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					Development through
Entrepreneurship: Thoughts on the
Journey so far




  U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
Professor David Brooksbank

Director of Enterprise
Cardiff School of Management



  U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
Entrepreneurship Policy




 U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP
ACTION PLAN FOR WALES
Why Develop Entrepreneurship?
         • A persistent gap between the levels of
           prosperity in Wales compared with those
           of the UK.
         • GDP per head in Wales is 82.4% of the EU
           average, but in some parts of the country it
           is below 70%.
         • Wales has the second lowest weekly
           earnings in the UK
         • The birth rate of new businesses in Wales
           compared to the existing stock of business
           was at least 30% behind the UK.
         • Wales loses businesses at a faster rate
           than the UK .
  Why Develop an Enterprise Strategy?
• No overall entrepreneurship strategy to ensure
  an integrated approach to the delivery of such
  initiatives
• Low perception of opportunities for new start-
  ups among the general public
• Little incentive to encourage enterprising
  behaviour
• Limited entrepreneurial education and training
• Funding for business support initiatives was
  short term without co-ordinated dissemination
  of best practice
• Business support services were fragmented
  and had limited entrepreneurial content
• There was no consistency of monitoring or
  assessment of impact of initiatives across
  Wales
                                The Entrepreneurial Pathway
                                                             RECOGNISING THE
                                                               OPPORTUNITY
                                                               CHALLENGE
                                                         Develop an Enterprise Culture
                                                       Change        attitudes     towards
                                                        entrepreneurship.
                                                       Embed entrepreneurship      through
                                                        whole educational process
                                                       Widen the horizons of potential and
                                                        actual entrepreneurs
                                                       Stimulate entrepreneurial behaviour
                                                        within communities



        CREATING THE ENTERPRISE                                                                      GOING FOR GROWTH
                CHALLENGE                                                                             CHALLENGE
    Create more start-up businesses and more                                              To increase the number & proportion of
        businesses with growth potential                                                indigenous firms that grow to full potential

     A co-ordinated national programme of start-up                                          Specific initiatives in areas of funding and
      support based on ‘best practice’, that reflects                                         advice which are tailored to the specific needs
      the actual type of support required by the                                              of growth businesses
      different types of business.
Recognising the Opportunity

      THE CHALLENGE

To create a greater awareness of
the opportunities and rewards of
   entrepreneurship in order to
encourage more people to start a
business or to grow the business
  they are in, and to develop a
 greater entrepreneurial culture
      within our institutions,
  communities and businesses.
             Where are we?

 Only 4% of a recent poll of 1,000 adults in
  Wales      described themselves as              an
  entrepreneur
 Only one in eight adults in Wales know an
  entrepreneur personally and one in five would
  like to be an entrepreneur
 Richard Branson was named by over 30% as
  the most famous entrepreneur. Terry
  Matthews was the only Welsh person
  mentioned, but by less than 1%. The only
  women named were Anita Roddick and Linda
  McCartney
 Reasons for people not wishing to become an
  entrepreneur were, ‟I‟m too old‟, ‟it‟s too
  stressful‟, ‟too risky‟, and finally ‟I‟m not made
  that way‟.
   Where do we want to be?

 Need to raise the understanding of
  entrepreneurship and foster a culture of
  creativity, opportunity and entrepreneurship
  as being the norm and a positive life-option
  within Welsh society.
 Wales needs to create an environment
  where, through the right support and
  encouragement, all people have equal
  opportunity to become entrepreneurs.
 Entrepreneurial     education   programmes
  should be seen as a fundamental part of the
  development of an entrepreneurship culture.
 Community enterprises should be fostered to
  act as a bridge for those in disadvantaged
  areas to return into mainstream economic
  activity.
      How do we get there?

 To change attitudes in Wales towards
  entrepreneurship by a continuous National
  Awareness Campaign, presenting business
  and entrepreneurship as positive life-options
 Embed        entrepreneurship        education
  throughout the whole educational process
 Widen the horizons of potential and actual
  Welsh entrepreneurs, exposing them to new
  ideas and opportunities and giving them the
  opportunity to „taste‟ entrepreneurship.
 Stimulate entrepreneurial behaviour within
  local communities         throughout Wales,
  encouraging participation from all parts of
  society.
  Creating the Enterprise

       THE CHALLENGE

  To create a greater number of
 sustainable start-up businesses
in Wales with potential for further
  growth, particularly by under-
  represented groups of society
   such as women, the young,
Welsh language speakers, ethnic
  minorities and retired workers.
      Going for Growth

      THE CHALLENGE

To increase the number of small
businesses in Wales that grow,
    thereby creating wealth,
 employment and opportunity
Entrepreneurship Policy

       UK Action Plan
       EU Green Paper
       Etc.


 U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
Entrepreneurship




 U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
Entrepreneurship Reality




 U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
NEW BUSINESSES CREATED IN WALES IN PAST 2 YEARS
• ART AND DESIGN - CREATE ART WORKS FOR BUSINESSES AND
  TAKE DESIGN CONTRACTS
• BED AND BREAKFAST
• REGISTERED CHILDMINDER.
• CHILD MINDER
• SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
• TRAINING IN BUSINESS AND LIFE SKILLS
• REPAIR HEAVY CONSTRUCTION PLANTS
• CATERING EQUIPMENT ADVISER
• INDEPENDENT FINANCIAL ADVISOR, BOTH TO BUSINESS AND
  PERSONAL
• ENTERTAINMENT – PARTY ORGANISER
• PICTURE FRAMING & RESTORING
•   UPHOLSTERY SERVICES
•   GAS INDUSTRY FITTER
•   HAIRDRESSER SALON
•   PROPERTY DEVELOPMENT
•   HAULAGE ROAD
•   FURNITURE REMOVAL BUSINESS
•   CHILDREN INDOOR PLAYGROUND
•   PROFESSIONAL SERVICE MANAGEMENT SERVICES
•   ONLINE COMMUNITY BUSINESS
•   PRINTING BUSINESS, LOW VOLUME STATIONARY PRINTING
    BUISNESS CARDS AND LETTERHEADS
•   RESTAURANT
•   ITC SERVICE BUSINESS/REFREGERATOR REPAIR/
•   ENERGY SURVEYS
•   ANGLING SUPPLIES/ RETAIL.
•   ENGINEERING CONSULTANCY
•   DESIGN OF AUTOMATIC ASSEMBLY MACHINES E.G WEBDESIGN
    OF MOBILE PHONES
•   RETAIL FRANCHISE BUSINESS
•   CHARTERED ACCOUNTANTS PRACTICE
•   TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
•   BEAUTY BUSINESS, TANNING SALON
•   ACCOUNTANCY FIRM
•   SELLING AGENT; SHE''S SELLING ANTIQUE FURNITURE;
    WHOLESALE FOR SPECIFIC CLIENTS
•   DRIVING INSTRUCTOR
•   STOP MOTION ANIMATOR (E.G. WALLIS AND GROMMIT).
•   LORRY DRIVING, CONCRETE DELIVERY
•   CONSULTING ENGINEER IN ELECTRICAL DESIGN,
•   CHILD MINDER FROM HOME
•   FARMING BEEF ARABLE LAND
•   ENGINEERING PRESSURE VESSELS
•   FARMING, BUYING AND SELLING LIVESTOCK, SHEEP AND CATTLE.
•   HARDWARE RETAIL COMPANY
•   GROUND CARE MAINTENENCE
•   HARDWARE (SELLING BUSINESS)
•   PROPERTY INVESTMENT
• EXPORT CONSULTANCY
• CONTRACT CLEANING-SERVICE INDUSTRY
• CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY, PLASTERING CONTRACTS PLASTERS
  HOUSES AND FLATSS
• CONTRACTING, AGRICULTURE CONTRACTOR
• MOBILE HAIRDRESSINGANTIQUES/ANTIQUES DEALING//
• DISCOUNT REATILS IN ELECTRICALS AND HOUSEHOLD ITEMS
  RETAIL IN DISCOUNT ELECTRICALS AND HOUSEHOLD ITEMS
• HAIRDRESSER
• ELECTRICAL CONTRACTOR
• MANAGMENT ACCOUNTANCY BUSINESS. PROVIDES A
  CONSULTANCY SERVICE''
• A PUB
• COOK SHOP, POTS AND PANS KITCHEN ACCESIRIES.
• HOTEL
• FIT GRAB RAILS AND RAMPING FOR DISABLED
• TRAINING AND ASSESSMENT FOR THE FORESTRY INDUSTRY
• LAND MANAGEMENT
• RIDING STABLES
• HUMAN RESOURCES CONSULTANCY, OFFERS HR ADVICE
  ELECTRICAL ENGINEER, MOSTLY WORK FOR LARGE
  BUSINESSES.
• PAINTING AND DECORATING
• MOBILE AUDIO RECORDING
• IT SUPPORT AND CONSULTANCY
• PUBLIC HOUSE
• AUTIONERING OF LIFE STOCK
• SPORTS RETAIL, IN PARTICULAR, SELLING SNOWBOARDING
  EQUIPMENT
• CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY PROVIDER
• INTERIOR DESIGNERS
• SOLICITORS PRACTICE
• VEHICLE AIR CONDITIONING
• CAFÉ
• SELLING ORAGNIC PRODUCTS HELATH CARE
• COMPUTER MAINTANCE
• MARKERTING MERCHANDISING GOODS TSHIRTS BRANDED
  GOODS SELLING
• TOWN PLANNING CONSULTANCY
• MUSIC LESSONS
•   GRAFFITI REMOVAL BUSINESS
•   CHILD CARE
•   INTERIOR CONTRACT/ CARPET AND FURINTUTRE
•   HAIRDRESSING
•   BED AND BREAKFAST
•   PRIVATE PRACTICE COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOTHERAPIST
•   CATERING-SUPPLY OF FOODSTUFF.
•   PUB RELATIONS AND MARKETING
•   3D GRAPHICS, GRAPHIC MEDIA, GRAPHIC DESIGN ARTIST
•   CONSTRUCTION
•   DOMESTIC FLOORING COMPANY
•   ARTIST, LANDSCAPE, DESIGN, GALLERY COMMISHON
    FREELANCE ARTIST, SPECILISES IN LANDSCAPES, AND
    PRODUCES WORK FOR GALLERIES AND DOES COMMISSIONED
    PAINTINGS
•   CONSULTANCY CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY. WEBSITE FACE TO
    FACE NETWORKING
•   NURSERY FOR PLANTS
•   SATELITE AND AERIALS
•   IT MANAGEMENT CONSULTANCY
•   MAGAZINE PUBLISHING BUSINESS
•   RECRUITMENT
•   STONE MASONARY
•   MAGAZINE
•   DECORATING COMPANY
•   FARMING - ANIMALS
•   STRUCTURAL ENGINEER
•   LEASING AND FINANCING
•   BUILDERS
•   BUSINESS CONSULTING
•   TV PRODUCTION COMPANY
•   WASTE MANAGEMENT
•   TOURIST ATTRACTION - FARM
•   COMPUTER SERVICES
•   HOTEL
•   POTTERY
•   AUTO ELECTRICAL
• MARKETING CONSULTANCY
• BUILDER
• MORTAGE BROKERS
• NAIL TECHNICIAN
• IT SUPPORT FOR SMALL TO MEDIUM SIZED BUSINESSES
• FARMING
• AMUSEMENT CATERING
• BUILDING COMPANY
• HAULAGE
• CARPENTRY BUSINESS
• LETTING FLATS
• PHOTOGRAPHY DESIGN
• MOTOR RACING - BUILD AND HIRE OUT RACING CARS
• HAIRDRESSING
• CONSTRUCTION
• AGENCY FOR OPERA SINGERS, PROMOTE SHOWS SELLING
  TICKETS
• AGRICULTURE: FARMERS: COWS FOR MILK & SHEEP FOR LAMB
•   SECURITY AND PROTECTION BUSINESS
•   PAINTING AND DECORATING
•   MANUFACTURE OF JOINERY PRODUCTS
•   BUILDING NEW DEVELOPMENT
•   FARMING
•   MOTER MECHANIC
•   SOLICITORS
•   TRANSPORT SERVICE
•   RETAIL BUSINESS- LEATHER GOODS RETAIL BUSINESS
•   MARKETING AND INVESTIGATIONS COMPANY / PRIVATE
    INVESTIGATIONS FIRM
•   GENERAL DOMESTIC BUILDING AND CONSTRUCTION
•   HOLIDAY HOME
•   EDUCATIONAL PROJECT MANAGEMENT COMPANY
•   HAIRDRESSING BUSINESS
•   MASSAGE PARLOUR
•   TRAINING CONSULTANCY BUSINESS
•   ADVERTISING SERVICE
•   SINGER FOR HIRE
•   CHILDREN ENTERTAINMENT - MAGICIAN
•   CHILDMINDER
•   PRODUCT DESIGN
•   HOMELOANS BUSINESS AND PERSONAL LOANS
•   ACCOUTANCY SERVICES
•   WATER TREATMENT
•   ESTATE AGENTS - LETTINGS
•   PUBLIC HOUSE, WITH FOOD
•   CONSTRUCTION - SITE INVESTIGATION
•   FREELANCE MUSICIAN
•   TRANSLATION AGENCY
•   CHILD MINDIND
•   BRICK LAYER
•   GARDEN BUSINESS - MAINTENANCE AND DESIGN
•   ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS
•   DATA RECOVERY SERVICES
•   ACCOUNTANCY
•   A DANCING SCHOOL
•   SERVICE PROVIDING HEALTH INFORMATION
•   ACCOUNTANCY
•   RETAIL SHOP/SELLING RECONDITIONED ELECTRICAL
    ITEMS/ANYTHING ELECTRIC
•   PLUMBING
•   COMPUTER REPAIR
•   MINIBUS COMPANY
•   RETAIL GOODS
•   ARTIST
•   TAXI
•   IMPORTING ENGINE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS (FOR RALLY CARS
    AND RACE CARS)
•   BUILDING CONSULTANT/ BUILDING SURVEYOR
•   PRODUCTION AND PUBLICATION OF TECHNICAL DOCUMENTS-
    HANDBOOKS,DATASHEETS,SPARES CATALOGUES
•   MARKETING CONSULTANCY
• DECORATING AND BULIDING CONTRACTORS, HOME
  IMPROVEMENTS
• MEDICAL, GENERAL PRACTICE.
• CARAVAN SITE - INHERITED - 30 CARAVANS
• ITC RESEARCH
• GENERAL PHOTOGRAPHY
• SOFTWARE AND WEB SERVICE AND NETWORKING IN
  COMPUTING. DESIGNERS AND TRAINERS
• FLOORING COMPANY
• JOINERY AND CABINET MAKING
• COFEE LOUNGE
• CONSULTANCY – BUSINESS SERVICES
• LEISURE INDUSTRY – PERSONAL TRAINER
• CARPENTER
• PLUMBING SERVICES
• PROPERTY RENOVATION AND REPAIR
• CLEANING SERVICE
• PHOTOGRAPER/PUBLISHER
•   SELL BLINDS
•   CABINET MAKING/FURNITURE
•   PROPERTY MANAGEMENT AND LEASING OF PROPERTIES
•   PLASTERING
•   IT TRAINING
•   BUILDING COMPANY
•   ARTS AND CRAFT MAKING AND SELLING ARTS AND CRAFT
•   BOOK KEEPING AND ADMINISTRATION. MANUAL BOOK KEEPING.
    PRIMARILY FOR SMALL BUSINESSES.
•   FREELANCE GEOLOGIST
•   PARTY PLANNER
•   ELECTRICAL CONTRACTORS,WIRING BUILDING AND HOUSES
•   GENERAL STORE, GROCERY SHOP, OFF LICENCE
•   GENERAL BUILDING SERVICES
•   CARPENTRY IN CONSRUCTION
•   FARM, AGRICULTURE
•   SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS
Entrepreneurship




  U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
        COPIE
   Community of Practice
Inclusive Entrepreneurship
 The Problem COPIE addresses
• Disadvantaged groups face a wide range of
  barriers to entrepreneurship
• Existing policy on entrepreneurship often
  prioritises high-tech solutions
• There is a huge amount of good practice
• Some Member States have produced a
  comprehensive entrepreneurial ladder out
  of exclusion that works for all target groups
      The COPIE proposition
• To maximise the work of funders,
  practitioners and innovators of good
  practice
• Take lessons from EU programmes like
  Equal
• Develop ACTION PLANS for usable
  Entrepreneurship Policy
    Communities of practice

A group of people who share a common
concern, a set of problems or a passion
about a topic and who deepen their
knowledge and expertise by interacting on
an ongoing basis



Etienne Wenger
Origins of the COPIE tool based
            approach
• Analysis of best practice using the entrepreneurial
  ladder out of exclusion
• Prowess: flagship status assessment from UK
• Development of tool for DG Employment on
  policies measures for micro credit
    Look at experience of 8 target
               groups
•   Formerly unemployed
•   Women
•   Migrants and ethnic minorities
•   50 plus
•   Young people
•   Under 30
•   People with disabilities
•   Social enterprises
    Four tables in the tool
   One page per stakeholder
         Who fills it in?    How many
                             questions?
Page 1   Experts             50
Page 2   Policy makers       30

Page 3   Business advisers   30

Page 4   Entrepreneurs       20
     Results of the European tool
• Rapid appraisal – 4-6 weeks start to finish,
  15 minutes to 30 minutes
• Engages key stakeholders: policy makers,
  business advisers, entrepreneurs
• Generates evidence and data on which to
  base policy dialogue and practical actions
• Comprehensive results that cover all target
  groups
   Regions using the COPIE tool
Phase 1 January -May 2007        Phase 2 December – April 2008
• UK Wales                       Es Basque Country
• D Berlin Mitte                 • Es Andalusia
• ES Asturias                    • Es Extremadura
• B Flanders                     • D Rhineland Palatinate
• P Lisbon                       • D Brandenburg
Phase 1.5 Summer 2007            • Cz Ustecky
• Ireland (Limerick, Longford,   Planned
  Dublin)                        • UK Northamptonshire (EM)
                                 • UK Pendle (NW)
                                 • It Venice
                                 • It Torino
Entrepreneurship
            “Never doubt that a small group of
            thoughtful, committed citizens can
          change the world; indeed, it‟s the only
                  thing that ever has.”

                                            Margaret Mead

  U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D
Entrepreneurship




  U N I V E R S I T Y O F W A L E S I N S T I T U T E, C A R D I F F | A R T H R O F A P R I F Y S G O L C Y M R U, C A E R D Y D D