Newton st Law Law of Inertia by sanmelody

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									         “Physical Science”
   As described in the 2010 FLDOE
    Course Description, using the “New
    Sunshine State Standards”, includes:

       Physics (Chapter 1-7 and 9-14)
       Chemistry (17-26)
       Environmental Science (not in
        current textbook!)
Physical Science Honors
   Start with most basic – physics

   Apply and add to the physics to include
    atoms and interactions of matter –
    chemistry

   Apply and add to the chemistry to
    consider man’s impact on the
    “environment” – environmental science
                    Physics
   Physics – originally included all science, but later
    came to refer to those parts of science left over
    when subtract astronomy, geology, chemistry,
    biology, etc.

   Physics includes study of motion, heat, light,
    sound, electricity, and magnetism – all forms of
    ENERGY

   Historically, physics tends to study topics that can
    be “simplified” and thus described with
    mathematical models.
  Chapter 1
About Science
              Objectives
   A brief history of Science,
   Scientific Method,
   Distinguish between
     Fact and hypothesis,
     hypothesis & theory,
     science & technology.

   Limitations of Science
    Very BRIEF Ancient History of
                       Science
   Rational (scientific) thinking became
    popular in Greece in the 3rd century -
    Aristotle

   Arab nations developed mathematics &
    made glass, paper & chemicals

   Modern science began in the 16th century
    with Italian physicist Galileo Galilei –
       Galileo was the first to “officially” experiment
Greeks: explained natural phenomena
            using deductive reasoning.
   Philosophers – lovers of wisdom
       Natural philosophy – study of natural
        phenomena, nowadays known as “science” – to
        know.

   Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) identified
    fundamental types of matter, “elements”, that
    seek their natural place.
       Earth
       Water
       Air
       Fire (lightning)
       Ether (the “heavenly bodies”)
             Aristotle reasoned
   Objects seek their natural place,
       Heavier objects are more “eager” to return to
        their natural place than lighter objects, as
        evidenced by the increased downward
        pressure on your hand when you hold them.
        ○   Heavier objects “fall” more rapidly.


   Natural state of objects is “rest”
       Rocks roll down hill then come to a stop
       Living organisms die to return to natural state
       Flaws in Aristotles
            theory?
 Ifa two pound weight falls faster
  than a 1 pound weight, what
  happens when a two pound weight
  and a one pound weight are placed
  together in a tightly fitted sack?

 What   would Aristotle predict?

 What   happens?
     GELILEO GALILEI (1564-
             1642)
   Experimentalists paved way for
    modern science.

   Galileo had no stopwatches to
    measure rates of motion so he used
    dripping water and measure weight of
    water to estimate time!
Galileo used Inclined planes –

   How does the time it takes
    for a ball to roll down a
    plane vary with the weight
    of the ball and the angle of
    the plane?
 What about free fall of paper
          and rock?
 Drop sheet of paper and
  rock?
   What happens if first
    crumple paper into a tight
    ball?
    Galileo experimented!!
Legend of the Leaning
Tower of Pisa:

Galileo showed that
dropped objects fall to
the ground at the
same time when air
resistance is
negligible.
   Sir Isaac Newton (1642-
             1727)
 3 Laws of Motion
   Developed through
    assumptions, logical deductive
    reasoning and mathematics,
    and experimentation.
         Scientific Method
   Ask a Question based on observations
   Form a Hypothesis which includes a
    tentative answer to the question and
   predicts the outcome of an experiment
    designed to test to the hypothesis (“If……,
    Then……”)
   Design a controlled experiment and collect
    and analyze data and see if prediction was
    correct.
   Draw data-based conclusions that
    organizes           the hypothesis,
    predictions, and results.
“Making Cents” Lab
   Scientific hypotheses must be testable

   Observing nature and gathering
    experimental data can lead to a theory

   Remember: a theory is foundational to
    science & can change or be refined

   Example: it was once believed that atoms
    could not be divided into smaller particles.
        Scientific Laws
   When a hypothesis is tested
    over and over and isn’t
    contradicted, it may
    become a law!
 Newton’s three laws of
  motion
 Mendel’s laws on
  inheritance
 Thermodynamic Laws
 Ideal Gas Law
At the age of 84, Russell added a five-paragraph prologue to a
new publication of his autobiography, giving a summary of the
work and his life, titled What I have lived for.
   Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing
    for love, the search for knowledge, and unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind.
    These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward
    course, over a deep ocean of anguish, reaching to the very verge of despair. I have
    sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy—ecstasy so great that I would often have
    sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it
    relieves loneliness—that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks
    over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it,
    finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring
    vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and
    though it might seem too good for human life, this is what—at last—I have found. With
    equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men.
    I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the
    Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not
    much, I have achieved. Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward
    toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain
    reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless
    old people a hated burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and
    pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil, but I
    cannot, and I too suffer. This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would
    gladly live it again if the chance were offered me.
       Technology & Science
                 are in a close
                  relationship
    Science describes natures; technology applies those
    descriptions to solve problems.

   Science helps us to predict things that have not been
    experienced

   Science has provided information for technology to
    develop

   Technology provides tools for science to use in
    investigations;

   The technology has created health & environmental
    issues which science seeks to “cure”
    Limitations of Science
 Science can deal only with testable
  hypotheses
 It can’t answer philosophical questions
 It is limited by those who experiment:
  scientists must accept their findings even if
  they don’t like them
 It has paired with technology and
  contributed to higher health risks for us
  (global warming, radioactive waste, etc.)
      Pseudoscience
 Astrology
 Homeopathy
 Faith healing
                 Vocabulary
   Science: Organized common sense, a collection of
    findings about nature & a process for gathering &
    organizing knowledge about it.

   Scientific method: a formal method for gaining,
    organizing & applying new knowledge

   Hypothesis: an educated guess not fully accepted
    as fact until tested by experiment
             More Vocab 
   Fact: A phenomenon about which competent
    observers can agree

   Theory: Synthesis of a large body of information
    that encompasses well-tested hypotheses about
    aspects of the natural world

   Law: a general hypothesis/statement that has
    never been contradicted after repeated testing
    And even more vocab 
   Technology: Method & means of solving
    problems by applying scientific findings

   Pseudoscience: Fake science that has not
    been tested for validity

								
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