Computer Hardware Benefits you judge your computer Help capabilities Help you to use your computer efficiently Helpyou to correct minor computing problems Basic Facts Definitions – Computer – Input/output – Binary digital system – Hardware/software Basichardware Software (operating system) COMPUTER DEFINITION A computer is an electronic device which works within a binary digital system and has 4 functions: – Accept input (data – isolated facts) – Process input (data) – Produce output (information – processed data) – Storage Binary Digital System Two Number System Binary Digital System A system that works with two states. For the computer these two states are on/off or the digits of 1 and 0. The basic unit (1and 0) is a BIT. The Difference Between Hardware/Software Hardware– all the tangible parts of the computer Software – programs or sets of instructions for the computer CPU - Central Processing Unit One of Two of the most important parts of the computer Only active part in the computer –does all the processing –It’s the CPU - Central Processing Unit Only communicates with RAM HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW BUS Hard Drive Tower CPU RAM Floppy CD Ports Drive Drive Peripheral devices keyboard mouse printer Monitor CPU - Central Processing Unit Megahertz – unit of speed for the CPU; how fast can it fetch an instruction from RAM and execute it (machine cycle) – Millions of cycles per second RAM – random access memory One of the two most important parts of the computer Holds data and instructions waiting for processing by the CPU Temporary storage Contents are deleted when power source removed. RAM is measured in storage units that are variations of bits. Units of Storage = smallest unit of storage BIT binary digit; 1 or a 0 BYTE BYT = 8 bits E KILOBYTE = 1,000 bytes MEGABYTE = 1,000,000 bytes GIGABYTE = 1,000,000,000 bytes TERABYTE = 1,000,000,000,000 bytes Remember that 1 or 0 corresponds to whether the space is receiving an electronic charge or not. SECONDARY STORAGE Notice the letters refer to separate Disk Drives pieces of hardware. Floppy Disk Hard CD/DVD USB (jump) Drives Drive Drives Drives A:\ C:\ D:\ F:\ B:\ My Documents E:\ Has a port removable Inside machine removable removable Hard drives and Floppy drives Have magnetic disks Hard drives store more because they have several disks. Both have a read/write head which reads the data on the disk. A CRASH is when the read/write head touches the disk and destroys data. CD/DVD Drives Composed of one disk. Very large, permanent storage. Portable storage. Disks work with light waves. – A 1 or a 0 now means that the part reflects light or does not reflect light. CD’s write on one side DVD’s write on two sides DVD’s USB Drives/Devices Portable storage Also known as flash drives Storage is similar to RAM chips Need to plug into a USB port. DVD’s HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW BUS Hard Drive Tower CPU RAM Floppy CD Ports Drive Drive Peripheral devices keyboard mouse printer Monitor L:\ NEW DRIVE drive L:\ Drive – specific to a network drive Very large, permanent storage. Space given on this drive to students when a network account is given. Storage is actually another hard drive on a separate network computer. DVD’s HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW Hard Drive BUS Tower CPU RAM Floppy CD Ports Drive Drive Peripheral devices keyboard mouse printer Monitor Some Hardware Definitions Tower – box that holds CPU, RAM, etc. Peripheral Devices – input/output devices such as the printer, monitor, etc. Bus – electronic device that connects all the internal parts of the computer Port– connects external peripheral devices to the computer; different sizes match different peripheral devices HARDWARE SYSTEM OVERVIEW BUS Hard Drive Tower CPU RAM Floppy CD Ports Drive Drive Peripheral devices keyboard mouse printer Monitor Some Hardware Definitions ROM Single chip that is activated only once when the machine is turned on Has two functions – Runs a hardware check – Loads the operating system LOAD – brings the software from the hard drive to RAM so that it’s instructions can be processed by the CPU USERactivates LOAD on files/software when he double clicks on an icon An Overview of the Entire Computer System USER Application software MSWord, EXCEL, email System software - operating system HARDWARE The Difference Between Application/System Software Application software – solves user problems – MSWord; EXCEL; email software System software – designed to interface with the hardware – Operating system Operating System System software Set of instructions Always running (behind the other programs) 3 functions Provides a friendly user interface Controls computer resources – Allocates memory – Allocates a CPU time slice services to running Provides programs Friendly User Interface Logical file organization. Tree structure Upside down tree. Path (\) – gives the route through the tree ROOT c:\ DRIVES Parent directory a:\ l:\ of Sub1, Sub2 DIR 1 DIR 2 DIR 3 SUB 1 SUB 2 SUB 3 SUB 4 SUB 5 File1 File Logical file organization. A little test. YES!!! Is Dir2 the parent directory of Sub3? ROOT c:\ a:\ l:\ DIR 1 DIR 2 DIR 3 SUB 1 SUB 2 SUB 3 SUB 4 SUB 5 File1 File Can the operating system show me the drives? YES!!! List of Drives File name . extension File name can be any characters/symbols Extension – gives the type of the file Xls Doc File Management Icons Shows file details Moves up to (extensions) parent directory Searches for files and directories. Shows a double file listing. 1.Show the folder to copy to on the right or left. 2. Click on the file or folder to move. 3. Drag the file or folder to the new location. Basic Facts Definitions – Computer – Input/output – Binary digital system – Hardware/software Basichardware Software (operating system) A Little Hardware Review A computer is? A binary digital system is? Define input/output? Define hardware/software? What is the first piece of hardware activated when the machine starts? What does all the processing in the computer?