s TvdVen RNAV Syst

Document Sample
s TvdVen RNAV Syst Powered By Docstoc
					                  RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class




              RNAV System                                          EUROCONTROL




             Requirements (1)
• FMS database issues
    •   FMS architecture
    •   FMS database production
    •   What RNAV can do
    •   FMS limitations

•   Aircraft owner
•   Aircraft manufacturer
•   FMC manufacturer
•   Database supplier
                                                                        1
            RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class




         RNAV System                                         EUROCONTROL




        Requirements (2)
• Navigation Performance
• Accuracy, Integrity, Availability &
  Continuity
• Need for accurate data in WGS 84
• Need for appropriate tools



                                                                  2
                 RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



              RNAV System Requirements                            EUROCONTROL




         FMS Architecture
• System Architecture
  • Main elements:
    • Flight Management Computer(s)
    • Control Display Unit
    • Navigation Display
    • Navigation sensor (mix)

  • Additional elements
    • Update sensors (DME/GPS/IRS)
    • Navigation database
                                                                       3
                RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



              RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




  FMS Database production
• Every 4 weeks a new navigation database
• Double cycle system: old and new version stored
  and retrievable by the crew
• Navigation data provided by the database supplier
• Non tailored (AIP) and tailored (company routes)
  data compiled
• Engine and Airline Policy data added and navigation
  data
• Update closes 2 weeks before the effective date
                                                                      4
                 RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



               RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




 FMS Database production (2)
• Diskettes produced by the FMC manufacturer
  (Honeywell) or licensee (Racal/Jeppesen)
• changes checked by the navigation database diskette
  producer
• Shipment of navigation diskettes/data-transfer to the
  Aircraft Operator
• Data available ~1 week before the effective date
• Loading via Nav Database loader before the effective
  date

                                                                       5
                   RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



                 RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




FMS Database production (3)
• Nav Database capacity
  • 96 Kb/192Kb/500Kb/1Mb/........
• Nav Database structure
  • Sub-files:
     • Airways
     •   Navigation facilities (ILS/VOR/DME/NDB)
     •   Way points
     •   Airports
     •   Runways
     •   Gate positions
     •   TMA procedures
                                                                         6
                 RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



               RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




FMS Database production (4)
• Coding rules according AIRINC 424
  specification
• Path and Terminator concept
  • Flight paths normally designed for non RNAV
    aircraft
  • ~20 different ‘tools’ for ‘translation’ of written text
    for coding the flight path
  • Complex routes >>>Complex coding
  • TMA procedures consumes half the database
    capacity
                                                                       7
            RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



           RNAV System Requirements                          EUROCONTROL




FMS Database production (5)
• At present, responsibility for coding
  rests with the database supplier
• Future: coding advise by the State
  Authority?




                                                                  8
            RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




     What RNAV can do (1)
• Highly accurate lateral navigation
  during straight segments when
  within Radio update mode
• Assistance in vertical navigation
• Certified VNAV control emerging
• Random tracking
• Smooth track intercepting
                                                                  9
               RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



             RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




     What RNAV can do (2)
• Controlled turn
  • RF leg is emerging, but will not give all
    answers to the open loop turn problems
• Fly-by turn
  • FMS-friendly, but requires significant freedom
    to start and end the turn
• Fly-over turn
  • Unstable intercept next leg
  • Requires long stabilisation distance
                                                                    10
                RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



               RNAV System Requirements                          EUROCONTROL




         FMS limitations (1)
• Minimum distance between
  waypoints
  • Limitations for SID coding (often tight turns
    desired)
  • Speed control required (dominant factor)
  • Speed control may affect aircraft performance



                                                                     11
               RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



             RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




         FMS limitations (2)
• Limitations direct after take-off
  • First fly-by way point minimum distance from
    Departure End of the Runway (DER)
  • Turn delay when fly-over is programmed
  • Turn delay when turn at an altitude is
    programmed
  • Destabilised route in case of fly-over coding,
    unless DF leg is applied
                                                                    12
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



             RNAV System Requirements                          EUROCONTROL




         FMS limitations (3)
• Limited in general speed constraints
  • Only one general speed limit per airport (e.g
    250 kt below 10.000 ft)
• Limited in procedure designation
  • Only one approach type per runway codable
    (unless officially designated separately)
  • Only one missed approach per approach type
    per runway codable

                                                                   13
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



            RNAV System Requirements                           EUROCONTROL




        FMS limitations (4)
• Limited in procedure designation
  • 5 characters for waypoint names
  • 6 characters for airway designators
  • 6 characters for SID/STAR designators
  • Transition concept applied for SIDs/STARs
    may not match with Source Documentation



                                                                   14
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                            EUROCONTROL




       AIRCRFAFT Owner
• Aircraft owner responsible for:
  • nav database contract
  • airline policy data
  • timely loading current data
  • assurance of integrity critical RNAV data
    (requirement for RNAV)
  • pilot training/checking procedures for
    RNAV
  • communication via the database supplier
                                                                  15
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




  AIRCRAFT Manufacturer
• Aircraft manufacturer
  • End responsibility for ‘subcontractors’
    (avionica manufacturers)
  • Involvement in modification of software and
    hardware of any system in the aircraft
  • Additional aircraft performance data added
    to the database disk


                                                                  16
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




       FMC Manufacturer
• FMC manufacturer responsible for:
  • data translation ARINC 424 into FMC
    language
  • compatibility with all FMC’s (all update
    versions)
  • Quality assurance process
  • FMC software updates


                                                                   17
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




     DATABASE Supplier
• Database supplier responsible for:
  • conversion source data into ARINC 424
    ‘language’
  • verification of coding
  • quality assurance (ED 76 compliant for
    RNAV)
  • communication/verification with sources of
    the data
                                                                  18
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                              EUROCONTROL




Navigation Performance (1)
• RNAV performance aims are:
    1 Repeatability of the lateral path
    2 Flight path accuracy




                                                                   19
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




 Navigation Performance (2)
1 Repeatability of the Lateral Path
  • Safety aspect
    • remain within the protected airspace
       • Obstacle clearance
       • Traffic separation
  • Capacity aspect
    • ATC reaction to navigation ‘surprises’ : >>>>
      increase of separation minima
  • Economical aspect
    • Noise abatement                                              20
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




 Navigation Performance (3)
2 Flight Path Accuracy
  • Significant increase in accuracy
  • Accuracy highly dependant on coding
    applied
  • Significant freedom during turns
    • May cause mitigating reaction by ATC
  • RF leg emerging


                                                                  21
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class




          RNAV System Requirements                            EUROCONTROL




Accuracy, Integrity, Continuity & Availability

• General
  • History: ICAO RGCSP>>RNP Concept
  • Four parameters to control the safety of the
    total system
  • Many changes in definition over the years
  • Now also used for sensor specific systems
  • Responsibility for adherence rests with the
    user
                                                                  22
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




           ACCURACY (1)
• Accuracy
 The degree of conformance between the
 estimated, measured, or desired position
 and/or the velocity of a platform at a given
 time, and its true position or velocity.

 ‘Where the system is’


                                                                   23
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




           ACCURACY (2)
• Position Update Components
  • DME old/new (provides radio update position)
                   and/or
  • GPS/GLONASS (provides satellite update
    position) (Augmentation techniques emerging)
         and additionally -if any-
  • IRS(-es) (provides reference position), time
    related
  • ANP/EPU/EPE warning system (in case of RNP)
                                                                   24
               RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



           RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




             INTEGRITY (1)
• Integrity
  The ability of a system to provide timely
  warnings to users when the system should
  not be used for navigation

  ‘Trusting the system that it is where it says it
  is’


                                                                    25
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                            EUROCONTROL




            INTEGRITY (2)
• Integrity level to prevent a catastrophic
  failure condition less than 1*10E-9 per
  flight hour (JAR 25-1309)
• Integrity trough (position) error detection
  and identification
• Contrary to accuracy, integrity is not
  measurable

                                                                  26
              RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                              EUROCONTROL




           INTEGRITY (3)
• Difficult for complex systems
• Even more difficult for highly software
  driven systems
• Integrity increased by multiple
  independent system design and cross-
  checking between independent systems
• Independency through dissimilar design
  of multiple systems ?
  • E.g. independency of DME station selection                     27
                RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



            RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




           AVAILABILITY (1)
• Availability
  An indication of the ability of the system to
  provide usable service within the specified
  coverage area

  ‘It’s there or it’s not there’



                                                                     28
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




         AVAILABILITY (2)
• Covers the risk of a lack of guidance at
  the start of the operation
• Risk mitigation through multi sensor
  design
• Provisions available to give timely alarm
  in case of loss of navigation
• Provisions to remain within a specified
  RNP level (RNP requirement only)                                29
                RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



            RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




 CONTINUITY of Function (1)
• Continuity of Function.
  The capability of the total system to perform
  its function without non-scheduled
  interruptions during the intended operation

  ‘It will be there or it will not be there’




                                                                     30
                   RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



              RNAV System Requirements                              EUROCONTROL




 CONTINUITY of Function (2)
• The probability that the system will be
  available for the duration of a phase of
  operation (presuming that the system was available at the
  beginning of the operation)
• RAIM hole checks for the intended route
• Continuity increased by multiple system
  design (back-up)
• Continuity controlled through multi-sensor
  system design
                                                                        31
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




               WGS 84 (1)
• Need for accurate data in WGS 84
  • WGS 84 technically not required for ground
    based updating systems, however…..
  • Implementation of WGS 84 is also a matter
    of increased accuracy and quality control
  • Position determination of FMS without
    GNSS sensor is relative to the ground
    station

                                                                  32
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




               WGS 84 (2)
• Problems may occur when station with a
  different reference datum is used
• Large deviations however should be filtered
  out by the FMC update algorithm
• Small differences could be accepted by the
  system>>Map shift
• GNSS sensored systems:
   • WGS 84 datum is absolutely a requirement


                                                                  33
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



          RNAV System Requirements                            EUROCONTROL




                 TOOLS (1)
• Need for appropriate tools
  • RNAV procedure design: coding
    complexity decreased
  • Pressure for complexity in route design
    (noise driven)
  • Noise abatement routes over-complex
    compared to conventional design
  • Thorough testing required
                                                                  34
             RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



         RNAV System Requirements                             EUROCONTROL




                 TOOLS (2)
• Expert judgement for complex routes
• Lap-top testing
• Flight simulator check
  • Maximum and minimum T/O weight
  • Maximum wind in strength and direction
• Actual flight trials via trial periods
  using designated operators
                                                                  35
                   RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class



              RNAV System Requirements                              EUROCONTROL




                       ADVISES
 In principle, adhere to the ‘minimum distance between way
  points’ tables of PANS-OPS
 Cater for maximum assumed wind speed
 Cater for different wind directions
 Apply sufficient distance for first way point after DER
 Use TF coding as much as possible
 Apply Fly-over as alternative but...
 use DF after Fly-over coding, airspace permitting
 Cater for delayed turns
 Check flight paths with different FMCs
 Use S.I. PDT as initial check
                                                                        36
 RNAV in Europe - Procedure Design Master Class




RNAV System                                       EUROCONTROL




Requirements




                                                      37

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Tags:
Stats:
views:65
posted:3/23/2011
language:English
pages:37