Guided Reading Templates by igq17388


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Reading Instruction:
  Strategies for the
    Primary Grades
      Sharon Walpole
 Michael C. McKenna
Overall Goals:
1. Place differentiation inside the reading
2. Consider targeted, temporary
3. Commit to improvements
We’ll do some theory building
We’ll provide models of use of
 time in small groups
We’ll direct you to additional
Our Web site
 Approaches to Differentiation
                         •   Informal reading inventories
By instructional level
                         • Traditional basal instruction
                         • Groups move at same pace
By fluency level
                         • Groups are all but permanent
                         • Differentiation is in all areas
By assessed needs
                         • Parallel skill “strands” used
 Approaches to Differentiation
                         •   Differentiation by leveled books
By instructional level
                         • Decoding skills not a target
                         • Fountas & Pinnell
By fluency level

By assessed needs
 Approaches to Differentiation
                         • Assess   for differentiation
By instructional level
                         • Screening + diagnostic
                         • Groups are temporary
By fluency level
                         • Groups are flexible
                         • Target areas of greatest need
By assessed needs
                         • Goal is “upward mobility”
 Differentiation is
―instruction that helps [children] accomplish
  challenging tasks that are just out of their reach‖
―instruction that targets a particular group of
  children’s needs directly and temporarily‖
―instruction that applies a developmental model‖

Walpole, S., & McKenna, M. C. (2007). Differentiated reading instruction:
 Strategies for the primary grades. New York: Guilford Press.
Guided Reading
                     Determining Group

Overall leveled placement        Screening and diagnostic
assessment, such the DRA         assessments in phonological
This process ignores the         awareness, phonics, sight
specific skill deficits in the   words, and/or oral reading
areas of phonological            fluency.
awareness and word

Running records are used to      The cognitive model of
analyze oral reading errors      reading assessment is used to
(miscues), a practice that has   systematically determine skill
been called into question in     needs on the basis of
light of current views of the    developmental stage theories
reading process.                 of reading acquisition.
Stage models of reading
                              When children are
                  Fluency      acquiring literacy –
 Oral Language

                               developing the skills
                               necessary for reading
                 Alphabetic    comprehension – they
                               tend to move through
                               stages in which their
                 Phonemic      focus is very different. All
                               along, during each
                               stage, they are
                               developing oral
                               language skills.
 Three Cuing Systems


Semantic              Syntactic
 Context               Context
We want to move children to the
point where they decode first and
then use context to select the
intended meaning of a word.

We do not want to encourage
them to predict the word from
context and only “sample” its
letters to the extent needed to
confirm this prediction.
 Three Cuing Systems


Semantic              Syntactic
 Context               Context

Fluency is always the primary  Fluency is the focus
focus.                         1. only for grade 1 and
                               2. only if decoding skills are
In guided reading, the teacher     strong.
coordinates reading            In differentiated instruction,
components (comprehension,         the teacher isolates
word recognition, fluency)         reading components to
                                   address deficits

Fluency techniques do not    Fluency techniques progress
proceed from most to least       from most to least
supportive.                      supportive:
                             1. Echo reading
                             2. Choral reading
                             3. Partner reading
                             4. Whisper reading
                       Text Types

Predictable books are         Decodable books are
preferred for beginning       preferred for beginning
readers in order to promote   readers in order to promote
fluency. Such books provide   decoding in context. Such
little basis for decoding     books provide little basis for
instruction.                  comprehension instruction–so
                              there is none.

Comprehension instruction is       In the primary grades,
based on texts at fluency          comprehension instruction is
level.                             based on small-group read-
This means that the easiest        alouds for children who are at
texts provide very little basis    benchmark in word
for asking reasonable              recognition.
questions or modeling              Comprehension instruction is
strategies, but this practice is   linked with fluency or
still encouraged.                  vocabulary but not with word
                                   recognition instruction.
                   Word Recognition

Word recognition needs are      Word recognition needs are
not systematically addressed    identified through the cognitive
during guided reading.          model of assessment and are
Rather, they are addressed on   addressed on this basis.
an as-needed basis.

Running records are used to   Three-week post-assessment
determine readiness for the   focuses on areas targeted by
next text level.              instruction.
                              The assessment question is
                              whether a child should move
                              to a more advanced focus,
                              remain at current focus, or
                              move to a more basic focus.
 Our focus, then, is different from the focus of
  Guided Reading

 Consider whether this difference is justified for
  your school, given your current resources and
  your current level of student achievement
A Basic Template

           Whole-Group Instruction

Lowest Group   Center or       Center
Center         Middle Group    Center

Center         Center          Highest Group

           Whole-Group Instruction
The concept of three tiers of
The 3-tier model (University of Texas
 System/Texas Education Agency,
 2005) is a general framework — and
 just a framework — for explaining how
 any research-based program can be
 executed in a school.

Tier I: Core Classroom
Reading Instruction
1. A core reading program grounded in
  scientifically based reading research
2. Benchmark testing of all kindergarten
  through third-grade students to
  determine instructional needs at least
  three times per year (fall, winter, and
3. Ongoing professional development to
  provide teachers with the necessary
  tools to ensure every student receives
  quality reading instruction
Tier II: Supplemental
For some students, core classroom reading
  instruction is not enough. Tier II is designed to
  meet the needs of these students by providing
  them with additional small-group reading
  instruction daily.
Tier III: Instruction for
Intensive Intervention
A small percentage of students require more
  support in acquiring vital reading skills than Tier II
  instruction can provide. For these students, Tier III
  provides instruction that is more explicit, more
  intensive, and specifically designed to meet their
  individual needs.
Setting the stage
for differentiation
  requires careful
    analysis of the
Decide what to teach
We are more likely to achieve
 improvements in vocabulary and
 comprehension for K and 1st grade
 during whole-group read alouds,
 both from the core selection and
 from children’s literature.
We can introduce and practice
 phonemic awareness and phonics
 concepts during whole group, but
 we’re more likely to achieve mastery
 during small-group time.
Decide what to teach
We are more likely to achieve
 improvements in fluency and
 comprehension in 2nd and 3rd
 grade if we introduce them in
 whole-group and practice in small-
 group time.
We can introduce word recognition
 concepts during whole-group time,
 but we will likely achieve mastery
 only during small-group time.
Make more time for small
Literacy coaches and grade-level
 teams must determine exactly how
 to use the core program
 Sort core instructional
   components from extension and
   enrichment activities
 Moderate and control
   instructional pacing so that early
   introductions and reviews are fast
Make a very simple centers
 Look for materials already in the core.
 Consider daily paired readings and readings.
 Consider a daily activity linked directly to your
  read aloud. Your children can write in response
  to that text every day.
 Consider a daily activity linked directly to your
  small group instruction. Your children can
  practice the things you’ve introduced.
Now you have set the stage
for differentiated reading
It’s time to plan.
1. Gather your resources
2. Consider your children’s
3. Try it out.
Gather your instructional
Review the state standards and
 the scope and sequence in your
 instructional materials
Review the state assessments, the
 district assessments, and any
 assessments that come with your
 core; fill in gaps with informal
Consider your children’s
 Given your screening data, you will
  know that some portion of children
  are likely at benchmark, some are just
  below grade level, and some are well
  below grade level
 For children at benchmark, you can
  decide to focus small-group time on
  fluency and comprehension or on
  vocabulary and comprehension
 Only the below-grade-level children
  need additional assessments
Consider your children’s
Using the Cognitive Model of
 Reading Instruction (McKenna and
 Stahl, 2003) choose your focus for
 each group:
 Phonemic awareness and
 Phonics and fluency
 Fluency and comprehension
 Vocabulary and comprehension
A Stairway to Proficiency

        Vocabulary & Comprehension

       Fluency and Comprehension

    Word Recognition and Fluency

    PA and Word Recognition
These Assignments are
Challenging   Instruction, not practice
Explicit      Every item modeled;
              Clear instructional talk

Engaged       Every pupil response strategies

Systematic    Repetitive instructional
              strategies each day;
              New content each day;
              Cumulative review each day
Phonemic awareness and
 These children still need to work on
  learning letter names and sounds,
  and they are not yet able to segment
  phonemes automatically
 They will work on coordinated
  activities to manipulate phonemes,
  learn new letters and sounds and
  review letters previously taught
 They will work with letters and words
  during small-group time
                            Every Day for 3 Weeks

                          Alphabet Review        3 Minutes
Phonemic Awareness and

                         Initial Sound Sorting   3 Minutes

                         2 New Letter Sounds;
Word Rec Group

                           Review Old Letter     3 Minutes
                          2 New HF Words;
                          Review Old High        3 Minutes
                          Frequency Words

                          Concept of Word        3 Minutes
                            Every Day for 3 Weeks
                         Oral Segmenting and
Phonemic Awareness and

                                                3 Minutes

                         Short Vowel Patterns   6 Minutes
Word Rec Group 2

                           4 New HF Words;
                          Review Old High       6 Minutes
                          Frequency Words
Phonics and fluency
 These children still need to work on
  decoding, but they can segment and
  blend phonemes to read some words
 They will work on coordinated activities
  to learn new letters patterns and
  review patterns previously taught
 They will work with words and with
  phonic-focused texts during small-
  group time
                        Every Day for 3 Weeks
                       Decodable text
                                         3 Minutes
                       Whisper Reading
Word Recognition and

                        Sounding and
                                         4 Minutes
Fluency Group 1

                        New HF Words;
                       Review Old High
                                         4 Minutes
                       Frequency Words

                       Decodable text
                                         4 Minutes
                       Whisper Reading
                        Every Day for 3 Weeks
                       Teaching Letter
                                         6 Minutes
Word Recognition and

                        New HF Words;
Fluency Group 2

                       Review Old High
                                         3 Minutes
                       Frequency Words

                       Decodable text
                                         6 Minutes
                       Whisper Reading
Fluency and
 These children have relatively few
  decoding problems, but they lack
 They will work in a guided reading
  format; they may review particularly
  challenging words (for their
  pronunciation or their meaning) but
  they will use most of their time reading
  and rereading challenging leveled
  texts and discussing text meaning
                         Every Day for 3 Weeks
                       Preteach Difficult
                                            2 Minutes
Comprehension Group

                      Choral or Echo Read
                                            5 Minutes
                       New Text Portion
                       Partner or Whisper
                        Read Same Text      5 Minutes
Fluency and

                           Summary or
                                            3 Minutes
                      Inference Questions
You can serve this
group in many other
ways too.
Vocabulary and
 These children are at grade level in the
  areas of decoding and fluency
 They will extend what they know into
  new texts and new text types; they will
  write in response to reading
                                   Every Day

                      Preteach Vocabulary    3 Minutes

Comprehension Group

                        Comprehension        1 Minute
                      Teacher Read-Aloud
                       or Children Whisper   7 Minutes
Vocabulary and

                                             4 Minutes
In this example, you will role-play K or first-grade
students, and I will use a read-aloud format.
You can serve this
group in many other
ways too.
Think about it
Are you current strategies
Are they reasonable and
Are they designed to be
  How to find out more …


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