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US LHC Accelerator Research Program

VIEWS: 10 PAGES: 42

									     US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP)
          Quarterly Progress Report – FY05Q3
                                     August 4, 2005


Executive Summary
A DOE review of LARP was held on June 1 and 2. The final report has yet to be
released. There were four Action Items:

       1. Provide to DOE/JOG a R&D Plan to include detailed end and intermediate
          goals by July 30, 2005.
       2. Provide to DOE/JOG an updated Research Program Management Plan
          considering recommendations stated in this review by July 30, 2005.
       3. Appoint an Accelerator Systems Level 1 manager by August 31, 2005.
       4. Hold a detailed technical review of LARP magnet systems R&D in the first
          quarter of FY’06.

The due date for item 1 has since been extended to October 1, 2005. Items 2 and 3 have
been completed. Item 4 will be scheduled in due course.

Tune Feedback and Luminometer tasks have had successful technical reviews. The
possibility of including some Zero Degree Calorimeter activities in LARP is under
discussion, as also is the need for LHC to have luminosity monitors at IR2 and IR8.
These activities are currently outside LARP scope. It is anticipated that a new Schottky
Monitor task will receive LARP funding, beginning in FY06.

Plans for Beam Commissioning continue to develop, with information and personnel
exchanges. Interaction Region Commissioning is very active, in support of U.S. built
deliverables. Still uncertain is the extent of LARPs role in Hardware Commissioning,
currently outside of LARP scope, and unfunded. The status of participation and planning
for all of these commissioning activities are documented in a white paper report that will
soon be released by the Commissioning Task Force.

A Rotating Collimator workshop was held at SLAC in June. A draft Conceptual Design
Report for the first prototype is expected by September 1, with distribution to a larger
audience by October 15, followed by a technical design review.

A reorganization of the Work Breakdown Structure for Magnet R&D Dseign Studies is
under discssion, following the completion of Separation Dipole work, and in order to
focus on the strageic goal of demonstrating a full length full gradient quadrupole
protoype by FY09.

Progress of the Techncial Quadrupole (TQ) program was reviewed in April. Two
practice coils were added to the program, for a total of four. Two practice coils have

                                             1
since been wound and cured, and will soon be reacted and potted. A second pair of
technical quads is now foreseen for FY06, depending in some details on test results from
TQS01 and TQC01 (Shell-based and Collar-based).

A lengthy discussion on the coil design for the Long Racetrack (LR) magnet has been
concuded, with the adoption of a “two double-layer coil” design. A comparison of two
alternative plans, with LR R&D taking place at either BNL or FNAL, has been presented
to the Magnet Steering Committee, and discussed there. This issue must be resolved
before a final proposed budget is submitted to DOE for FY06.

Strand tests have nade it apparent that further optimization of the heat treatment of the
Modified Jelly Roll (MJR) strands is necessary to improve low field current stability by
increasing the RRR of the stabilizing copper, without reducing J at 12 T by more than
                                                                 c
10%. A heat treatment of
48 hours at 210 C, then 48 hours at 400 C, and finally 48 hours at 610 C is now
recommended for Subscale Quadrupole (SQ) coils. Further modification may become
necessary for the TQ coils.

The rate of spending increased significantly in Q3, leading to expenditures in many areas
that are ahead of linear profiles. In some cases this leads to temporary recourse to core
program support. In part this increased spending rate reflects “gearing up” for the large
increase in funding that is anticipated for FY06. Additional monthly financial tracking
and reporting mechanisms are now being put in place, to minimize the recurrence of
these problems in the future.

Satoshi Ozaki replaces Tom Kirk on the Laboratory Oversight Group as BNLs
representative. LOG is also joined by Persis Drell, representing SLAC. Vladimir
Shiltsev has been named as head of the Accelerator Systems division of LARP. Giorgio
Ambrosio and Arup Ghosh nave joined the Magnet Steering Committee, which now
inludes all Magnet R&D Level 2 managers. Alex Ratti has succeeded John Byrd as
Level 2 manager for Instrumentation in Accelerator Systems.




                                             2
1   Accelerator Systems
                    3
1.1            Instrumentation
1.1.1          Phase I

1.1.1.1 Tune Feedback

Reporter: P. Cameron

The tune feedback team completed a successful Preliminary Design Review of the Tune
Feedback task. Additional information, including presentations and the Committee
Report, is available at
http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/LARP/050404_Tune_Feedback/

The team also continued studies of PLL-based methods of coupling measurement and
correction in RHIC. Uncorrected coupling drives the tune feedback loop unstable, and
consequently these investigations have been a major focus of the LARP Tune Feedback
team. A tech note summarizing a portion of these results was written, "Towards a Robust
PLL Tune Feedback system", R. Jones et al, C-A/AP/204. This note is available at
http://www.rhichome.bnl.gov/AP/ap_notes/cad_ap_index.html

We continued studies of the CERN-designed and built high-sensitivity Direct Diode
Detection Analog Front End at RHIC. This AFE overcomes the dynamic range problem
that has hobbled PLL tune measurement and feedback efforts at RHIC. Papers
documenting this effort (as well as the coupling effort) were written and presented at
DIPAC2005, and are available at http://www.agsrhichome.bnl.gov/LARP/thepapers.html

We implemented a prototype baseband tune measurement system in VME, and
successfully tracked tune up the RHIC ramp on our first two attempts, which were also
the last two ramps of the RHIC Run-5. The architecture of this system was identical to
that which we intend to bring on-line for operational tune feedback at the beginning of
RHIC Run-6. Refinement of hardware and software is in progress, and will be the focus
of our efforts during the coming quarter.

1.1.1.2 Luminosity monitor

Reporter: A. Ratti

The lumi team accomplished significant goals. The main one is the successful completion
of the LARP design review, held in Berkeley on April 11, 2005. The outcome of such
review was the endorsement of the present technical approach and conceptual design.
The review committee also highlighted the need to continue the ongoing R&D effort
while emphasizing the importance to start the efforts to integrate the device in the LHC at
CERN. One other important comment is that the statement on the 1% accuracy


                                            4
requirement that “the functional specifications produced by CERN (R.Assmann et al.)
seem to allow more flexibility on this point than stated in the presentations. In the
specification document the only reference to the 1% bunch by bunch precision is
accompanied by a statement that alternative methods exist for that measurement (section
5.6). For other purposes, this requirement is relaxed to a few percent (section 5.9)”

In response to the recommendations from the review, A, Ratti and B. Turner visited
CERN in June and spent a week in meetings and discussions, coordinated by E. Bravin,
to develop an integration plan. The result is being composed in a document, identified as
the luminosity monitor technical specification, in accordance with the nomenclature at
CERN. Once finished, this document will be part of the EDMS documentation system.

Meanwhile we finalized the planning for a test at 40 MHz by using hard x-rays in one of
the experimental beamlines. This will allow us to fully characterize and control the beam
that will hit the chamber, unlike earlier tests that were based upon the unpredictability of
beam scraping. The experiment will be performed in August during machine studies time,
when the ALS can be filled with a bunch pattern close to 40 MHz.

In addition, we are planning to fully capitalize on the availability of the RHIC run, which
is now scheduled to start in the fall of 2005, for testing the detector in a p-p collider.
RHIC’s next run is going to be running protons on protons, with a luminosity of about
1031, and a bunch spacing of approximately 110 ns. Installation planning is going to be an
important task of Q4, in parallel with tests at ALS, with installation of the device in
RHIC in the the October-November timeframe, depending upon the actual schedule of
the RHIC run.

Efforts to improve and finalize the electronics package also continued. By measuring the
effects of adding a long (~350m) low loss cable between the front end pre-amplifiers and
the shapers, we determined the required optimization of the shaper, with satisfactory
results. As a consequence, the shaper will be housed outside of the high radiation
environment of the LHC tunnel, simplifying the overall design and reducing the risk of
components damage due to radiation.

Other activities:

Reporter: A. Ratti

In addition to the presently funded activities, the Schottky monitor proposal was accepted
and will receive an allocation of funds starting in FY06. This effort will be mostly carried
by the group at Fermilab led by R. Pasquinelli and A. Jansson and s now scheduled to
start in FY06.

While not receiving direct LARP funding, the ZDC calorimeter proposal was also well
received by the instrumentation working group. This device is going to be built by the
ATLAS group with funding outside of the LARP program. Efforts here are focused on
making sure the luminosity monitor and the ZDC are leveraging the synergies between


                                             5
the two tasks and that integration at CERN is simplified accordingly. This was discussed
with the experimental liaisons during the recent visit to CERN by the lumi team, and will
be integrated in the planning phase.




1.2           Accelerator Physics & Commissioning
1.2.1 Commissioning

1.2.1.1 Beam Commissioning

Reporter: E. Harms

Work for this quarter is consistent with the two-fold areas of focus for the fiscal year:
• begin a U.S presence during LHC-related commissioning activities, specifically for TI-8
line commissioning and collimation tests in early FY2005
• continuing discussions with CERN and LARP collaborators on the involvement of U.S.
Accelerator Scientists in the beam commissioning of the LHC. The expected outcome of
these discussions is a determination of specific tasks that can be carried out by the US
contingent and the identification of tasks, candidate visitors and a schedule of their
presence for LHC commissioning. Areas of interest by the U.S. include beam physics,
collimation, and electron cloud issues.

Continuing from the previous quarter, there have been a series of visits to Fermilab by
CERN Operations personnel. Four visitors have been hosted by LARP members. These


                                            6
visits have been beneficial in helping CERN staff explore the challenges of operating a
superconducting colliding beams accelerator. There has been benefit to LARP in
becoming acquainted with CERN counterparts, laying groundwork for future
collaborations, and the introductory information these visitors have provided through
both conversations and presentations. While he was in the U.S for other meetings, LARP
representatives met with Roger Bailey to glean the status of LHC commissioning and
review the task list.

Jean Slaughter spent two weeks at CERN, from 18-25 June, under the auspices of LARP.
She was charged with pursuing details of the LARP commissioning task list, specifically
to determine the areas of greatest need; investigate the feasibility of LARP participation
in software for LHC commissioning; identify upcoming milestones where a U.S.
presence would be beneficial, and investigate logistics such as housing, et cetera, for a
long-term U.S. presence at CERN. Her charge was largely met although information
from CERN on the task list is lacking.

Several members of LARP are also members of LHC@FNAL, a group looking at remote
access capabilities for both the CMS detector and LHC operations. Their work on a
preliminary Requirements document will be reviewed on 21 July and submitted to the
FNAL director on the 29th.

The DOE review of LARP was held June 1-2. Mike Syphers gave a presentation on the
status of Accelerator Systems and Commissioning as did Vladimir Shiltsev on the status
of the Commissioning Task Force, both of which included references to Beam
Commissioning. One recommendations directly addresses this area:

       LARP should identify commissioning activities where they could play a lead or
       key role and integrate those assignments ASAP into the CERN plan currently
       being developed. Collimation and instrumentation are obvious strengths but
       others should be identified.

Elvin Harms has begun to compile a list of interested Fermilab people to participate in
LARP and attach these names to specific areas of interest. The current count is 20
persons with varying levels of interest/possible length of stays.

1.2.1.2 Interaction Region Commissioning

Reporter: M. Lamm

Overview

The primary activities of this task for this reporting period are:
1) Participation for the D1-DFBX-Inner Triplet Mechanical Fitup
2) Planning for Interaction Region Hardware Installation and Commissioning, including
    plans for sending US Staff to CERN for IR Commissioning



                                            7
As stated in the last quarterly report, the purpose of this fitup is to validate the
mechanical, instrumentation and bus work interconnects (procedures drawings, parts and
tools), exercise and validate the CERN electrical quality assurance hardware and
procedures, practice tunnel survey and alignment and validate the string vacuum loading.

The fitup program consists of two, 2-week tests, the first period occurring in late March
2005. The second fitup period occurred in this reporting period, April 11-April 22. The
primary goal of this second fitup period was to perform the Q3 and D1 interconnects to
DFBX and perform electrical and vacuum tests on the system.




Figure 1: Overhead view of IR Fitup in CERN Building 181. From lower left to center
right: Q1,Q2,Q3,DFBX, D1

Fermilab Efforts

The work on the fitup was a continuation of effort from the previous quarter.

Prior to the actual fitup, all available fitup parts and tools were sent to CERN. The
interconnect drawings were completed and the procedures were developed to a "draft"
form, waiting for embellishment at the fitup.

In the first fitup period the Q1-Q2 and Q2-Q3 mechanical and electrical interconnects
were performed. On the second fitup period in April, the emphasis was on the DFBX
interconnects.

From Fermilab, the fitup at CERN participants were Rodger Bossert, Tom Nicol, Tom
Page, Jim Rife and Michael Lamm. (Phil Pfund also participated through the USLHC
accelerator project.)


                                            8
Each day ended with a "debriefing" sessions over the phone with Jim Kerby, the USLHC
accelerator project leader, and with Ranko Ostojic, the CERN physicist in charge of the
inner triplet and post-acceptance US deliverables.


This fitup exercise was extremely useful. We made several changes to the procedures,
found a few parts that need to be reworked. We were successful in doing a complete
room temperature electrical test of the system. An insulating vacuum test revealed that
the system did not have any major leaks and more importantly the mechanical supports
were able to accommodate the vacuum loads.

In a related activity, Sandor Feher and Roger Rabehl traveled to CERN in May to
perform repairs on the first two DFBX (problems discovered during the acceptance and
fitups in March and April). They also met with group leaders at CERN to discuss
potential participation in Hardware Commissioning. Sandor and Roger are already
scheduled to go to CERN next year to participate in the IR Commissioning of US
deliverables.

LARP expenses during this quarter are

$54K in salaries, $20 K in M&S for travel expenses and $19K in over head.

LBNL Efforts
Reporter: J. Rasson

During this review period a second trip was taken to CERN to complete the DFBX dry fit
up to the D1 and inner triplet systems. Joseph Rasson participated with FNAL and CERN
engineers in completing the system connections and vacuum testing of the IR8-Left
system. Electrical problems encountered with leaky HTS leads were repaired by a FNAL
technician. At this time we have two DFBX’s ready for installation in the tunnel. Two
more DFBX’s were shipped, to arrive at CERN in July, 2005. A third trip is planned by
Joseph Rasson and Jon Zbasnik in late July to early August to perform acceptance tests
and to prepare the DFBX’s for installation in the tunnel. It is not clear at this time if
CERN’s IR-8L installation schedule calls for presence of LBNL staff during this fiscal
year. In any case, LBNL does not have the funds to participate in these activities in
FY05.

BNL Efforts
Reporter: P. Wanderer

Checks at the time of the Fitup work revealed deficiencies in the manufacture of small
and large bellows for the D1 dipoles. The large bellows were reworked to overcome this.
The vendor made another set of small bellows at no cost to LARP. Work on the small
bellows was completed by purchasing cuffs that allowed the bellows to be welded into
place at CERN. The cost of this work was $4.1k.


                                            9
Budget for remaining of the year

We have recently learned that installation will not start until October 2005, i.e. next fiscal
year. We are very close to spending our entire budget for the year. The remaining
money will be spent preparing for installation. Plans include updating procedures, and
interconnect parts.

1.2.2 Accelerator Physics

1.2.2.1          Electron Cloud

Reporter: M. Furman

BNL activities

None reported.

LBNL activities

Simulations of the electron-cloud intensity and spectrum measured at the
SPS continue, in collaboration with M. Pivi (SLAC).

A summer student has been working with M. Furman since June, 2005. He is carrying out
detailed simulations for the e-cloud power deposition in the LHC arc dipoles for various
bunch intensities, bunch spacings, and peak secondary emission yield values. Our
preliminary results have been transmitted to the CERN AP/ABP personnel. Our power
deposition estimates are roughly a factor of 2 higher than CERN estimates. The tentative
conjecture for the discrepancy is in the secondary electron emission model: ours takes
into account rediffused electrons while CERN's model does not. Further simulations
comparing results with/without rediffused electrons should shed light on the discrepancy.
Furman plans to visit CERN in July for further discussions.

Furman has been carrying out code development for the LBNL simulation code
POSINST, particularly augmenting the diagnostics capabilities. These new features
should allow detailed assessments of the power deposition by the various types of
electrons in the simulation.

Although not funded by the LARP program, LBNL has developed a new 3D,
self-consistent e-cloud simulation code as a collaboration between
Furman and J.-L. Vay of the heavy-ion-fusion/virtual national lab group.
Preliminary results of a simulated movie showing the passage of a proton
bunch through an LHC arc FODO cell were presented at the LARP meeting in April
(Danford's Inn) and the PAC05 (Knoxville, July).

1.2.2.2 Interaction Region Upgrade and Beam-Beam


                                             10
Reporter: T. Sen

Interaction Region Upgrade

a) Optics

Three designs for the upgrade are under study. Two of these use the conventional triplet
focusing with either quadrupoles first or dipoles first. The third design uses doublet
focusing but necessarily requires dipoles first in order to have the beams in separate
quadrupole channels. A matched solution with the doublet focusing was developed. The
advantages of this design include the use of fewer magnets and reduced chromaticity of
the IR. Studies of all three designs continue.

b) Energy Deposition

The work on the dipole-first was completed. Based on detailed MARS calculations, it
was confirmed that this design is compatible with the luminosity of 10^35 if the dipole is
split into two sections, 1.5 and 8.5 m long, with a 1.5-m long TAS2 absorber between.
Results of these studies were documented and presented at PAC05.

MARS studies were started on energy deposition in the baseline inner triplet, and on
background particle fluxes on the CMS detector due to operational beam loss for the
beam coming to IP5. A simplified model of a beam halo was used. First results were sent
to CERN CMS group to start joint studies on background minimization.

Beam-beam Interactions

a) Beam-beam compensation

The first phase of a compensation experiment was performed at RHIC with remote
participation at FNAL. The goal was to study the lifetime and losses as the transverse
separation between the bunches in the two rings was varied. The study showed i) a sharp
increase in losses as the separation was reduced below 7σ and ii) the losses are very tune
dependent. The study also tested remote participation in a machine study via use of the
electronic logbook at RHIC and by telephone contact with the RHIC control room.

Following the observation of losses due to long-range interactions in RHIC, a proposal
was written to test the compensation of these interactions with a current carrying wire –
to be installed in RHIC in 2006. A formal version of this proposal was submitted as a task
sheet to LARP management. $230K is the amount estimated to fully fund this new task in
FY06 – this total includes the cost of constructing the wire, movable stands and
accelerator physics support.
.
b) Beam-beam simulations



                                            11
The effects of different numerical schemes on the slow small emittance growth observed
in million turn LHC beam-beam simulations was studied. Slow emittance growth driven
by finite sampling numerical noise can mask the true emittance growth driven by
physical processes such as beam-beam interactions, and therefore should be minimized.
Recent studies showed that the quadratic particle deposition and quadratic field
interpolation gives about 15% less emittance growth than the linear deposition and linear
interpolation scheme after 350,000 turns. Reducing the number of grid points from
128x128 to 64x64 also reduces the numerical emittance growth by 33% after 350,000
turns. A functional study of the emittance growth with the number of macro particles
shows that the numerical emittance growth scales inversely with approximately the first
power of the number of macro particles. One million macro particles seem to be needed
in order to keep the numerical emittance growth below 0.1% after one million turns.

Papers Written

R. Gupta, M. Anerella, A. Ghosh, M. Harrison, J. Schmalzle, P. Wanderer,
N. Mokhov, "Optimization of Open Midplane Dipole Design for LHC IR Upgrade",
PAC05 conference

F. Zimmermann, J.P. Koutchouk, F. Roncarolo, J. Wenninger, T. Sen, V. Shiltsev and Y.
Papaphilippou, “Experiments on long-range beam-beam compensation and crossing
schemes at the CERN SPS in 2004”, PAC05 conference
  (talk presented by T. Sen on behalf of F. Zimmermann)



Project Expenditures
Reporter: M. Syphers

Costs reported by Laboratory for individual APC activities for FY05.


 thru FY05Q3     BNL     FNAL     LBNL       SLAC       TOTALS           05 Budget
                                                                            K$
 Beam            0       24       0          0          24               30
 Comm.
 IR Comm.        27      188      38         0          253              263
 eCloud          14      0        46         0          59               58
 IR/bb           0       167      21         0          189              235
 Totals:         41      379      105        0          525               ---
 05 Budget:      31      445      110        0           ---             586




                                           12
1.3           Collimation
Responsible: Thomas W. Markiewicz




Program Accomplishments
    Continued design and development of Phase II collimators
    Meeting of four CERN staff with SLAC colleagues at SLAC to discuss
      engineering constraints on the Phase II collimator design
    Visit of CERN staff to BNL to adapt SixTrack to RHIC collimation system
    RHIC loss data were taken that will soon be compared to SixTrack predicted loss
      maps
    More detailed MARS calculations of Tertiary collimator efficiency
    Irradiation tests of LHC collimator materials for Phase 1 carbon-carbon jaw
      material begin and are completed. Measurements of physical properties will
      follow.

1.3.1         Phase I

1.3.1.1 Cleaning Efficiency Studies

Responsible: Angelika Drees



                                         13
Scientific Accomplishments this quarter:
Guillaume Robert-Demolaize from CERN visited BNL for 3 weeks after PAC. During
that time Angelika Drees and he took some 'special' loss data (1 h beam time, 2 times)
during scheduled beam experiments with protons. Data was taken at 100 GeV and in only
one ring (Blue). Loss maps with single collimators were obtained. The newest version of
the SixTrack ("colltrack") code was copied over from CERN and compiles; modifications
were made to implement the RHIC style collimators (dual plane, single sided). This style
of collimator was not foreseen by the code as it is and it needs special modifications. A
first pass on some simulations was made with a few hundred turns and a varying number
of particles (up to a few thousands) and produced loss maps which were then compared
with the data. However, quantitative comparison was hindered by the necessary
debugging required with the new code implementation. Changes to the code, differences
between compilers and different ways of implementing the apertures (different from the
way this is done at CERN) all need to be better understood before 'final' plots can be
prepared.

Robert-Demolaize plans to continue to debug the RHIC simulation code at CERN and to
produce simulated loss maps which will then be compared with the datasets. It is
expected that these comparisons may begin in August or September after his other CERN
responsibilities are addressed.

1.3.2          Phase II

1.3.2.1 Rotating Collimator R&D

Responsible: Thomas W. Markiewicz

Status at end of FY2005 Q2
3-D ANSYS simulations of 1-m long and 150mm diameter annular collimator jaws of
various materials were made for a variety of coolant flow patterns. Peak temperature
and, in particular, thermal deflections were analyzed for steady state 90kW beam loss and
450 kW beam loss after 10 seconds. At present we are far from being able to satisfy the
25m straightness criteria for jaws made of either low Z or high Z metals. We plan to
investigate the viability of reducing jaw length, using thinner metal coatings on the jaws,
setting the jaws to larger gaps and thereby evening the heat deposition distribution over a
larger group of collimators and changing the jaw support concept to allow for thermal
jaw deflection away from the beam.

A conceptual design of the mechanisms to support and to adjust the collimator jaws and
to interface them to the water system, for each of the coolant flow patterns, was begun.
First drawings that attempt to incorporate LHC operational, tunnel and beamline
constraints were produced.

Fairly complete collimation efficiency calculations were made using SIXTRACKwCOLL
code installed at SLAC during FY2005 Q1. Many high statistics runs were made where
primary jaw length and material, and secondary jaw length, material and gap were varied.

                                            14
Efficiency and particle loss maps for each configuration were produced. In the near
future we need to obtain a version of the code that includes absorbers and tertiary
collimators. The engineering variations suggested above must be modeled to ensure that
efficiency is not compromised.

Progress was made in transferring the code and knowledge to use the more sophisticated
FLUKA input decks now in standard use at CERN and that are required for a full and
more accurate picture of energy loss in each of the many collimation devices of the IR7
insertion. Nonetheless, more work is needed before we can use this tool.

Using the simplified FLUKA input deck format that has been the basis of all Phase II
collimator energy deposition calculations, we have looked at:
- The energy deposition in accidental (asynchronous beam abort) loss cases in order to
    begin to estimate the area of damage a collimator jaw might suffer
- The variations in energy deposition due to Horizontal, Vertical and Skew halo
- The variations in energy deposition when the jaws are placed at their anticipated 7
    sigma opening and sigma is set by the actual beta function at the collimator location

Scientific Accomplishments this quarter:
Status of the Phase II collimator design program consistent with the Q2 summary was
reported at the April 2005 LARP collaboration meeting by Tom Markiewicz (overall,
engineering), Yunhai Cai (tracking studies) and Lew Keller (energy deposition studies).

In Q3 the major effort was in continued ANSYS deflection/temperature analysis for
potential new configurations of the first hard-hit secondary collimator immediately
downstream of the primary collimator group. No solution that maintained 25 um flatness
was found for the 450 MW – 10 second loss scenario. Dividing the collimator into
unequal lengths (equalizing deflection in a shorter upstream part with more energy
deposited and in a longer downstream part) and providing “expansion grooves” in the
surface every 10 cm both lessened deflection, but we remain at the several 100 micron
level.

A tracking study was done to understand the impact to cleaning efficiency were we to
ignore this one special collimator location (i.e. continue to use the Phase I carbon here
and install metal collimators in the other 32 locations foreseen). This indeed seems to be
a possibility.

The need to wind down the paper studies and to begin definition of the parameters of at
least the prototype collimator, a need driven by the LHC schedule and the ultimate
milestone of delivering a beam-testable collimator to CERN in early 2008, led to a Phase
II collimator collaboration meeting at SLAC on June 15-17, 2005. Ralph Assmann,
Allesandro Bertarelli, Mario Santana Leitner and Markus Brugger, all CERN staff joined
the SLAC team at SLAC for these discussions. The major goals of the meeting were to
review and clearly define all the LHC constraints in order to make sure any SLAC design
would fit in the LHC and to review the technical details of the SLAC design. The talks
given can be found at:


                                            15
http://www-project.slac.stanford.edu/ilc/ilcdocs_interface/meetings2/editor/detail_v1.asp?meeting_id=24
The SLAC talks provide the current state of the design.

The meeting was deemed highly useful and successful by all participants. As a result of
this meeting a baseline design for the first prototype is emerging, the areas requiring
immediate work have been enumerated and an aggressive schedule for proceeding has
been developed. Basically, the plan is to build a device that will fit in the space allotted
and that will use Phase I mechanism to provide jaw adjustment. The cylinder jaws will
be prevented from expanding into the beam by the use of appropriate stops and allowed
to deflect up to several 100 microns away from the beam during high energy deposition
events. The jaws are currently specified as 138 mm diameter 75-cm long cylinders. See
the meeting summary notes at:
http://www-project.slac.stanford.edu/ilc/talks/larp/2005-06-15/Meeting%20notes%206-15-05.pdf

The plan calls for a draft conceptual design report for the first prototype by September 1,
with distribution to a larger audience by October 15, 2005. We would then try to have
the design reviewed in some manner while we begin the prototype construction effort. It
is recognized that this is a very aggressive schedule.

1.3.2.2          Tertiary Collimators at the LHC Experimental Insertions

Responsible: Nikolai Mokhov, FNAL

Scientific Accomplishments this quarter:

1. As agreed at the Port Jeff LARP Collaboration meeting, MARS15 calculations have
been performed in IP5 without the TCT tertiary collimators using the same beam halo
model as with the collimators in the system. It is shown that heat dissipation in the inner
triplet is higher without TCT.

2. The background particle fluxes on the CMS detector are rather sensitive to the TCT
parameters and beam halo distribution on them, and can be even higher with the TCTs in.
A source term at the entrance to the IP5 collision hall has been calculated and sent to
CMS colleagues at CERN to start an iterative process in background minimization.

3. Baseline copper jaws of the TCT collimators have been replaced with tungsten ones,
and MARS15 calculations have been performed for this case. Note that all of the above
runs are very CPU time-intensive. Better statistics are needed for the tungsten TCTs
before drawing reliable conclusions.

4. We at Fermilab are still waiting for "realistic official" beam halo distributions on TCTs
promised by CERN collimation group a long time ago.


Task 4: Study of Collimator Material Properties after Irradiation


                                                   16
Responsible: Nikolas Simos

Scientific Accomplishments this quarter:

1. LARP Meeting at Port Jefferson

Presentations on LHC collimation material issues for Phase I and Phase II were prepared
and presented during the proceeding of the 2005 LARP Meeting in early April 2005.

2. Experimental Verification of Phase I and Phase II Collimation Materials

During the proceedings of the LARP meeting it was agreed that irradiation of the LHC
collimation material should proceed in order to catch the 2005 irradiation cycle at BNL
and gather effects of proton irradiation on the material choices made for Phase I
collimator (a two dimensional weaved carbon-carbon composite) and possibly of
materials under consideration for Phase II.

As a result, communication was opened with the Tatsuno company to receive specimens
from the Phase I collimator jaws that they make. Specimens were received in time for
assembly and insertion into the proton beam of the BNL BLIP facility, at the end of the
BNL Linac.

The experimental set-up and beam energy degradation caused by the carbon-carbon
assembly received approval by the isotope production facility. The irradiated material
was placed upstream of isotope production targets that require very specific energy
bands: the energy of the beam coming out of the irradiation assembly must exactly match
their requirements.

Figure 1 depicts the schematic layout of the irradiation specimens. Four layers of carbon-
carbon specimens comprise the irradiation volume enclosed within the irradiation box
whose walls (upstream and downstream beam windows) are made of aluminum. Two
nickel foils were placed in the irradiation box (one in front of the first layer and one
inside of the downstream window) in order to analyze the proton beam both entering and
exiting the irradiation space. Figure 2 is an assembly photo of the irradiation specimens.
Figure 3 shows the assembly after irradiation.

Evaluation of CTE for non-irradiated samples
Experimental results of non-irradiated specimens have been obtained in order to establish
the baseline that will be used to assess irradiation induced specimens. The experiment in
the BNL Hot Cell facility consisted of measurements of the coefficient of thermal
expansion (CTE) of the virgin material supplied by Tatsuno.




                                           17
Figure 1: Schematic of the irradiation assembly of four carbon-carbon specimen layers.
The first layer to see the incoming beam has a Z-orientation, shown on the right
integrated with XY-fiber orientation specimens. The Z-orientation specimens (placed
horizontally) are normal to the fiber planes and can only have a length of 25 mm, the
maximum thickness of the carbon-carbon pieces. The remaining 3 layers consist of XY
type specimens are 42 mm long with a 4x3 mm cross section.




                                         18
Figure 2: Layers of specimens assembled into the irradiation box. Figure 2a depicts the
arrangement of layer 1 (Z-orientation specimens at center surrounded by XY specimens).
Figure 2b depicts the arrangement of layer 2 (all XY specimens)




                                          19
Figure 3: First view of Layer #4 after opening the irradiation assembly in the Hot Cell
Facility. Shown is a major disruption to the integrity of the material over the beam spot.
Pictures were taken through the 8-inch thick lead glass port.


Follow up experiments planned for Q4
Beam profile assessment: Using the two nickel foils of the irradiation assembly, the
exact beam position and profile is being assessed through radiographic analysis. These
results, combined with the exposure record will provide the number of protons seen by
the different specimens. Further, these results will be used to estimate the irradiation
damage displacements per atom (dpa). The dpa estimation model is being formulated
based on the MCNPX code, with input from ORIGEN.

Isotope generation analysis: The isotopes generated in the composite are currently being
assessed, with indications that the predominant isotope is Be7. This analysis is important
for collimator maintenance.

CTE set-up for 250 C thermal cycling: Thermal expansion measurements are being set-
up with the generation of a cyclic temperature profile between room temperature and 250
degrees C (as requested by LHC staff during a meeting at CERN on June 27 and 28 of
2005). Measurements of the effects of irradiation on the coefficient of thermal expansion
are to begin shortly.

                                            20
Other activities
Communication with the overall team (CERN, SLAC & BNL) on PHASE II beam shock
studies (generation of shock analysis file inputs for ANSYS evaluation) has taken place.
Benchmarking of beam studies on targets during the BNL E951 experiment was used to
establish the ability of the ANSYS code to predict the shock response of solid materials.

Preliminary simulations with the highly non-linear code LS-DYNA in conjunction with
special elements that describe composite materials have been performed.

Discussions with LINSEIS staff (a company that builds and supports specialized
instruments such as dilatometers) were held at BNL. The scope was the upgrade of the
experimental system for resistivity and diffusivity measurements of the irradiated
specimens.
2             Magnet R&D




2.1           Design Studies
Reporter: A. Zlobin




                                           21
The mission of LARP Design Studies is to perform magnet conceptual design studies
before going to the modeling phase (proposal generation or evaluation including magnet
parameters, design concept, cost, schedule) and theoretical conceptual design studies
(magnet parameter space, radiation dose and life-time, exotic magnet designs such as
double-aperture dipoles and quadrupoles with parallel and non-parallel apertures, et
cetera).

In FY2005 the work was originally organized along the following directions: IR
quadrupoles, separation dipoles and cryogenics. FY2005 acting tasks, task duration and
task leaders are:
        2.1 Design Studies
        2.1.1 Quadrupole
        2.1.1.1 Shell & Block design comparison – P, Ferracin (Q3, FY05)
        2.1.1.2 Shell mechanical design study – G. Ambrosio (Q4, FY05)
        2.1.2 Separation dipole
        2.1.2.1 D1 design – R. Gupta (FY05-07)
        2.1.2.2 D1 cooling study – T. Peterson (Q4, FY05)
        2.1.3 Cryogenics
        2.1.3.1 IR cryogenics study – R. Rabehl (FY05-06)
The budget allocated for DS in FY2005 is less than 10% of the total LARP Magnet R&D
budget. By the end of May LARP DS budget at BNL and LBNL was spent (even slightly
overspent in all three Labs with respect to the original fund allocation). The DS works at
FNAL and LBNL will continue in FY2005 thanks to support from the core programs.

In April 2005 the DS status and plans for FY05-FY07 were presented and discussed at
the LARP collaboration meeting. After this meeting the following corrections of FY05
plan were made:
–      task 2.1.1.1 was extended to Q4
–      task 2.1.2.1 was terminated
–      task 2.1.2.2 was put on hold until FY06

We also continued working on the optimization of the DS plan and task structure in
FY06-FY07 in preparation for the June DOE review of the LARP program. FY2006-
2007 DS work plan will be focused on a) supporting model magnet R&D, data analysis
and preparation of critical decisions in FY2007; b) mechanical design and parameters of
long quadrupole (LQ); c) conceptual design studies of the ultimate gradient quadrupole
(HQ); d) conceptual IR magnet and cryogenics analysis in collaboration with AP group
and CERN.

Based on the results of discussion at LARP collaboration meeting and DOE review
recommendations the major DS directions have been modified to provide a highest
priority to work on IR quadrupoles. The task reorganization was made to allow more
flexibility to program needs and address most important practical issues.
        2.1.3 IR Magnets
        2.1.3.1 Magnetic Design and Analysis
        2.1.3.2 Mechanical Design and Analysis


                                            22
        2.1.3.3 Thermal Analysis
        2.1.3.4 Quench Protection Analysis
        2.1.3.5 Test Data Analysis
        2.1.4 Cryogenics
        2.1.4.1 Radiation Heat Deposition
        2.1.4.2 IR Cryogenics and Heat Transfer
        2.1.4.3 Cryostat Quench Protection

The DS working group in FY2006 will be reinforced to include more experts from all
three Labs: R. Gupta, J. Muratore, K.C. Wu (BNL); S. Caspi, P. Ferracin, A. Lietzke, G.
Sabbi (LBNL); and G. Ambrosio, S. Feher, V. Kashikhin, N. Mokhov, I. Novitski, T.
Peterson, R. Rabehl, A. Zlobin (Fermilab). In general the DS team (the number of experts
and their qualification) is sufficient to perform the planned work. The work on radiation
studies which is of key importance for LARP magnet R&D is now relying only on the
availability of N. Mokhov and needs to be reinforced by postdoc.

The total DS budget request (v1b) for FY2006 is 400k$, allowing the support of only 1.9
FTEs in the three Labs. This budget will be distributed between two directions as
follows: IR Magnets - 290k$ and IR Cryogenics - 110k$. The work on FY2006 task
sheets and budget is in progress. The DS budgets assigned for each Lab are: BNL - 90k$
(0.4 FTE), Fermilab - 190k$ (1.0 FTE) and LBNL - 120k$ (0.5 FTE). All three Labs
agreed to provide support to LARP DS activities from their core magnet programs. The
level of this support is being negotiated with lab representatives.

2.1.1          Quadrupole

2.1.1.1 IRQ design comparison: shell-type vs. block-type

Task Leader: P. Ferracin

Task goals:
Investigate the potential of racetrack quadrupoles for the LHC luminosity upgrade.
Continue the comparison of racetrack-type and shell-type IR quadrupoles started in
FY2004.

Milestones:
- Development and coordination of magnet design parameters and criteria (Q1)
- Block-type and shell-type IRQ design analysis (Q2)
- Design comparison and conclusions (Q3)

Status and plans:
In Q3 a design study of a quadrupole modular design was performed at BNL by R.
Gupta.

This design approach provides a possibility for changing the quadrupole aperture and
field gradient using the same coil modules. This feature is relevant for the LARP program

                                           23
since at this stage the magnet parameters are not yet fixed. The proposed design is based
on 8 flat racetrack coil modules. Each couple of interleaving coils occupies one quadrant
of the quadrupole. Of the four resulting blocks, the two blocks placed around the aperture
generate the gradient, while the two blocks placed far from the aperture return the
current. The two blocks around the aperture are very efficient as compared to the
standard racetrack coil approach, since the conductors are located close to the mid-plane.
On the other hand, the contribution to the gradient of the return blocks is negligible. The
design is modular and flexible to aperture variations. In order to change the magnet
aperture, one simply moves modules in or out; to increase the gradient within the same
aperture one adds more racetrack coils.

A 2D field quality optimization generated a coil cross-section with field errors of the
order of 10-7 at 2/3 of the coil radius. A 3D optimization has also been performed. The
analysis showed that, in order to reduce the magnetic asymmetry in the ends between the
horizontal and vertical planes (which generates a non-zero octupole harmonic) one could
design one coil bigger than the other, so that the average integrated magnetic length is the
same.

Support structure and detailed assembly concepts are yet to be developed. There is no
Lorentz force directed towards the fictitious center of the four blocks of the quadrant. The
fact that the forces are outward should guide the support structure and the magnet
assembly procedure. Discussions of this design approach will continue.

The task plan includes the following analysis steps:
   1. Definition and computation of the energy deposited in the coil in the chosen
      upgrade scenario.
   2. Definition of the required temperature margin and of the “maximum” radiation
      dose in the coil.
   3. Design of the absorber and the LHe channel that allow achieving the require
      temperature margin and that keep the radiation dose below the “maximum” limit.
   4. Second iteration of magnetic and mechanical design, aimed at providing room for
      the absorber and the LHe channel.
   5. Quench protection study.
   6. Comparison of the final racetrack quadrupole magnet with the “equivalent” shell-
      type quadrupole magnet.

Due to unavailability of Nikolai Mokhov to perform the radiation calculations for this
task the work in Q4 will be focused on quench protection analysis. The radiation analysis
will continue in FY06.

2.1.1.2        IR shell-type quad mechanical designs

Task leader: G. Ambrosio




                                            24
Task goals: Evaluate advantages and limitations of the mechanical concepts for large
aperture, high-gradient, shell-type quadrupoles: 1) SS-collars and SS-skin, 2) Al-shell
and iron pads using bladder and keys, 3) SS-collars and Al-shell using bladder and keys.

Milestones:
    Complete the FEM analysis of shell-type quad design with 110-mm aperture, field
       gradient of 230 T/m, exploring two concepts (Q1-Q2):
          1.                                                    SS-collars and welded
             SS-skin
          2.                                                    SS-collars and Al-shell
             using bladders and keys
    Collect and review (for a fair comparison) FEM studies of mechanical designs
       with Al-shell and iron pads using bladder and keys (Q3).
    Develop fabrication and assembly concepts for each design (Q4).

Status and plans: No progress was reported on this task in Q3. It is planned to resume
the work in August-September. The results are planned to be reported at MT-19 in
September.

2.1.2         Separation dipole

2.1.2.1 D1 Dipole Design (open midplane)

Task leader: R. Gupta

Task goal: Develop a magnet design that satisfies the requirements for the dipole first
optics of LHC IR luminosity upgrade:
- Design has an open midplane that allows most of the energy to be transmitted outside
    the coil region keeping heat deposition in SC coil below its quench limit
- Magnet design is such that it can accommodate large vertical forces
- Magnet has a field quality that meets the beam dynamics requirements

Milestones:
- Develop conceptual design of smaller aperture dipole D1a (Q1)
- Complete the 2D magnetic, mechanical and energy deposition analysis (Q2)
- Develop conceptual design of new medium aperture (120 mm) dipole D1 (Q3)
- Complete first iteration of magnet design and energy deposition calculations and start
   3D mechanical analysis (Q4)

Status and plans:
The task has been terminated upon a decision taken at the LARP collaboration meeting at
Port Jefferson in April 2005. A summary and overall outcome of the study on the design
of “Open Midplane Dipole” was reported at 2005 Particle Accelerator Conference.

2.1.2.2 D1 dipole cooling study


                                           25
Task leader: T. Peterson

Statement of work: The conceptual D1 dipole is reported to have an estimated 100-200
W/m heat load in the magnet cold mass at helium temperatures (1.9 K or 4.5 K). The
goals of an analytical study is to check the implications of such large heat loads on the
internal passage sizes and magnet structure, and to check under what conditions, if at all,
removing 1 KW or more from a 10 meter magnet is feasible.

Milestones:
- Assemble information regarding magnet design options and anticipated heat
   deposition, outline the approach to problem, begin analysis (Q2)
- Iterate and refine the cooling analysis (Q3)
- Finalize analysis and write report (Q4)

Status and plans:
Due to termination of the previous task the work on this task was put on hold. This
activity may resume in FY06.

2.1.3          Cryogenics

2.1.3.1 Conceptual design of inner-triplet cryo at 1.9K & 4.5K.

Task leader: R. Rabehl

Statement of work: As design studies of 2nd generation IR magnets are performed to
investigate possibilities for an LHC luminosity upgrade, the cryogenic system must also
be considered. Analytical studies will be conducted to investigate and compare 1.9 K and
4.5 K inner triplet cryogenic systems and coil temperatures for both single-bore and
double-bore IR triplet designs.

Milestones:
    Develop cryogenic system models and establish figures of merit; assemble
       information regarding magnet design options and anticipated heat deposition,
       outline the approach to the problem, begin analysis (Q2)
    Perform analyses of cryogenic system options, generate reports (Q3+)

Status and plans:
Scaling of the existing LHC IR cryogenics system model has been completed and
documented. The results show the predicted IR temperature profile as the system heat
load increases. Temperature drops through the IR cryogenics system are also
documented. The results of this analysis show how much temperature margin is available
for the IR cryogenics system as a function of heat load. Limiting factors in the present
design are also identified.



                                            26
In Q4 generation of a modified IR cryogenics system model will begin. This model will
investigate modifications and new features of the cryogenics system. Design options will
be evaluated on figures of merit including T through the cryogenics system, required He
II inventory, and longitudinal packing factor of the cold masses.


2.2             Model Magnet R&D




Reporters: G. Sabbi, R. Bossert, S. Caspi

2.2.1 Quadrupole

   Based on the LARP collaboration meeting discussions (April 5-8) it was decided that
    MJR conductor from the FNAL inventory will be used for the first two Technology
    Quadrupole models TQS01 (shell-based structure) and TQC01 (collar-based
    structure). A replacement order will be placed by LARP in FY06.
   A TQ progress review was held from April 18 to 21. Discussions included the coil
    fabrication procedures, conductor and cable issues, mechanical analysis results and
    design/fabrication of coil parts.
   A revision of the TQ fabrication plan and schedule was completed. As a result of this
    update: (a) two practice coils were added to the program (for a total of 4 practice
    coils); (b) details of the plan and procedure for coil reaction and potting, and the use of
    practice coils in mechanical models, were established. The first pair of practice coils

                                              27
    will be reacted and potted at FNAL, and will be used for the TQC01 mechanical
    model. The second pair of practice coils will be reacted and potted at LBNL, and will
    be used for the TQS01 mechanical model; the production and spare coils for both
    TQS01 and TQC01 will be reacted and potted at LBNL. The completion dates for the
    two models are unchanged under the new schedule.
   The procurement and assembly of tooling for coil winding and curing was completed.
   A first set of reaction/impregnation tooling was received from vendors, and its
    assembly started.
   An order was placed for one additional set of reaction/impregnation tooling, to be
    delivered at the end of July. The main purpose of the additional tooling is to accelerate
    the schedule, allowing to impregnate one pair of coils while the next pair is being
    reacted.
   The coil parts required to wind the first ten coils were received from vendors.
   Insulated cable for the practice coils was received. This cable was fabricated in two
    separate runs and its length is sufficient to fabricate up to 6 practice coils.
   NbTi cable with geometry matching the Nb3Sn TQ cable was received, for use in the
    leads and inter-coil joints.
   The strand map for the TQ production cable was finalized. The required length of
    cable for each coil was confirmed based on practice coil winding.
   The first two practice coils were wound and cured. Feedback was generally positive,
    in particular with respect to the cable mechanical stability and insulation integrity.
    However, some issues were identified: (a) modifications of the end spacers are needed
    to facilitate their placement; (b) modifications of the inter-layer ramp support are
    needed for curing of layer-1; (c) de-cabling was observed at one location during layer-
    2 winding, requiring some optimization of the winding set-up.
   The coil instrumentation plan was discussed and is close to being finalized. Some
    open questions remain regarding the use of traces and the possibility to replace two
    strain gages with additional voltage taps in TQC01.
   The reaction cycle for the TQ coils was discussed with the Materials and Supporting
    R&D groups, and a baseline solution was determined, to be applied to the SQ02
    magnet and the TQ practice coils. The heat-treatment for the TQ production coils will
    be determined based on feedback from SQ02 and further strand/cable testing.
   A revision of the TQ cost spreadsheet was completed including: (a) addition of 2
    practice coils and more margin on cable/insulation length; (b) cost of end parts, based
    on actual spending from procurement orders; (c) potting tooling modifications
    (addition of heaters and epoxy reservoir); (d) revised cost of reaction tooling, based on
    vendor quotes, and cost of one additional set; (e) revised cost of TQS01 mechanical
    structure, based on vendor quotes; (f) revised cost of test; (g) included cost of task-
    related travel, coil/magnet shipping, post-test analysis; (h) application of new
    estimated for Lab-specific labor and overhead rates.
   A model magnet R&D plan for FY06 was developed for presentation at the DOE
    review (June 1-2). The main elements of this plan include: (a) the fabrication of a
    second pair of magnets (TQS02 and TQC02) using the present coil design. It is
    expected that only one of these magnets (TQC02) will use a new set of coils. This plan
    may be reconsidered based on test results of TQS01 and TQC01; (b) a coil and tooling
    iteration, followed by fabrication of practice coils and a third pair of models (TQS03


                                             28
     and TQC03). It is foreseen that the coils for these two magnets will be wound/cured at
     LBNL and reacted/potted at FNAL, exchanging the Lab roles with respect to the
     previous iteration. Cost estimates for this plan were generated based on the revised
     TQS01 and TQC01 costs.

2.2.1.1 Technology Quad TQS01

    The machining of the “lead” “return” and loading end plates was completed. The
     machining of the iron straight section insert and stainless end fillers, and the
     procurement of the axial rods, are in progress.
    The design of traces for layer 1 and 2 is finished. They include a minimum number of
     voltage taps and strain gauges in critical locations.
    The ANSYS analysis of TQS01 was refined and different loading scenarios were
     investigated. That analysis includes (for the first time in an accelerator magnet) 3D
     cases where the coils are represented as individual turns allowed to slip with respect to
     each other. Based on these results, the TQS01 assembly procedure was finalized.

2.2.1.2 Technology Quad TQC01

    The parts required to build the TQC01 mechanical model were received. The
     mechanical model will use practice coils #1 and #2, scheduled to be completed in
     August.
    The final assembly drawings for TQC01 are in process.
    A 3D analysis of TQC01 was initiated, using the TQS01 models as a starting point.

Budget status


          FY2005 LARP Budget                                           Funding Allocation
                                                    BNL          FNAL       LBNL      SLAC        Total
    Model Magnet R&D                 Sabbi          0             95          365       0         460
     Quadrupole
      Technology Quad TQS01           Caspi               0            35      329            0      364
      Technology Quad TQC01           Zlobin              0            60       36            0       96



          FY2005 LARP Budget                                  FY Expenses through June 30, 2005
                                                    BNL          FNAL       LBNL      SLAC        Total
    Model Magnet R&D                 Sabbi          5             249         244       0         498
     Quadrupole
      Technology Quad TQS01           Caspi             4.9       133.3      244.2          0.0      382
      Technology Quad TQC01           Zlobin            0.0       115.4        0.0          0.0      115



The LBNL model magnet R&D spending is at 67% of the yearly allocation. This value is
slightly below what one would expect assuming uniform spending during the year (75%).


                                               29
However, this is well justified based on the work plan, since the magnet fabrication
activities will considerably increase during the last quarter.

The FNAL model magnet R&D expenses increased considerably during this quarter
(from 35k$ at the end of Q2 to the present 249 k$) and are now well above the current
budget allocation of 95k$. However, this spending level is consistent with the work plan
and budget submitted at the beginning of the fiscal year, summarized in the December 8,
2004 TQ task sheets, which report a $386k funding allocation at FNAL for these
activities.
2.3           Supporting R&D




Reporters: G. Ambrosio, P. Ferracin (2.3.1.2)

2.3.1         Subscale models

2.3.1.1 Small Quadrupole SQ01b test

Task leaders: P. Ferracin, S. Feher

This task was completed in the previous quarter. A possible additional test could be
performed at LBNL in order to qualify the upgraded LBNL magnet test facility and to
compare the LBNL acquisition system with the FNAL Spike Detection System (moved
temporarily to LBNL for this test). At the end of the quarter it was decided to perform
this comparison during the test of SQ02.

                                           30
2.3.1.2 Small Quadrupole SQ02 fabrication and test

Task leader: P. Ferracin

Task goal
  The main goal of this task is to fabricate 4 subscale coils, assemble them in a subscale
quadrupole structure, and test the magnet performance. The test will be the first of a
series aimed at performing training, quench, and field quality studies.

Task status (Q3)

1. Choice of strand.
       a       The cable is made of 20 MJR strands (the same as the TQ coils) and will
               be reacted following a procedure that could be adopted for the TQ coils.
2. Design and procurement of new islands and horseshoes.
       a       The islands are made of aluminum bronze instead of iron (to reproduce the
               TQ conditions).
       b       The horseshoe has been designed in order to produce a symmetric loading
               condition between lead and return end.
3. Definition of the required instrumentation.
       a Each coil will implement:
                10 voltage taps (+ 4 across the splices), to determine quench location
                  and monitor quench propagation.
                1 spot heater, to initiate the quench.
                4 strain gauges, to measure coil strain during excitation.
4. Design of the instrumentation trace.
5. Fabrication of 4 coils.
       a       Both voltage taps and spot heater shim have been included.

Plans for Q4

        1.   Reaction of coils and samples for strand measurements.
        2.   Disassembly of SQ01b.
        3.   Fabrication of the trace.
        4.   Placement of the trace on the coils and implementation of the strain gauges.
        5.   Coil potting.
        6.   Magnet assembly.
        7.                                                                            Test.

2.3.2            Length scale-up

Preparation of tasks for FY06+ and presentation of plan at DOE review

This activity involved several people at FNAL, LBNL and BNL. The plan of the
Supporting R&D in FY06+ presented at the June DOE review can be found at:

                                              31
http://tdserver1.fnal.gov/presentations/LARP/DOE%5FReview/2005/
A significant amount of work before the DOE review focused on the development of the
plan for the Long Racetrack R&D at BNL (with the supporting structure designed and
assembled by LBNL). After the review an alternative proposal to perform the Long
Racetrack R&D at FNAL was developed and submitted to LARP. In this proposal the
supporting structure would still be designed and assembled by LBNL.

In preparation for the Long Racetrack R&D at BNL, a transfer of technology (for the
fabrication of short racetracks wound before reaction) is on course. Two engineers and a
technician from BNL spent some days (over two trips) at LBNL assisting in all phases of
coil fabrication and preparation for heat treatment.

Magnet Steering Committee discussions about Long Racetrack R&D

The coil design for the Long Racetrack has been the subject of quite a long and intense
discussion. The most supported candidate designs were: (i) two double-layer coils (LBNL
SM design), (ii) one double-layer coil with wide cable (FNAL SR design), (iii) one
double-layer coil with rectangular TQ-cable (new design). After the last Collaboration
Meeting we had a video-meeting completely dedicated to this topic and the discussion
continued among the members of the working group through emails and phone calls.

During the July 12 MSC meeting held at BNL the L2 manager presented a summary of
the discussion. His recommendation in favor of the “two double-layer coils” design was
accepted. Both BNL and FNAL plans for the Long Racetrack R&D are based on one
double-layer coil design. The change of design will cause an increase of the time needed
for coil fabrication, estimated at 4-5 weeks for the first Long Racetrack (shifting the test
from the end of FY06 to the beginning of FY07), and an additional cost in FY06 of about
$30k.

During this meeting the L2 manager presented a comparison between alternative BNL
and FNAL plans for the Long Racetrack R&D. The two plans have the same deliverables
(one short racetrack and two long racetracks) and very similar schedules, although there
is a difference in the goal of the short racetrack. In the BNL plan the short racetrack
would be assembled using magnet and coil parts borrowed from LBNL (in order to
complete the technology transfer). In the FNAL plan new coil parts would be designed
and procured in order to have the same new features that will be introduced in the coil of
the Long Racetrack.

The FY06 cost estimates differ by about $482k, with a total estimated cost to LARP of
$1211k for the BNL plan, and a total estimated cost to LARP of $729k for the FNAL
plan. Most of this difference is due to the greater need for infrastructure upgrades at
BNL, and to the ability of FNAL to charge the cost for the procurement of a long oven on
its core budget. Further consultations will be needed in order to take a decision. It was
agreed that the BNL plan will be modified to include a test of a short racetrack with the
new coil design (this could be the same small racetrack used for the validation of the
technology transfer).


                                             32
2.4            Materials
It became apparent from strand tests during Q3 that further heat-treat optimization of the
MJR strand needs to be done to improve the low field current instability by increasing the
RRR of the stabilizing copper. The goal is to increase the stability threshold current for
the 0.7 mm strand to exceed 1000 A without reducing the 12T Jc by more than 10%. It
was found that by reducing the reaction temperature to 635-640C and for a duration of 48
hours, there was no contamination of the stabilizing copper as inferred from the measured
RRR of > 300. Strands undergoing this reaction were found to be stable against flux-
jumps to 1200 A at 4.2K. However, there was about 10% loss in the critical current at

                                           33
12T. From these studies it was recommended that the next SQ coils be reacted using the
following: 210C/48hr + 400C/48hr + 640C/48hrs. For the TQ coils a further modification
of this reaction scheme may be suggested following additional tests of strand and cable
which would be available after the reactions of the TQ-practice coils.

An outstanding issue that is being addressed is that of strand testing procedures at the
three laboratories. During the next quarter, tests are planned to compare critical current
measurements of strands reacted in the same furnace and measured at the three labs.

Prior to the June DOE review, the Materials section was split into three WBS codes:

2.4.1.1 Strand R&D             Task Leader E. Barzi
2.4.1.2 Cable R&D                    Task Leader D. Dietderich
2.4.1.3 Strand Procurement     Task Leader        A. Ghosh

For FY06 and for subsequent years, work planning and budgets would appear in these
WBS codes. This report has a separate section on strand procurement for which there is
no allocated budget for FY05.

2.4.1          Conductor Support

2.4.1.1 Strand R&D

Reporter: A. Ghosh

I. BNL Effort:

During this quarter, BNL has been testing virgin strands and extracted strands in support
of the magnet programs - primarily SQ and TQ magnets. These strands are all of the
MJR-type. In addition strands from the CDP inventory, mostly the RRP strands of
different stacking designs which are of interest for LARP were also tested. Several tests
were also done to accurately determine the RRR of the strands tested. Most of the
reactions were made at 650C of different durations. Results from these tests prompted
further reactions at a lower temperature of 635C to improve the observed stability current
at low fields. Note that BNL’s maximum current for Ic is 1500A, and that for stability
current is 1200A.

All reactions were in vacuum with samples mounted on stainless barrels in the large oven
at BNL.

Tests of cable LBL-879R-2 were done to determine whether this cable would be suitable
for SQ magnet coils that were fabricated this quarter. ORE-186-1-C is the virgin strand
from which this cable was made. Tests 2393 and 2395 were used to check the
reproducibility of Ic and Is measurement using different holders as well as different
technicians for mechanical assembly of samples.



                                             34
Below is a tabulation of the tests made at BNL. All samples were given an intermediate
reaction of 48h/210C + 48h/400C.

RunNum   Manf      WireID   HT_Num HT_Temp HT_Time WireDia Cu_NonCu Comments
 2367    OST    LBL-910R-A    26     665     72    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand. See Run 2355
 2368    OST    LBL_913R-A    29     650     48    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand. See Run 2359
 2369    OST       RRR-test   29     650     48    0.0276    0.88   RRR-strands
 2370    OST      ORE-205     29     650     48    0.0276    0.88   See Run 2358
 2371    OST      RRP-7904    29     650     72    0.0276    0.69   RRP 126/127 Design
 2372    OST     ORE-206-C    29     650     72    0.0276    0.88   See Run 2361
 2373    OST    LBL-913R-B    27     665     72    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand.See Run #2360
 2374    OST    LBL-910R-A    29     650     48    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand. See Run #2367
 2375    OST       RRR-test                   0    0.0276    0.88   RRR-strands
 2376    OST    LBL-913R-A    29     650     72    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand.see run #2368
 2377    OST    LBL-910R-A    29     650     72    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand.see run #2374
 2380    OST      RRR-Test                                          RRR-strands
 2384    OST    LBL-879R-2    30     635     48    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand.
 2385    OST    ORE-186-1-C   30     635     48    0.0276    0.88   sample damaged.
 2386    OST      RRR-Test                                          RRR-Strands.
 2387    OST     RRP-7904-1   30     635     72    0.0276    0.68   RRP 1267/127 Design
 2388    OST    LBL-879R-2    30     635     72    0.0276    0.88   Extracted Strand.see run #2384.
 2389    OST      HER-7981    30     635     72    0.0315    1.01   37-sub-element NbTi-fins
 2392    OST    ORE-186-1-C   31     635     48    0.0276    0.88   Retest of new sample.see run #2385.
 2393    OST     RRP-8079-7   31     635     48    0.0276    0.70   RRP 90/91 stack, Nb/NbTi sub-element
 2394    OST     RRP-8079-7   31     635     36    0.0276    0.70
 2395    OST     RRP-8079-7   31     635     48    0.0276    0.70   See Run # 2393.
 2396    OST      RRR-Test                                          RRR-Strands.
 2397    OST      ORE-205     32     635     48    0.0276    0.88


A summary of the test results for the test runs listed are given in the Table below.
RunNum    WireID      HT_Temp HT_Time Jc(12T) Ic(12T) Ic(11T) Is  RRR Comments
   2368   LBL_913R-A       650     48    1899     389     477 1100 189.2 Extracted Strand. See Run 2359
   2370   ORE-205          650     48    2049     419     511 1200 247.7 See Run 2358
   2371   RRP-7904         650     72    2257     513     633 300      4 RRP 126/127 Design
   2372   ORE-206-C        650     72    2037     417     513 887 97.6 See Run 2361
   2374   LBL-910R-A       650     48    1940     397     487 1200 217 Extracted Strand. See Run #2367
   2376   LBL-913R-A       650     72    1971     404     498 637 72.9 Extracted Strand.see run #2368
   2377   LBL-910R-A       650     72    2128     436     531 837    84 Extracted Strand.see run #2374
   2384   LBL-879R-2       635     48    1941     397     496 762 103.1 Extracted Strand.
   2387   RRP-7904-1       635     72    2041     463     578 525    8.8 RRP 1267/127 Design
   2388   LBL-879R-2       635     72    2185     447     551 412 118 Extracted Strand.see run #2384.
   2389   HER-7981         635     72    1886     469     560 1200 356.8 37-sub-element NbTi-fins
   2392   ORE-186-1-C      635     48    2067     423     523 987 150.7 Retest of new sample.see run #2385.
   2393   RRP-8079-7       635     48    2473     561     676 1200 356.7 RRP 90/91 stack, Nb/NbTi sub-element
   2394   RRP-8079-7       635     36    2325     528     638 1200 344.3
   2395   RRP-8079-7       635     48    2457     558     670 1200 355.5 See Run # 2393.
   2397   ORE-205          635     48    1822     373     461 1200 309.9
   2398   LBL-913R-A       635     72    1900     389     480 887        Extracted Strand.


II. FNAL Effort:

FNAL tested 0.7 mm and 1 mm strands from the R&D RRP billet 8195 by OST made of
108/127 filaments, and 0.7 mm strands from RRP billets 8079 (90/91 filaments), 7060
(54/61 filaments) and 7934 (60/61 filaments) by OST. The critical current Ic was tested at
4.2 K and at ~2.5 K in the field range 0 -15 T. For each of these samples the low field

                                                         35
stability threshold current Is was always measured at 4.2 K, and in some cases also at 2.5
K. The RRR of the virgin and extracted strands were measured on the same Ti-alloy
holders. Samples were heat treated on Ti-alloy barrels in argon using the same cycle
(25C/h up to 210C, 48 h at 210 C, 50 C/h up to 400C, 48 h at 400C, 75C/h up to 635, 60
h at 635C).

All acquired data are shown in the table below:




                                            36
37
Table notes
1) Ic in red shows extrapolated values. Ic in black represents transition. No data in the Ic
   column denotes premature quench. Ic in blue shows parameterized values
2) “Psl” means power supply limit
3) Samples whose sample number is marked in red were outside of the homogeneous
   temperature zone in the oven, and therefore show a somewhat lower Ic performance.
Sweeping field:
4) Is is shown in green. “N.Q.” means no quench.
5) Field value direction “d” in red means that field has been swept from 4T to 0T, “u” in
   black from 0T to 4T.
6) HT-169 is 25C/h to 210C, 48h at 210C; 25C/h to 400C, 48h at 400C; 50C/h to 665C,
   72h at 665C.
7) HT-171 is 25C/h to 210C, 48h at 210C; 50C/h to 400C, 48h at 400C; 75C/h to 635C,
   60h at 635C.


Results
Measurements at BNL seem to indicate that for reaction times of 72 hours, the stability
currents are less than 1000 A for reactions temperatures of 635-665C. Further tests of
extracted strands at 635 C are needed to check this conclusion (Fig. 1). As expected the
critical current is lower for the lower reaction temperatures as seen in Fig.2

Work in progress and future steps

In order to establish a suitable heat treatment schedule for the first TQ magnets, both of
which will be made of MJR material, heat treatment optimization cycles that provide
good Ic, Is and RRR are being performed. Witness samples from the SQ and practice-coil
reactions will be used to further study the effect of time/temperature on the stability and
critical current of round and extracted strands.

Work will also begin in evaluating RRP strands cabled in the TQ cable configuration
using both the 61-stack and the 91-stack design.




                                            38
                               1400


                               1200

                                                                                                         72 h
                               1000                                                                      48 h
     Stability Current [A]




                                       800


                                       600


                                       400


                                       200


                                         0
                                             630    635    640     645           650         655       660      665    670
                                                                  Reaction Temperature [C]


Fig. 1.                                Stability current as a function of time and temperature of reaction.

                                        500



                                        475
                                                                                                72 h
                                                                                                48 h
                                        450
                         Ic(12T) [A]




                                        425



                                        400



                                        375



                                        350
                                              630    635    640     645            650         655      660      665     670
                                                                         Reaction Temperature [C]




Fig. 2. Critical current as a function of time and temperature of reaction


                                                                                39
2.4.1.2 Cable R&D

Reporter: A. Ghosh

I. LBNL Effort.

LARP TQ Practice Cable

The practice cable parameters for the TQ-magnets were established at the LARP Port
Jefferson Meeting in April of 2005 after BNL, FNAL, and LBNL presented the results of
strand measurements. The final TQ cable parameters are given in Table I. It was
decided that the practice cable will be made from HER strand (billets 7069) from the
HEP/CDP inventory.

During the first week of May-05 169.5 meters of cable (LARP-7-O-B0920R) were
manufactured, insulated and delivered to FNAL for coil-winding. An additional
181meters of similar cable (LARP-7-O-B0927R) were fabricated in June using wires
from HEP/CDP inventory, HER-billet 3978.

                                       Table I
            Practice Cable Parameters for LARP TQ Quadrapole Magnets

                  Parameters      Units   TQ Final        Tolerance
                    Strand                HER 7069           NA
               Strands in cable   No.         27             NA
               Strand diameter    mm         0.7           +/- 0.002
                    Width         mm      10.077 max.   +0.000, -0.100
                  Thickness       mm         1.26          +/- 0.010
               Keystone angle     deg.       1.0           +/- 0.10



LARP SQ Cable

The cable for the next SQ magnet was fabricated om May 31 (LARP-SQ-S3O-B0926R).
98 meters of insulated cable were delivered for coil winding that took place during Q3.

II. FNAL Effort

The following work was done to upgrade the cabling machine to enable FNAL to
fabricate cable for the LARP program
 Mandrel design and procurement (from modification of existing mandrel) for 28 x 0.7
    mm strand cable.


                                           40
     Procurement of side rollers ~1.2 mm thick for rectangular sizing fixture to make 28 x
      0.7 mm strand cable.
     Design and procurement of grooved (bottom) and keystone pusher (top) rollers for
      1.3 degree keystoned cables ~10.036 mm wide.
     Design and procurement of additional pusher (top) roller for 1 degree keystoned
      cables ~10.036 mm wide.

The cable manufacturing documentation can be found at http://supercon.lbl.gov



Strand Procurement
Reporter: A.Ghosh

During Q3 there were several discussions with the magnet groups to estimate the strand
requirements for next fiscal year. Video-conferences were also held to try to narrow
down the specifications that would be used for the procurement starting October 05. Also
during this quarter a visit was made to Oxford-Instrument Superconducting Technology
(OST) at Cartaret, NJ to discuss the strand requirement for LARP and to get an update on
the R&D that OST is conducting for the Conductor Development Program. It is expected
that LARP will place orders in FY06 for about 300 kg of finished wire. During the next
quarter the plans for the procurement will be better defined in terms of the specifications
and the delivery dates.


Project Expenditures
Reporter: A. Ghosh

Costs reported, as available, by Laboratory for activities for FY05.




WBS                           FY Expenses through June30, 2005             Funding Balance, June 30, 2005
                           BNL FNAL LBNL SLAC Total                BNL       FNAL LBNL SLAC Total
2.4            Materials    38     26       33       0       98     3          (1)     20        0        21
            Conductor
2.4.1       Support
2.4.1.1     Strand R&D     38.3    25.6     0.0     0.0     64         3       (1)      0       0        2
2.4.1.2     Cable R&D      0.0     0.6     33.4     0.0     34         0       (1)     20       0       19

The strand task has insufficient resources for the rest of the fiscal year. Most of the work
will have to be funded by the core programs. Although LBNL made three cabling runs, it

                                             41
is not clear whether all of the charges have been properly accounted for in the table here.
For the last three months LBNL has only charged to the limit that appears in Q2. An
additional $20k was allocated against which charges have yet to appear.




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