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The Effects of Workplace Incivility on Psychological Distress and

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The Effects of Workplace Incivility on Psychological Distress and Powered By Docstoc
					The Effects of Workplace
Incivility on Psychological
Distress and Health
                   IWH Plenary Presentation
                              April 29, 2008

              Harry S. Shannon, McMaster University
                 Lacey Langlois, McMaster University
                  Lauren Griffith, McMaster University
                     Ted Haines, McMaster University
               Lilia M. Cortina, University of Michigan
               Sybil Geldart, Wilfrid Laurier University
Studies
 Phase I - Qualitative Study
   Yields ideas and themes.
   To determine the important issues related to work
   and health among Canadian postal workers.
 Phase II - Quantitative Study
   Yields numbers.
   To determine how common incivility is, and how
   incivility is related to psychological distress and
   health.

                                                         2
Phase I




          3
Research Questions
 What are the important issues related to
 work and health?
 What, if anything needs to be done and
 why?
 How should changes be made? What
 are the barriers to such changes?


                                       4
Methods
 Qualitative Study
   Focus Groups
     60 discussion groups with 271 postal workers
     at 9 sites across Canada
        Inside workers, Outside workers, Maintenance
        workers, Supervisors
   Comment Sheets
     Employees not selected for the focus groups
     were asked to fill out comment sheets (678
     returned)


                                                       5
Results
 Themes
  Environment (e.g., lighting, weather)
  Equipment (e.g., damaged)
  Physical Health and Injury (e.g., back
  problems, pain)
  Mental Health (e.g., stress)
  Personal Relations (e.g., feeling devalued)
  Health and Safety

                                           6
Summary
 General lack of respect for workers
 Workers feel stressed and burdened




                                       7
Phase II




           8
Research Questions
 What is the magnitude of incivility, with
 and without associated sexual
 harassment, among Canadian postal
 workers?
 To what extent, if any, does incivility
 contribute to psychological distress?



                                         9
Methods
 Questionnaire
  Pilot tested with 10 postal workers to test
  length and understandability
  Translated to French and back-translated
  to English
   Divided into 7 sections




                                            10
Methods
 Questionnaire
   Sections
     the job
     the union
     feelings about work
         organizational commitment, turnover intent, job satisfaction
     physical and mental health
         self-rated health, pain, anxiety, depression, hostility,
         burnout
     treatment in the workplace
         incivility, bullying, discrimination, sexual harassment
     injuries and safety
     demographics
                                                                    11
Exposures
 Incivility
   Definition:
      Discourteous behaviour or treatment
      Different from bullying in that it is generally less obvious,
      and potentially more common
      Can come from multiple sources (e.g., supervisors,
      coworkers, customers)
   Past research:
      Becoming more common
      May lead to more severe violence if left unresolved
      Related to psychological distress and well-being
      Can impact the organization (e.g., costs in dealing with
      employee disputes)
                                                               12
Exposures
 Incivility
   Workplace Incivility Scale (Cortina et al., 2001)
      During the last year have you been in a situation where
      any of these people did the following:
          Put you down or was condescending to you?
          Paid little attention to your statements or showed little
          interest in your opinion?
          Made demeaning or derogatory remarks about you?
          Addressed you in unprofessional terms, either publicly or
          privately?
          Ignored or excluded you?
          Doubted your judgement on a matter over which you have
          responsibility?
          Made unwanted attempts to draw you into discussion of
          personal matters?
                                                               13
Exposures
 Incivility
   Workplace Incivility Scale (Cortina et al., 2001)
      During the last year have you been in a situation where
      any of these people did the following:
          Put you down or was condescending to you?
          Paid little attention to your statements or showed little
          interest in your opinion?
          Made demeaning or derogatory remarks about you?
          Addressed you in unprofessional terms, either publicly or
          privately?
          Ignored or excluded you?
          Doubted your judgement on a matter over which you have
          responsibility?
          Made unwanted attempts to draw you into discussion of
          personal matters?
                                                               14
Exposures
 Job Strain
   Definition:
     High job demands, low control (skill discretion, decision
     latitude)
   Past Research:
     Related to psychological distress and well-being
     Effects of job strain on health outcomes can be mitigated
     by social support
   Scale:
     Job Content Questionnaire (Karasek, 1985)


                                                           15
Exposures
 Bullying
  Definition:
    “use of superior strength or influence to
    intimidate, typically to force someone to do
    what one wants”
  Past Research:
    risk factor for depressive symptoms in working
    men and women (Neidhammer et al., 2006), as
    well as sickness and anxiety (Voss et al., 2001)

                                                   16
Exposures
 Bullying
   Scale: Work Harassment Scale (Bjorkqvist, 1994)
     24 questions, 5-pt scale (Never-Very Often)
     Have you experienced:
         Inappropriate attempts to keep you from saying your
         opinion?
         Lies about you told to others?
         Being shouted at loudly?
         Insulting comments about your private life?
         Having sensitive details about your private life revealed?
         Etc.


                                                                 17
Exposures
 Sexual Harassment
  Definition:
    One of multiple behaviours including unwanted
    sexual attention, sexual coercion, and gender
    harassment
  Past Research:
    Related to employee well-being (Lim & Cortina,
    2005)


                                               18
Exposures
 Sexual Harassment
   Scale: Sexual Experiences Questionnaire
   (Fitzgerald, 1998)
     15 questions, 5-pt scale (Never-Many Times)
     Have you been in a situation where any of your
     superiors, coworkers, and/or customers:
        made stereotypic remarks to you about appropriate roles of
        men and women?
        made sexually suggestive comments to or about you?
        made you afraid that you would be treated poorly if you
        didn’t cooperate sexually?
        Etc.


                                                             19
Outcomes
 Self-Rated Health   Anxiety
 Job Satisfaction    Depression
 Organizational      Hostility
 Commitment          Pain
 Burnout             Stress




                                  20
Hypotheses
 Incivility and bullying will be only
 moderately related.
 Incivility will predict outcomes even after
 allowing for other factors such as job
 strain.
 Social support and coping skills will help
 reduce any effects of incivility on health.

                                         21
Methods
 Design:
  Cross-Sectional
    information on exposures and outcomes
    collected at the same time
  Mailed questionnaires
    Dillman method to increase response rate
       multiple mailings
    Completely anonymous


                                               22
Methods
 Definitions:
   Clustering
     each location is a cluster
     would expect individuals at each location to be
     more similar to each other than to individuals in
     other clusters
   Stratification
     divide people into ‘strata’ or smaller groups and
     sample from within each
     to ensure an adequate number from within
     each group
                                                  23
Methods
  Sampling (Stratified Cluster)
       Canadian Union of Postal Workers

  Location A        Location B        Location C



  Inside Worker    Inside Workers    Inside Workers
 Outside Workers   Outside Workers   Outside Workers

  Maintenance       Maintenance       Maintenance


                                                       24
Methods
 Analysis
  Descriptive Analysis
    response rate
    frequencies, means
    prevalence of incivility




                               25
Results
 Response Rate
   1,968 workers were sampled
   42 ineligible (moved, retired, died, on medical leave)
   1,926 valid sample size
   965 questionnaires returned
   50% response rate (965/1926)
 Demographics
   primarily male (60%)
   mean age of 47 years (SD=8)
   majority married (70%)
   mean employment duration 18 years (SD=10)
                                                        26
Results
 Incivility and Sexual Harassment
   85% of people experienced at least some
   incivility
   33% of people experienced incivility with
   no sexual harassment
   13% experienced neither




                                           27
  Results - Incivility
100.0%

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

 0.0%
         19        20-40      41-60      61-80       81-95
         Total WIS Score (Supervisor, Coworker, Customer)
                                                             28
   Results - Sexual Harassment
100.0%

90.0%

80.0%

70.0%

60.0%

50.0%

40.0%

30.0%

20.0%

10.0%

 0.0%
          3        3.1-4.9     5-7.9      8-10.9      11-15
         Total Sexual Harassment (Gender Harassment, Sexual
                 Coercion, Unwanted Sexual Attention)         29
Results
 Incivility Instigators
   most often male (58%)
     but we don’t know the distribution of male and
     female supervisors
     therefore, could just be that there are more
     male than female supervisors
   most often supervisors (44%)



                                                 30
Results
 Union
  almost one-third (30%) had filed a
  grievance against the union in the previous
  12 months
  union satisfaction rated from very
  dissatisfied (1) to very satisfied (5) was
  given a mean score of 2.8



                                          31
Results
 Work Environment
   worst parts of job
      physical complaints and safety   38%
      supervisors/management           30%
      time pressure/burden*            26%
      job in general*                  17%
      weather/walking conditions**     11%
      coworkers*                       10%
      customers/public                 6%
      employee morale*                 4%
      union                            2%
      other                            7%
                                             32
Results
 Injuries and Safety
   Almost half (43%) had been injured at work
   in the previous 12 months
     13% did not report their injury
     70% required medical attention




                                          33
Results
 Injuries and Safety
   What causes the most fear for safety at work?
      Equipment accidents (15%)
      Dogs (15%)
      Supervisors or managers (7%)
      Other employees (6%)
   Only 18% reported that there was nothing about
   their job that made them fear for their safety at
   work


                                                   34
Results
      Type of Discrimination   Overall Frequency (%) (n=950)
Age                                         5
Gender                                      4
Race                                        2
Ethnicity                                   2
Disability                                  7
Sexual Orientation                          1
Religion                                    1
Language                                    1
Political Belief                            1
Union Involvement                           8
Other                                       8
None of the Above                           69                 35
Results
 Health and Pain
   self-rated health
      majority rated very good (32%) or excellent (14%)
      20% rated as fair or poor (compared to 11% of the
      general Canadian population aged 12+ years)
   pain
      low back/buttock pain (59%)
      neck/shoulder pain (61%)
      pain was more often reported by outside workers


                                                     36
Hypothesis #1
 Incivility and bullying will be only
 moderately related.
   correlations were fairly high (0.72 for
   supervisor incivility, 0.71 for coworker
   incivility)




                                              37
Multiple Regression




                      38
Methods
 Analysis
   Effect of Clustering
      Individuals are not independent since in clusters
      Want to ensure that this is accounted for in the
             analysis
      Can calculate an intraclass correlation coefficient to
      determine the amount of variability each outcome
      that is explained by the clustering within each
      location
         Values were very low in this case (highest = 2.8%)
      R2 analog calculated using proportions of variance
      explained by fixed effects variables and random
      effect of location
                                                              39
Methods
 Analysis
  Multiple Linear Regression
    technique that allows you to determine what
    factors contribute to variation in the outcome
    create models with different combinations of
    factors/exposures
    can look at explained variance to compare the
    models
       outcome values differ for everyone (e.g., everyone
       has a different percent body fat)
       knowing certain characteristics can help you predict
       an outcome (e.g., knowing gender when predicting
       percent body fat)                                40
Methods
 Models
  Model 1: BASIC
    age, gender, employment type, shift type, job classification
  Model 2: BASIC + INCIVILITY
    age, gender, employment type, shift type, job classification,
    supervisor incivility, coworker incivility
  Model 3: BASIC + JOB STRAIN + SUPPORT + INCIVILITY
    age, gender, employment type, shift type, job classification, skill
    discretion, job demands, decision authority, supervisor support,
    coworkers support, supervisor incivility, coworker incivility
  Model 4: BASIC + BULLYING + INCIVLITY
    age, gender, employment type, shift type, job classification,
    bullying, supervisor incivility, coworker incivility


                                                                    41
          Results - Linear Regression
          Model 1 - Basic Model
          Adjusted Explained Variance
           50

           45

           40

           35

           30

           25

           20

           15

           10

              5

              0

                                 y                       ity              t         t                 re               n
                 lth           et        sio
                                               n
                                                                       ou         ea                             tio
               ea            xi                       til             n         hr             su              ac
              H            n           es           os             ur         T              es
         ed
                       A          pr               H           B                        Pr              t   isf
       at                       De                                                                    Sa
  lf- R                                                                                      J   ob
Se
                                                        Health Outcome

                                                                   BASIC                                                   42
          Results - Linear Regression
          Model 2 - Basic + Incivility
          Adjusted Explained Variance
           50

           45

           40

           35

           30

           25

           20

           15

           10

              5

              0


                    th            ty         io
                                                  n           ity          ut            at                 re            io
                                                                                                                               n
                 al            ie          ss            til             no           re             su                ct
              He             nx          e             os              r        T   h              es                a
         ed
                         A          pr                H              Bu                       Pr              t   isf
       at                         De                                                                        Sa
  lf- R                                                                                            Jo
                                                                                                        b
Se
                                                           Health Outcome

                                                      BASIC         +WIS_SUP    +WIS_CO                                            43
        Results - Linear Regression
        Model 3 - Basic +Job Strain + Support + Incivility
        Adjusted Explained Variance

             50

             45

             40

             35

             30

             25

             20

             15

             10

                 5

                 0

                                       ty              n          ity             t           t            e            n
                        lth       ie                 io                         ou         ea           ur           io
                    a
                                nx                ss           til            rn        hr            ss           ct
                 He                             e             s             u         T             e            fa
            ed
                              A            pr              Ho           B                         Pr         tis
          at                            De                                                                Sa
  l   f- R                                                                                           J ob
Se
                                                                Health Outcome
                                        BASIC          +WORK FACTORS              +SUPPORT         +INCIVILITY              44
Results - Linear Regression
Model 3 - Basic +Job Strain + Support + Incivility
Adjusted Explained Variance
    Outcome           ∆ R2 with      Standardized Beta Coefficients
                    Incivility (%)
                                      Supervisor       Coworker
                                       Incivility      Incivility
Self-Rated Health         1              0.092*          0.044
Anxiety                  10              0.237*          0.209*
Depression                6              0.229*          0.141*
Hostility                10              0.256*          0.192*
Burnout                   7              0.233*          0.142*
Threat                    6              0.250*          0.098*
Pressure                  3              0.165*          0.079*
Job Satisfaction          2             -0.151*          -0.054 45
             Results - Linear Regression
             Model 4 - Basic + Bullying + Incivility
             Adjusted Explained Variance
        50
        45
        40
        35
        30
        25
        20
        15
        10
         5
         0




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                                                Health Outcome

                                       BASIC       +BULLYING   +INCIVILITY                    46
Hypothesis #2
 Incivility will predict outcomes even
 after allowing for other factors such
 as job strain.
   incivility contributed additionally to
   explaining anxiety, depression, hostility,
   and burnout




                                                47
Interactions




               48
Methods
 Analysis
   Interactions
      the effect of one variable depends on the value of
      another
         e.g., asbestos exposure modifies the relationship between
         smoking and lung cancer as having both asbestos
         exposure and a history of smoking increases the risk of
         lung cancer more than just smoking alone
      in this study we were looking at the interaction
      between incivility and social support on the various
      health outcomes


                                                              49
                       Results - Interaction
                       Anxiety                                                                     Coworker Support 4-
                                                                                                   7


                                                                                                   Coworker Support 8-
                2.50                                                                               11


                                                                                                   Coworker Support 12-
                                                                                                   16
Anxiety (BSI)




                2.00




                1.50




                        Supervisor Incivility 7-   Supervisor Incivility   Supervisor Incivility
                        11                         12-20                   >20


                                                                                                                          50
                          Results - Interaction
                   3.00   Depression
                                                                                                       Coworker Support 4-
                                                                                                       7


                                                                                                       Coworker Support 8-
                                                                                                       11
                   2.50
                                                                                                       Coworker Support 12-
                                                                                                       16
Depression (BSI)




                   2.00




                   1.50




                   1.00



                            Supervisor Incivility 7-   Supervisor Incivility   Supervisor Incivility
                            11                         12-20                   >20



                                                                                                                              51
                         Results - Interaction
                         Hostility
                  2.50                                                                               Coworker Support 4-
                                                                                                     7


                                                                                                     Coworker Support 8-
                                                                                                     11

                  2.25
                                                                                                     Coworker Support 12-
                                                                                                     16



                  2.00
Hostility (BSI)




                  1.75




                  1.50




                  1.25




                          Supervisor Incivility 7-   Supervisor Incivility   Supervisor Incivility
                          11                         12-20                   >20


                                                                                                                            52
Hypothesis #3
 Social support and coping skills will
 help reduce any effects of incivility
 on health.
   even with high levels of incivility, high
   levels of social support helped to buffer the
   effects on several health outcomes




                                             53
Discussion
 Strengths
   large sample size
   good representation of workers from multiple job classes,
   and location sizes
   union support for the project
   anonymous questionnaires
   separated out incivility from supervisors, coworkers, and
   customers
 Limitations
   cross-sectional study
   response rate
   common-method bias

                                                           54
Conclusions
 Conclusions
   recognition that incivility is a problem in the
   workplace
   incivility helped explain various health outcomes
   after controlling for demographic and job
   characteristics
   further longitudinal research would be helpful




                                                   55
Acknowledgements
 This project was funded by a research grant
 (WSIB#04016) provided by the Workplace
 Safety and Insurance Board (Ontario).
 Canadian Union of Postal Workers (CUPW)
 for their cooperation with the project
 Vasudha Gupta and Kazi Othir Moitri for their
 time in data entry



                                           56