Translating the Writings
   of the Promised Messiahas
The Promised Messiahas requested that his followers translate his
books and convey them to the entire world. Hadhrat Khalifatul
Masih Vab has renewed this request. Will you respond to their
call in order to gain the pleasure of Allah?
Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih Vab has requested that those who can
assist in the endeavour to translate the writings of the Promised
Messiahas should please come forward to dedicate some of their
time for this most noble and blessed effort.
  •	 Can you translate Urdu into English? If so, please prepare
     a	 sample	 translation	 of	 the	 first	 pages	 of	 Izala-a-Auham	
     (Ruhani	Khaza’in,	Volume	3).	
  •	 Can you assist with proofreading or typesetting?
  •	 Are you willing to devote your time for any other services
     that will assist this noble effort?
Please submit your name, contact information and any translation
samples to the attention of:
Lal Khan Malik,
Amir,	Ahmadiyya	Muslim	Jama’at	Canada	
10610 Jane Street
Maple,	Ontario,	L6A	3A2

Jazakumallah Ahsanal Jaza!
Volume 37 - No 7-9 - July-September 2008

                                                                                                                             Amir Jama`at:
Pearls of Wisdom                                                                                                             Lal Khan Malik
Selection from the Holy Qur’an and Ahadith                                                                      p.2          Chief Editor:
Writings of the Promised Messiah (Peace be upon him)                                                            p.3          Naseem Mahdi
                                                                                                                             English Editor:
                                                                                                                             M. Nadeem A. Siddiq
Guidance from Khalifatul Masih V (May Allah continue to support him)
                                                                                                                             Urdu Editor:
Summary of a Friday Sermon                                                                                      p.4          S.H.Hadi
                                                                                                                             Contributing Editors:
Articles                                                                                                                     Farhan Khokhar
                                                                                                                             Dr. Ijaz Qamar
Humanity: The Acme of Creation                                                                                  p.5
                                                                                                                             Hana Malik
Paradise Lying Under the Feet of Mothers                                                                        p.12
                                                                                                                             Mubashir Khalid
My Mother                                                                                                       p.14         Graphics Layout:
                                                                                                                             Farhan Naseer
Discourses of Hadhrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani                                                                 p.19         Ilyas Khan
                                                                                                                             Jamnik Graphics
Pakistan Jurisprudence on the
                                                                                                                             Web Magazine:
       Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community                                                             p.20         Tahir Azhar
Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in                                                                                    Muzaffar Malik
      Pakistan and Indonesia                                                                                    p.28         Bashir Nasir
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summaries of the sermons or addresses of Hadhrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih V (May Allah continue
to support him).

Articles published in the Ahmadiyya Gazette Canada reflect the views of their respective authors and may not reflect
the views, beliefs and tenets of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama`at Canada.

Table of Contents
The Holy Qur’an
111. You are the best people raised for the good of
mankind; you enjoin what is good and forbid evil and
believe in Allāh. And if the People of the Book had
believed, it would have surely been better for them.
Some of them are believers, but most of them are

                                   (Āl-e-‘Imrān 3:111)

Sayings of the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa
Hadhrat Huzaifara narrates:

The Holy Prophetsa said, “By him who holds my life
in life in his hands, you should enjoin goodness and
you should forbid evil, or a time may come when you
will have to bear Allah’s wrath. Then you will call on
to Him but He will not answer you.”

                          (Tirmadhi Abwab al-Fitan)

2                                                        Pearls of Wisdom
  Selection from the writings of the Promised Messiah (Peace be upon him)

                                          True Fasting
Insofar as I am concerned, I do not leave a fast unless it is likely to cause my death; I don’t feel inclined to
leave a fast. These are blessed days and are the days of the showering of God’s blessings and mercy.”
[Al-Hakm January 24, 1901]
“Ramadhan is a blessed month, a month of prayers.” [Al-Hakm January 24, 1901]
The Purpose of Fasting is Purification
I have already spoken of the Salat. Next in order is worship in the shape of the fast. It is a pity that some who call
themselves Muslims at this time desire to modify these forms of worship. They are blind and are not aware of
the perfect wisdom of God Almighty. These forms of worship are essential for the purification of the spirit. These
people seek to intervene absurdly in a sphere of which they have no knowledge and devise false schemes for
the improvement of a territory that they have not visited. Their lives are devoted to worldly affairs; of spiritual
matters they have no notion. To be moderate in eating and drinking and to bear hunger and thirst are necessary
for the purification of the spirit and promote the capacity for visions. Man does not live by bread alone. To
discard all thought of eternal life is to invite Divine wrath. But it should be remembered that the fast does
not mean merely that a person should abstain from food and drink over a certain period. During the fast one
should be occupied greatly with the remembrance of God. The Holy Prophet, peace be on him, occupied himself
greatly with worship during the month of Ramadan. During that month one should discard one’s preoccupation
with eating and drinking and cutting asunder from these needs should address oneself wholly towards God.
Unfortunate is the person who is bestowed material bread and pays no attention to spiritual bread. Material
bread strengthens the body, and spiritual bread sustains the soul and sharpens the spiritual faculties. Seek the
grace of God, as all doors are opened by His grace. [Speech at the Annual Conference, 1906 pp. 20-21]

The verse: The month of Ramadan is the month in which the Qur’an began to be revealed (2.186); indicates the
greatness of the month of Ramadan. The Sufis have recorded that this is a good month for the illumination of the
heart. One who observes the fast has frequent experience of visions in this month. The Salat purifies the spirit
and the fast illumines the heart. The purification of the spirit means that one may be delivered from the passions
of the self that incites to evil; and the illumination of the heart means that the gates of vision may be opened so
that one may be able to behold God. [Malfoozat, Vol. IV, p. 256-257]

Pearls of Wisdom                                                                                                    3
    (May Allah continue to support him)

Divine attribute Al Muhaimin (the Protector)
              Summary of Friday Sermon Delivered on October 3rd, 2008
Huzooraa discussed the attribute         that he nearly lost his life. Had he   such occasions where God Himself
of “Al-Muhaimin”, in continuation        not been a true prophet from God,      protected him:
of a previous sermon delivered on        he would not have survived these       1. The false murder trial involving
8 August, 2008. The translation of       incidents:                                Dr. Martin Clark
this Arabic word is The Protector,       1. When the Meccans had                2. The criminal case by Police
One Who is a Guardian, One Who              surrounded the Prophetsa’s             in    Deputy     Commissioner
stands as a witness for His chosen          home with the intent of killing        Gurdaspur’s Court
ones and provides security from             him on the eve of his migration     3. A Police case involving Mr.
everything. Al Muhaimin is the One          to Madinah.                            Karam Din in Jehlum
Who brings about peace after fear.       2. When the Meccans reaches            4. Another police case involving
It is this attribute of Allah Almighty      the cave where the Prophetsa           Mr. Karam Din in Gurdaspur
that protects His beloved through           had taken refuge with his           5. At the occasion where the
miraculous events, and those who            companion.                             police searched his house,
benefit the most are prophets of         3. During the Battle of Uhud, when        investigating the murder of
God, whose truthfulness is thus             the Prophetsa was left by himself      LekhRam.
revealed to the world at large. In          surrounded by the enemy.
this sermon, Huzooraa elaborated                                                At all these occasions the opponents
                                         4. When a Jewish woman served          were      unsuccessful.     Huzooraa
on this attribute by narrating some         large amounts of poison to the
incidents from the chronicles of                                                briefly elaborated on the trial of
                                            Prophetsa in a meal.                Martin Clark, explaining that he
Ahmadiyya history.                       5. When the Ceasar of Persia,          was a missionary doctor. A young
The Promised Messiahas states that          Parvez, had intended to have        man of dubious nature, who
he has received every blessing of           the Prophetsa killed and sent his   was a conventional liar and who
God due to his complete obedience           soldiers to arrest him.             frequently changed his religion
to his Master, the Holy Prophetsa,       The fact that Holy Prophetsa           from one to another, accused the
and God chose him to reveal the          emerged victorious on all counts is    Promised Messiahas stating that he
truth about the Holy Prophetsa and       a proof in itself that he was a true   was the one who had asked this
his message of Islam to the world        Prophet of God and that God was        young man to murder Dr. Martin
in this day and age. He said that        with him at every step of the way.     Clark. During the proceedings of
the Holy Prophetsa encountered                                                  this trial, the opponents webbed
five such occasions in his life where    The Promised Messiahas states that
                                         he himself was faced with five         a grand conspiracy to implicate
he was threatened to the extent
4                                                                               Guidance from Hadrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa
the innocent victim, but Allah
Almighty informed the Promised
Messiahas that He would safeguard
him from all harm. And so it
happened that he was released
with all due respect. The Magistrate
himself declared to an employee
of the court that an angel seems
to protect this man from all harm.
Thus, the truth was revealed in
favor of the Promised Messiahas.
During     this    trial,  Hadhrat
Khalifatul Massih II was also told

in a vision that God shall never
forsake His beloved.                                    O my Lord! Every thing is your servant!
                                                               O my Lord! Protect me!
Huzooraa mentioned that the
Promised Messiahas has written
                                                           Help me! and have mercy on me!
in his book Haqeeqatul Wahi,
that during the case filed against          Hadhrat Mirza Bashir Ahmadra           village by the name of Pherochichi.
him involving Mr. Karam Din in              has also writes about how God          When he reached there, he saw the
Jehlum, he used to recite the               Himself was the Guardian of the        Khalifa in the company of another
following prayer fervently:                 Promised Messiahas. He was skilled     man who was carrying a gun.
                                            in swimming and horseback riding.      Thinking that this was not the right
Lord, everything serves Thee;
                                            At one occasion, while swimming,       occasion to attack the Khalifa, he
then Lord protect us and help us
                                            he almost drowned but was saved        went home, where he ended up
and have mercy on us.
                                            by an older man, who he had never      killing his own wife and thus was
[As a side note, Huzooraa said that         seen before and never saw again in     hanged to death. These are not mere
in a dream recently, he was also            the surrounding area. At another       coincidences, but the help of God
indicated that he should advise             instance, he was riding a horse that   that protects His chosen people.
the Jamaat members to recite this           became uncontrollable, so much so      Huzooraa also narrated an incident
prayer frequently.] Then Huzooraa           that it crashed into a tree, which     from Fiji. When the Ahmadis there
narrated a few revelations of the           proved to be fatal for the horse,      tried to set up a mission house, they
Promised Messiahas in which God             but the Promised Messiahas was         were faced with much opposition,
Almighty has promised that He               miraculously saved without any         and were threatened that their
shall protect him and safeguard             injury.                                mission house would be set on
him against all the challenges he
                                            Hadhrat Khalifatul Massih IIra         fire. When one amongst these
faces from his opponents, such
                                            narrates an incident from his own      opponents, by the name of Abu Bakr
that he shall emerge victorious at
                                            life about a man who was charged       did manage to lit the mission house
all occasions.
                                            with the murder of his wife. This      on fire, the fire was miraculously
Huzooraa narrated the situation             man had taken the impression           extinguished, leaving little or no
the Promised Messiahas was faced            after listening to Ahmadi orators      harm. But in result of a prayer by
with at the time of his father’s            that the Ahmadis were opposed to       an Ahmadi man, the house of Abu
demise and how God comforted                and hostile towards every religion.    Bakr was burnt down as a sign of
him with the words “Is Allah not            So he originally set out with the      God for His beloved.
sufficient for His servant?”, which         intention of killing the Imam of       Huzooraa ended the sermon with a
wiped away all emotion of fear and          the Ahmadis, and thus went to          prayer that may Allah keep us away
grief that the Promised Messiahas           Qadian, where he found out that        from all harm and protect us from
was feeling.                                the Khalifa was in another             all sorts of evil. Ameen.
Guidance from Hadrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa                                                                             5
Humanity: The Acme of Creation
Shahab Ahmad, Edmonton, Canada

     What a piece of work is man! How        and pollinate, each of these           submit to Adam, which they did
    noble in reason! . . .In apprehension,   creatures is well-equipped with the    (Holy Qur’an 2:35; 7:12).
               how like a god!               necessary faculties to accomplish      According to the Holy Prophet
            -William Shakespeare             these purposes.[1] In relation to      Muhammad (sa)
          (Hamlet, Act 2, Scene 2)           all of God’s creatures, humankind
                                             represents the acme of God’s           “God created Adam in His own
“What does a fish know about the                                                    image.”
water in which he swims all his life?”       creation.
          -Albert Einstein                   Humankind has been created in          “ The make of man is better than
                                             order to perform the highest and       the animals.”
                                             noblest of tasks, namely, to worship    The Bible is in agreement with
               Introduction                  God and to endeavour towards the       these above Hadith:
God, The Most Wise, has not                  emulation of His attributes. (Holy     “And God said, ‘Let us make man
created anything in vain (Holy               Qur’an 2:139, 11:3, and 51:57). To     in Our image’, so God created man
Qur’an 3:192). For example, to a             humankind God conferred His trust      in His own image.” (Genesis, 1:26-
casual observer, insects creeping            (Shariat), a trust which was offered   :27).
in farms and gardens appear to               to the heavens, the earth and the
serve no purpose. However, for               mountains, but they refused to bear    As the image of God is superior to
agriculturists, such insects serve a         it (Holy Qur’an 33:73). For this       any other image, the superiority
tremendous purpose which cannot              reason, God declares:                  of humankind over all of God’s
be matched by even the most                                                         other creation is clear. Due to this
                                                 Who creates and perfects.          superiority, God has placed all of
sophisticated technology. Without                  (Holy Qur’an 87:2)
these insects, the sustaining of plant                                              creation in the service of man (Holy
life would be impossible. When we            Surely, We have created man in the     Qur’an 14:33-34; 16:13-15;45:13-14
reflect upon the shape and form of                  best of creative plans.         and Genesis, 1:26).
humanity and all of the animals on                   (Holy Qur’an 95:5)             Scientific research has confirmed
land and sea, we must be impressed           Indeed, according to the Holy          the superiority of humankind. This
by the display of the wisdom of God          Qur’an, God informed the angels        paper will describe the scientific
and concede that He has bestowed             of His decision to appoint Adam        findings in this regard supporting
upon everything its appropriate              as His first vicegerent (Khalifa) on   the Holy Qur’an and the relative
and perfect faculties for the                the earth (Holy Qur’an 2:31); and      superiority of humankind to the
achievement of their particular              taught him the attributes of God,      rest of God’s creation.
purpose (Holy Qur’an 20:51, 32:8).           language and knowledge of nature,      Scientists   have    studied    the
While an ox carries loads and                most of them unknown even to           differences between humans and
ploughs, camels travel through               the angels (Holy Qur’an 2: 32-33).     the great apes (gibbon, orang-utan,
deserts and bees produce honey               God then ordered the angels to         gorilla and chimpanzee.       After
6                                                                                                 Man: The Acme of Nature
humans, these apes are considered        ‘Baseer’ used here for man have         the food closer and within reach.
to be the most intelligent and           never been used by the Qur’an           Some chimps are even capable of
sophisticated animals. Humans and        for animals. This is to point out       using a short stick to draw closer
the great apes were compared on          the differences between hearing         a longer stick, and then using the
the basis of their (1) basic motives,    and seeing of man and animals.          longer stick to reach the food.
(2) senses, (3) tools, (4) farming and   Animals only hear voices and see        Where food is placed overhead,
storing, (5) art, (6) language and (7)   objects around them; they do not        exceptionally clever chimps are
transfer of learning.                    follow their true meanings. On the      capable of stacking multiple boxes
           Basic Motives                 other hand, humans understand           on top of each other and climbing
                                         what they hear and see. It must be      them. Also, chimps can use sticks
Hunger, thirst and copulation            pointed out that the words – Samee      to pry open box lids and to dig roots
are amongst the basic motives            and Baseer - used in the Holy           from the ground and use straws to
of both humanity and the ape             Quran for men are also for God          draw in columns of ants in order to
world. While apes eat food to            as well. This also shows his high       eat them.
satisfy their pangs of hunger, only      station.”[4]
humanity understands the danger                                                  Regarding the making of tools,
of starvation. [2] Similarly, while      Only humans are capable of              Benjamin Franklin was the first to
both humans and apes drink in            seeing see the visible part of          suggest that humankind is the only
order to satisfy their thirst, only      the electromagnetic wave and            tool-making species.       However,
humans understand the dangers            recognizing all of the colours,         after much careful observation, this
of dehydration and the necessity of      namely, violet, indigo, blue, green,    assertion has since been debunked.
water for survival. Both apes and        yellow, orange and red, and their       For example, the famous studier
humans possess the urge and desire       different combinations. Humans          of chimps and gorillas, Jane van
to copulate with their respective        also see and recognize shades of        Lawick Goodall (1971) observed
mates. However, only humans are          brightness and darkness. However,       that, in the wild, chimps were not
cognizant of the fact that copulation    many animals cannot see or              only able to use objects as tools
potentially results in pregnancy         recognize colours, and those that       but also were capable of making
and procreation. [3]                     do, can only do so for a small few of   modifications to these objects thus
                                         the colours. No animal is capable       demonstrating the crude beginnings
Breathing is distinguished from          of seeing all of the seven colours      of tool-making. For example, they
eating, drinking and copulation          referenced above. Further, only         used grass stems and leaves to
on the basis that it is done             humans can use a microscope and a       draw out termites from mounds.
unconsciously. Neither animals nor       telescope, while animals do not.        However, according to Khroustov
humans appear to make any effort                                                 (1964), although a chimp could split
to breathe. However, humans are               Tools: Use and Making
                                                                                 off and soften pieces of softwood
ever-aware that the deprivation of       Prior to the 20th century, many         with its teeth, it was never capable
oxygen will result in suffocation        believed that only humans used          of understanding the use of a hand
and death.                               tools. However, in the 20th century,    axe on tougher wood for this same
           Sense Organs                  the use of tools by some animals        purpose even though the use of
                                         was discovered. Out of all of animal    such an axe was demonstrated for
Of seeing and hearing, the Holy          life, chimpanzees (chimps) are the
Qur’an says:                                                                     it numerous times. [5]
                                         most sophisticated users of tools.
[T]hen We turned him into a              According to Dr. Kohler’s extensive     Humans also use and make
hearing, seeing being. (Holy Qur’an      studies (1927), chimps capable of       tools. During the “Stone Age”,
76:3)                                    using a wide range of tools quite       humans invented stone stools
                                         spontaneously. For example, while       and even performed surgery with
In his commentary of the above                                                   them.    Eventually, simple tools
verse, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II       locked in a cage with food placed
                                         just beyond their reach, chimps         became highly complex ones.
(ra) stated as follows:                                                          The technology of today merely
                                         employ the use of sticks to draw
“The Arabic words ‘Samee’ and                                                    represents complex combinations
Man: The Acme of Nature                                                                                             7
of earlier simple tools. Unlike        extent the artist is able to succeed     combination answering to that of
humans, apes are incapable of the      in communicating, he or she must         ideas into thoughts.” [8]
invention and development of           use the accepted conventions of          According to this definition, only
tools.                                 the culture in which he or she is        humankind has been bestowed with
Although birds and bees are            working. By contrast, after the use      the faculty of language or speech.
capable of building nests and hives,   of pencil, brush and paper were
                                       demonstrated to chimps, even             Other animals are capable of
over the centuries, the design and                                              communication. For example, bees
architectural structures of nests      though they produced art without
                                       further assistance, such art were        are renowned for their ability to
and hives has not developed or                                                  communicate through movement
improved. By contrast, humankind       primitively aesthetic and lacked
                                       the imitative or representational        and dance. However, this form
is capable of producing the likes                                               of movement and dance is not a
of the Taj Mahal and other great       element of human art. To date,
                                       no animal has been successful            mode of communication that is
architectural   and     engineering                                             taught from one generation of bee
wonders of the world.                  at drawing even a crude picture
                                       or outline of any object. On the         to another, but rather, is inherited
       Farming and Storing             other hand, even a human child’s         genetically.
Bees have been producing honey         scribbles quickly become imitative       Parrots are famous for their ability
in exactly the same manner             and representational. [7]                to imitate and repeat human words
for centuries.         By contrast,                 Language                    and phrases. But with great effort
humankind’s farming techniques                                                  and training, Alex, a famous African
have continuously developed and        According to the Holy Qur’an,            parrot, was able to memorize no
improved based on experience and       God taught humanity how to               more than 90 words and could
knowledge. While rats and dogs         communicate through the use of           only to count to 6 with little more
hoard and store their food, they       language. For example, the Holy          than 80% accuracy. [9] By contrast,
do not protest when their food is      Qur’an states,                           even the most uneducated humans,
stolen.     By contrast, humans             He taught him the skill of          without any training, can speak
undergo much effort to protect                  expression. (55:5)              multiple languages and can count
their storage of food. [6]             In principle, the Bible supports this    to much higher numbers than 6.
                Art                    when it states,                          As stated previously, chimps are
Historically, only humans were         “And out of the ground the Lord          the most comparable to humans
believed to be capable of producing    God formed every beast of the            in intelligence and sophistication.
art. However, in the 1950’s, it was    field and every fowl of the air;         A consensus of psychologists
discovered that monkeys and            and brought them unto Adam to            agree that Bonobo Chimpanzees,
apes were capable of producing         see what he would call them: and         also known as “Pygmy Chimps”
drawings and paintings.                whatsoever Adam called every             (discovered in Zaire in 1920), are
                                       living creature, that was the name       the most intelligent of the apes.
Human art is (1) aesthetic and (2)                                              Despite extensive training by Sue
communicative.      The aesthetic      thereof. And Adam gave names
                                       to all cattle, and to the fowl of the    Savage-Rambaugh and her team
element is only for the enjoyment                                               (1981), a Pygmy Chimp was unable
and satisfaction of the artist and     air, and to every beast of the field;”
                                       (Genesis, 2:19-20).                      to progress in learning beyond that
the viewers. It has no utilitarian                                              of a two and half year old human.
purpose.    But in most human          According to Henry Sweet, an             [10]    Based on this and other
art, the artist clearly represents     English phonetician and language         studies, scientists have concluded
and communicates something to          scholar,                                 as follows,
viewers. For example, a photograph     “Language is the expression of
or a drawing represents an                                                      “It seems safe to say that human
                                       ideas by means of speech-sounds          language, as it is now understood,
individual, an important building,     combined into words.      Words
or an historical scene. To the                                                  can be numbered among the
                                       are combined into sentences, this        unique adaptations of our species,
8                                                                                             Man: The Acme of Nature
                                                                                 and imitation.
                                                                                 While some may argue that the

    “It seems safe to say that                                                   differences between humans and
                                                                                 animals are only of degree, the
                                                                                 Promised Messiah (as) stated
    human language, as it is now                                                 that, at some point, differences in
                                                                                 degree become differences in kind.
    understood, can be numbered                                                  Otherwise, one should consider
                                                                                 the difference between a rain drop
                                                                                 and an ocean, or a grain of sand
    among the unique adaptations                                                 and a desert, as differences only of
    of our species, and one that is                                              Causes of Man’s Superiority over
    not shared with any of the rest                                              The origin of the superiority of
                                                                                 humanity’s superiority over all of
            of the animal kingdom.”                                              creation is both (1) physiological or
                                                                                 organic and (2) social.
                                                                                 Physiological or Organic
and one that is not shared with any     Where humans could not express           The physiological origins of
of the rest of the animal kingdom”      themselves      in  words,   they        humankind’s superiority emanate
[11]                                    employed the use of graphs and           from the nature of the human
“Language is a natural, biological,     illustrations. When these were           sperm drop and the human brain.
and unique feature of human             insufficient, humans employed            For example, according to the Holy
beings,” [12]                           equations. Human language and            Qur’an
                                        expression is ever-developing
“Language, as described, is species-                                             “We created man from a mingled
                                        and ever-evolving. Based on the
specific to man. Other members                                                   sperm-drop which we cause to pass
                                        foregoing, humans have been
of the animal kingdom have the                                                   through trials.” (Holy Qur’an 76:3)
                                        bestowed with a unique ability to
ability to communicate, through         express themselves through the           In his commentary of the above
vocal noises or by other means, but     varied use of language.                  verse, Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih II
the most important single feature                                                (ra) stated as follows:
characterizing human language                 Transfer of Learning or
                                                   Knowledge                     “The verse points out that man is
against every known mode of
                                                                                 created from a sperm-drop which
animal communications, is its           Humans possess the unique ability
                                                                                 itself is mingled or a mixture of
infinite productivity and creativity.   to teach and transfer knowledge
                                                                                 several constituents. It is because
Human beings are unrestricted           from person to person, generation
                                                                                 of the mixed sperm-drop that every
in what they can talk about; no         to generation, and society to society.
                                                                                 person has different type of sperm-
area of experience is accepted          Through language, humans are
                                                                                 drop within him. This differentiates
as necessarily incommunicable,          able to transfer knowledge in a
                                                                                 every person from others. And
though it may be necessary to adapt     matter of seconds through media
                                                                                 every person possesses different
one’s language in order to cope         (i.e., newspaper, television, radio,
                                                                                 faculties and powers, enabling one
with the new discoveries or new mode    internet). By contrast, as animals
                                                                                 person to progress in one branch
of thought. Animal communication        do not possess language, animals
                                                                                 of knowledge and the other in
systems are by contrast very tightly    are unable to transfer knowledge in
                                                                                 another branch.      For example,
circumscribed in what may be            the same manner as humans, and
                                                                                 one person is more competent in
communicated.”[13]                      can only do so through observation
                                                                                 mathematics, the other in physics
Man: The Acme of Nature                                                                                             9
and so on. It is because of these       appearance     of    the    human      intelligence (as shown by comparing
individual differences that different   brain.”[15]                            humans with animals on the
individuals are adding to different     “And what distinguishes the            above mentioned abilities), there
branches of arts, science, etc, and     human brain is the relative size of    is reason for assuming that there
we are far advanced than our            the cerebral cortex, the quarter-      must be some sort of relationship
forefathers. On the other hand,         inch-thick covering of gray matter     between our intelligence and these
animals are created only of sperm-      on the lobes and hemispheres of        association areas. If man does have
drop, not of mingled sperm-             cerebrum. Only in human beings         some unique intellectual ability, it
drop like us; therefore there is        is the cerebral cortex so large in     may very well be the association
no individual difference among          relation to the body size. The         areas of the cortex that provide the
them. They follow their ancestors       human cerebral cortex is further       seat for it.” [17]
in a stereotyped way. It is because     distinguished by its great quantity    “We human beings, no more than
of this that every species of           of foldings and refoldings, valleys,   a few pounds of protein and water,
animal possesses the same power         and ridges, all of which increase      have come to understand the
and faculty that their ancestors        the surface area of the cortex and     origins of the universe, the nature
possessed and they are where they       allow a maximum amount of gray         of life and even a few things about
were centuries ago.”[14]                matter to be packed within the         ourselves. No other animal, and
According      to   the     above       confines of the skull. The brains      not even the most sophisticated
commentary, as the constituents of      of lower mammals, with relatively      computer knows as much.”[18]
the human sperm drop are highly         smoother cortex, have less surface                   Social
varied relative to other species,       area and less gray matter. Most
human capacity and sophistication       scientists agree that the unique       Animals do not socialize to the
is greater.                             abilities of the human brain are       same extent as humans; animals
                                        directly attributable to the cortex.   do not form societies or bonds
Regarding the      human brain,                                                of relationship to the extent that
scientists have    concluded the        The powers of speech and written
                                        language, for example, reside there    humans do. For example, animal
following,                                                                     mothers only provide for the
                                        and separate us from other animals.
“The human’s brain case is by far       These powers go hand in hand with      physical needs of their young.
the largest in capacity, having three   thinking - observing, analyzing,       Except for some bird species, male
times the capacity of the largest       and integrating experiences to         animals do nothing for their young.
brained ape…. Not only do we have       solve problems – planning ahead,       Further, the period of contact of
a large brain, but when compared        and imagining what may happen          young animals with their mothers
to the brains of lower animals, we      in the future.” [16]                   is relatively short compared to
find that most of the growth                                                   humans as young animals gain
of our brain has been in one            “Further, compared to rats, cats,      independence at a very early
portion of it – the cerebrum. The       monkeys, the human association         age. After gaining independence,
massive cerebrum dominates the          area is the largest and since we       animal parents and children
                                        have the most highly developed

10                                                                                           Man: The Acme of Nature
maintain no contact.                     survive by being able to learn how                     22, p.548

In stark contrast to animals, the        to behave in almost any ecological                9.   James Trefil, Are We Unique, John Wiley
relationship between a human             niche, and by being able to construct                  and Sons, Inc., 1997, p. 56

mother and child lasts much              our own niches.” [19]                             10. Ibid, pp. 59-60
longer,      and     even      after                      Conclusion                       11. Ibid, p. 60
independence, continues. Human           This article sought to confirm,                   12. Alison Gopnik, et al., The Scientist in the
fathers have relationships with          through the results of scientific                      Crib, William Marrow and Company
their children, family bonds,            research,   the    superiority    of                   Inc., New York, U.S A., 1999, p.19
both immediate and extended,             humankind over all of God’s
are maintained for decades and                                                             13. Enc. Britt. Mac., 15th Edition, p. 549
                                         creation.    Based on extensive
generations.      Further, human         scientific   research,    scientists
                                                                                           14. Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad,
relationships extend beyond family       confirm the position of the Holy
                                                                                                Tafseer Kabeer, Vol. 1, pp. 292-93
and tribe, and are made up of entire     Qur’an regarding the superiority of               15. Donald D. Davis, The Unique Animal,
communities and societies.               humanity.                                              p. 22

Regarding the relatively longer          Endnotes:                                         16. Reader’s Digest, ABC’s of the Human
time taken for humans to establish                                                              Mind, The Reader’s Association Inc.,
                                         1.   Ahmad,         Mirza     Ghulam,      The
independence, Jerome Bruner                                                                     Pleasantville, New York, Montreal,
                                              Philosophy of The Teachings of Islam,
states,                                                                                         1990, p. 62
                                              Islam International Publications Ltd.,
“The long period of protected                 London, United Kingdom, 1996, p.57           17. Donald D. Davis: The Unique Animal,
                                                                                                pp. 22-23
immaturity allows children to            2.   Don. D. Davis, The Unique Animal,
learn about their specific physical           Prytaneum Press, London and New              18. Alison Gopnik, et al., The Scientist in the
environment        (we       humans           York, 1981, p. 149                                Crib, p. 3
can survive in more different                                                              19. Ibid, p.9
                                         3.   Ibid, p. 150
environments, including outer
                                         4.   Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmood Ahmad:
space, than any other creature).
                                              Tafseer   Kabeer,    Islam   International
Even more significant, it allows
                                              Publications Ltd., London, United
children to learn about their specific
                                              Kingdom, 1986, Vol. 1, p. 293
social environment (we organise
ourselves into more kinds of             5.   Donald, D: Davis, The Unique Animal,
                                              pp. 23-24
social groups than other creature).
Other species survive by having          6.   Ibid, p. p.147
elaborately developed instincts          7.   Ibid, pp. 29-35
that are exquisitely adapted to their
                                         8.   Enc.Britt, Mac. 15th Edition, 2002, Vol.
particular ecological niche. We

Man: The Acme of Nature                                                                                                                 11
Paradise Lying Under
the Feet of Mothers
Sadaf Shah

All Muslims are aware of the           impending deluge appear, such as        improvement is never-ending. When
famous Hadith of the Holy              the gathering up of dark clouds and     we acquire the habit of constant
Prophet     Muhammadsa      which      strong winds. Similarly, prior to the   renewal, then upon overcoming
states, “Paradise lies under the       coming of summer, spring blossoms       one      bad     habit,   we      will
feet of your mothers.” During his      emerge. When people begin to gain       discover     another,    and     then
sermon of July 27, 1991, Hadhrat       piety, visible changes occur in them    yet     another,    and     so    on.
Mirza Tahir Ahmadrh, Khalifatul        which are positive.                     This journey is sure to lead us ever-
Masih IV, explained that “when it      Never-Ending Self-Improvement           closer to Allah.
is said that Paradise is under the                                                 Portraying the Best Model
feet of mothers it does not mean       We all desire to convey the light
that there is Paradise under           of Islam to the world, but if this      According to Hadhrat Khalifatul
every mother’s feet. It means that     light is not present within us, then    Masih IVrh, mothers must present
if Paradise can be attained by         we cannot convey it to others.          to their children a model to look
subsequent generations, it can         Therefore, we must recognize            up to and emulate. Children learn
only be attained through mothers       and examine our weaknesses              by mimicking and copying their
who themselves have become             objectively. According to Hadhrat       parents, and as the mother is a
a heavenly sign and paradise           Khalifatul Masih IVrh, when we are      child’s primary caregiver, she is
has become manifest in their           unaware of our own flaws, we focus      that child’s primary model to learn
appearance. The progeny of such        our attention in finding flaws in       from and emulate.       Therefore,
mothers is bound to belong to          others and we engage in self-praise.    parents must portray the best
Paradise.”                             Generally, we avoid looking at our      models for their children to learn
                                       own weaknesses intentionally or         from
           Loving Allah                unintentionally, and we present         Parents      must      relinquish
How does a mother become               a lustrous façade portraying            contradictory habits that can be
a    “heavenly     sign”?        By    ourselves as charming and superior      damaging to the upbringing of
illuminating herself with the love     to others. Our reveling in our          their children. Even the subtlest
of Allah, and devoting all her         greatness would end the moment          behavior can have profound
efforts to the attainment of this      our flaws are revealed to ourselves     consequences.      For example,
glorious goal. According to            and we would cease to sing our          mothers teach their children
Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas,          songs of self-praise.                   to always speak the truth.
the Promised Messiah, the love of      Instead     of     searching    for     However, many mothers tell
Allah is not a fictitious thing. Its   deficiencies in others, we need to      their children little lies in
signs become evident in people         look for them within ourselves.         order to convince them to go
within whom pure changes begin         Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IVrh           to bed or do certain things.
to occur. For example, before          explained that this journey of self-    Such behavior is contradictory
a heavy rainfall, signs of the
12                                                                             Paradise Lying Under the Feet of Mothers
and extremely damaging as it               values is to instill the love of Allah,   will certainly find Paradise beneath
teaches children that they need            the Holy Qur’an, and the Holy             their mothers’ feet.
not tell the truth in all                  Prophet Muhammadsa in children.                      Conclusion
circumstances.                             If one loves Allah, then one
                                           loves piety and pious people.             As explained by Hadhrat Khalifatul
Instill the Love of Allah, the Holy                                                  Masih IVrh, Paradise is not
  Qur’an and the Holy Prophetsa            Accordingly, one will seek to adopt
                                           the traits of pious people and            automatically found under a
Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih IVrh              inculcate their habits.                   mother’s feet. In order for Paradise
advised that mothers should not                                                      to be found under her feet, she
only protect their children from           Homes in which the Holy Qur’an            must first become a heavenly sign
negative influences, but also instill      is not read, recited or taught            to her children by loving Allah and
positive values. Even if children          are desolate and thus will breed          seeking pious habits, constantly
shun social evils, unless they             desolate progeny. The sound               correcting her flaws, endeavoring
possess positive values, they will be      of the recitation of the Holy             to be an ideal model of piety, and
raised in a vacuum which is bound          Qur’an heard from a mother’s lap          instill the love of Allah, the Holy
to be filled by mischief and evil.         should echo in every child’s ears.        Qur’an and the Holy Prophetsa.
The means for conveying positive           Such children are the ones who

       And	We	have	enjoined	on	man	concerning	his	parents-his	
       mother bears him in weakness upon weakness, and his
       weaning	 takes	 two	 years-	 ‘Give	 thanks	 to	 Me	 and	 to	 thy	
       parents.	Unto	Me	is	the	final	return.
                        -The Holy Qur’an Chapter 31 Luqman Verse 15

Paradise Lying Under the Feet of Mothers                                                                              13
My Mother
Munir Ahmad Malik, Phoenix Arizona USA

My dear mother Zohra Begum,             any more ask and request her to         Sahib, who had an auto business
whom I always called “Ameejee,”         pray for me or my family and            in Dera Doon, India. He had
passed away at the age of ninety        children. Not only did I lose my        accepted Ahmadiyyat the true
years on March 30, 2003 at 4:30 PM      mother, but I lost my best friend. I    Islam at the hand of Hazrat Mirza
local time in her residence at 104-H    also lost the best shield that I had,   Bashirudin Mahmood Ahmad
Model Town Lahore, Pakistan.            which always protected me with          Khalifatul Masih IIra. Ameejee,
Inna lillah wa inna ileha rajaoon.      her kind, constant prayers, whether     on the one hand was a very kind
Being a Moosia, she was buried in       I ask for them or not.                  hearted, loving women (especially
Bahishti Maqbra, Rabwah Pakistan.       In remembrance of my Ameejee            very kind and caring to poor people)
May Allah be pleased with her           I am writing this article for two       but at the same time she was the
and grant her the highest status        reasons:                                best murabbi for her children, an
in Janatul Firdous. Amen. In the                                                outstanding organizer, a strong
last few days of her life, all of my    First, to request all my brothers       administrator, and above all a strict
brothers and sisters were present       and sisters who read this article       time keeper. She was very particular
with her, except for I, who was         to kindly pray for my mother that       about performing each activity
here in the USA.         I had an       may Allah grant her the highest         at its proper time each day. In my
opportunity to meet and visit her       status in Janatul Firdous, as she       early days of childhood and later
with my wife about three months         played an outstanding role in           in life, I remember vividly a series
prior to her demise.                    the tarbiyyat (moral training) and      of incidents where Ameejee played
                                        development of her children to          a very important role in a very
 I got the sad news of her death by     make them good Ahmadis.
phone in the early morning of our                                               simple way that helped and guided
local time in Phoenix Arizona USA       Second, my purpose is to briefly        all of us, my brothers and sisters
which immediately triggered in          narrate some specifics from her life    and I, to have respect and love
my mind and heart the recollection      so that it may become a source of       for each other, to obtain higher
of events and incidents over a          tarbiyyat for young parents, and        education, to shape our lives
period of more than fifty years.        especially mothers.                     successfully, and develop love and
No matter how old one’s parents         My Ameejee originally belonged          devotion for Jama’at Ahmadiyya
are, their final departure from this    to the small town of Chakwal,           and Khilafat e Ahmadiyya.
world is very hard to accept. It is     Pakistan. She had formal school         One of the most distinctive features
always very difficult to absorb this    education up to the fifth grade.        of Ameejee’s daily life was that she
sudden shock for anyone, and I          She was of a very simple nature         always used to recite Bismillahir
was no different. I was struck with     and she always wished well for          Rehmanir Raheem loudly while at
the thought that my mother who          others with a clean heart. Her          the beginning of any work. It may
raised me and made me what I am         father (my maternal grandfather)        be cooking, serving meals, making
today is no more with us and I cannot   was Khawaja Mohammed Amin               us wear clothes, or any other work

14                                                                                                         My Mother
and all my siblings and I were          perform our five daily prayers and        to go to the mosque as it might harm
repeatedly reminded to do the           recite the Holy Qur’an regularly. It      my school work, but to no avail. On
same and adopt this as a permanent      was the routine at our home that at       religious issues and on tarbiyyat
practice in our lives. I heard this     dinner time, Abajaee would ask my         matters Ameejee never interfered
from Ameejee so many times in my        mother to confirm if all of us children   in the directive Abajee had given
life as a child and while growing       had performed our five daily              to their children for the compliance
up, that it became embedded in          prayers at the proper times and if we     of our obligations, and Ameejee
my head and has become a second         followed the prescribed schedule          would fully support Abajee
nature of mine to do the same for       of all activities for the day such, as    in all his efforts for the
anything that I start working on.       helping Ameejee in her work or            tarbiyyat     of   their    children.
She always advised us that if you       playing sports etc. Ameejee was           I strongly believe that Abajee’s
start any work with the name of         very kind hearted, very caring,           efforts for our tarbiyyat were
God, the Gracious and Merciful,         and loving normally. However,             successful by the grace of God for
He will make it easier for us. By the   when our father enquired at               the only reason that our mother
grace of God, I have exercised this     dinner time from her if we five           wholeheartedly supported Abajee
habit all my life and every time it     children (3 brothers and 2 sisters)       in his humble efforts for their
has     worked     for    me     and    had offered our five salats at their      children.      It was the norm for
strengthened my belief. Ameejee         designated timings, she would             Ameejee to always refer us to
was very vigilant as mother in          not hesitate for a second in telling      Abajee for the final decision on
discharging her responsibilities        if any of us had missed any salat.        any extraordinary demand that
dutifully. She always kept a very       Although she knew well that her           we children made. On special
close      eye     on      relatively   true statement sometimes will put         issues such as going out of town,
“small”      matters,    such      as   us in deep trouble when we were           or staying late with friends,
minute details pertaining to            not in complete compliance of our         Ameejee told us in plain and simple
hygiene and health. She made            father’s daily instructions, she          words that we could proceed with
sure that we cut our nails regularly,   would always tell the true fact of        our plan only and only if we have
brushed our teeth, took a shower        the matter. Concerning religious          received     Abajee’s     permission.
every day, and had our hair cut         obligations Abajee was very               Ameejee would never secretly
in a timely fashion and to keep         strict and would not tolerate it if       grant her permission for anything
ourselves very clean.                   we missed any of our five daily           without      the    knowledge      or
Back in 1988, I had written an          prayers. In case we had missed any,       permission of Abajee.
article about my father Malik           we were directed to immediately           This reminds me that how true it
Bashir Ahmad Sahib (deceased)           get up from dinner and complete           is that the mother and father are
whom I called “Abajee”. In my           all the missing salats entirely and       like the two wheels of a vehicle and
article I had indicated that my         loudly in front of our parents before     one wheel cannot work without
father was very disciplined and         we could join them for dinner.            the help of the other wheel. That is
had the utmost love for Jama’at and     Abajee always used to offer               what I saw all my life growing up
Khilafat e Ahmadiyya. He also had       Fajar, Maghrib and Isha prayers           at home. Mother and father being
keen interest in the tarbiyyat of his   in congregation at Islamia Park           the two wheels of a vehicle need
children, but his humble efforts        Lahore Mosque and the same was            to work very closely for the happy
would not have been successful          expected for the boys at home. Our        and successful journey of life. In
and fruitful without the prayers        mosque was about three blocks             life, no matter how fast or efficient
and complete and absolute support       away from our home and we used            one wheel may be, it will not go
of Ameejee.       Abajee routinely      to walk to the mosque. Many times         anywhere without equal help and
gave all us children a religious        as a child the idea crossed my            active and sincere participation of
assignment of memorization of           mind to make an excuse and                the other wheel. That is how my
Qur’anic prayers and such in            request my Ameejee to plead my            Ameejee acted all her married life
addition to strictly having us          case to Abajee for allowing me not        – in the best interest of her children

My Mother                                                                                                            15
                                                                                   everything in a timely manner was
                                                                                   her specialty and she always carry
                                                                                   the table clock “Big Ben” with her
                                                                                   from room to room, or room to
                                                                                   kitchen, to make sure that her next
                                                                                   activity was also completed in a
                                                                                   timely fashion.
                                                                                   In daily life she always taught us
                                                                                   that cleanliness is part of our faith
  Thy Lord has commanded, “Worship none but Him, and show                          and we should demonstrate and
  kindness to parents. If one of them or both of them attain old age               reflect it in our personal hygiene
  with thee, never say unto them any word expressive of disgust nor                and in all our activities. She was
  reproach them, but address them with kind words. “And lower to                   also very strict in the matter that
  them the wing of humility out of tenderness. And say,                            we always put things in the proper
               ‘My Lord, have mercy on them                                        designated places. This habit that
       even as they nourished me in my childhood.’”                                Ameejee developed in her children
                       - The Holy Qur’an Chapter 17 Bani Isra’il Verses 24-25      proved to be a great asset for me at
                                                                                   home and at work and enhanced
and in complete obedience and             old and I became sick with some          my efficiency in discharging all my
compliance of her husband’s desire        ailment. The doctor prescribed           responsibilities. It also saved me
and ambitions for the tarbiyyat and       some very expensive shots to cure        from many troubles and headaches
well being of their children. By          the ailment that we could not afford     in my life. Now I am trying to teach
doing this, in my view she earned         to buy with our normal budget.           the same habits to my children.
the title of being the best wife for      When Abajee told Ameejee about           Ameejee had a very special, kind
her husband and an outstanding            the prescribed shots and expressed       and generous heart for the poor
mother for her children.                  his financial inability to purchase      women workers working at our
 Now being a father of four children      the shots, my dear Ameejee on            home.      She was always very
myself, I realize how important           hearing this, immediately took off       watchful for their personal needs
this principle is which my mother         her gold wedding bangles and gave        and helped them financially very
followed strictly, and it reflected       them to Abajee to sell them off and      frequently, or helped them with food
her true love for all of us and this      buy for my the medicine. Abaajee         or clothing whenever necessary.
gave us the real gift of tarbiyyat.       did so and I was cured by the Grace      After completing my M.Com
I remember Hazrat Mirza Tahir             of God.                                  Degree from University of Punjab
Ahmed Khalifatul Masih IVrh in            It was Ameejee’s daily routine to        Pakistan, I started working for
one of his sermons regarding              wake up early in the morning,            National Bank of Pakistan as an
tarbiyyat said that the best gift         usually half an hour before Fajar        officer.   She constantly always
or ornament that a mother can             prayer and start the day with            reminded me to take care of
give to her children is the gift          Tahajjad Nawafal, then Salat ul Fajar,   the needs of the workers and to
of good tabiyyat. Like any good           followed by the recitation of Holy       provide them with extra help and
mother Ameejee’s love, devotion,          Qur’an. By the time we came back         money when they were sick, or for
selflessness, and her sacrifice for her   from the mosque and finished             the wedding of their daughters,
children was remarkable. In this          our recitation of Qur’an, breakfast      or to help them to find a job.
regard I cannot forget one incident       would be ready, and we all would         In compliance with Ameejee’s
which brings tears in my eyes even        eat together in the Kitchen at the set   directive and desires I always
today when I am writing this article,     time every single day. This would        tried to follow this to the best of
even after half a century has passed      give us children enough time to          my capabilities by the sheer Grace
by. This relates to me personally         prepare to leave for school and for      of God. Ameejee continued this
when I was around ten years               Abajee to leave for his work. To do      practice and kept reminding me
16                                                                                                            My Mother
regularly, even after my migration          always remember to be ready to            family system with his younger
to the USA in 1979 in her personal          make sacrifices for their sisters.        brothers and sisters. On hearing
letters to me.                              This attitude of Ameejee and its          this Ameejee immediately stopped
Despite the very limited resources,         practical demonstration worked            her in her conversation on this
Ameejee’s keen sense of hospitality         positively in developing great love,      topic with the strict advice “Do not
was remarkable. With Abajee the             affection and desire of sacrifice for     say anything against your husband
only earning member and all five            our sisters.                              or about his family, Allah Talh
brothers and sister going to school         Ameejee was very fair with                does not like it.” My sister says
and colleges, it was sometimes a            everyone and treated us equally           that with this one sudden and
financial strain to cope with the           and would not let any brother             strong sentence spoken by Ameejee
needs of the guests who used to             or sister take advantage of the           she learned something valuable
visit us very frequently, as we were        situation. There was a period of          for her whole life, and was always
living in a major town, Lahore.             time that my phupho (sister of            very respectful to her husband and
As a boy I was responsible for all          my father) had to move in with us         toward his family and God blessed
outside chores, and sometimes I got         permanently. She and her daughter         her enormously for this.
irritated and tired as I had to walk        lived with us when her husband            My Ameejee had a very strong
a long distance to bring groceries,         passed away. In all those years I         desire for her daughters to receive
whatever Ameejee wanted at odd              noticed very vividly that Ameejee         equal opportunity in pursing
hours to serve the guests as there          would treat our cousin sister, who        higher education.         Her dream
was not refrigerator at home in             was of our age, like her daughter         was completely fulfilled by the
those days to store the things. No          and would never discriminate              Grace of God as both of my sisters
matter what, Ameejee would put              against her in any way.                   graduated from the university of
forth her best efforts to work with         Like any good mother, Ameejee             Punjab Pakistan with honors. They
a smiling face and never let the            had a great, real love and affection      also won merit scholarships in each
guests feel we missed anything or           for her own children, but the most        class starting from fifth grade to the
that the guests were not fully taken        pleasant aspect of her life was to        level of University and both retired
care of in their needs and comfort          demonstrate the same true love,           from executive positions in the
properly.                                   respect, affection and devotion for       field of girls’ education. Ameejee
Ameejee was very mindful to create          her sons in laws and daughters in         was very proud of the fact that her
and develop love and respect for            laws and their loved ones. All her        daughters were highly educated,
our two elder sisters, who have been        life she with her clean heart and in      but she was also equally ambitious
very caring and loving us younger           her most simple of ways, always           for the tarbiyyat of their children.
siblings. She always treated all            prayed for them all the time, for their   Ameejee had a very strong belief in
the boys and girls equally and              health, well being and prosperity.        prayers and she inculcated this very
never discriminated in any form or          Let me mention here one incident          important habit in her children at
shape. As a child I remember that           that was narrated to me by my             an early age. Regarding prayers,
on some silly or petty matter if I or       elder sister which shows Ameejee’s        she always reminded us that Allah
my brothers had an argument with            wisdom, vision and a beautiful way        Tallah listened quickly to children
my sisters, in all those situations         of communicating an advice to her         as they are innocent. In this regard,
no matter what the circumstances            daughter with the golden principle        I remember that when I was in the
that arose, Ameejee always stood            of successful marriage. Once, my          fourth grade, Ameeje wanted to
firmly taking the side of the sister with   sister was visiting home to see our       buy a sewing machine so she could
one sentence that I have heard from         parents after her marriage. In her        sew clothes for her children and
her repeatedly in my life. It was           conversation with Ameejee she             become a source of financial help to
this: your sisters are elder and an         tried to express some anguish and         her husband with our tight budget
elder sister is like a mother and           point out some of the things that         situation.    With financial strain
younger brothers must be very               she did not like in her husband’s         and limited income, there was no
respectful to their sisters and             home, who was living in a joint           money available to buy the sewing
My Mother                                                                                                                17
machine. She asked me many times        When my wife, my two children             at their proper times and expected
to pray that she may be able to buy     at that time, and I migrated to the       the same from her children.
the sewing machine. As a child I        USA in 1979 with the permission           Recitation of the Holy Qur’an every
was very concerned and sad that         of my parents, I had to go through        morning was the part of her daily
Ameejee could not buy the machine       a very difficult time in the early        routine. Ameejee had a great love
so I started praying regularly and      stages, and the only thing that           for the Holy Prophet Muhammadsa
only two or three weeks passed by,      kept me going in this very odd            and always recited durood sharif
when Allah Tallah, with his             and awkward situation was the             frequently. In her young age, she
mysterious ways miraculously            blessing of having full faith in          had once seen the Holy Prophetsa
opened the door for her and she         prayers, which was taught to me in        in her dream and any time she
got her desired Singer Sewing           my early childhood by my Ameejee.         narrated that dream to us, her eyes
Machine. This made me so happy          In this very challenging time, I          used to glitter with happiness and
and it strengthened my belief in        asked my wife and children to pray        I could see enormous pleasure and
the power of prayers at very early      for a miracle that we could settle in     enjoyment on her face, that she had
age. The same habit of prayer           this country successfully. Without        been blessed with the opportunity
which my dear Ameejee inculcated        giving the details of my difficulties,    to    see    Hazrat    Muhammad
in me in her beautiful way helped       I also wrote to my parents with           Mustafasa in her dream. She was
me all my life and I have been          the humble request for prayers.           very proud to be an Ahmadi and
reaping the benefits through            At the time I wrote to my parents,        always wanted to raise her children
prayers and enjoying the blessing       they had no idea of the challenges        with great love and respect for the
of prayers abundantly. This same        I was facing, what were in plans          Jama’at and Khalifatul Masih.
message I have been imparting to        or efforts, or what type of work I        May Allah be pleased with her and
my children, as emphasized by           was looking for. In response to my        enable us to follow in her footstep
Hazrat Masih Maudas, the reformer       request for prayers, Ameejee wrote        in bringing up our children with
of this age, that everything will get   me a letter in which she narrated a       their proper tarbiyyat that they may
accomplished through prayers.           dream that she had seen the night         all become true Ahmadis. Amen.
In my childhood days there was          before about me. In her dream Allah
                                        Tallah foretold my Ameejee that I         Rabir ham huma kama Rabba Yani
no cell phone or easy means of                                                    Saghira
communication, and transportation       will be getting a job in the mining
was very limited. Any time Abajee       business and Allah Taalah with            “O my Lord have mercy on my
arrival from work became late           His Mercy and Kindness also               parents as they raised me from my
and he did not come home at the         informed told her the salary I will be    childhood!
regular time, and the delay was         offered for such a job. Alhamdulillah
out of the ordinary,       Ameejee      Sum Alhamdulillah I got that job
would quietly go to the prayer rug,     as per Ameejee’s dream, in that
and would simply start Nawafal          industry, for that pay. I have worked
prayer, to pray for Abajee’s welfare    for the same company for the last
and for his return home safely.         28 years, despite the fact the mining
                                        business has gone through some
With my Ameejee I have seen             very difficult times in many cycles.
and experienced all my life in          In all that time, many employees
many varied incidents that God          were laid off in the difficult years of
Almighty with His sheer Mercy           business but Allah Tallah saved me
and Benevolence blessed her with        in all circumstances and I continue
the gift of acceptance of her prayers   to work there with the prayers of
and He also bestowed her with           my Ameejee.
true dreams. Let me narrate here
an interesting incident which may       Ameejee was very particular about
shed more light on this issue.          performing her five daily prayers

18                                                                                                          My Mother
 Discourses of Hadhrat Sheikh
 Abdul Qadir Jilanira

Hadhrat Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilanra             attention of every Muslim under all     your separate ways; feel love for
(1077-1166) is renowned as the                 circumstances:                          one another, not mutual hate; make
Mujaddid (Reviver) of the 5th century          •    a commandment to be obeyed;        yourselves pure, free from the
AH. Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmadas,              •    a prohibition to be respected;     blemish and stain of sin, adorning
the Promised Messiah and Mahdi,                     and                                yourselves with obedient service
stated that, of all of the great Sufi saints   • a divine decree to be accepted        to your Lord; from your Master’s
of Islamic history, Hadhrat Sheikh                  with good grace.                   door do not walk away, nor
Abdul Qadir Jilanira bore the greatest         Even in the most trivial situation,     refrain from devotion to Him; in
spiritual resemblance to him. Indeed,          at least one of the three is bound to   repentance do not delay, and never
in a vision granted to him by God, the         apply. The Muslim must therefore        weary of apologies to your Creator
Promised Messiahas witnessed himself           keep his mind and feelings focused      at any hour of night or time of day.
standing next to the Sheikhra and noted        upon them, talk to himself about        Then perhaps mercy will be yours,
that they were both of the same height.        them, and practice the physical self-   and happiness; far from the fire of
Throughout his adult life, dozens of           discipline they require of him at all   Hell removed, you may be allowed
scribes transcribed all of the Sheikh’sra      times.                                  the joys of Paradise, brought into
discourses, lectures and sermons. These                                                the presence of Allah, immersed
                                                      Second Discourse on              in bliss . . . in the Abode of Peace
transcripts would later be presented to               sharing good advice
him for his personal review, editing and                                               . . . and be exalted in the company
approval for publication. The volumes          The Sheikhra said:                      of the Prophets (al-Anbiya), the
containing these transcripts would             Follow the example of the Holy          Truthful (as-Siddiqun), the Martyrs
be named and published during his              Prophet Muhammadsa without              (al-Shuhada) and the Righteous (al-
lifetime. Futuh-al-Ghaib (Revelations          concocting innovations; obey, do        Salihun).
of the Unseen) is one such publication,        not turn renegade; affirm the Unity
which comprises a collection of 78             of Allah, ascribing no partner
of his discourses. The editors of the          to Him; assert the immaculate
Ahmadiyya Gazette Canada are pleased           nature of His truth, entertaining
to present a series of these discourse.        no doubts; profess your belief,
These discourses were translated               without complaining; endure with
from their original Arabic by Muhtar           patience, not getting upset; hold
Holland (Al-Baz Publishing 1992).              your ground, not turning to run;
  First Discourse on the essential             make your needs known, without
     tasks of every true Muslim                venting frustration; wait and watch,
                                               never yielding to despair; behave
The Sheikhra said:                             like brothers, not like enemies;
Three things inevitable demand the             unite in obedience, instead of going

Discourse of Hadhrat Shaikh Abdul Qadir Jilani                                                                          19
 Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious
 Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community
 M. Nadeem Ahmad Siddiq

           Introduction                  possessing a regressive agenda)           Muslim community . . . will
This paper provides a brief historical   were an undesirable element in            vanish.
overview of the legislative and          Pakistan.2 For example, in his            You are free; you are free to go
jurisprudential treatment of the         address to the first session of           to you temples, you are free to
religious freedom of the Ahmadiyya       Pakistan’s Constituent Assembly,          go to your mosques or any other
Muslim Community in Pakistan.            Jinnah called upon the assembly           place of worship in this State of
Although immediately after its           to:                                       Pakistan. . . . You may belong to
creation, Pakistan unequivocally           [R]emember that you are now a           any religion or caste or creed --
guaranteed the protection of the           Sovereign Legislative body and          that has nothing to do with the
rights of its religious minorities,        you have got all the powers.            business of the State. . . . We are
including       the      Ahmadiyya         . . . You will no doubt agree           starting in the days when there is
Community,       eventually,     such      with me that the first duty of          no discrimination, no distinction
protection deteriorated until it           a Government is to maintain             between one community and
resulted in the complete denial of         law and order, so that the life         another, no discrimination
Ahmadi religious freedom.1                 property and religious beliefs of       between one caste or creed and
Prior to the independence and              its subjects are fully protected        another. We are starting with
partitioning of India and the              by the State. . . . If you change       this fundamental principle that
creation of Pakistan in August             your past and work together in          we are all citizens and equal
1947, its advocates and founding           a spirit that everyone of you,          citizens of one State.3
fathers expressed their intention to       no matter to what community          According to former Chief Justice of
guarantee the freedom of belief, the       he belongs, no matter what           Pakistan, S.A. Rahman, the repeated
practice of religion, the rule of law,     relations he had with you in         assurances to religious minorities
due process and equal protection,          the past, no matter what is his      in Pakistan meant that they would
and     pledged     a     progressive      colour, caste or creed, is first,    enjoy religious freedom and would
legislative agenda.        The first       second and last a citizen of         receive generous rather than
Governor-General and Founder               this State with equal rights,        merely egalitarian treatment.4
of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali                  privileges and obligations, there
                                           will be no end to the progress       To date, the history of the religious
Jinnah,     made       unambiguous                                              freedom of the Ahmadiyya Muslim
statements regarding the proposed          you will make.
                                                                                Community in Pakistan consists of
constitutional framework and               I cannot emphasize it too much.      three distinct historical phases:
legislative agenda for Pakistan.           We should begin to work in that
He envisioned a non-theocratic             spirit and in course of time all     (i)   unequivocal guarantee of
nation where religious practice            these angularities of majority       protection of freedom of religion
was safeguarded and where                  and minority communities,            and religious minorities, including
mullahs (self-styled religious clerics     the Hindu community and the          Ahmadis (1947-1973);

20                                            Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community
(ii) beginning of a deterioration        provided unequivocal protection           have incited the agitation with
in this guarantee caused by an           of freedom of religious beliefs. In       a political rather than religious
undue deference to the formal            1952, in Moula Bux v. Charak5, the        motive.7
constitutional amendment process         Sindh Chief Court held that:              In 1956, Pakistan adopted its first
prescribed by the Constitution              [I]t is well-settled law, and one of   Constitution which guaranteed the
(1974-83); and                              the fundamental principle [sic]        fundamental rights of all citizens
(iii)    complete capitulation to           of the Muhammadan [Islamic]            to profess, practice, and propagate
extra-constitutional       regimes          law itself, that no Court can          any religion. Article 18 of the 1956
and regressive religious groups             test or gauge [sic] the sincerity      Constitution reads as follows:
resulting in the complete denial of         of religious belief, and in order        Freedom to profess religion and to
the religious freedoms of Ahmadis           to hold that a person was Sunni          manage religious institutions. --
(1984-present).                             Muslim, it was sufficient for
                                            a Court to be satisfied that he        Subject to law, public order and
This paper will describe each of                                                   morality, --
these three historical phases.              professed to be a Sunni Muslim.
                                            It is not permissible to [sic] any     (a) every citizen shall have the right
      Unequivocal Protection                Court to enquire further into the      to profess, practice and propagate
            (1947-73)                       state of mind and the beliefs of a     his religion; and
The period between 1947 and 1972            person who professed to belong         (b) every religious denomination
represents a period of protection           to a particular faith and inquire      and every sect thereof shall have
of the religious freedom of                 whether his actual beliefs             the right to establish, maintain and
religious minorities, including the         conformed to the orthodox              manage its religious institutions.
Ahmadiyya              Community.           tenets of that particular faith. .
However, the extent of the political        ..6                                    In 1957, the Pakistan Supreme
importance of religion at this time                                                Court received its first opportunity
                                         As Pakistan’s various religious           to rule on the nature and scope of
was yet undetermined. Seizing            orthodox groups were incapable
this uncertainty as an opportunity,                                                religious freedom as enunciated
                                         of agreeing upon even the most            in Article 18, and interpreted the
the mullahs (who had opposed             basic theological questions, anti-
the creation of Pakistan) began to                                                 phrase “subject to law” contained
                                         Ahmadi sentiment was fostered             therein. In its decision, the Supreme
exert pressure upon the Pakistan         by the mullahs in order to create
Government to establish a theocratic                                               Court rejected the notion that this
                                         an issue of unifying force,               phrase allowed that fundamental
state.                                   namely, the excommunication               rights could be retracted by
In order to stem the mullahs’            of the Ahmadis. As the Pakistan           legislation.8
mobilization of mass support, in         Government resisted the mullahs, in
1949, the Pakistan Government            1953, the mullahs staged explosive        Following the coup d’etat in 1958, the
sought     a    compromise      with     riots against Ahmadis. In these           1956 Constitution was abrogated.
them by passing the “Objectives          riots, Ahmadis were massacred             The new 1962 Constitution initially
Resolution” which constituted a          and looted and their properties           omitted fundamental rights, but
statement of intent regarding the        destroyed. Government authorities         the First Amendment Act of 1964
content of the future Constitution       came down heavily upon the rioters        reinstated    these    fundamental
of Pakistan. This resolution was         and arrested, tried and imprisoned        rights, including freedom of
deliberately worded as a vague           the mullahs who instigated the riots.     religion, using terms identical
pledge to incorporate Islamic            Neither the Pakistan Government           to those which were previously
principles into the Constitution but     nor the Judicial Inquiry which            articulated     in      the      1956
also envisaged the guaranteeing          investigated the matter blamed            Constitution.
of complete religious freedom for        the riots on the Ahmadis nor on           In 1969, in Shorish Kashmiri v.
religious minorities. Within this        their religious beliefs, but placed       West Pakistan9, the Lahore High
context, superior courts fashioned       responsibility on the shoulders           Court enforced the constitutional
doctrines     that   unhesitatingly      of the mullahs who were found to          guarantee of religious freedom
Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community                                            21
                                          DECLARATION IN CASE OF MUSLIMS
               I, …………………………………………………….. S/o……………………………………………..Age…………………….

       Years, adult Muslim, Resident of………………………………………………………………………………………………………….

       hereby solemnly declare that:

                (1)    I am Muslim & believe in the absolute and unqualified finality of the prophethood of Muhammad (peace be
                       upon him) the last of the prophets.

                (2)    I do not recognize any person who claims to be a prophet in any sense of the word or any description
                       whatsoever after Muhammad (peace be upon him) or recognize such claimant as prophet or a religious
                       reformer as a Muslim.

                (3)    I consider Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Quadiani to be an imposter Nabi & also consider his followers whether
                       belonging to t he Lahori or Quadiani Group to be Non-Muslim.

                              Present Full Address                                                  Signature/thumb impression
                                                                                                         (Name in block letters)

                                                                                       Identity Card No.
                                                                                       Place of Issue

                (Applicable in cases of person who have not attained the age of 18 years and are not issued with Identity card
       under the National Registration Act, 1973).

               I, as Father/Guardian/Attestor, hereby attest that the information given above is correct to the best of my
       knowledge and belief.

                                                                             Signature of Father/Guardian/Attestor


                                                                             Identity Card No.
                                                                             Place of Issue

by rejecting the right of anyone to          pointed out that the petitioners’                   for themselves is beyond our
refer to Ahmadis as non-Muslims              argument:                                           comprehension? Certainly not
and further held that no grounds                [O]verlooks the fact that                        by terrorising them.10
existed for declaring Ahmadis as                Ahmadis as citizens of Pakistan             Most noteworthy is the Lahore High
non-Muslims or for an injunction                are also guaranteed by the                  Court’s comprehensive study of the
against Ahmadis calling themselves              Constitution the same freedom               primary and secondary sources of
Muslims. In rejecting the assertion             to profess and proclaim that                Islamic law and the conclusion that
that freedom of religion protects               they are within the fold of                 “freedom of thought and conscience
the right to refer to Ahmadis non-              Islam. How can the petitioners              could not have been guaranteed
Muslims, the Lahore High Court                  deny to others what they claim              in clearer terms.”11 Further, the

22                                                   Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community
instances where Ahmadis were              Within this context, in order to          to law” referred to Islamic law.
labeled apostates and were victims        spur the Government to act in             Regarding Article 260(3), the Lahore
of violence were described as “sad        their favour, in 1974, the mullahs        High Court could not question its
instances of religious persecution        initiated a second-wave of anti-          validity but deemed it as merely
against which human conscience            Ahmadi riots, where, again,               retrospective in character.      The
should revolt, if any decency is left     Ahmadis were victims of horrible          Lahore Court stated it was obliged
in human affairs.”12                      acts of violence and murder. Before       to follow an earlier Pakistan
In addition, the period between           public order could be restored,           Supreme Court decision which
1947 and 1972 was an era where            Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto                held that, provided the procedure
international codes of freedom            capitulated to the mullahs’ demands       to amend the constitution was
of religion were deemed relevant          and the Pakistan Parliament               followed, the judiciary was
and binding on Pakistani law. The         enacted the amendment to the              precluded from opining on the
Pakistan Government and Judiciary         Constitution,      Article    260(3),     substance of such an amendment.18
consistently applied and upheld           declaring the Ahmadis to be non-          In other words, as long as it
these international standards.            Muslims. Also, this amendment             followed the prescribe procedure,
                                          lead to changes to electoral laws         the legislature was deemed to have
    Deterioration of Protection           resulting in separate electorates for
            (1974-1983)                                                             the power to amend or abrogate
                                          Muslims and non-Muslims, as well          even the basic structure and
In 1970, Pakistan held its first free     as to passports explicitly indicating     essential     features     of    the
democratic elections.     In these        religious denomination.13                 Constitution. Therefore, despite
elections, the parties intent on          In 1976, not satisfied with the           providing      a   judgment     that
establishing an Islamic theocracy         designation of Ahmadis as non-            was primarily in favour of the
were decimated and Zulfikar Ali           Muslims, in Mobashir v. Bokhari14, the    Ahmadiyya        Community,       by
Bhutto was elected Prime Minister.        mullahs sought a court injunction         deferring to the constitutional
In 1973, the current Pakistan             against Ahmadis in order to               amendment process, Pakistan’s
Constitution was adopted and              prohibit them from calling their          Judiciary began its retreat from
freedom of religion was protected         places of worship masjid (mosque),        its tradition of unequivocally
pursuant to Article 20, articulated       calling the adhan (call to prayer),       protecting religious freedom for
identically    to  the     previous       performing salat (prayer) and             Ahmadis and other religious
Constitutions.                            reciting the Holy Qur’an. The             minorities.
Rather      than     developing       a   Lahore High Court denied the              For the time being, Ahmadis
democratic               participatory    petition by stating that the right        were allowed to freely profess
framework, Prime Minister Z.A.            to hold certain religious beliefs         and practice their faith as Islam.
Bhutto sought to establish a              and opinions is a religious one           However, commentators described
hegemonic single-party dominated          and cannot be called into question        the constitutional amendment
civilian structure. In order to achieve   or adjudicated by a civil court.15        declaring Ahmadis as non-Muslim,
this, civil and political rights were     In rendering this judgment, the           and its judicial validation, as
diminished and the federal system         Lahore Court held fast to the notion      detrimental to the future of equal
undermined. This resulted in Prime        that a court cannot pronounce             citizenship rights and as having
Minister Z.A. Bhutto alienating           on the truth of religious tenets          opened the floodgates to the
himself from progressively secular        or to regulate religious rites or         storm which was to arrive in the
and democratic forces. To counter         ceremonies16 and thus refused to          1980’s.19
his rapidly declining support and         subject the Ahmadis to further
to bolster his political legitimacy,      religious intolerance and interfere         Complete Denial of Protection
Prime Minister Z.A. Bhutto began          or curtail their profession or                    (1984-present)
to placate the religious orthodoxy        practice of their faith.17 Further, the   In 1979, a military coup d’etat made
by reintroducing the relevance of         Lahore Court rejected the argument        General Zia-ul-Haq the President
religion in public policy.                that the Article 20 limitation “subject   of Pakistan. He instituted a martial

Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community                                             23
law regime claiming a divine            may extend to three years, and shall      cannot greet anyone with the
mandate to establish a theocratic       also be liable to fine.                   greeting Asalaam-o-Alaikum (peace
state.20 In this context, a third-      (2) Any person of the Quadiani            be unto you); write any Islamic
wave of anti-Ahmadi violence            group, or Lahori group (who call          terminology on invitation cards
was unleashed under the garb of         themselves “Ahmadis” or by any            for ceremonies; use the term
leadership by the Tehrik Khatm-         other name) who by words, either          Bismillah (in the name of God) on
e-Nabuwwat      (Movement      for      spoken or written, or by visible          their stationery; display a Qur’anic
the Finality of Prophethood).           representation, refers to the mode        phrase anywhere; recite the Quran
The new martial law regime              or form of call to prayers followed       aloud; offer Janaza (funeral prayer
readily complied with all of            by his faith as “Azan”, or recites        for the dead), or in any way display
the demands of this movement            Azan as used by the Muslims, shall        the Kalima Shahada (basic Muslim
and, on April 26, 1984, issued          be punished with imprisonment of          declaration that “There is no god
Ordinance XX which amended              either description for a term which       but God, and Muhammad is His
Pakistan Penal Code Section 298-B       may extend to three years, and shall      Messenger”) on their persons,
and 298-C. This amendment to            also be liable to fine. . . .             jewelry, buildings or gravestones.21
the Pakistan Penal Code reads as                                                  Moreover, Ahmadis cannot pray,
follows:                                [Pakistan Penal Code Section]             call the adhan, refer to their houses
                                        298-C.     Person of the Quadiani         of worship as masjids (mosques) or
[Pakistan Penal Code Section] 298-B.    group, etc., calling himself a Muslim
Misuse of epithets and titles etc.,                                               practice any tenet of their Islamic
                                        or preaching or propagating his faith:    faith.    In short, Ordinance XX
reserved for certain holy personages    Any person of the Quadiani group
or places: (1) Any person of the                                                  makes every aspect of an Ahmadi’s
                                        or the Lahori group (who call             life illegal and subject to criminal
Quadiani group or the Lahori group      themselves ‘Ahmadis’ or by any other
(who call themselves ‘Ahmadis’ or                                                 punishment. Although the above
                                        name), who, directly or indirectly,       acts are equally committed by
by any other name) who by words,        poses himself as a Muslim, or calls,
either spoken or written, or by                                                   the Sunni Muslim majority, and
                                        or refers to, his faith as Islam, or      thus are not, in and of themselves,
visible representation, --              preaches or propagates his faith, or      acts which are subversive or pose
(a) refers to or addresses, any         invites others to accept his faith, by    any law and order threat, they
person, other than a Caliph or          words, either spoken or written, or       are illegal only when committed
companion of the Holy Prophet           by visible representations, or in any     by      Ahmadis.     Amongst       the
Muhammad (peace be upon                 manner whatsoever outrages the            prohibitions     enforced      against
him), as “Ameer-ul-Mumineen”,           religious feelings of Muslims, shall      Ahmadis was the illumination
“Khalifa-tul-Mumineen”, “Khalifa-       be punished with imprisonment             of their homes with lights
tul-Muslimeen”, “Sahaabi” or “Razi      of either description for a term          and       the     distribution      of
Allah Anho”;                            which may extend to three years           sweets on the occasion of the
(b) refers to, or addresses, any        and shall also be liable to fine. . . .   centenary of their community held
person, other than a wife of the Holy   Ordinance XX, section 2 expressly         in Rabwah 1989, a village with
Prophet Muhammad (peace be              overruled all previous case law           an over 90% Ahmadi population
upon him), as “Ummul-Mumineen”;         regarding      religious   freedom.       further underscoring the lack of a
(c) refers to, or addresses, any        A further military ordinance,             law and order threat.22
person, other than a member of the      Ordinance XXI, changed the                In order to effect its complete
family of “Ahle-Bait” of the Holy       punishment against Ahmadis from           capitulation to the mullahs, the
Prophet Muhammad (peace be              “up to three years” imprisonment          Pakistan Government enacted
upon him), as “Ahle-Bait”; or           to “up to ten years” imprisonment         Pakistan Penal Code Section
                                        for anyone who outrages “the              295C, known as “the Blasphemy
(d) refers to, or names, or calls his   religious feelings of any citizens of
place of worship as “Masjid”; shall                                               Law”. According to the Blasphemy
                                        Pakistan.”                                Law:
be punished with imprisonment of
either description for a term which     Under Ordinance XX, Ahmadis               Whosoever      by    words,     either
24                                             Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community
                                                                                laws prohibiting murder, assault,
                                                                                battery and vandalism, the Pakistan
    At         Pakistan’s                 inception,                 all        Court further legitimized acts of
                                                                                intolerance and discrimination

    religious minorities in Pakistan                                            against Ahmadis thereby justifying
                                                                                disorder, chaos and violence.

    were                accorded                      complete                  To justify its decision, the Pakistan
                                                                                Supreme Court misapplied and
                                                                                misrepresented the case law of
    religious freedom.                                  Initially,              other common law jurisdictions,
                                                                                particularly the United States. The
    when Ahmadis were the victims                                               Pakistan Court represented United
                                                                                States case law as supporting the
                                                                                curbing of religious freedom in
    of extremist violence, the state                                            the name of preserving public
                                                                                order. However, all of these cases
    enforced law and order and                                                  dealt with neutrally-worded laws
                                                                                of general application, and they

    the Ahmadis were afforded                                                   stand for the proposition that a law
                                                                                which is discriminatory (either
                                                                                in its wording or in its legislative
    protection. The courts rejected                                             intent)     must      be     subjected
                                                                                to the strictest scrutiny and
    attempts to declare Ahmadis as                                              should consequently be struck
                                                                                down.       As Ordinance XX is
                                                                                both          facially-discriminatory
    non-Muslims, and denied the                                                 and       was       enacted       with
                                                                                discriminatory       intent,   United
       right to refer to them as such.                                          States case law cannot be cited as
                                                                                support for the constitutionality of
                                                                                Ordinance XX.
spoken      or   written,   or   by      pursuant to Article 20 of the          In addition, the Pakistan Court held
visible representation, or by            Constitution. The Pakistan Court       that Islamic phrases and epithets
any imputation, innuendo, or             held that Ahmadis could not            are, in essence, a copyrighted
insinuation, directly or indirectly,     practice their faith as Muslims and    trademark of the Islamic religion
defiles the sacred name of the Holy      could not peacefully engage in         and that Ahmadi usage of such
Prophet Muhammad (peace be               any Islamic practices and customs      them      constitutes      copyright
upon him) shall be punished with         as, by doing so, they would excite     infringement. The Pakistan Court
death.”23                                and incite the religious feelings of   cited United States trademark law
                                         the Sunni Muslim majority thus         even though United States case
As Ahmadi belief is considered
                                         provoking violence against them.       law explicitly states that religious
by the mullahs as heretic and
                                         Peaceful Ahmadi activities and         phases and epithets are generic in
thus blasphemous, Ahmadis are
                                         practice were deemed incendiary,       nature and cannot be trademarked.
charged under this law merely for
professing their faith.                  provocative and thus insulting         Further, the Pakistan Court decided
                                         to ordinary Muslims. While this        its case on the basis that the
In 1993, in Zaheeruddin v. State24,      judgment was rendered under the        “subject to law” limitation in
the Pakistan Supreme Court held          guise of seeking to protect public     Article 20 of the Constitution
Ordinance XX to be constitutional        order, instead of enforcing criminal
Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community                                         25
referred to Islamic law and that           asserted that, “when an Ahmadi          of speech and peaceful assembly.28
Ordinance XX complied with this            or Ahmadis display in public on                       Conclusion
law. However, the Pakistan Court           a placard, a badge or a poster
made no reference to any Islamic           or write on walls or ceremonial         At     Pakistan’s   inception,    all
legal sources for support.                 gates or buntings, the ‘Kalima’,        religious minorities in Pakistan
                                           or chant other ‘Shaee’re Islam          were accorded complete religious
Most disturbing was the Pakistan                                                   freedom. Initially, when Ahmadis
Court’s reliance on falsified or           [Islamic prayers and invocations]
                                           it would amount to publicly             were the victims of extremist
misrepresented quotations from                                                     violence, the state enforced law
the writings of Hadhrat Mirza              defiling the name of Holy Prophetsa
                                           [peace be upon him] and also other      and order and the Ahmadis were
Ghulam Ahmadas and Hadhrat                                                         afforded protection. The courts
Mirza         Bashiruddin    Mahmud        Prophets . . . .”27 By making the
                                           judicial pronouncement that the         rejected attempts to declare
Ahmad , the Founder and the
                                                                                   Ahmadis as non-Muslims, and
Second Caliph of the Ahmadiyya             peaceful practice of the Ahmadi
                                           faith is blasphemous, the Pakistan      denied the right to refer to them
Community, respectively.              In                                           as such. When violence erupted
referring to such quotations, the          Supreme Court gave license to and
                                           further incited members of the          against Ahmadis again and the
Pakistan Court endorsed the                                                        Pakistan Government eventually
applicability of the Blasphemy             general public to harass, assault
                                           and even murder Ahmadis thereby         capitulated with the mullahs
Law (and the death penalty) to                                                     to have the Ahmadis declared
the members of the Ahmadiyya               fuelling, rather than curbing,
                                           public disorder and lawlessness.        non-Muslims and a deterioration
Community.          After sua sponte                                               set in regarding their religious
misquoting and representing these          In addition, as Ahmadis were
                                           explicitly judicially pronounced        freedom      culminating    in    its
false or misrepresented quotations,                                                complete denial. Ordinance XX
quotations regarding which the             as blasphemous, all Ahmadis are
                                           subject to prosecution under the        of 1984 made every facet of an
appellants were not afforded the                                                   Ahmadi’s life subject to criminal
opportunity to view, answer or             Blasphemy Law and thus subject to
                                           the death penalty.                      punishment. Moreover, with the
defend, the Pakistan Court held                                                    enactment of the Blasphemy law,
Ahmadi beliefs to be incendiary            As a consequence of the Pakistan        Ahmadis became subject to the
and        provocative    and     thus     Supreme Court judgment, the             death penalty for the mere peaceful
legitimized and supported any              charging of Ahmadis pursuant to         practice and profession of their
and all violent action against             Ordinance XX and the Blasphemy          faith. Under the guise of protecting
Ahmadis. With reference to these           Law escalated. Moreover, the trend      law and order, the Pakistan
statements, the Pakistan Court             of the charges against Ahmadis          Supreme Court’s validation of
asked, “[c]an anyone blame a               has moved in favor of the               Ordinance XX as constitutional
Muslim if he loses control of himself      Blasphemy Law and the trying of         undermined law and order
on hearing, reading or seeing such         Ahmadis in anti-terrorist courts        by justifying and encouraging
blasphemous material as has been           for religious offenses.        The      violence against Ahmadis.
produced by Mirza [Ghulam                  judgment served to further
Ahmad] Sahib?”25 Also, the Pakistan        embolden religious extremists           1. See Tayyab Mahmud, Freedom of
Court stated, “if an Ahmadi is             and has resulted in further                 Religion & Religious Minorities in
allowed by the administration              violence against Ahmadis, violence          Pakistan: a Study of Judicial Practice .
                                                                                       Fordham International Law Journal,
or the law to display or chant             which goes unchecked and
                                                                                       Vol. 19, No. 40.
in public, the ‘Shaair-e-Islam’            unprosecuted by law enforcement         2. Constitution and Rules Adopted at the
[Islamic prayers and invocations],         authorities. For example, Ahmadis           27th Annual Session, All India Muslim
it is like creating a [Salman]             are murdered and Ahmadi mosques             League (Apr. 1940), reprinted in II
                                                                                       Foundations of Pakistan: All India Muslim
Rushdi’ [sic] out of him. Can the          and homes are desecrated and
                                                                                       League Documents 1906-47, at p. 184 (S.
administration in that case guarantee      destroyed without the prosecution           Sharifuddin Pirzada ed., 1970).
his life, liberty and property and if so   of those responsible for such acts,     3. Mohammad A. Jinnah, Address to the
at what cost?”26 Further, the Court        and Ahmadis are denied freedom              First Meeting of the Constituent Assembly

26                                               Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community
      of Pakistan (Aug. 11, 1947), in Stanley            Qadiani to be an imposter nabi                  the order of the Jhang District
      Wolpert, Jinnah of Pakistan (1984), pp.            [prophet] and also consider his                 Magistrate barring the centenary
      337-39.                                            followers    whether    belonging               celebrations from taking place in
4.    S.A. Rahman, Punishment of Apostasy in             to    the   Lahori   or   Qadiani               Rabwah, the national headquarters
      Islam (1972), p. 2.                                group,    to    be    non-Muslim.               of the Ahmadiyya Community). For
5.    1952 P.L.D. (Sind) 54 (Pak.).                                                                      a case comment of this decision, see
6.    Moula Bux v. Charak, at 56.                        Signature               _____________           M. Nadeem Ahmad Siddiq, Enforced
7.    See Report of the Court of Inquiry                 or        thumb            impression.          Apostasy: Zaheeruddin v. State and the
      Constituted Under Punjab Act II of 1954                                                            Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya
      to Enquire into the Punjab Disturbances of         According to this declaration, being            Community in Pakistan, 14 Law & Ineq.
      1953 (1954).                                       a Muslim requires a consideration of            J. 275 (1995).
8.    Jibendra Kishore Achharyya Chowdhury v.            Ahmadis as non-Muslims. As only           23.   Both blasphemy and apostasy are
      East Pakistan, 1957 P.L.D. (S.Ct.) 9, 41-          Muslims are allowed to perform the              offenses mentioned in the Quran and
      42 (Pak.). This decision was affirmed              pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia, a          other Islamic legal sources. However,
      in another Pakistan Supreme Court                  central Islamic rite, Pakistani Ahmadis         nowhere in these sources are the
      decision in East & West Steamship Co. v.           became barred from performing this              offenses punishable by death or any
      Pakistan, 1958 P.L.D. (S.Ct.) 41 (Pak.).           rite.                                           other penalty.
9.    1969 P.L.D. (Lah.) 289 (Pak.).               14.   1978 P.L.D. (Lah.) 113 (Pak.).            24.   1993 S.C.M.R. 1718 (S.Ct.) (1997)
10.   Id. at 309.                                  15.   Id. at 142.                                     (Pak.).
11.   Id. at 309.                                  16.   Id.                                       25.   Zaheeruddin, 1993 S.C.M.R. at 1777.
12.   Id. at 308.                                  17.   Id. at 185.                               26.   Id.
13.   The text of the passport declaration         18.   State v. Zia-ur-Rahman, 1973 P.L.D.       27.   Id. at 1778.
      in      Pakistan     is    as     follows:         (S.Ct.) 49 (Pak.).                        28.   United States Department of State,
      I        ____________________          s/o   19.   Ayesha       Jalal,    Democracy    and         Country Reports on Human Rights, 1996,
      ___________________ aged _________                 Authoritarianism in South Asia:       A         105th Cong., 1st Sess., February 1997;
      years, adult Muslim, resident of                   Comparative and Historical Perspective          Pakistan: Attacks Against Members of the
      . . . hereby solemnly declare that:                (1995), at p. 238.                              Ahmadiyya Community in Lahore (AI
                                                   20.   General Zia stated, “I have a mission,          Index: ASA 33/01/94); Implementation
      (i) I am a Muslim and believe in the               given by God, to bring Islamic order            of the Declaration on the Elimination
      absolute and unqualified finality of the           to Pakistan.” Interview with Zia-ul-            of All Forms of Intolerance Based on
      prophethood of Muhammad (peace                     Haq, British Broadcasting Corporation           Religion and Belief, U.N. ESCOR, 49th
      be upon him) that last of the prophets.            (Apr.15, 1978).                                 Sess., Agenda Item 22 at p. 81, U.N.
      (ii) I do not recognize any person           21.   Implementation of the Declaration               Doc.E/CN.4/62 (1993).
      who claims to be a prophet in any sense            on the Elimination of All Forms of
      of the word or of any description                  Intolerance Based On Religion and
      whatsoever       after     Muhammad                Belief, U.N. ESCOR, 49th Sess., Agenda
      (peace be upon him) or recognize                   Item 22 at p. 81, U.N.Doc.E/CN.4/62
      such a claimant as a prophet or a                  (1993).
      religious reformer as a Muslim.              22.   Zaheeruddin v. State, 1993 S.C.M.R.
      (iii) I consider Mirza Ghulam Ahmad                (S.Ct.) 1718, 1736, 1749-50 (describing

Pakistan Jurisprudence on the Religious Freedom of the Ahmadiyya Community                                                                    27
  Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan
  and Indonesia - Submissions to the House of Commons Sub-
  Committee on International Human Rights on June 10, 2008
  Maulana Naseem Mahdi & M. Nadeem Ahmad Siddiq

The following report was submitted to     Muslim Community in India in             serves the interests of the extremist
the House of Commons Sub-Committee        1889, and the establishment of it in     forces only and further emboldens
on International Human Rights, along      Pakistan in 1947 and in Indonesia        them by providing legitimacy and
with an oral presentation by both         in the 1920’s, its members have          justification to the infliction of more
authors, on June 10, 2008. The report     always been and continue to be           violence and lawlessness. As these
and the oral submissions were requested   peaceful and law-abiding members         extremist forces continue their
by the Sub-Committee so that it could     of society not only in the profession    violent onslaughts and increase
receive introductory submissions that     and practice of their faith but in       their demands (justifying them
would enable it to determine whether      all aspects of their daily lives. The    with false religious interpretations)
it should undertake its own thorough      members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim          in an attempt to expanding their
and independent study of the issue.       Community live in accordance with        spheres of influence, the countries’
Upon receiving the report and the         their motto, “Love for All, Hatred       democratic       development        and
oral submissions accompanying it, the     for None.” Yet, despite this history     good governance deteriorates and
Sub-Committee members unanimously         and ethic, the members of the            destabilizes. The present state of
voted      to undertake this study        Ahmadiyya Muslim Community               Pakistan is strong evidence of this
and to submit its findings and            are bitterly and cruelly persecuted      phenomenon. As Indonesia is a
recommendations to the House of           in Pakistan, Indonesia and other         democracy and its Government
Commons Committee on Foreign              countries.                               is currently a fragile alliance of
Relations.                                This persecution occurs at the behest    leftist and rightist parties, it is
Having seen the international             of and as the result of capitulation     particularly vulnerable to increased
news coverage regarding the above         to extremist militant forces and         destabilization caused by extremist
submissions, the report below was         influences. Such influences receive      influences.
requested by and provided to Amnesty      capitulation due to their engaging       While the specific details of the
International.                            in violent disturbances and              persecution of the Ahmadiyya
We appreciate the invitation to           threatening to continue and escalate     Community         in     Pakistan,
provide submissions to the Sub-           such disturbances if their demands       Indonesia and elsewhere have
Committee on International Human          are not complied with. When              been extensively documented by
Rights pertaining to the official         capitulation to extremist demands        credible        non-governmental
and legalized persecution and             takes place, in order to defend          organizations    like    Amnesty
denial of the fundamental rights of       against international and internal       International and Human Rights
freedom of religion and conscience        criticism,    these    governments       Watch, all of which is easily and
of   the     Ahmadiyya     Muslim         always couch their actions in            readily accessible, the purpose
Community         in      Pakistan        constitutional terms seeking to          of the submissions below is
and Indonesia.         Since the          place a positive “spin” of legitimacy    supplement     such   information
inception of the Ahmadiyya                to them. However, this capitulation      in order to provide (1) a brief

28                                                 Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia
contextual background of the               of the Islamic faith.                   (sa). While the latter issue is most
theological controversy which is           The beliefs and practices of the        often cited, it is the Ahmadiyya
used and exploited by extremists in        Ahmadiyya        Community        are   Community’s interpretation of the
order to instigate violent sentiment       virtually indistinguishable from        former doctrine that threatens and
and the persecution of the                 other Muslims, particularly the         undermines the hegemony of the
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community,                Sunni Muslim majority.           Like   extremist militant forces the most.
and (2) the legal frameworks               Sunni Muslims, the Ahmadiyya                 (1) Interpretation of Jihad
within which this persecution has          Community believes (1) in the                      (Holy Struggle)
been and is being carried out in           “Five Articles of Faith”3 and in the
Pakistan and Indonesia. As the                                                     One of the principle doctrinal
                                           “Five Pillars of Islam”4, (2) that      declarations made by Hadhrat
subject is vast and the amount of          the first four Khalifas (successors)
resources available pertaining to it                                               Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) was
                                           of the Holy Prophet Muhammad            his belief against a militant and
are prevalent and accessible, it is        (sa) are the Khulafa-i-Rashideen
hoped that this brief will suffice as                                              violent interpretation of jihad (holy
                                           (the Rightly-Guided Khalifas), (3)      struggle) asserted by present-day
a brief introduction and guide to          that the Holy Qur’an is the final,
these resources.                                                                   extremists. On the basis of the Holy
                                           complete and perfect Word of            Qur’an and the traditions of the
Currently, extremist forces are            God, and that by referring to the       Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa), the
actively seeking to undermine              Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa) as           Ahmadiyya Community interprets
democracy and its development              “an ideal model”, incorporated by       the term jihad to primarily refer to
in majority Muslim-populated               reference his Sunnah (practices) thus   the inner struggle towards spiritual
countries like Pakistan and                requiring adherence to it as well.      self-improvement and betterment.
Indonesia.      Encouraging these          These beliefs are in exact accord       This type of jihad is referred to in the
governments to resist capitulation         with the Sunni Muslim majority          Holy Qur’an is jihad-al-akbar (the
to extremist religionists and to           of the world. Further, while the        greatest jihad).       The secondary
uphold internationally established         Ahmadiyya Muslim Community              form of jihad is referred to in the
standards of fundamental human             prefers adherence to the Hanafi         Holy Qur’an as jihad-al-asghar (the
rights is the only way to ensure           Jurisprudential Discipline, so does     lesser jihad) and is a reference
not only that the persecution of the       the vast majority of the Sunni          to the outward form of jihad that
Ahmadiyya Community ceases but             Muslim      world.        Therefore,    pertains to waging of war and
also to ensure that these countries        theologically,    the    Ahmadiyya      battles. However, on the basis of
do not fall further under the              Community           is      virtually   the Holy Qur’an, the Ahmadiyya
influence of extremist forces who          indistinguishable from the world’s      Community asserts that jihad-
are either sympathetic to or the           Sunni Muslim majority. Similarly,       al-asghar is confined to battles
perpetrators of terrorism.                 like the entirety of the Ahmadiyya      fought in self-defense and for the
   A. The Ahmadiyya Muslim                 Community, the vast majority of         protection of freedom of religion
  Community – Introduction to              Muslims, both Sunni and Shia,           only, including the freedom of
      Beliefs and Practices                are moderate and law-abiding            religion for Jews, Christians and
                                           religious adherents and members         others. In other words, the purpose
The        Ahmadiyya         Muslim        of society.
Community was founded in 1889                                                      of the outward form of jihad is to
by Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad              Despite        the       foregoing,     ensure that religious persecution
(as)1 of Qadian, India. He claimed         extremist militant forces seek          of any form against any religious
to be the Promised Messiah and             the      excommunication       and      adherent is defended against.
Mahdi (reformer) whose advent              eradication of the Ahmadiyya            Such an interpretation undermines
was foretold by the Holy Qur’an            Community on the basis of its           the violent interpretation of jihad
and the Holy Prophet Muhammad              differing interpretation regarding      by extremists, who not only give
(sa)2 to come in the Latter Days to        jihad (holy struggle) and the           precedence to the outward form
revive the true and peaceful practice      “finality” of the prophethood of        of jihad, but also extend its
                                           the Holy Prophet Muhammad               application      to      expansionist,
Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia                                               29
nationalistic   and      imperialistic   and     philanthropic       activities    rest of the Muslim world is that,
battles waged to assert dominion         throughout some of the poorest            for the former, the Holy Prophet
and to impose their rigid and            regions of Africa and Asia. While         Muhammad (sa) was the final law-
harsh interpretations of Islamic         the Ahmadiyya Community is                bearing or legislative prophet such
Shariah law and government.              peaceful and law-abiding, the same        that any subsequent prophet must
Further, as the Holy Prophet             cannot be said for those groups who       be a follower of his law and thus
Muhammad (sa) predicted that the         oppose it and seek its eradication.       be completely subordinate to him.
Promised Messiah, upon his advent,            (2) Interpretation of the            Such prophethood is akin to the
would usher in the era of “jihad by          “Finality” of Prophethood             prophethood of Jewish prophets
the pen” and reject all wars an forms                                              who were followers of Moses’ (as)
of violence, when the Hadhrat Mirza      In addition to the above-                 law and thus subordinate to him.
Ghulam Ahmad (as) confirmed this         mentioned       beliefs    regarding      By contrast, the rest of the Muslim
prediction with reference to himself     jihad     which     stirred    much       world asserts that the finality of the
and the Ahmadiyya community,             controversy amongst extremists            Holy Prophet Muhammad’s (sa)
both he and his community were           and resulted in widespread calls          prophethood was final in a literal
accused by extremists, who require       for the Ahmadiyya Community’s             sense thus resulting in the complete
a violent interpretation of jihad to     excommunication from the Muslim           cessation of prophethood for all
assert their dominance, as having        ummah (community), the other              times.
sacrilegiously      abrogated     and    controversial declaration that is
                                         more often cited by extremists to         Those who assert the literal finality
denied the sacred doctrine of jihad.                                               of the Holy Prophet Muhammad’s
Indeed, in 1902, it was for endorsing    promote and justify the persecution
                                         of the Ahamdiyya Community is             (sa) prophethood do so by grossly
this interpretation of jihad that                                                  misinterpreting the Holy Qur’an
two companions of Hadhrat Mirza          Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s
                                         (as) claim to be a prophet (nabi).        33:40, which refers to the Holy
Ghulam Ahmad (as), namely,                                                         Prophet Muhammad (sa) as the
Hadhrat Syed Abdul Latif (ra)5 and       Even though such a status befits
                                         the person who would come as              Khaatam-an-Nabiyeen (Seal of the
Hadhrat Abdur Rahman (ra) were                                                     Prophets). Those who interpret the
tried and executed by the then Emir      the Promised Messiah and Mahdi,
                                         and the claiming of such a status         Holy Prophet Muhammad’s (sa)
of Afghanistan.                                                                    prophethood as literally final do
                                         is perfectly consistent with the
Due to its peaceful interpretation       teachings of the Holy Qur’an              so by ignoring the entire context
and practice of jihad, the Ahmadiyya     provided such a prophet is a              of 33:40 which, when read in its
Community promotes and lives in          perfect Muslim and is subordinate         entirety, is clearly a prediction of
accordance with its motto, “Love         to and dependent upon the                 future prophets, not a declaration
for All, Hatred for None.” They          Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa),               of the end of them.6
have done so despite decades of          nevertheless, the extremists assert       The notion that prophets can
bitter and cruel persecution in          that Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam                 be sent after the Holy Prophet
many countries, particularly in          Ahmad’s (as) claim of prophethood         Muhammad (sa) who are his
Pakistan. Throughout all of its 119-     is in direct contravention with the       perfect followers is supported by
plus year history, the Ahmadiyya         “finality” of the prophethood of          numerous other verses of the Holy
Community’s members have been            the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa),           Qur’an which clearly not only
peaceful and law-abiding citizens        additionally assert such finality         contemplate but predict the advent
of every country in which they           to be a “central tenet” of Islamic        of future prophets from within the
have lived and live. Governments         belief, and that such contravention       Muslim ummah (community) such
around the world have attested           is heresy and blasphemy thus              as 4:69, 7:35-36, 3:81 (read with
to this history.      In addition, as    deserving of excommunication and          33:8) and 62:2-4.. For example, the
it mission is for the uplift and         death.                                    Holy Qur’an 4:69 states that the
betterment of humanity, the                                                        best Muslims will be granted four
Ahmadiyya Community has been             The only difference between the
                                         Ahmadiyya Community and the               of God’s choicest blessings, and
repeatedly lauded for its generosity                                               explicitly includes prophethood
30                                                 Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia
as one of these blessings. Such a
view is consistent with Muslim
scholarship produced throughout
centuries of Islamic history.7
Indeed, the view that Khaatam is
a reference to the literal finality of
prophethood is a relatively recent
concept and thus the one deserving
of being referred to as a deviation
from traditional Islamic thought
and scholarship. Despite efforts by
extremists to label the Ahmadiyya
Community’s interpretation of
the Holy Qur’an 33:40 as deviant,
heretical and blasphemous, the
Ahmadiyyah interpretation was
the dominant view throughout
most of Islamic history and the
present view of mullahs is actually
a more recent and highly
unorthodox innovation.
   (3) Other Objections Raised
      Against the Ahmadiyya                a peaceful        and     law-abiding   the religious parties of Pakistan
           Community                       community.                              threatening to overthrow the
                                             B. Opposition and Persecution         Government of Pakistan and install
In addition to their violent
                                                     in Pakistan                   a Taliban-like regime in its stead,
opposition to Hadhrat Mirza
                                                                                   all of whom affiliated in some way
Ghulam Ahmad’s (as) claim                  Religious extremist groups, who are     with the Jama’at-i-Islami.
of prophethood and his non-                made up of mullahs (self-appointed
violent interpretation of jihad,           religious clergy) have long opposed     The following is a discussion of the
such religious extremists have             the    Ahmadiyya        Community.      development of the persecution
also leveled the charges that the          Many such groups are regarded           of the Ahmadiyya Community in
Ahmadiyya Community was either             as terrorist organizations and all      Pakistan, and its legal framework.
(i) planted by the British Raj to          of them engage in and advocate          In 1953, extremist religious groups,
disunite Indians and Muslims or            violent and cruel opposition to the     led by Maududi, launched a
(ii) created by a Zionist conspiracy.      rights and lives of members of the      campaign of extreme violence
Of course, absolutely no evidence          Ahmadiyya Community. The most           and rioting which resulted in
exists or is presented to substantiate     prominent of such terrorist groups      widespread death and destruction
such charges other than to cite            is the Jama’at-i-Islami, formerly       throughout the Pakistani Punjab
the high literacy rate and career          led by the late Maulana Maududi.8       province. The professed target
success of members of the                  The view of the Jamaat-i-Islami         and intended victims of these
Ahmadiyya Community.                In     and other groups regarding jihad        disturbances were members of the
other words, the accusers of the           is equivalent to the view held and      Ahmadiyya Community. At the
Ahmadiyya Community consist of             espoused by Al-Qaeda, the Taliban       time, pursuant to the Munir
extremist political organizations          of Afghanistan, Hamas of the            Report,9 the Pakistan Government
who are anti-Western as well as            Palestine Authority, the Muslim         imprisoned all of the extremist
anti-Semitic, and who fuel and             Brotherhood of Egypt and other          perpetrators and found that the
feed such sentiment in order to stir       such groups. Indeed, very recent        Ahmadiyya Community were
hatred and opposition against              events in Pakistan have witnessed       innocent victims of horrible
Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia                                           31
                                                                               Ahmadiyya belief and practice.
                                                                               Within the context of referring to
                                                                               the Ahmadiyya Community as
                                                                               the “cancer” of Pakistani society
                                                                               during a visit to the United States,
                                                                               in 1982, the late President General
                                                                               Zia-ul-Haq promulgated Military
                                                                               Ordinance XX, which amended
                                                                               Pakistan Penal Code Sections
                                                                               298B and 298C, to prohibit the
                                                                               Ahmadiyya Community from
                                                                               “posing as Muslim”.            Simply
                                                                               by calling oneself a “Muslim”,
                                                                               greeting people with the Arabic
                                                                               greeting “peace”, praying (either
                                                                               in a mosque or in private at home),
                                                                               reciting any Qur’anic prayer aloud
                                                                               or calling their house of worship
atrocities. It was not until the      of members of the Ahmadiyya
                                                                               a “mosque”, an Ahmadi could be
early 1970’s, when many of these      Muslim Community and promise
                                                                               charged and fined or imprisoned
extremists were released from         those who do so will be granted
                                                                               for up to 3 years. In other words,
prison (including Maududi), that      Paradise. Many members of the
                                                                               the    committing        of   normal,
the disturbances resumed, again,      Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
                                                                               prevalent and socially acceptable
resulting in atrocities against the   have been murdered on the streets
                                                                               acts in a peaceful manner would
lives and properties of members of    of Pakistan and other countries like
                                                                               be punished under criminal law if
the Ahmadiyya Community.              Bangladesh, Indonesia, India and
                                                                               (and only if) such acts are committed
Different from 1953, the response     Sri Lanka, and when the murderers
                                                                               by a member of the Ahmadiyya
of then Prime Minister Zulfikar       are questioned as to why they
                                                                               Community. This enactment that
Bhutto was to placate the             did so, they invariably cite that
                                                                               did not criminalize an act, but
religious extremists by enacting      promise of Paradise given to them
                                                                               rather, it criminalized the actor.
a     constitutional    amendment     from the pulpits of extremist
                                                                               Indeed, in Pakistan, even Christians,
which declared the Ahmadiyya          mullahs     as    their    primary
                                                                               Jews and Hindus greet others
Community to be non-Muslim.           motivation.
                                                                               using the Arabic greeting of
The support for such a declaration    In order to gain political support,      “peace”, and their doing so is
was the ruling of the 1973 Islamic    these extremist mullahs began            not only allowed but considered
Conference convened in Pakistan       threatening government authorities       socially normal.
consisting of representatives of      to accede to their demands of
                                                                               As extensively documented by non-
each denomination in the Islamic      barring the religious practice and
                                                                               governmental organizations like
world for the express purpose         worship of the Ahmadiyya or risk
                                                                               Human Rights Watch, Amnesty
of determining whether the            the unleashing of violence and
                                                                               International and the Pakistan
Ahmadiyya are Muslim.           Not   killing. Eventually, this persistent
                                                                               Human        Rights    Commission,
surprisingly,     the    conference   pressure produced results, first
                                                                               pursuant to Military Ordinance
delegates unanimously ruled in        from Prime Minister Zulfikar
                                                                               XX, thousands of members of the
favour of declaring the Ahmadiyya     Bhutto’s constitutional amendment
                                                                               Ahmadiyya Community have
as non-Muslim.                        declaring the Ahmadiyya to be
                                                                               been charged and imprisoned
To this day, the Jamaat-i-Islami      non-Muslim, and eventually, with
                                                                               for the mere peaceful practice
and its affiliated organizations      President General Zia-ul-Haq’s (the
                                                                               of their faith. As Ordinance XX
continue to advocate the killing      son of a mullah) criminalization of
                                                                               justifies violent sentiments felt by
32                                             Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia
extremists regarding the existence         -- as Pakistan Penal Code               charged pursuant to this legislation,
of Ahmadis, thousands of Ahmadis           Section 295C, also known as the         now making Ordinance XX a less
have been assaulted or killed,             “Blasphemy      Law”,      punishes     utilized enactment but still remains
have experienced the destruction           blasphemy with the death penalty,       as the basis for the persecution.
or desecration of their property,          the Supreme Court thus authorized       While the Supreme Court of
or have been denied admissions             the prosecution of the members          Pakistan asserted that its judgment
to schools or employment.       In         of the Ahmadiyya Community              was rendered in order to promote
addition, Ahmadi graves have               and having them made subject to         and preserve public order and
been desecrated and the bodies             the death penalty merely for their      safety, in actuality, its decision
lying    in   them   have     been         peacefully-held religious belief and    served to reward the violence-
disinterred and demeaned.       As         practice. As Section 295C imposes       mongering of the mullahs and
a result, Ordinance XX has been            the death penalty, a person charged     further encouraged by branding as
condemned by a United Nations              under it cannot be granted bail.        justified any further violence and
Sub-Commission on Human Rights             The lone dissenting Justice of          killing inflicted by them and those
resolution and a United States             the Supreme Court of Pakistan           whom they recruit.
House       of     Representatives         revealed that, after oral arguments
resolution,    as  well   as    by                                                 Despite the above legal history,
                                           and       submissions,     “religious   the mullahs continue to place
Human Rights Watch, Amnesty                scholars” (or mullahs), obtained
International and other non-                                                       demands upon the Government of
                                           private audiences with the Justices     Pakistan. The most recent demand,
governmental organizations.                of the Supreme Court in their           not yet acceded to, is the enactment
In 1993, the Supreme Court                 chambers and submitted evidence         of a law punishing the offense of
of Pakistan declared Military              ex parte, thereby revealing that        apostasy.     Although according
Ordinance XX as constitutional on          the Supreme Court Justices were         to the Holy Qur’an, no punishment
the basis that the commission of           recipients of pressure from these       exists for both blasphemy or
peaceful Islamic acts by members           mullahs who were able to make           apostasy,    the    mullahs     have
of the Ahmadiyya Community                 submission despite not being            succeeded in enacting legislation
constitutes their “posing as               parties to the action and hidden        for the former and are currently
Muslims”, and is injurious to              from open court hearings. This          demanding similar legislation for
the feelings of real Muslims and           falsified    evidence      submitted    the latter. Under such legislation,
thus    provocative.10      Therefore,     by mullahs formed the basis for         Ahmadis would be declared as
the Pakistan Supreme Court held            the Pakistan Supreme Court’s            apostates such that Ahmadi men
that forbidding Ahmadis from               assertion that Ahmadi beliefs are       would be arrested and executed,
practicing their faith is necessary to     inflammatory.                           Ahmadi women made into
maintain social order.11 Moreover,         The result of the Pakistan Supreme      concubines and Ahmadi property
the Supreme Court of Pakistan              Court judgment has been that            confiscated and distributed to the
referred to the practicing of Islam        thousands of members of the             general Muslim population.
by the Ahmadiyya as akin to being          Ahmadiyya Community have
a “Salman Rushdi” and thus so                                                      Former Prime Ministers Benazir
                                           been arrested and convicted for         Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif as well
inflammatory that no government            blasphemy in Pakistan, and are
authority could justifiably contain                                                as current President Pervaiz
                                           either still in custody without bail    Musharaf each refused to end the
people’s outrage. By making this           or are currently sitting on death
analogy, not only did the Pakistan                                                 persecution of the Ahmadiyya
                                           row. In addition, since the inception   Community.       Indeed, the late
Supreme Court support and justify          of the anti-terrorist legislation in
deadly violence against members                                                    former Prime Minister Benazir
                                           the late 1990’s, as the prosecutions    Bhutto deemed this persecution as
of the Ahmadiyya Community,                under it takes place in military and
but they also indicated the                                                        her father’s honourable legacy and
                                           not civilian courts, where they are     refused to deny that the Blasphemy
applicability of the “Blasphemy            not charged under the Blasphemy
Law” and thus the death penalty                                                    Law is un-Islamic.
                                           Law, Ahmadis have primarily been
Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia                                            33
The     violence      against     and    upon the authorities to deny the         1970’s. However, the only difference
persecution of the Ahmadiyya             Ahmadiyya Community their                between Pakistan and Indonesia in
Community continues today. Most          rights, staging violent protests         this context is that, while Pakistan
recently, on June 8, 2008, all twenty-   and demonstrations in which the          chose to amend its Constitution to
three Ahmadi students, consisting        murder of members of the                 specifically define Muslimhood and
of both men and women, enrolled          Ahmadiyya        Community      is       explicitly exclude the Ahmadiyya
in the Punjab Medical College            advocated.         During    such        Community from this definition,
in Faisalabad were expelled              demonstrations, protestors have          the     Indonesian     Government
for no other reason than their           set fire to entire neighbourhoods        has simply opted to interpret its
membership in the Ahmadiyya              housing members of the Ahmadiyya         Constitution as implicitly excluding
Community.                       These   Community, even where such               the     Ahmadiyya       Community
students      were     expelled     in   homes contain women, children            based on what are perceived to
compliance with the demands              and the elderly.                         be “deviant” beliefs. The above
made by the Islami-Jama’at-i-            Even      more     recently,  these      discussion regarding the beliefs of
Tulaba, the student-wing of the          mullahs have demanded that the           the Ahmadiyya Community clearly
Jama’at-i-Islami.                        Government of Indonesia ban              demonstrate that its beliefs cannot
Human Rights Watch has noted             and dissolve the Ahmadiyya               be characterized as deviant in
that the same extremists who             Community, thereby not only              light of the Holy Qur’an.
engage in the practice of exerting       confiscating all of their property       Despite the recent action by the
pressure    on     the     Pakistan      but also criminalizing their             Indonesian      Government,     the
Government       and      Judiciary      existence, threatening to unleash a      mullahs have declared that they
regarding the persecution of the         violent jihad against the Ahmadiyya      will not be satisfied until all of
Ahmadiyya Community are also             and their supporters.                    their demands are complied with,
engaging in “exporting” this             As a result of this intensifying         namely, the complete dissolution
practice to Bangladesh, Indonesia        pressure, on June 9, 1008, the           of the Ahmadiyya Community.
and other countries. Human Rights        Government of Indonesia declared         As in Pakistan, the Indonesian
Watch has documented the most            (similar    to    Prime   Minister       Government’s latest actions have
recent developments in this regard       Bhutto’s 1974 declaration) that          not only served the interests of
in Bangladesh.12       Information       the Ahmadiyya are non-Muslim             the violence-mongering extremist
regarding the persecution of the         and its beliefs regarding the            mullahs, but have justified and
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community               prophethood of its Founder are           encouraged further violence and
in other countries like Saudi            “deviant” and provocative. As            killing. According to the most
Arabia and Indonesia can be              freedom of religion in Indonesia         recent reports from Reuters and the
easily obtained from Human               is only afforded to specifically         Associated Press, the Indonesian
Rights       Watch’s       website,      enumerated religions, namely,            Government’s declaration of June                              Islam, Catholicism, Protestantism,       9th has resulted in the escalation
 C. Opposition and Persecution           Judaism, Hinduism, Buddhism,             of violence in Indonesia, with the
        in Indonesia                     Confucianism and Animism, by the         innocent and peaceful members of
                                         Indonesian Government declaring          the Ahmadiyya Community as the
Recently, CBC Radio’s The Current                                                 victims.
aired a documentary on the               the Ahmadiyya as non-Muslim, the
persecution of the Ahmadiyya             peaceful profession, practice and               D. Recommendations
Community in Indonesia, noting           propagation of Islam by members          As Pakistan and Indonesia are
decades of peace and harmony             of the Ahmadiyya Community is            both members states of the United
within Indonesia until extremist         now punishable under criminal law        Nations and thus signatories to
mullahs, largely hailing from            by up to 5 years imprisonment.           the United Nations Charter, they
Pakistan, began infiltrating the         The state of Indonesia is analogous      are obliged to comply with the
country and imposing pressure            to that of Pakistan in the early         principles laid out therein. They

34                                                Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia
should also comply with the                Government of Canada can and                         form of prophets. reference to being
                                                                                                the Seal of the Prophets is a reference
Universal Declaration on Human             should play a valuable role in
                                                                                                to being like a spiritual father to future
Rights.                                    encouraging the Governments of                       prophets. Such prophets must be
Pakistan is a signatory to the             Pakistan and Indonesia to uphold                     perfect followers of the Holy Prophet

United Nations Covenant on                 their international commitments                      Muhammad (sa) as this is a necessary
                                                                                                condition for the receipt of such a
Civil and Political Rights, which          with respect to human rights and
                                                                                                status. Therefore, on the basis of the
guarantees freedom of religion,            to curb the elements of militancy                    foregoing, clearly, the Ahmadiyya
conscience     and      association.       and terrorism rather than support                    belief in the prophethood of Hadhrat

Pakistan is also a ratified party          and capitulate to them.                              Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) is anything
                                                                                                but unorthodox and heretical.
to the United Nations Covenant             (Endnotes)
                                                                                            7. See e.g., Yohanan Friedman, Prophecy
                                           1. “(as)” means “peace be upon him”.
on Economic, Social and Cultural                                                                Continuous: Aspects of Ahmadi Religious
                                           2. “(sa)” means “peace and blessings of
Rights, which guarantees the                                                                    Thought and its Medieval Background
                                               God be upon him”.
                                                                                                (2003) (providing a summary of the
freedom for social and cultural            3. The Five Articles of the Islamic Faith
                                                                                                view of Ibn al-Arabi on this subject as
rights as well as freedom from                 are (1) the monotheistic belief in Allah,
                                                                                                well as of his predecessors and other
                                               (2) belief in all prophets, (3) belief in
discrimination for all citizens.                                                                highly noted and revered exegetes).
                                               all holy scriptures, (4) belief in the
The Government of Pakistan is                                                               8. See Karen Armstrong, Islam: A Short
                                               existence of angels, and (5) belief in the
                                                                                                History, p. 162 (2000).
obliged to afford and guarantee                Day of Reckoning.
                                                                                            9. Report of the Court of Inquiry constituted
the freedoms guaranteed pursuant           4. The Five Pillars of Islam are (1) the
                                                                                                under Punjab Act II of 1954 to enquire
                                               Shahada Declaration (that “There is
to these covenants to the members                                                               into the Punjab Disturbances of 1953 (also
                                               no god but Allah and Muhammad is
of    the   Ahmadiyya       Muslim                                                              known as the “Munir Report” as it was
                                               the Messenger of Allah), (2) Salat (the
                                                                                                led by then Chief Justice Munir).
Community.                                     five daily prayers), (3) Saum (fasting)
                                                                                            10. For a complete case comment on this
                                               during the sacred lunar month of
Indonesia is a ratified party to the                                                            Pakistan Supreme Court decision, see
                                               Ramadhan, (4) Zakat (the giving of alms
                                                                                                M. Nadeem Ahmad Siddiq, Enforced
both the United Nations Covenant               to the poor), and (5) Haj (performing
                                                                                                Apostasy: Zaheeruddin v. State and the
on Civil and Political Rights and              pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in
                                                                                                Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya
                                               one’s life if possible).
the United Nations Covenant on                                                                  Community in Pakistan, 14 Law & Ineq
                                           5. “(ra)” means “may God be pleased
Economic, Social and Cultural                                                                   J. 275 (1995).
                                               with him or her”.
                                                                                            11. The particular cases before were
Rights which guarantees the                6. According to the Holy Qur’an 33:40,
                                                                                                Supreme Court were (1) the criminal
freedom for social and cultural                “Muhammad is not the father of any of
                                                                                                prosecution of Ahmadis who had
                                               your men, but he is the Messenger of
rights as well as freedom from                                                                  invocations of “Allah” written on
                                               Allah and the Khaatam-an-Nabiyeen (Seal
discrimination. The Government of                                                               wedding invitations, (2) the criminal
                                               of the Prophets).” The Hoy Quran 33:40
                                                                                                prosecution of Ahmadis who wore
Indonesia is obliged to afford and             makes reference to the Holy Prophet
                                                                                                small pin accessories with the Islamic
protect the freedoms guaranteed                Muhammad (sa) as the Khaatam-an-
                                                                                                credo “There is no god but Allah,
                                               Nabiyeen (Seal of the Prophets) with
pursuant to these covenants to the                                                              Muhammad is the Messenger of
                                               reference to the mockery inflicted
members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim                                                                 Allah” inscribed on them, and (3) the
                                               against him for his lack of ault male
                                                                                                challenge of a injunction to bar the
Community.                                     paternity, a perceive mark of dishonour
                                                                                                residents of Rabwah, a village whose
                                               for Arabs at the time. However, in
Instead of complying with the                  addressing this mockery, the Holy
                                                                                                population is over 90% Ahmadi, from
                                                                                                peacefully celebrating on March 23,
foregoing international standards,             Qur’an states, “but he is the Messenger
                                                                                                1989 the centenary of the establishment
both the Governments of Pakistan               of Allah and the Seal of the Prophets.”
                                                                                                of the Ahmadiyya Community, such
and Indonesia have chosen to                   As this statement begins with the word
                                                                                                celebrations including decorating
                                               “but”, it must be read as a statement
comply with the demands of                     that rebuts or counters literal paternity
                                                                                                homes with lights, distributing
                                                                                                sweets to children and loved ones and
terrorist elements within their                with something which is better and
                                                                                                attending the mosque to congregate for
societies and to award their                   more honourable. Read in its entirety
                                                                                                prayers of devotion and thanks.
efforts. As both countries currently           and appropriate context, the only way
                                                                                            12. See Breach of Faith: Persecution of the
                                               that this verse can represent a counter
possess fragile democracies and                to the lack of adult male paternity is
                                                                                                Ahmadiyya Community in Bangladesh,
                                                                                                HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, Vol. 17,
societies which are vulnerable to              if the title Khaatam-an-Nabiyeen means
                                                                                                No. 6 (C).
the machinations of extremist,                 that the Holy Prophet Muhammad
militant and terrorist forces, the             (sa) will nevertheless produce spiritual
                                               progeny, such progeny coming in the

Official Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan and Indonesia                                                              35
  Obituary: Amatur-Rasheed Farooqi Sahiba
  (May 5, 1920 - July 22, 2008)

On	Tuesday,	July	22,	2008,	Amatur-          Promised Messiahas requesting his          epitomized	 kindness,	 goodness,	
Rasheed Sahiba, wife of the late            prayers. After praying for her, the        and piety, always remained
Al-	 Haj	 Hakeem	 Zafar	 Ahmad              Promised Messiahas declared on             absolutely neat and tidy, observing
Farooqi Sahib (of Sanaur, later             the basis of divine guidance that          a	 state	 of	 wudhu	 (ritual	 purity)	 in	
Quetta)	 and	 daughter	 of	 Hadhrat	        “Allah the Almighty shall grant            all her waking hours. She poured
Al-Haj	      Maulvi	       Qudratullah	     them [her and Maulvi Qudratullah           love and affection on young
Sanauri         Sahib , ra
                                 passed     Sanauri Sahibra)	 so	 many	 children	      people and always stressed good
away	 at	 the	 age	 of	 88	 at	 the	        that they will not be able to look         manners.        Her love and faith
William       Health       Center    in     after them all.” Subsequently,             in	 Khilafat-e-Ahmadiyya	 was	
Brampton,	 Ontario	 at	 3:20	 am.	      	   Hadhrat Raheeman Bibi Sahibara             unshakeable. Allah the Almighty
Inna	 Lillah-hey-Wa	 inna	 Elaihey	         bore Hadhrat Qudratullah Sanorira          graced her with many true dreams
Rajeoon. She was born in Raipur,            14 children, six of whom died at           and visions,
Nabha Estate, India, migrated to            young ages and thus could not              including the beholding Lailatul
Quetta, Pakistan at the Partition of        be	 looked	 after,	 thus	 fulfilling	      Qadr.
India,	 and	 then,	 in	 1992,	 migrated	    the prophecy of the Promised
to Canada.                                  Messiahas.	 With	 the	 Grace	 of	 Allah	   By	 the	 Grace	 of	 Allah,	 after	 being	
                                            the Almighty, eight of the children        blessed	 with	 3	 daughters,	 she	
Hadhrat      Maulvi    Qudratullah                                                     resolved	 to	 offer	 two	 Raka’ats	 of	
Sanauri Sahibra had mentioned               grew to elderly adulthood,
                                            including	 Amatur-Rasheed	 Sahib,	         Nawafil	 everyday	 if	 Allah	 were	
this daughter in a poem, praying for                                                   to grant her at least one son.
her in the following words: “Rushd          each one in turn blessed with
                                            multiple progeny.                          Eventually, she was blessed with
Kee Rahayen Rasheedah ko Dikha”                                                        her eldest son, Shajar Ahmad,
(“O Lord, keep Rasheedah on the Amatur-Rasheed	 Sahiba	 was	                           and thereafter maintained her
path	of	piety	and	goodness”).		      a dedicated member of the                         promise regarding the offering
Amatur-Rasheed	 Sahiba	 was	 Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.                               of	 Nawafil	 for	 the	 rest	 of	 her	
one of fourteen children born In Quetta, she served as the Sadr                        life. She would later be blessed
in accordance with the divine Lajna	Imaillah	for	the	Gowalmandi	                       with four more sons, followed
prophecy of the Promised Halqa for many years. She was a                               by	 37	 grandchildren,	 57	 great-
Messiahas.	 	 Amatur-Rasheed Musi and was ever dedicated to                            grandchildren	and	one	great-great-
	 Sahiba’s	 mother,	 Hadhrat prayer, including the Tahajjud                            grand son, granting her the ability
Raheeman Bibi Sahibara, being prayer. Allah blessed her with the                       to witness and enjoy the birth of
weak and frail, had been opportunity to perform the Haj.                               103	      of	      her	       children.		
medically diagnosed as barren. She enjoyed the recitation and                          Alhumdolillah.
As a result, she and her father, study	of	the	Holy	Qur’an	as	well	as	 Her sons are:
Hadhrat Chaudhri Karim Bakhsh the reading of Ahmadiyya religious
Sahibra, proceeded to visit the literature and newspapers. She • Shajar Ahmad Farooqi Sahib,
36                                                                                                                      Obituary
    U. K (Director, Ahmadiyya            Directors of Ahmadiyya Muslim
    Muslim	 Jama’at	 International	      Jama’at	 International	 and	 MTA	
    and MTA International; Former        International, and many members
    International   Auditor     of       of	the	United	Kingdom	Jama’at.				
    Jama’at	Ahmadiyya)             All	 members	 of	 the	 Jama’at	 are	
• Abdul Rashid Farooqi Sahib, humbly requested to pray that
  Canada;                          Allah grant her an exalted station
• Naseer       Ahmad      Farooqi in Paradise, that she be granted
  Sahib, Secretary Mal, Quetta, Mughfirah	 of	 Allah,	 and	 that	
  Pakistan;                        Allah maintain all of her dear and
                                   loved ones under His protection
• Rafi	 Ahmad	 Farooqi	 Sahib,	 granting them righteousness,
  one	 of	 the	 Aseeran-e-Raahay-	 steadfastness and His bounty,
  Maula having been jailed for both in this world and the next.
  one year for the offense of Ameen.
  wearing a badge bearing the
  Kalima Shahada; Naib Sadr
  Flower Town, Canada and
  Zaeem	Ansarullah	GTA,	Canada
•   Tahir Ahmad Farooqi Sahib,
Her daughters are:
•   Nasirah      Ataullah    Sahiba,
    Lahore, Pakistan;
•   Saeeda Majeed Sahiba, Canada;
•   Bushra Aslam Sahiba, Sadr Lajna
    Imaillah	Zila	Quetta,	Pakistan.
Amatur-Rasheed	 Sahiba’s	 Namaz	
Janaza	 was	 led	 by	 Maulana	 Mirza	
Mohammad	 Afzal	 Sahib	 in	 Masjid	
Bait-ul-Islam	 on	 Friday,	 July	 25,	
2008.	 	 On	 Wednesday,	 July	 30,	
2008,	 she	 was	 buried	 in	 Bahishti	
Maqbarah Rabwah, Pakistan.
Maulana Naseem Mahdi Sahib,
Naib Amir I and Missionery
Incharge Canada, led the silent
prayers at her graveside.
On	 Tuesday,	 August	 12,	 2008,	
Hadhrat Khalifatul Masih Vaa
led	 her	 Janaza	 Ghaib	 prayers	 at	
Fazl	 Masjid	 London,	 which	 was	
attended by many members
of the family of Promised
Messiahas,	 Nazir	 Sahiban,	 Vukala,	
Obituary                                                                      37
REPORT OF DISASTER RELIEF IN HAITI The Humanity First Response team was invited by the
                                                              Mayor of the Town of Gressier to tour the city and
Overview                                                      assess the damages. The team also visited the town of
Recent hurricanes and tropical storms in Haiti have           Martissant which was also badly affected by the storm.
played havoc in many parts of the country leaving             After the assessment of damage and urgent needs,
hundreds of people dead thousands struggling for              Humanity First acquired food and other emergency
survival. Tropical storms Fay, Gustav, Hanna and Ike          supplies and distributed them to more than 330 families
have caused catastrophe that has left many homeless           in those areas.
begging for food and clothes, as about 60 per cent            Each family was given an emergency package that
of Haiti’s food harvest has been destroyed. Many              included, water purification tablets and dry rations
bridges, roads and infrastructure have been shattered.        consisting of 10 lbs. of rice, 5 lbs. of beans, 2 liters
Risk of water-borne illnesses is rampant and clouds of        of oil, 2 bars of soap, 3 boxes of pasta, 3 boxes of
mosquitoes now breed in wet ground, raising fear of           dried fish, and one box of candles. These supplies
disease. Haiti is the poorest country in the Western          were generally enough to feed a family of 4 for about
Hemisphere.                                                   2 weeks. In addition, some cash and school supplies
Officials say about 800,000 people are in dire need           were also distributed.
of help because of the recent storms, which have              The town had specially organized a program for the
caused more than $200 million in damage to the                distribution of the emergency supplies by Humanity First.
farming sector.                                               Press reporters and media were invited and Humanity
Humanity First’s Emergency Relief                             First was also interviewed by the local Radio.
Response                                                      The Mayor of Gressier, Mr. Jean Vigish addressed the
Humanity First Canada responded to this disaster by           gathering and placed high expectation on Humanity
immediately coordinating with local representatives of        First. The Mayor said that his town in dying. He
Humanity First in Haiti. After initial assessment, Humanity   pointed out that there were another 900 families who
  First dispatched Mr. A.W. Lahaye with large supplies        were in a severe state of food deprivation. Canadian
            of water purification tablets and with funds      Humanity First representative Mr. Lahaye addressed to
                   to lead the relief work and assist         these people and promised that we will return with
                         the victims of the disaster in       more help. At one point, because of desperation and
                               the Town of Gressier and       hunger, the situation got almost out of control when
                                    Martissant.               there were about 24 people left as they feared the
                                                              supplies were running out.
                                                              Long Term Efforts
                                                              In the long term, Humanity First is looking at the
                                                              feasibility of establishing a school in town of Gressier
                                                              and rebuilding a bridge in Town of Torbeck.
                                                              The Mayor of Town of Gressier has requested for
                                                              assistance to re-establish and run a school. The Mayor
                                                              of town of Torbeck has requested assistance in building
                                                               a bridge that was destroyed by the storm.

                                                                     Dr. Aslam Daud
38                                                                      Humanity First
                                       Humanity First
                                         Needs Your
                                        Support and

     ...Dine and Let Humanity Shine!
416.440.0346 245 Bowes Rd. Concord ON L4K 1H8
                    Date: December 10, 2008 Time: 7:00pm
                              Place: Woodbine Banquet Hall
                     Tickets: $65/Person - $500/Table Of 10

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