Computer Hardware

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					Computer Hardware
             Benefits
     you judge your computer
 Help
 capabilities

 Help you to use your computer
 efficiently

 Helpyou to correct minor computing
 problems
                Basic Facts
 Definitions
  –   Computer
  –   Input/output
  –   Binary digital system
  –   Hardware/software
 Basichardware
 Software (operating system)
     COMPUTER DEFINITION
A computer is an electronic device
 which works within a binary digital
 system and has 4 functions:
 – Accept input (data – isolated facts)
 – Process input (data)
 – Produce output (information – processed data)
 – Storage
Binary Digital System




Two Number System
Binary Digital System
   A system that works with two
  states. For the computer these
 two states are on/off or the digits
            of 1 and 0.

 The basic unit (1and 0) is a BIT.
      The Difference Between
        Hardware/Software

 Hardware– all the tangible parts of
 the computer

 Software – programs or sets of
 instructions for the computer
    CPU - Central Processing Unit




 One of Two of the most important parts
  of the computer
 Only active part in the computer

    –does all the processing
    –It’s the
    CPU - Central Processing Unit




   Only communicates with RAM
                       HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW



                                   BUS            Hard Drive
Tower                CPU

                                         RAM

                Floppy      CD                                       Ports
               Drive       Drive

Peripheral
 devices
                                   keyboard

             mouse                                         printer
                                               Monitor
CPU - Central Processing Unit

   Megahertz – unit of speed for the CPU;
    how fast can it fetch an instruction from
    RAM and execute it (machine cycle)
    – Millions of cycles per second
RAM – random access memory
  One of the two most important
   parts of the computer
  Holds data and instructions
   waiting for processing by the CPU
  Temporary storage

  Contents are deleted when power
   source removed.
  RAM is measured in storage units
   that are variations of bits.
                        Units of Storage

                                           = smallest unit of storage
                                  BIT
                                           binary digit; 1 or a 0

                          BYTE
                        BYT                = 8 bits
                        E
                       KILOBYTE
                                           = 1,000 bytes


                   MEGABYTE                = 1,000,000 bytes



                GIGABYTE                   = 1,000,000,000
                                                bytes

              TERABYTE                     = 1,000,000,000,000
                                                  bytes


Remember that 1 or 0 corresponds to whether the space is
        receiving an electronic charge or not.
                      SECONDARY
                       STORAGE                       Notice the letters
                                                     refer to separate
                          Disk Drives
                                                    pieces of hardware.




Floppy Disk       Hard                  CD/DVD          USB (jump)
  Drives          Drive                  Drives           Drives




    A:\            C:\                     D:\              F:\
    B:\       My Documents                 E:\          Has a port
removable     Inside machine            removable       removable
Hard drives and Floppy
         drives
             Have magnetic disks

   Hard drives store more because they have
                 several disks.

  Both have a read/write head which reads the
               data on the disk.
A CRASH is when the read/write head touches the
            disk and destroys data.
                CD/DVD Drives
   Composed of one disk.

   Very large, permanent storage.

   Portable storage.

   Disks work with light waves.
    – A 1 or a 0 now means that the part
      reflects light or does not reflect
      light.
   CD’s write on one side
   DVD’s write on two sides
                                           DVD’s
USB Drives/Devices

       Portable storage

       Also known as flash
        drives

       Storage is similar to
        RAM chips

       Need to plug into a
        USB port.
                                DVD’s
                       HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW



                                   BUS            Hard Drive
Tower                CPU

                                         RAM

                Floppy      CD                                       Ports
               Drive       Drive

Peripheral
 devices
                                   keyboard

             mouse                                         printer
                                               Monitor
   L:\
                           NEW DRIVE
  drive
    L:\ Drive – specific to a network
                  drive

   Very large, permanent storage.

   Space given on this drive to
    students when a network
    account is given.

   Storage is actually another hard
    drive on a separate network
    computer.

                                        DVD’s
                     HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW



                                             Hard Drive
                               BUS
Tower            CPU

                                  RAM

             Floppy     CD                                      Ports
             Drive     Drive

Peripheral
 devices                       keyboard

        mouse                                         printer
                                          Monitor
   Some Hardware Definitions
 Tower    – box that holds CPU, RAM, etc.

 Peripheral    Devices – input/output
 devices such as the printer, monitor, etc.

 Bus    – electronic device that connects all
 the internal parts of the computer

 Port– connects external peripheral
 devices to the computer; different sizes
 match different peripheral devices
                       HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW



                                   BUS            Hard Drive
Tower                CPU

                                         RAM

                Floppy      CD                                       Ports
               Drive       Drive

Peripheral
 devices
                                   keyboard

             mouse                                         printer
                                               Monitor
    Some Hardware Definitions
                 ROM
 Single chip that is activated only
  once when the machine is turned on
 Has two functions
  – Runs a hardware check
  – Loads the operating system
    LOAD – brings the software from the hard
     drive to RAM so that it’s instructions can be
     processed by the CPU
     USERactivates LOAD on files/software
     when he double clicks on an icon
An Overview of the Entire Computer System




                 USER

           Application software
          MSWord, EXCEL, email

    System software - operating system



               HARDWARE
       The Difference Between
         Application/System
               Software

 Application   software – solves user
 problems
  – MSWord; EXCEL; email software


 System  software – designed to
 interface with the hardware
  – Operating system
Operating System

   System software
  Set of instructions
    Always running
  (behind the other
      programs)
               3 functions
 Provides   a friendly user interface

 Controls   computer resources
  – Allocates memory
  – Allocates a CPU time slice


         services to running
 Provides
 programs
Friendly
  User
Interface
        Logical file organization.
    Tree structure
    Upside down tree.
      Path (\) – gives the route through the
  tree                ROOT
                       c:\           DRIVES
 Parent directory               a:\
                                l:\
    of Sub1, Sub2

                    DIR 1      DIR 2       DIR 3


               SUB 1   SUB 2   SUB 3   SUB 4   SUB 5

               File1           File
      Logical file organization.
A little test.                   YES!!!
 Is Dir2 the parent
 directory of Sub3?
                              ROOT
                               c:\
                               a:\
                               l:\


                 DIR 1        DIR 2       DIR 3


             SUB 1    SUB 2   SUB 3   SUB 4   SUB 5

             File1            File
Can the operating system show me
           the drives?

                       YES!!!
List of Drives
File name . extension
  File name can be any
   characters/symbols

Extension – gives the type
        of the file
            Xls
           Doc
     File Management Icons



                              Shows file details
  Moves up to
                                (extensions)
parent directory

                Searches for files and
                     directories.
Shows a double file listing.
1.Show the folder to copy to on
        the right or left.
2. Click on the file or folder to
              move.
3. Drag the file or folder to the
          new location.
                Basic Facts
 Definitions
  –   Computer
  –   Input/output
  –   Binary digital system
  –   Hardware/software
 Basichardware
 Software (operating system)
     A Little Hardware Review
A  computer is?
 A binary digital system is?

 Define input/output?

 Define hardware/software?

 What is the first piece of hardware
  activated when the machine starts?
 What does all the processing in the
  computer?

				
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posted:3/23/2011
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