 - Bethesda, MD 20814
          Phone: (301) 657-6263; FAX (301) 657-9776
    September 2000                         Unclassified                       Cal Laurvick
                                           Unclassified
                                        Sky Station

• IOC: 2002
• Sponsorship: Alexander M. Haig Jr., Harry Darlington, Alexander P. Haig, Robert
Phillips, Y.C. Lee, Paul Mahon, Christopher Patusky, Sofie Maddens, Stefan M.
Lopatikiewicz, Ambassador Rinaldo Petignani (Italy), Richard Butler (Australia), Mr.
Moses Thompson, Ms. Martine Rothblatt; Lockheed Martin Global Telecommunications
(system integrator Sep 99); Design review for stratospheric platform completes June 1999;
FCC approval 31Jul98.
• Mission: Wireless Phone Service and Internet Service; 2Mbps - 10Mbps
• Altitude: 250 fixed platforms at 22km altitude - launched 50 per year
• Ops Concept: Proposed Cost $800M - $4.2B; 47.2-48.2 GHz Downlink
                 Service Cost $0.10/ Minute;      47.9-48.2 GHz Uplink
• POC: Sky Station International, Inc.
           1824 R. Street, NW - Washington, DC 20009
           Phone: (202) 518-0900 FAX: (202) 518-0802
           Website: http://www.skystation.com
                                                       Testing Sequence: 40 Ft. Version at Chamber
                                                       tests NASA Lewis July 1996 100 Ft Version
      Platform Weight: 17 Tons                         @ 15,000 Ft in Early „97
      Size: 300 feet x 120 feet                        Flight Units: Finmeccanica S.p.A. Alenai Aerospazio,
      Propulsion: Corona Ion Engine                    Thomson-CSF, Dornier Satellitensysteme GmbH,
      (Team Technologies Inc. - Chantilly, VA          Daimler-Benz Aerospace, COMSAT, United Solar Sys.,
                                                       Stanford Telecommunications
 September 2000                               Unclassified                            Cal Laurvick
                                      Unclassified
                                 SPACEWAY
• IOC: 2002
• Sponsorship: Hughes Communications, Inc.
                ($1.3 billion Investment)
                $3.0 billion total system cost
• Mission: Voice, Data, 2-way Video - North America - Ka-band
• Orbit: 8 Geosynchronous HS-702 Spacecraft; 15-Year Lifetime
          (GEO orbit positions at 101W, 99W, 49W, 25E, 54E, 101E, 111E, 164E)
          20 MEO (10,352 km) S/C @ 55 deg inclination (filed Dec 97)
• Ops Concept: Initially North American- Remote LAN/WAN Access, Corporate
Intranets/Extranets, High Speed Internet Access, File Transfer, Interactive Distance
Learning, Video Conferencing, Telecommuting, Information Multicast Broadcast,
Telemedicine; Total thruput 4.4 Gbps at Ka-band; Satellite effective bandwidth 6 GHz; 44
antenna beams; FDM/TDMA uplink 16 kbps to 6 Mbps; TDMA downlink; D/L EIRP 61
dBw peak; BER performance 1e-10; Transmitter redundancy 64 for 48; modulation QPSK;
Spaceway terminals: Std USAT 66cm (384 kbps), VSAT 1.2m (1.5 Mbps), Broadcast 2.5m
(6 Mbps), Downlink data rate: 108 Mbps; “bandwidth on demand” service.

• POC: Hughes Communications, Inc. P.O. Box 92424 Los Angeles, CA 90009
Phone (310) 364-4842 FAX (310) 364-4841 or Wendy Greene (310) 525-5212

Website: http://www.hughespace.com         http://www.spaceway.com
    September 2000                     Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                     Unclassified
                                   Teledesic
• IOC: 2004 (Concept Development 1998) FCC License granted
March 1997, July 99 launch contract with Lockheed Martin; July 99-
S/C Integration contract with Motorola.
• Sponsorship:      Bill Gates ($10M); Craig McCaw ($10M); Boeing ($100M-
Apr97); AT&T; Motorola ($750M-Apr98), Prince Alwaleed (Saudi Arabia) ($200M)
($9B Total System Cost Planned - Motorola to build in 14 months) Test S/C
(Boeing/OSC) launched 25Feb98 failed ($14M loss); 01Nov99 to Invest $1.2 billion
in ICO. 01Nov99 - $121M invested by Abu Dhabi Investment Company; McCaw paid
$150M to Bankruptcy court on 11Nov99.
• Mission: Interactive, “Network Quality”, Voice, Data, Fax, 2-Way Video,
Multimedia; Ka-band operation data rates from 16 kbps - 2 Mbps (Standard Terminal)
155 Mbps to 1.2 Gbps (Gateway/ Gigalink terminals); Switched and point-to-point
connections; Uplinks 400 MHz and 800 MHz; Downlinks 400 MHz and 800 MHz;
crosslinks 2 GHz; coverage 70N to 70S; 10-Year constellation life; 3 KW S/C power;
64 beam uplink antenna; 8 pair crosslink antennas; 1,764 Lb spacecraft
• Orbit: 288 Spacecraft at 1,375 km altitude
• Ops Concept: Link availability > 99.9%; BER 1E-9; Network capacity > 20,000
simultaneous T-1 links; >23 Mbps channel capacity within a 53 km x 53 km cell;
additional 16 Gigalink/ Gateway Terminals/ spacecraft; $0.25/ minute air time
• POC: ICO-Teledesic Global Ltd., 2300 Carillon Point - Kirkland, WA 98033
  Phone (425) 602-0000 FAX (425)-602-0001; Website: http://www.teledesic.com
    September 2000                    Unclassified                   Cal Laurvick
                                     Unclassified

                                    VisionStar


• Launch:     May 2002 on Delta-3 or Ariane-5 (Licensed May 1997)

• Sponsorship:      VisionStar, Inc (N.Y. Investment firm); $260M System Cost;
Orbital Sciences to construct satellites using StarBus design (gained when they
acquired CTA)

• Mission: Ka-band Communications, 30 transponders each

• Orbit: Two (2) Geostationary spacecraft at 113W

• Ops Concept: Provide Television and Internet Services

• POC: Orbital Sciences Corporation - 21700 Atlantic Blvd., Dulles, VA20166
Phone: (703) 406-5000, FAX: (703) 406-5552, Website: http://www.orbital.com




  September 2000                      Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                         Unclassified
                                VITAsat/ Gemnet
• IOC: Experiments flown (UoSat-2)1984, (UoSat-3)1990 (failed in 1997); Operational S/C
(GEMStar) late July 1995 on LLV-1 (66,500 kilogram launch vehicle using Thiokol Corporation‟s
Castor 120 engine can lift about 900 kilograms of payload to LEO) Launch Vehicle Failed. Vehicle
1R launch 1997 Plesetsk -Cosmos-3M (S/C built by Final Analysis, Inc.) 1998 unrecoverable
software failure. Now using HealthSat-2, UoSat-12

• Sponsorship: VITA, Surrey Satellite Technology, Ltd. (UK), Wavix, Surrey Satellite

• Mission: FCC License for two spacecraft; Data Services for developing countries,
           Remote Monitoring and Control, Users can make 6-8 contacts/day with
           data rates of 2.4-38.4 kbps; RS 6000 processor onboard of C&DH with 16 Mbytes
           of message storage ability;

• Orbit: LEO orbit, 937 km altitude, 104.4 degree inclination

• Ops Concept: U.S. (Rockville, MD) ground site and overseas ground site in Djakarta, FDMA
operation, 1.48 GHz Uplink, 400-401 MHz Downlink (1992 ITU Frequency Plan) GEMStar is 136
kilogram spacecraft built by CTA - Rockville, MD; Vehicle 1R - 90 kg (198 Lbs); Terminal costs
$750 each (initially); $15.00/ month use fee.

• POC:     VITA 1600 Wilson Blvd., suite 710 Arlington, VA 22209
           Phone: (703) 276-1800 FAX (703) 243-1865 Website: http://www.vita.org/
           Email: vita@vita.org
  September 2000                          Unclassified                       Cal Laurvick
                                    Unclassified

                            WorldSpace, Inc.
• Launch:            AfriStar (28Oct98); AsiaStar (21Mar2000); Ameristar (2001)
                     Contracted with Arianespace for launch
• IOC:               1998
• Sponsorship: Worldspace, Inc. (founded in 1990) and Alcatel Espace.
                  Spacecraft being built by Alcatel Espace (Toulouse, France)
• Mission: Multimedia - Digital Radio, Text & Image Broadcast Satellites
             947 kg S/C weight; 5,550W S/C; 3-spot beams for each satellite
             Asian service announced 12Sep00.
• Orbit: 3 Geosynchronous S/C (14 million square km dissemination per channel)
          21E; 95W; 105E
• Ops Concept: Each satellite will have 3 spot beams; Each spot beam will deliver
2x96 radio channels equivalent to AM or 2x48 FM monaural or 2x24 FM stereo
quality digital audio channels; Broadcaster uses Uplink: 7 GHz from 2-5 meter
antenna at 48 dBw EIRP per 16 kbps channel; MPEG-2 (layer 3) digital encoding of
audio channels; STARMAN chip-sets used in ground receivers (built by ITT
Intermetall and SGS Thomson); Downlink: 1.452-1.492 GHz

• POC:   Worldspace - 11 Dupont Circle, NW - 9th Floor
         Washington, DC 20036 Phone: (202) 884-7800; FAX: (202) 884-7900
         Website: http://www.worldspace.com/
  September 2000                     Unclassified                   Cal Laurvick
                   Unclassified




                 Imagery

                 Satellites




September 2000      Unclassified   Cal Laurvick
                                                  Unclassified
            Commercial One-Meter Imagery (14 S/C) 1999-2003
                                                      1999             2000            2001           2002            2003

   Space Imaging Inc. (U.S.)                              1                0             0               0                0
             * Filed for 0.5 meter license-Dec99

   EarthWatch (U.S.)                                      0                2             0               0                0

   OrbView (U.S.)                                         0                1             1               0                0
                    * Filed for 0.5 meter license

   EROS (U.S./ Israel)                                    0                1             1               3                1

   Russia                                                 0                1             0               0                0

   India                                                  0                0             0               0                1

   South Korea                                            0                0             0               0                1
                                    April 1999 – NRO/NIMA $1 billion                   PD-23 (Mar 94) Shutter Control, Blackout Zone,
Source: Mitretek (April 2000)       6-year program to incorporate commercial imagery   Distribution Control


     September 2000                                 Unclassified                                      Cal Laurvick
                                    Unclassified
                    Champ (Commercial Imagery)
• IOC:   Launch Unknown, Piggyback on other launch

• Sponsorship:      Construction of S/C German Orbital-and-Hydrotechnologie-Bremen
(OHB) Systems of Bremen and Israeli optical equipment company El-Op Electro Optics
Industries Ltd. of Rehovoth (first launch of TechSat Gurwin-1 destroyed Mar 95 on
Russian Start-1 Rocket) OHB is an 8% owner of Orbcomm Europe and markets the
Russian COSMOS launch vehicle - Employs about 200 people]

• Mission: Joint Space Agreement signed by German Space Agency (DARA) and Israeli
Space Agency on 04 Dec 1995 to produce 5-meter imagery capability, 150 kg (330 Lb)
spacecraft, 2-year mission life, operating expenses expected to be $1.7M/year S/C
construction cost $3.5M. Total system cost ~$10M.

• Orbit: Unknown

• Ops Concept: Probable government and commercial imagery applications

• POC:   OHB-System GmBH            Phone: +49 421 2020-8
         Universitaetsallee 27-29   FAX: +49 421 2020-700
         D-28359 Bremen             Website: http://www.ohb-system.de/
         (Company part of the Fuchs Gruppe)
   September 2000                    Unclassified                  Cal Laurvick
                              Unclassified

                  Other Israeli Imagery Systems

  Offeq-1 (19 Sep 89) - dummy                 EROS A1 – Oct 2000
  Offeq-2 (Apr 90) – dummy                    EROS A2 – Mid-2001
  Offeq-3 (5Apr95)                            EROS B1 – 2Q-2002
  Offeq-4 (failure 22Jan00)                   EROS B2 – 4Q-2002
  (495kg S/C. Replacement delayed             EROS B3 – 2Q-2003
  Due to 2001 Defense budget cuts.)           EROS B4 – 4Q-2003
                                              EROS B5 – 2Q-2004
                                              EROS B6 – 4Q-2004

                                              21 Global Ground Stations
                                              0.82-1.8 meter imagery




September 2000                 Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                          Unclassified

      EarlyBird Imagery Satellite (EarthWatch, Inc.)
• Launch: 24Dec1997 FAILED LAUNCH - Svobodny Launch Center -
   on Russian Start-1 Rocket (License Approved Jan 1993)
• Sponsorship: EarthWatch, Inc. Satellite construction: CTA, Merger Jan 95 w/ Ball Aerospace,
Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Nuova Telespazio s.p.a. (Italy); Macdonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd.
(Canada); and Datron Systems, Inc. of California
• Mission: 3 Meter GSD Panchromatic 4 Mpixel camera (6 km x 6 km- 8 bit Gray-Scale
sampling [4MByte - uncompressed image] 450-800 nm) Imagery and 15 M Multispectral 4
Mpixels (x3) camera [12Mbyte - uncompressed image] (30 km x 30 km - 3 color - 24 bit-Green-
500-590nm, Red 610-680 nm, NIR 790-890 nm), Geographic Information Systems (GIS),
Government (Intelligence and Monitoring), Agriculture and Forestry, 16 Gbit / 185 Mbps/ 1 data
port SSR built by Odetics Corporation; Camera components from Eastman Kodak
• Orbit: 470 km sun-synchronous, 97.3 degrees (94 Min period)/ 16 orbits/day)
• Ops Concept: Ground stations in AK, CA, and Europe - geographic reference scenes, archived
images; Electronic and physical media delivery of product, New HQ Boulder, CO; offices in
Livermore/ Pleasanton, CA - revisit every 2.5-3 days, 30 degrees off-nadir pointing (left-right-
fore-aft), matrix of overlapping frames in a single pass over any area of interest, 500-frame
capacity per orbit, store-and-forward to Earthwatch Ground Stations.
• POC:      EarthWatch, Inc. 1900 Pike Road - Longmont, CO 80501-6700
            Phone: (303) 682-3800; FAX (303) 682-3848
            Website: http://www.earthwatch.com


   September 2000                          Unclassified                        Cal Laurvick
                                        Unclassified
                                        Ikonos
• Launch: Ikonos-1 (27Apr1999) FAIL-Lost TLM after 8 min
•                               $157 million insured loss
          Ikonos-2 (24Sep1999)
          License Approved April 1994
•Sponsorship:      Space Imaging, Inc. (Formed Jan 1995);
Lockheed-Martin Corporation, E-Systems, Mitsubishi, Eastman Kodak

• Mission: 1 meter Panchromatic Imagery (6,500 lines per second- 450-520 nm =  - 12
micron detectors) / 4 meter Multispectral Imagery (48 micron detectors - blue 450-520 nm
= , green 520-600 nm = , red 630-690 nm = , Near-IR 760-900 nm = ;
2 spacecraft constellation (+ 1 spare); pushbroom scan; 550 kg spacecraft - LM-900 bus; <
1kW average power, 7 year design life, 5-year MMD.

• Orbit: 680 km altitude, 98 degree inclination

• Ops Concept: Products: Level 0 - Raw data; Level-1 - Radiometrically Corrected data;
Level-2 - Geometrically Corrected Data; Level 4 - Derived Products; System TT&C - CA;
“Commercial Components and Practices”; +/- 45 degree field of regard; 0.6 meter aperture;
15 km swath width
•POC: Space Imaging, Inc., 12076 Grant Street - Thornton, CO 80241
          Phone: (303) 254-2000, FAX: (303) 254-2215
          Website: http://www.spaceimage.com
  September 2000                         Unclassified                     Cal Laurvick
                        Unclassified

             First Ikonos-2 Image (Sep99)




September 2000           Unclassified       Cal Laurvick
                                Unclassified

                  A Physicist‟s Back-of-the-Envelope

    From:              What would ground resolution of orbiting space
    IEEE Spectrum      telescope be?
    July 1986
    page 49                           Altitude of s/c   x diameter of pixel
    “Peacekeeping      Resolution =
                                       focal length
    by Technical
    Means”               Given:
    by John A. Adam      Typical perigee of KH-11 spy satellite:
                           148 nm = 275 km = 27,500,000 cm
                         Effective focal length of space telescope:
                            57.6 M = 5,760 cm
                         Pixel size of telescope‟s planetary camera:
                                         10 -4
                          15 micron‟s x        = 0.0015 cm
                                        micron
                         Then:
                               27,500,000 cm
                           R=                x 0.0015 cm
                                 5,760 cm
                         Ground resolution = 7.16 cm = 2.819 in

September 2000                   Unclassified                      Cal Laurvick
                                      Unclassified

                                      Landsat

• Launch:          Landsat 1 (23Jul72), Landsat 2 (22Jan75),
                   Landsat 3 (05Mar78), Landsat 4 (16Jul82),
                   Landsat 5 (01Mar84), Landsat 6 (28Sep93 - Launch Failure)
                   Landsat 7 (15Apr99) $800M - six-year mission
• Sponsorship:     NASA - Spacecraft Development
                   Space Imaging, Inc. operates the spacecraft
• Mission: 15 meter Panchromatic (50-900 nanometers) and 30 meter Multispectral
Imagery in seven bands (blue 450-520 nanometers; green 520-600 nanometers; red
630-690 nanometers; near-IR 760-900 nanometers; mid-IR 1.55-1.75 micron; 2.08-
2.35 micron; and 60 meter resolution with the 10.4-12.5 micron band.

• Orbit: 705 km sun synchronous orbit (98.2 degree inclined), 98.8 minute orbit

• Ops Concept: Space Imaging takes customer orders, tasks satellite, sets up for
regional ground station downlink, conducts value added processing and delivers image
product. Landsat 7 scenes ~$600 each; Landsat 5 ~$4,400 each
• POC: Space Imaging Inc. - 4300 Forbes Boulevard - Lanham, MD 20706
          Phone (800) 344-9933 (301) 552-5476, FAX: (301) 552-5476/0507
          Website: http://www.spaceimage.com
    September 2000                     Unclassified                    Cal Laurvick
                                            Unclassified
                       OrbView Imagery Satellite (OSC)
• Launch: License approved May 1994
 OrbView-1 test S/C launched 03Apr95, OrbView-2 (SeaWiFS) launched 01Aug97
 OrbView-3 scheduled 2nd Qtr 2001, OrbView-4 (Warfighter) scheduled 4th Qtr 2000
• Sponsorship:          Satellite Construction: Orbital Sciences, Inc.; Eirad Co. -Saudi Arabia
(July95 Acquired by Tracor, Inc.) [Also Orbimage licensed to market RadarSat-1/2]
•Mission: OrbView-1 Meteorological - monochromatic (10 km spatial) 1 channel, 777nm
             = , 1,300 km swath, 2 Mbps data rate, 5-year lifetime, 73 kg bus, payload mass 23 kg.
             OrbView-2 (SeaWiFs) Remote Sensing - multispectral (1 km spatial) 8 channels
             (402-885 nm = ), 2,800 km swath, 2 Mbps data rate, 7.5 year lifetime; 255 kg bus.
Stock        OrbView-3 Remote Sensing - panchromatic-1 ch.(450-900 nm = , 1 m
Symbol: spatial);multispectral - 4 ch. (450-900 nm = ) (4 m spatial); 64 km2; 150 Mbps; 5-
ORB          year lifetime; Bus mass: 300 kg; Payload mass: 56 kg
             OrbView-4 (Warfighter) Remote Sensing - panchromatic-1 ch.(450-900 nm= );
             (1&2 m spatial); multispectral - 4 ch. (450-900 nm = ); (4 m spatial).
             hyperspectral - 200 bands (450-2500 nm = ) (8 m spatial); 5-year lifetime ( $40M
             to add hyperspectral). Bus mass: 290 kg, Payload mass: 72 kg
• Orbit: Sun-Synchronous (OV-1 = 740 km) (OV-2 = 705 km) (OV-3/4 = 470 km)
• Ops Concept: TT&C ground station - VA, 21 regional ground stations Internet-based sales and
distribution, 100 countries served by service providers.
• POC: Orbital Sciences Corporation - 21700 Atlantic Blvd. - Dulles, VA 20166
       Phone: (703) 406-5000 FAX: (703) 406-5552; Website: http://www.orbimage.com

      September 2000                         Unclassified                      Cal Laurvick
                                           Unclassified

         QuickBird Imagery Satellite (EarthWatch Inc.)
• IOC:      2000 (COSMOS SL-8 launcher Plesetsk, Russia)
• Sponsorship: EarthWatch, Inc. - Satellite construction: CTA, Merger Jan 95 w/ Ball
Aerospace; Hitachi, Ltd. (Japan); Nuova Telespazio s.p.a. (Italy); Macdonald, Detwiler and Associates
Ltd. (Canada); and Datson Systems of California. Camera components - Eastman Kodak. $25M
Invested 1999 by ITT Industries. $25M invested 1999 by Morgan Stanley Dean Witter. NIMA signs
contract to buy imagery - Dec 98.
• Mission: 1 Meter GSD (at nadir) 37 km x 37 km Panchromatic Imagery camera TDI Line Scanning
Array (11 bits) imager 14.2 Gbits (uncompressed) Gray-Scale sampling 450-900 nm and 4 Meter GSD
Multispectral (GSD at nadir) scanning arrays (11 bits x 4) Blue 450-520 nm, Green 530-590 nm, Red
630-690 nm and Near-IR 770-900 nm, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), Government
(Intelligence and Monitoring), Agriculture and Forestry, 176 Gbit / 800 Mbps SSR/ 4 data ports build
by Odetics Corporation, License Approved Sep 94, MMD 5 years with 0.8 probability of success;
pushbroom imagery, 2 spacecraft constellation; continuous coverage 40,000 images/year/spacecraft; X-
band real-time downlink, less than 350 kg spacecraft, payload < 200 kg.
• Orbit: 470 km sun synchronous - 94 minute orbit period
• Ops Concept: 30 degree off-nadir viewing (fore-aft-left-right),store-and-forward operation and
downlink to EarthWatch ground stations. Ground stations CO, CA, AK, Europe (Rome, IT), Japan
• POC:      EarthWatch, Inc.- 1900 Pike Road - Longmont, CO 80501-6700
            Phone: (303) 6y82-3800; FAX (303) 682-3848
            Sterling Software - 6300 34th Avenue South - Minneapolis, MN 55450
            Phone: (612) 727-1084; FAX (612) 727-3895
            Website: http://www.earthwatch.com or http://www.digitalglobe.com
    September 2000                          Unclassified                        Cal Laurvick
                                              Unclassified

                                  Spot Image Corporation
• IOC: Spot 1 (21Feb86), 1907 kg      Spot 2 (Jan 90 - Rcdr Fail 1993)
       Spot 3 (24Sep93 - Fail Nov 96) Spot 4 (Launch 1998) 2700 kg, 2.1 kW
       Spot 5 (launch 2002)

• Sponsorship:      CNES (France); SPOT Image (France & U.S.), SATIMAGE
                    (Sweden); Image Distribution in over 40 countries; Launch from
                    Korou - French Guiana

• Mission: 10 meter panchromatic (Spot 5 series will have 5 meter panchromatic - 60 km swath
width at nadir & 80 km cross-track) and multispectral imagery (B0-blue 430-470 nanometers;
B1-green 500-590 nanometers; B2-red 610-680 nanometers; B3-near-IR 780-890 nanometers;
B4-Mid-IR 1.58-1.75 microns). Spot-4 has 8.5 Gbit SSR + tape recorders; wide-angle sensor
has 2,000 km swatch width with 1-km spatial resolution

• Orbit: 830 km, Sun Synchronous (98.3 degree inclined); 101.4 minute orbit, 14 revs/day

• Ops Concept: Tasking from Toulouse, France, Regional Downlinks, Value added processing

• POC:      Spot Image Corporation: 1897 Preston White Drive - Reston, VA 22091-4326
            Phone: (703) 620-2200, FAX: (703) 648-1813
            Website: http://www.spot.com/

         September 2000                        Unclassified                          Cal Laurvick
                                 Unclassified

                   French Military Imagery Satellites


 Helios IA $750 million, July 1995-1999
 Helios IB $750 million, Dec 1999-2004 Based on SPOT-4 Technology
 France 79%, Italy 14%, Spain 7%
 3 Ground Stations in: Colmar, France; Lecce Italy; and Maspalomas, Spain
 2 Control Stations in: Toulouse, France; and Francazal Air Base, France

 Helios II $1.7-$2.0 billion, 2003-2009
                                                Based on SPOT-5 Technology
 France 97%, Spain 3%

 Helios III 2010

French Defense Agency (DGA) funds. Prime Contractor Matra Marconi
(Spacecraft) [now part of Astrium], Alcatel Espace (Builds the Camera System)



  September 2000                  Unclassified                   Cal Laurvick
                 Unclassified




                 Backup

                  Charts




September 2000    Unclassified   Cal Laurvick
                                                        Unclassified

                      Web Directory – Space Companies
4.5 Meter Ant. Dot Com Global http://www.45meter.com            Asia Broadcast Centre               http://www.asiabroadcast.com.sg
ACT Networks                  http://www.acti.com               Asiasat                             http://www.asiasat.com.hk
ATC Teleports                 http://www.atcteleports.com       Astra                               http://www.ses-astra.com
Advanced Technical Materials http://www.atmmicrowave.com        Astrolink                           http://www.astrolink.com
Advantech                     http://www.advantech.ca           ATCi (Ant. Tech Comm Inc.)          http://www.atci.net
Advent Communications Ltd. http://www.advent-comm.co.uk         Atlanta International Teleport      http://www.atlantateleport.com
Aerospace Corporation         http://www.aero.org               Atlantic Satellite Comms, Inc.      http://www.atlsat.com
Aerospatiale Matra            http://www.aeromatra.com          Avcom of Virginia, Inc.             http://www.avcomofva.com
Agilis                        http://www.agilis.st.com.sg       Avtec Systems                       http://www.avtec.com
AIAA                          http://www.aiaa.org               BAE Systems Inc.                    http://www.gdesystems.com
AIL Systems, Inc.             http://www.ail.com                BAF Communications Corp.            http://www.bfacom.com
Airclaims Ltd.                http://www.airclaims.co.uk        BAF Satellite & Tech.               http://www.bafsat.com
Alantra Venture               http://www.alantraventure.com     Ball Aerospace & Tech Corp.         http://www.ball.com
Alcatel                       http://www.alcatel.com/space      Barco                               http://www.barco.com
All Mobile Video              http://www.allmobilevideo.com     BBC Resources                       http://www.bbcresources.com
Altair                        http://www.altaira.com            Belgacom                            http://www.belgacom.be/satellite
American Tower Corporation http://www.americantower.com         BF Goodrich Aero Data Sys           http://www.dsdabq.com
Americatel                    http://www.americatel.net         The Boeing Company                  http://www.boeing.com
Anacom, Inc.                  http://www.anacominc.com          Broadcast Satellite International   http://www.broadcastsatellite.com
Analytical Graphics           http://www.stk.com                BT Broadcast Services               http://www.broadcast.bt.com
Andersen Manufacturing        http://www.andersoninc.com        Calhoun Satellite Comms.            http://www.calhounsat.com
Andrew Corporation            http://www.andrew.com             Calian                              http://www.calian.ca
Antek Systems LLC             http://www.antek.com              Canadian Satellite Comm, Inc.       http://www.cancom.ca
Applied Technology Institute http://www.catalog.com/hitekweb    CFA Communications Ltd.             http://www.cfacommunications.com
Arel Communications S/W Ltd. http://www.arel.com.il             Channel Master                      http://www.channelmaster.com
Arianespace                   http://www.arianespace.com        Cincinnati Electronics Corp.        http://www.cinele.com
Armer Comm. Engr. Services http://www.armercom.com              CITS Inc.                           http://www.cits-inc.com
Ascent Network Services       http://www.ascentnetwork.com      Columbia Comm. Corp.                http://www.tdrss.com


        September 2000                                   Unclassified                                     Cal Laurvick
                                                           Unclassified

                       Web Directory – Space Companies
Combox                        http://www.combox-I.com            DNE Technlogies, Inc.            http://www.dnetech.com
Comlink                       http://www.comlink.com             Eagle Comms., Inc.               http://www.eaglecomm.com
Communications Systems Ltd.   http:/www.comsys.co.uk             Earth Station Antennas           http://www.earthstationantennas.com
Computer Modules, Inc.        http://www.computermodules.com     Easy Trading                     http://www.e-t-c-i.com
Comsat Laboratories           http://www.comsat.com/labs         EFData                           http://www.efdata.com
Comsat World Systems          http://www.comsat.com              Efficient Ant. Systems Inc.      http://www.easisat.com
Comtech Antenna Systems       http://www.commtechcom.com         EMS Technologies Inc.            http://www.ems-t.com
Comtech Comm. Corp.           http://www.comtechcom.com          Environmental Tech., Inc.        http://www.networketi.com
Constellation Satellite       http://www.SatTruck.com            ERA Technology Ltd.              http://www.era.co.uk
Conus Communicatons           http://www.conus.com               ESA                              http://www.esrin.esa.it
Convergent Media Systems      http://www.convergent.com          Esatcom.net                      http://www.esatcom.net
CPI/Canada, Inc.              http://www.cpii.com/cmp/           Esatel Comms. Inc.               http://www.esatel.com
CPI Satcom Division           http://www.cpii.com/satcom/        ETM, Inc.                        http://www.etm-inc.com
CPI/MPP                       http://www.cpii.com/twtp/          Engineering & Tech Svcs, Inc.    http://www.ets-telecom.com
Crawford Satellite Services   http://www.crawford.com            Euroconsult                      http://www.euroconsult-ec.com
Cronus Communcations          http://www.anadigi.com             Eutelsat                         http://www.eutelsat.org
Cross Technologies            http://www.crosstechnologies.com   Exigent International, Inc.      http://www.xgnt.com
Crystal Computer Corp.        http://crystalcc.com               First Call Uplinks               http://www.firstcalluplinks.com
CSC                           http://www.cscmgt.com              Fisher Communications            http://www.fishcomm.com
Cyberstar                     http://www.cyberstar.com           Frontline Communications         http://www.frontlinecomm.com
Dica Technologies             http://www.datatelemark.com        GE American Communcations        http://www.ge.com/capital/americom.com
Datum Systems Inc.            http://www.datumsystems.com        General Instrument Corp.         http://www.gi.com
DH Satellite                  http://www.dhsatellite.com         Gilat Satellite Networks, Ltd.   http://www.gilat.com
Digital Comm Link, Inc.       http://www.dclinc.net              Global Comm. Solutions           http://www.comsatsys.com
Digital Voice Systems, Inc.   http://www.dvsinc.com              Globalstar                       http://www.globalstar.com
Digitalxpress                 http://www.digxpr.com              Globecast                        http://www.globecastna.com
DirecTV                       http://www.directv.com             Globecomm Systems, Inc.          http://www.globecommsystems.com
Diversified Comms., Inc.      http://www.cditeleport.com         GMPCS Personal Comms.            http://www.gmpcs-us.com


         September 2000                                     Unclassified                                    Cal Laurvick
                                                           Unclassified

                       Web Directory – Space Companies
Group W Network Services         http://www.gwns.com             Jay-El/DMT                   http://www.jldmt.com
Gulf Communications Int‟l        http://www.gcigulf.com          Juch-Tech, Inc.              http://www.juch-tech.com
Gunner                           http://www.gunner.com           Isky                         http://www.kastarcom.com
Guycom                           http://www.guycom.com           Kelly Broadcasting Sys. Inc. http://www.kbs-tv.com
Harris Corporation               http://www.harris.com           Kencast, Inc.                http://www.kencast.com
Helius, Inc.                     http://www.helius.com           Keypoint Svcs International  http://www.keypointservices.com
High Tower Software              http://www.high-tower.com       KinetX, Inc.                 http://www.kinetx.com
Hongkong Telecom                 http://www.hkt.com/satellite    Kodak                        http://www.kodak.com/go/government
Hughes Electronics               http://www.hughes.com           KVH Industries               http://www.kvh.com
Hughes Space and Comm Co. http://www.hughesspace.com             Lambda-Space                 http://www.lambda-space.com
ICG Satellite Services, Inc.     http://www.icgcom.com           Landsea Systems              http://www.landseasystems.com
IDB Systems                      http://www.idbsystems.com       Launchspace Magazine         http://www.launchspace.com
Industrial Logic Corp.           http://www.indlogic.com         LearnSat.com, Inc.           http://www.learnsat.com
Infosat                          http://www.infosat.com          LinkSat America              http://www.linsatamerica.com
Infotel International, Inc.      http://www.Infotel-intl.com     Livewire                     http://www.livewire.co.uk
Inmarsat                         http://www.inmarsat.org         LNR Trexcom                  http://www.lnrtexcom.com
In-Sync Uplink                   http://www.insyncuplink.com     Lockheed Martin              http://www.lockheedmartin.com
Integral Systems, Inc.           http://www.integ.com            Lockheed Martin Glob. Tele. http://www.lmgt.com
Intelsat                         http://ww.intelsat.int          Logimetrics, Inc.            http://www.logimetrics.com
Int‟l Comm Products Inc.         http://www.digiceiver.com       Loral Skynet                 http://www.loralskynet.com
International Datacasting        http://www.intldata.ca          Loral Sapce and Comms        http://www.loral.com
International Launch Services http://www.itslaunch.com           L.teq Ltd.                   http://www.lteq.com
Intersat                         http://www.intersatcorp.com     M&C Systems, Inc.            http://www.mcsys.com
Interstate Electronics           http://www.techome.com          MacDonald, Dettwiler & Assoc. http://www.mda.ca
Iris Gateway Satellite Svcs, Ltd.http://www.irssat.com           Mabuhay Phillipines Satcom http://www.mabuhaysat.com
ITS Electronics, Inc.            http://www.itselectronics.com   Marconi Applied Technologies http://www.marconitech.com
ITT Systems & Sciences Corp. http://www.ittssc.com               Matra Marconi Space          http://www.matra-marconi-space.com
ITT Systems/Locus Products http://www.ittsystems.com/locus       MCL, Inc.                    http://www.mcl.com


        September 2000                                      Unclassified                              Cal Laurvick
                                                            Unclassified

                         Web Directory – Space Companies
Mentat, Inc.                    http://www.gwns.com                    Orbital Sciences Corporation    http://www.orbital.com
Merlin Comms. Int‟l Ltd         http://www.merlincommunications.com    Orbcomm Global L.P.             http://www.orbcomm.com
Micronetics Wireless            http://www.mwireless.com               Ortel Corporation               http://www.ortel.com
Microspace                      http://www.microspace.com              Osaka Media Port Corporation    http://www.omp.co.jp
Microwave Filter Company        http://www.microwavefilter.com         Pacesetter Electronics          http://www.eidelmangrp.com
Miralite Communications         http://www.miralite.com                Pacific Telecomm Council        http://www.ptc.org
Miteq                           http://www.miteq.com                   Panamsat Corporation            http://www.panamsat.com
Mitsubishi Electronics          http://www.melamsat.com                Paradise Datacom                http://www.paradise.co.uk
Mobile Satellite Products Corp. http://www.mobilesat.com               Paragea                         http://www.paragea.com
Motorola                        http://www.mot.com                     Pascall Electronics             http://www.pascall.co.uk
NEC                             http://www.ic.nec.co.jp/index_e.html   P.B. Satellite, Inc.            http://www.PBSatellite.com
Netsat Express                  http://www.netsatx.net                 Primedia Workplace Learning     http://www.pwpl.com
Network Teleports, Inc.         http://www.networkteleports.com        Prodelin Corporation            http://www.prodelin.com
New England Satellite Sys., Inc. http://www.NESatellite.com            Production and Satellite Svcs   http://www.800Satlink.com
New Japan Radio Co. Ltd.        http://www.njr.co.jp                   PT Satelit Palapa Indonesia     http://www.satelindo.co.id
Newpoint Technologies, Inc. http://www.newpointtech.com                Quintech                        http://www.qecinc.com
Newsforce                       http://www.newsforce.net               Radarsat International          http://www.rsi.ca
Newtec                          http://www.newtec.be                   Raydyne Comstream               http://www.raydynecomstream.com
Nichimen America, Inc.          htttp://www.nichimen-america.com       Rohn, Inc.                      http://www.rohnnet.com
Noise.Com                       http://www.noisecom.com                Rotary Rocket Company           http://www.rotaryrocket.com
Norsat International            http://www.norsat.com                  Rotating Prec. Mechan., Inc.    http://www.rpm-psi.com
Nortel                          http://www.nortel.com                  SBCA                            http://www.sbca.com
Novanet Comms. Ltd.             http://www.novanetcomm.com             Samart Comtech                  http://www.scomtech.com
NSI Communications              http://www.nsicomm.com                 Satel Conseil                   http://www.satelconseil.com
NSN Network Servcies            http://www.nsn.net                     Satellite Broadcasting, Inc.    http://www.2uplink.com
NTL                             http://www.ntl.co.uk                   Satellite Comms Systems         http://www.satellite-commsys.com
One Touch Systems               http://www.onetouch.com                Satellite Engineering Group     http://www.sateng.com
Oracom                          http://www.oracom.com                  Satellite Export and Engr.      http://www.sepatriot.com


          September 2000                                     Unclassified                                  Cal Laurvick
                                                           Unclassified

                        Web Directory – Space Companies
Satellite Media Services          http://www.sms.co.uk                Space Imaging, Inc.        http://www.spaceimage.com
Satellite News                    http://www.satellitetoday.com       Spacenet, Inc.             http://www.spacenet.com
Satellite Signals Ltd.            http://www.satsig.net               Space Systems Loral        http://www.ssloral.com
Satellite Systems Corporation     http://www.satsyscorp.com           Spectrum Astro             http://www.spectrumastro.com
Satmex                            http://www.satmex.com               Speer Worldwide Digital http://www.swwdc.com
Sattel Global Networks            http://www.sattel.com               Spot Image                 http://www.spot.com
Scientific Atlanta                http://www.sciatl.com               Square Peg                 http://www.crc.doc.ca/innovation/
Sea Launch                        http://www.boeing.com               SSE Telecom                http://www.sset.com
Sealevel Systms                   http://www.sealevel.com             Standard Communications http://www.standardcomm.com
Seatel                            http://www.seatel.com               Starburst Software         http://www.starburstsoftware.com
Seavey Engineering Assoc.         http://www.seaveyantenna.com        Starguide Digital Networks http://www.starguidedigital.com
Sector Microwave Industries       http://www.sectormicrowave.com      Starlink                   http://www.starlinkinc.com
SED Systems                       http://www.sedsystems.ca            STM Wireless               http://www.stmi.com
Shinawatra Sat. Public Co. Ltd.   http://www.shinawatra.com           Storke Industries          http://www.storkeindustries.com
Shiron Satellite Communications   http://www.shiron.com               Storm Control Systems      http://www.storm.com
Sicom, Inc.                       http://www.sicom.com                ST Teleport                http://www.sttp.st.com.sg
Sierracom                         http://www.sierracom.com            Sudanet                    http://www.sudanet.net
Sintel Satellite Services, Inc.   http://www.sintel-india.com         Superior Satellite         http://www.superiorsatellieusa.com
Sirius Communications             http://www.sirius.be                Surrey Satellite           http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/EE/CSER/
Sislink                           http://www.sislink.co.uk            Swales Aerospace           http://www.swales.com
Signal Processors Ltd.            http://www.spl.co.uk/satcomms/      Systems Technology         http://www.stainc.com
Skybridge                         http://www.skybridgesatellite.com   Tache Group, Inc.          http://www.tachegroup.com
Skydata-Gilat                     http://www.gilat.com                Tadiran Scopus             http://www.scopus.co.il
SkyTiger.Net/ SkyTiger Telecom    http://www.skytiger.net             Tampa Mwave Lab, Inc.      http://www.tmli.com
SL Corporation                    http://www.sl.com                   Tandberg Television        http://www.tandbergtv.com
Software Technology Inc.          http://www.sticomet.com             Tecstar, Inc.              http://www.tecstar.com
Spacecom                          http://www.spacecom.com             Telecom International      http://www.telintl.com
Space Electronics, Inc.           http://www.newspace.com/spaceelec   Teledyne Electronic Tech. http://www.teledyne-mec.com


         September 2000                                      Unclassified                                 Cal Laurvick
                                                           Unclassified

                        Web Directory – Space Companies
Teleglobe, Inc.                   http://www.teleglobe.com              Vidcom Corporation          http://www.vidcomcorp.com
Telenor AS                        http://www.telenor.no/international   Vincor Ltd.                 http://www.vincor.com
Teleport London International     http://www.tli.ssvc.co.uk             Vision Accomplished         http://www.visionaccomplished.com/
Teleport Minnesota                http://www.teleportmn.com             Vitacom                     http://www.vitacom.com
Telesat Canada                    http://www.telesat.ca                 Vocal Technologies Ltd.     http://www.vocal.com
Telespace, Ltd.                   http://www.telespace.org              Vyvx                        http://www.vyvx.com
Terayon Comms Systems             http://www.imedia.com                 Walton Enterprises          http://www.de-ice.com
Terrasat, Inc.                    http://www.terrasatinc.com            Waterfront Comms. Corp. http://www.wtrfrnt.com
Thomson Comp. & Tubes Corp.       http://www.tctus.com                  Wavephore Networks          http://www.wavo.com
Tiernan Communication Inc.        http://www.Tiernan.com                Wavesat Telecom             http://www.wavesat.com
TLI Satellite Services            http://www.tli.ssvc.co.uk             Wegener Comms, Inc. http://www.wegener.com
TMI Communications                http://www.tmisolutions.com           Westinghouse                http://www.wireless.westinghouse.com
Toner Cable Equipment, Inc.       http://www.Tonercable.com             Williams – Vyvx       http://www.twc.com
Toshiba Amer. Electronic Comp. http://www.toshiba.com/taec              Winegard Co.                http://www.winegard.com
Transfinite Systems Ltd.          http://www.transfinite.com            Wireless Resources, Inc. http:/www.gowireless.com
Transvision                       http://www.visionuplink.com           Worldspace Corporation http://www.worldspace.com
Trimble Navigation, Ltd.          http://www.trimble.com                Xicom Technology            http://www.xicomtech.com
Tripoint Global                   http://www.tripointglobal.com
Triumph Communications            http://www.trimuphco.com
TRW Space & Electronics           http://www.trw.com
TSI Telsys                        http://www.tsi-telsys.com
TV Chung Enterprise Co. Ltd.      http://www.tvchung.com
Ultracom                          http://www.ultracompr.com
United Tech. Microelex. Ctr.      http://www.utmc.com
Vertex Comms Corporation          http://www.vertexcomm.com
Verticom                          http://www.verticom.com
Viasat                            http://www.viasat.com
Via Satellite Magazine        http://www.satellitetoday.com/viaonline


         September 2000                                      Unclassified                                 Cal Laurvick

				
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