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					Perception
&
Sensation
Complementary Afterimage #1
Complementary AfterImage #2
Complementary AfterImage #3
Illusion Haze
      Top-down vs. Bottom-up Processing
• So far, we have studied the flow of information
  from the world into the perceptual system
  (bottom-up processing). But there is an equally
  important influence of pre-existing knowledge
  on our eventual perception of things in the world
  (top-down processing).
• That is, our prior experiences and expectations
  have a very strong influence on the things we
  see. As a result, our perceptions of the world
  result from a combination of sensory
  information (data-driven) and pre-existing
  knowledge (concept-driven).
Prior knowledge guides vision
Prior knowledge guides vision
Face Perception: Which one is Vanna?
Face Perception: Which one is Vanna?
      Gestalt Grouping Principles


• group nearby
figures together
Gestalt Grouping Principles:
         Proximity

          Objects near each other tend
              to be seen as a unit
       Gestalt Grouping Principles


• group figures
that are similar
Gestalt Grouping Principles:
         Similarity

              Objects similar to each
             other tend to be seen as a
                        unit
Gestalt Grouping Principles:
         Similarity

              Objects similar to each
             other tend to be seen as a
                        unit
      Gestalt Grouping Principles


• Fill in gaps to
create a complete,
whole object
Gestalt Grouping Principles:
          Closure
                  • Fill in gaps to
                  create a complete,
                  whole object

                  •But, doesn’t the
                  white triangle look
                  whiter than the
                  background?
Gestalt Grouping Principles:
         Continuity

                 • Objects that are
                 connected by a
                 smooth curve tend to
                 be seen as a unit
    Gestalt Grouping Principles:
       Common Movement
• Objects moving in the same speed and at
the same direction tend to be grouped

•The Hidden Bird Illusion
  •THIS IS THE APPLET
    Gestalt Grouping Principles:
       Common Movement
• Which direction are the triangles pointing?
Who do you see?
What do you see?
       Depth Perception
How do we create a 3 dimensional world
         from 2 dimensions?
                       Stereogram




•Cross eyes so that the left eye is looking at the right square
and the right looking at the left
•Try ‘fixating’ on an imaginary point in front of the viewing
screen at which point you will see three squares- left center
and right. The center one will be the stereo image
Relative Size
   Perceived Size and Perceived Depth
• To perceive the size
  of objects accurately      Retina      Pupil
  we must also perceive                                            B
                                                     A
  their distance           Image

  accurately.
• Thus, many visual
  illusions occur simply   Image                                    A

  because a particular
  image lacks sufficient
                              This figure shows that image size depends
  depth cues.                 upon both object size and distance
        The Size-Distance Problem
• The Ames room is designed so that the
  monocular depth cues give the illusion that the
  two people are equally far away
      Other Size-Distance Illusions
• In each of these
  examples, the top
  and bottom lines are
  actually the same
  length.                (a) Müller-Lyer illusion

• In each case the top
  line looks longer.
• Why?

                           (b) Ponzo illusion
                 Muller-Lyer Illusion
• Perceptual psychologists
  have hypothesized that the
  top horizontal line looks
  longer because it also looks
  farther away.

• Specifically, the inward
  pointing arrows signify that
  the horizontal line is closest
  to you, and the outward
  pointing arrows signify the
  opposite case.
              Ponzo Illusion
• Converging lines indicate that top line is
  farther away than bottom line
Another Size-Distance Illusion
Another Size-Distance Illusion
Linear Perspective
           Texture Gradients




The elements of a texture become smaller and smaller as
they recede into the distance...another reliable depth cue.
Cues to Depth Perception
   Texture Gradient
Cues to Depth Perception
   Texture Gradient
Which Triangle is closer?
              Relative Height




                                                  horizon line




Objects closer to the horizon appear to be farther away...
Cues to Depth Perception
    Relative Height
                  Size Constancy
• Cylinders at
  positions A and B
  are the same size
  even though their                    Point B
  image sizes differ


• The depth cues such
  as linear perspective      Point A

  and texture help the
  visual system judge
  the size accurately
                   Shape Constancy
• It is hard to tell if the
  figure on the upper
  right is a trapezoid or
  a square slanted
  backward.

• If we add texture, the
  texture gradient helps
  us see that it is
  actually a square.
Attention Demos
The Stroop Effect, part 1

               As fast as you can,
               read the names
               of the colors
The Stroop Effect, part 2

               As fast as you can,
               (don’t read the
               word) but read the
               name of the color
               of the word.
The Stroop Effect, part 2

               As fast as you can,
               (don’t read the
               word) but read the
               name of the color
               of the word.
The Stroop Effect, part 2

               As fast as you can,
               (don’t read the
               word) but read the
               name of the color
               of the word.
Attention as a Selector: Find the
          Green Scarf
Attention as a Selector: Find the
           Bald Man
Selection Based on Color is Easy
Selection Based on upright vs
   upside down is not easy
      Treisman’s Feature Integration Theory


The following is a demonstration that (a) detecting features is
relatively automatic, and (b) that integrating multiple features
together and identifying the object is more attention-demanding.
Slap your thigh when you
see the blue line.
Detecting the blue line was pretty easy, right? Is
orientation also easy to detect?




           Slap your thigh when you
           see the horizontal line.
      Identifying Integrated Features

                Conjunction Search

When targets are defined by:
• Combination of features (e.g., red AND horizontal)

• Spatial arrangements of features (e.g. black above white)
Slap your thigh when you see the bar that
is both horizontal AND blue
So, the conjunction of color and orientation does not
pop out.

What about the spatial arrangement of a basic visual
feature?
Slap your thigh when you find the black
square above the white square:
Can you attend to
something without
moving your eyes?
Stare at the cross



       +
        Q
    X       C

L       +   M

H           P
        E
What were the letters that you saw?


                +
Now, focus on the cross but pay
attention to the right side.


                +
        F
    U       O

D       +   S

I           W
        N
What were the letters?


          +
     Attending without moving eyes
• Focus of attention does NOT depend on where your
eyes are pointing. We can move our attention
independently of our eyes. You can look one way and
attend to something that is elsewhere. WHY?

• Attention amplifies our ability to sense information.

• Who has noticed that events seem to slow down when
you’re in an accident? Perhaps there’s an expansion of
time that occurs when you strongly attend to something?
       Attention as a
   “Selection Mechanism”


What happens to stuff we don’t attend to?
                       +
While looking at the center plus sign, attend to the
yellow cross and report whether its vertical or
horizontal bar is longer
       Stare at the cross

               +
Attend Here
+
Which was longer?
Stare at the cross

        +
              Attend Here
+
Which was longer?
       Stare at the cross

               +
Attend Here
stint
      Which was longer?



Who noticed the word “stint”???
 Visual Version of Experiment


Task: Is this a word you find
       generally positive? YES/NO.


             +
Fish
Mouse
Land
House
Rabbit
Lemon
Idea
• Subjects have virtually no memory of the
unattended objects in a visual version of the
dichotic listening task.




• Attention is a gateway to memory. You will
not consciously remember stuff that is not
attended to.
How Powerful is our ability to attend to
something?

How powerful of a selector mechanism
is attention?
Some Video Examples

               Your Task
            Count the number of
            passes of the ball by the
            members on the White
            Team.
Attentional Deficits
         Left Visual Neglect


• Inability or difficulty to attend to the left
  side of visual space or of an object. Caused
  by lesion in the right parietal lobe.
Line-bisection task
Memory Demos
Sensory Memory Demonstration

        Focus on the cross


               +
Sensory Memory Demonstration


     X   M   D   N

     I   F   B   Z
Sensory Memory Demonstration



 What were all of the letters?
Sensory Memory Demonstration

        Focus on the cross


               +
Sensory Memory Demonstration


      Q   U   C   L

      T   J   R   M
   Sensory Memory Demonstration
• Report the letter that was where the arrow points


              --    --      --     --

              --    --      --     --
Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
    Demonstration
• Examine this boat for a minute
    Visuo-Spatial Sketchpad
        Demonstration
 Was the anchor closer to the front or to the
center of the boat?
      Chunking: An Example

• Remember these 19 numbers

• Write them down when I’m finished
                  Chunking

• Chunk: a category of information that lets
you group/organize underlying items.

• Here were the numbers:
 1776 2002 24/7 911 22904

Our short term memory capacity is 7 plus or
minus 2 chunks of information.
                   Amnesia
• caused by damage
to hippocampus
and/or surrounding
areas

• See the Jeremy
video

• Remember the
Clive video             Hippocampus
      Which is the real penny?


(a)       (b)    (c)   (d)   (e)




(f)       (g)    (h)   (i)   (j)




(k)        (l)   (m)   (n)   (o)
             Answer


(a)   (b)     (c)     (d)   (e)




(f)   (g)     (h)     (i)   (j)




(k)    (l)    (m)     (n)   (o)
          Class Demonstration

As fast as you can, unscramble the words on
 the sheet of paper. Turn the page over when
 you’re finished.
           Class Demonstration

Raise your hand if you spelled the last word as
                  PETAL


Raise your hand if you spelled the last word as
                PLATE
                  Priming Example #2
   • There were two sets of scrambled words
     preceding the last one. One set was related to
     kitchen items.

              •   F I N E K --> KNIFE
All related   •   K R O F --> FORK
     to       •   P U C --> CUP
              •   E C U S A R --> SAUCER
              •   L T E P A --> PLATE
                  Priming Example #2
   • The other set was related to flowers.



              •   NYPAS --> PANSY
All related   •   FELA --> LEAF
     to       •   KTALS --> STALK
              •   LOBSOMS --> BLOSSOMS
              •   L T E P A --> PETAL
          Priming Example #2
• Whether you deciphered LTEPA as “Plate”
  or as “Petal” was likely influenced by the
  preceding words.

• These preceding words primed (i.e,.
  activated) either Plate or Petal.
          A 3 minute Task


Spend the next 3 minutes writing down as many
U.S. states as you can.
Face memory test
  100           Face Memory Results

  80


  60


  40


  20


   0
Don’t Describe Face
  100           Face Memory Results

  80
                              Why are people worse
                              after describing the face?
  60


  40


  20


   0
Don’t Describe Face Describe Face
Social Demos
       The Attribution Scale Task
Each row contains a pair of adjectives and a
  “Depends on the situation” response.

I want you to rate George Bush. Put a
  CHECK (do not circle) next to the item that
  is most characteristic of George Bush.
While driving through a rural area near your home you are
stopped by a county police officer who informs you that you
have been clocked (with radar) at 38 miles per hours in a 25-
mph zone. You believe this information to be accurate. After
the policeman leaves, you inspect the citation and find that the
details on the summons regarding weather, visibility, time, and
location of violation are highly inaccurate. The citation
informs you that you may either pay a $50 fine by mail
without appearing in court or you must appear in municipal
court within the next two weeks to contest the charge.

•    Which option would you choose?
    (a)   pay fine   (b) contest charge


•    What % of the people in this class do you estimate would pay
     the fine? _______
           False Consensus:
Tendency to see one’s own choices and opinions as
          more common than they are

       Class results from last year
47% said they would pay fine
          They estimated that: _38_% would contest
                               _62_% would pay


53% said they would contest the charge
          They estimated that: _64_% would contest
                               _36_% would pay
                 A Judgment Task
• All subjects perform a boring task for 1 hour, and are
  then asked to lie to the next subject and say that the
  experiment was fun and exciting.
 • Subjects are paid either $1 or $20 to lie.
 • Finally, all subjects privately rate how much they
 enjoyed the initial task.

• Question: Which subjects reported that they enjoyed
the initial task more? Will the subjects paid $1 or those
paid $20 rate the task as more enjoyable?
Measuring Implicit Stereotypes



 The Implicit Association Test

  for more information: www.yale.edu/implicit
Unpleasant   Pleasant
 abuse       caress
 crash       freedom
 filth       health
 murder      love
 sickness    peace
 accident    cheer
Old People   Young People
              murder
                love
               crash
             freedom
              peace
  LEFT          filth    RIGHT
   for         abuse       for
Unpleasant    caress    Pleasant
               cheer
             accident
              health
             sickness
LEFT   RIGHT
 for     for
 Old   Young
              cheer


             sickness

  LEFT                   RIGHT
   for       murder        for
Unpleasant              Pleasant
    or                      or
   Old        peace      Young

             accident
LEFT    RIGHT
 for      for
Young     Old
              love



             crash
  LEFT                 RIGHT
   for        filth      for
Unpleasant            Pleasant
    or                    or
  Young      health     Old

             abuse
Personality Demos
     Social-Cognitive Perspective

• External Locus of Control
  – the perception that chance or outside forces
    beyond one’s personal control determine
    one’s fate


• Internal Locus of Control
  – the perception that one controls one’s own
    fate
On a sheet of paper, write a series of numbers from 1 to 18.
For each of the following questions, imagine the situation
happening to you, even if it never has. Next, write down the
alternative (either A or B) that you prefer. Always record an
alternative, even if both are equally preferable.


 1. You get very good grades in a course.
    A. I am a hard worker.
    B. School work is simple.

 2. You feel stronger and more energetic.
    A. This season of the year makes me feel better.
    B. I feel better when I exercise.
3. A salesperson is very unpleasant to you.
   A. I am always polite, even to unpleasant people.
   B. I can be unpleasant at times.

4. You fail to get the promotion you want.
    A. I didn’t work as hard as I could have.
    B. The company suffered a loss and could not
       promote anybody.
5. You get picked to represent your neighborhood
    association at a dinner with the mayor.
    A. It was my turn to go.
    B. I showed great interest in going.
6. You read an article that contradicts your views.
   A. I don’t mind when people disagree with me.
   B. I never get angry. I always stay calm and collected.
7. A friend is avoiding you.
   A. Once in a while I am mean to other people.
   B. Once in a while people are mean to me.

8. Your doctor tells you that despite her recommendations,
   you still eat too much salt.
   A. Salt is in everything -- you can’t avoid it.
   B. I don’t pay much attention to my diet.

9. A friend invites you to dinner.
   A. My friend feels lonely and wants some company.
   B. I make pleasant and interesting company.

10. You have a disagreement with a neighbor.
   A. Once in a while I may lose my temper and get angry.
   B. I never get angry. I always stay calm and collected.
11. Your spouse/friend says that you don’t share thoughts
   with him/her.
   A. I share with my spouse/friend even my most
      personal and intimate thoughts.
   B. I sometimes have ideas that I do not like other
      people to know about.

12. Your boss criticizes you.
   A. He is a critical person.
   B. I am a poor worker.

13. You make a new friend.
   A. I am a nice person.
   B. The people that I meet are nice.
14. A friend who helped you when in need asks to borrow a
   large sum of money.
   A. I am always eager to return a favor.
   B. Lending money to a friend can be a problem.
15. Your spouse/friend yells at you.
   A. I must have done something wrong to upset him/her.
   B. He/she has a quick temper.
16. Your friend is making a long argument that you want to
   comment on.
   A. I never interrupt others when they are talking.
   B. I sometimes interrupt others when they are talking.
17. You’ve recovered very quickly from the flue.
   A. I have a good resistance because I take care of my health
   B. Fortunately, it was a minor flue.

 18. You twist your shoulder in exercise class.
    A. The instructor pushed us too hard.
    B. I was not careful in exercise class.
For questions 1, 4, 7, 13, 15, and 17: give yourself a 1 if
   you selected A and a 0 if you selected B.
      [Alternative A corresponds to an internal locus of
   control]

For questions 2, 5, 8, 9, 12, and 18: give yourself a 1 if you
   selected B and 0 if you selected A.
      [Alternative B corresponds to an internal locus of
   control]

Now, add up your total number of points.
Raise your hand if your score is below 6

Raise your hand if your score is below 6


High scores --> associated with an internal locus of control

Low scores --> associated with an external locus of control
Mental Disorders Demos
      Dissociative Amnesia

• Marian and her brother were recently
  victims of a robbery. Marian was not
  injured, but her brother was killed when
  he resisted the robbers. Marian is unable
  to recall any details from the time of the
  accident until four days later.
         Dissociative Amnesia
• Memory loss is the only symptom
  – Often selective memory loss surrounding
    traumatic events


• Key characteristic is that the person still
  knows their identity.
          Dissociative Fugue

• Jay, a high school teacher in New York,
  disappeared three days after his wife
  unexpectedly left him for another man. Six
  months later, he was discovered tending bar in
  Miami Beach. Calling himself Martin, he
  claimed to have no recollection of his past life
  and insisted that he had never been married.
              Dissociative Fugue

• Global amnesia with identity replacement
  – Person develops a new identity
  – No recollection of former life


• If fugue wears off
  – old identity recovers
  – new identity is totally forgotten
  Dissociative Identity Disorder
              (DID)
• Norma has frequent memory gaps and cannot
  account for her whereabouts during certain
  periods of time. While being interviewed by a
  psychologist, she began speaking in a childlike
  voice. She claimed that her name was Donna
  and that she was only six years old. Moments
  later, she seemed to revert to her adult voice
  and had no memory of speaking in a childlike
  voice or claiming that her name was Donna.
  Dissociative Identity Disorder
              (DID)
• Originally known as “multiple personality
  disorder”
• 2 or more distinct personalities manifested by
  the same person at different times
• VERY rare
• Can vary in severity (see video)
Intelligence Demos
   Are There Multiple Intelligences?
• Savant Syndrome
  – condition in which a person, otherwise limited in
    mental ability, has an amazing specific skill
     • computation
     • drawing
            Savants
George and Charles

                      Could instantly compute
                       the day of week for any
                      given date over a span of
                            80,000 years

                      But, IQ between 40 -70
       Modern intelligence tests

• The Stanford-Binet Scale
  – intelligence quotient (IQ) = child’s mental age
    divided by child’s chronological age and then
    multiplied by 100
        – IQ = MA/CA x 100 (CA = Chronological age)
            » E.g., IQ = 13/10 x 100 = 130
  – used widely in the US, not as much as previously
          Stanford-Binet Scale
The Intelligence Quotient (i.e., MA/CA) is absurd
when applied to adults.
      Hence, the following joke:
Thinking Demos
        Some True/False Questions

1. We notice evidence that contradicts our beliefs more
readily than evidence that is consistent with them.

2. In general, people underestimate how much they
really know.
3. Only humans seem capable of insight (I.e., the sudden
realization of a problem’s solution).
                   Problem

Write down the names of 6 U.S. cities that
are WEST of San Diego.

Here’s the kicker: each city must be in a
different state (6 cities from 6 different
states.)
                 Problem

Write down the names of 6 U.S. cities that
are WEST of San Diego.


          Reno is West of
          San Diego
Falling Object Problem
Spiral Tube Problem
                   Confirmation Bias

Below are four cards. Each card has a letter on one side and a
digit on the other side. You are to verify whether or not the
following rule is true: If there is a vowel on one side, there is
an even number on the other side. You should verify this rule
by turning over 2 cards. Which cards do you choose?


             A           2        X           3
 Verify Rule: If there is a vowel on one side, there is an even
 number on the other side.

               A          2         X          3


Answer: A and 3
       If there’s a vowel on the other side of
the 3 card then the rule is dead

Most people choose “A” and “2”. Why?
Because of a confirmation bias.
                   Confirmation Bias

People generally seek evidence that will confirm, not falsify, a
hypothesis
  It would seem, then that we stink at logic.
  But . . . .
IF A PERSON IS DRINKING BEER, THEN THE
PERSON MUST BE OVER 21 YEARS OF AGE. Select
the 2 cards that you definitely need to turn over to
determine whether or not they are violating the rule.



        Beer       22      Coke       17
• Solve problems and syllogisms by applying
  information to pre-existing schemas
• More relevant = easier to solve

• The Bottom Line: People are not logic machines
  who can plug any problem into a logical formula
      Representativeness Heuristic

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very
bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned
with issues of discrimination and social justice,
and also participated in anti-nuclear
demonstrations.

      What is the probability that Linda is a….?
       Representativeness Heuristic

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very
bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned
with issues of discrimination and social justice, and
also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.

What is the probability that Linda is a Bank Teller?
      Write a number between 0 and 100
       Representativeness Heuristic

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very
bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned
with issues of discrimination and social justice, and
also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.
       Representativeness Heuristic

Linda is 31 years old, single, outspoken and very
bright. As a student, she was deeply concerned
with issues of discrimination and social justice, and
also participated in anti-nuclear demonstrations.

What is the probability that Linda is a Feminist
Bank Teller?
      Write a number between 0 and 100
      Representativeness Heuristic


 Time after time, people say that there’s a higher
 likelihood that Linda is a feminist bank teller
 than that she’s a bank teller. But this is
 impossible because:
Feminist Bank Tellers are a sub-group of Bank
Tellers.
• Representativeness Heuristic
  – rule of thumb for judging the likelihood of
    things in terms of how well they seem to
    represent, or match, particular prototypes

  – However, it can cause people to generalize too
    broadly from single cases.
               Availability Bias

• Is the letter “k” most likely to occur in the first
  position of a word or the third position?

• Answer: “k” is 2-3 times more likely to be in
  the third position

• Most people respond that “k” is more frequent
  in the first position. Why does this occur?
           Availability Heuristic

• Because it is easier to recall words starting
  with “k” , people overestimate the number of
  words starting with “k”
Which of the following are more frequent causes of death in
 the U.S.?
      Rate how confident you are in your choice on a scale from 0
  (guessing) to 100 (absolutely certain that your choice is correct).


  1. All accidents or strokes?         5. Drowning or Leukemia?
        confidence rating?                   confidence rating?
  2. Electrocution or asthma?
        confidence rating?
  3. Homicide or diabetes?
       confidence rating?
  4. Lightning or appendicitis?
        confidence rating?
Which of the following are more frequent causes of death in
 the U.S.?

  1. All accidents (55,000) or strokes (102,000)

  2. Electrocution (500) or asthma (920)

  3. Homicide (9200) or diabetes (19,000)

  4. Lightning (52) or appendicitis (440)

   5. Drowning (3600) or Leukemia (7100)
• Availability Heuristic
  – estimating the likelihood of events based on
    their availability in memory
  – if instances come readily to mind (perhaps
    because of their vividness), we presume such
    events are common
  – We tend to be overly influenced by events that
    come easily to mind
Language and Development
       Critical Stage & Language


Genie spent her first 14 years
confined to a small bedroom
and weighed just 59 pounds
when discovered. She never
learned to speak in complete
sentences.
Konrad Lorenz & Imprinting

				
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