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Philosophy as Foundation for Staff Development


									    Philosophy as a Foundation
      for Staff Development
•   Essentialism
     –   basic truths exist outside of scientific proof
     –   basic task is to identify these truths
     –   external experts would be most knowledgeable
     –   teachers need to be involved but the real curriculum
         comes from outside their knowledge base within the
•   Experimentalism
     – reality can only be established through experimentation
       in the classroom or school
     – everything is situation specific
     – there are no external truths
     – curriculum would be developed based on what works in
       the teachers classroom and school
•   Existentialism
     – all meaning exists only in individuals interpretation of
       the world
     – human dignity, self-worth, intuition, and self-
       determination are paramount
     – curriculum development is decentralized
     – existing knowledge only provides guidance to the
       teacher and school

      Currently Used Models of

•   Madeline Hunter
•   Richard Manatt
•   James Popham
•   Michael Scriven
•   Thomas McGreal
•   Art Costa and Robert Garmston
                 Madeline Hunter

•   Assumptions
     – Teaching is a learned profession, not a genetic
     – Principles governing effective teaching can be described,
       taught, observed, and documented
     – Research based knowledge is stressed
     – All teachers should continue to grow
     – Peer coaching is to provide a formative process of
     – District’s evaluation is summative
          • Based on many samples of teacher behavior
          • Conducted by trained administrator (50 hours min)
          • Should be based on stipulated criteria known by the teacher
            and administrator
•   Pre-evaluation conferences are not needed
•   Classroom observations consist of script taping
•   After the observation, the evaluator should infer
    reasons for success or lack of success
•   Staff Development consists of teaching effective
    practices to teachers (transfer, memory, rate and
    degree, 7-step lesson, etc.)
               Richard Manatt

• Little consideration of the differences between
  formative and summative evaluations. Only that
  summative occurs after formative efforts.
• Establish criteria
    – based on research, practice, local selection from
      large data base provided by Manatt (from items
      claimed to discriminate among teachers)
        • maintains effective relationships with students
        • prepares appropriate evaluation activities
        • demonstrates sensitivity in relating to students
• Set standards
    – typically involves setting descriptive levels of
      performance and linking to ranking or rating
      systems (meets, exceeds,far exceeds, not
      satisfactory, etc.)
• Conduct orientation, pre-observational
  conferences, classroom observations
• Identify teacher strength and weaknesses
  (supervisor generally does this)
• Write summative evaluation
• Set written growth targets (formative
               James Popham

• The blending of formative and summative
  evaluation is a grave mistake
    – must be done by different individuals
    – trust cannot be achieved by the principal
    – two systems must be total separate
• Process-focused systems based on research are
• No research exists that provides concrete
  guidelines that will always work
• Formative evaluations must be based on growth
  that teachers bring about
• Summative evaluations should be based on
  professional judgment
    – pooled judgment of at least three trained
    – multiple sources of evidence
    – training program for evaluators is essential
• Typically used in university setting
             Michael Scriven

• Beliefs
   – Views teachers as professionals who retain a great
     deal of autonomy in the way they execute their
   – A fair summative evaluation system does not have
     to include a formative section (enriched system)
   – Current research cannot be exclusively used as a
     base for evaluation
   – Pre-post measurement does not establish that the
     teacher caused the growth and is therefore of
     limited use
• Advocates Duty-Based Evaluations
   – includes classroom performance but also other
     typical obligations
   – uses multiple measures to estimate the extent to
     which these teacher duties have been done well
   – focuses on merit (quality and quantity of teacher
     materials, student learning, professionalism, and
     ethics) not worth (multiple certifications,
     knowledge of community, etc.)
   – minimal level of achievement on all duties is
       Thomas McGreal’s Model

•   Identify a framework for teaching
•   Establish clear minimal criteria
•   Separate formative from summative evaluation
•   Formative evaluation practices should involve
    individual goal-setting activities that occur
    between teachers and administrators
•   Different types of goals depending on the teacher
•   Goal setting is a cooperative process
•   Goals based on teaching framework
•   Collect data that makes sense
•   No ranking or rating scales
            Costa and Garmston

• Beliefs
   – teachers should not be evaluated against existing
     lists of competencies
   – teachers should be viewed as professionals who
     exercise judgment about what is appropriate--
     skilled autonomous, professional decision makers
   – teachers who function at higher cognitive levels
     produce higher achievement
   – teachers should be measured against their level of
     cognitive development level
• Advocates
   – growth focused evaluations (formative)
   – dismissal only if cognitive level is low at tenure
     decision time (summative)
   – teacher self-evaluation or peer evaluation
   – individual staff development based on cognitive
   – purpose is to help teachers increase and perform
     intellectual functions of teaching, thereby
     developing their capacities for self-modification

•   Proposition 1
     – Current Evaluation and Staff Development Practices
       do Little to Improve Classroom Instruction.
•   Proposition 2
     – Separation of Summative and Formative Evaluation is
•   Proposition 3
     – Staff must be viewed as Individuals
•   Proposition 4
     – Conferencing Strategies Should be Custom Tailored to
       the Individual
•   Proposition 5
     – Evaluation and Staff Development Must be Linked
•   Proposition 6
     – Development Must Result in Changes in Classroom
       Instruction - What students receive
•   Proposition 7
     – Development Must be Viewed as a Continuous Process
       for Everyone

        Proposition 1
Current Practice is Ineffective
• Widely disregarded by teachers
• Generally unattractive to administrators
  and often poorly executed
• Not linked to anything in 99% of all
• Almost never results in changes in
  classroom practice
• Generally irritates parents

  Why Then Do We Bother
  with Teacher Assessment?
• Changing Technology
   – More complex coordination is necessary
   – Know more about effective teaching
• Teacher as the Central Figure
   – Key ingredient, performance is essential
   – Most important part of the program
• Concern of Parents
   – Parents no longer know the child’s teacher
   – A move to state certification of teachers
   – Published reports that have been critical of
• Administrative Feedback to Better Plan
   –   Placement
   –   Dismissal
   –   Validation of teacher selection process
   –   Promotions and special identification        4

• State Law or Board Policy
       Typical Efforts to Avoid
       Productive Evaluations
• No-nonsense Game
   – principal fills out evaluation form
   – ceremonial classroom visit
   – observations are avoided
   – principal remains aloof at all times
   – principal derives power from being judge, jury,
     and defender of the teacher
   – teacher must act the dependent protected and
     subservient role--does not have to be self-critical
   – all comments must be completely positive and
• Abdication Game
   – principals fear damaging relationships
   – role reversal is arranged where the teacher
     becomes the evaluator
   – reduces the responsibility load on the principal
   – maintains peaceful relations with the teachers
   – principal is forced into the position of accepting
     the teachers self-analysis
  Typical Efforts - continued

• Lets Be Accountable Game
   – emphasis on ritualized procedures that
     appear to be systematic, scientific, and
   – priority is given to showing that the staff is
     doing a good job
   – lack of effort devoted to finding and solving
   – versions
       •   elaborate instruments
       •   narrative reporting
       •   assignment of ratings
       •   preparation of profiles
       •   self/principal ratings
• Turkey Trot and Dance of the Lemons

       The Real Reason That
        Evaluation is Useful
• Teacher feedback needs
   – Improvement is impossible without
     systematic feedback
        • classroom isolation is a problem
        • lack of a concrete product causes uncertainty
        • lack of measures of success
• Self-concept is dependent on ones view
  of his/her own efficacy--lack of such
  feedback often results in
   –   lower levels of morale
   –   greater feelings of anxiety
   –   security focus--lack of risk taking
   –   slower growth rates
   –   distorted perceptions of reality

            Sound Practice

• Judging as distinguished from knowing
   – knowledge must precede judging
   – global judgments are not useful
       • He’s a weak teacher
       • She is the best in the building
       • She is good at asking open ended questions
• An act of evaluating as distinguished
  from a process of evaluation
   – a continuous process of related actions
   – improvement not bound to school calendar
• The teacher as distinguished from
   – focus should be on the teaching act not
     characteristics of the teacher
   – Formative and Summative Evaluation
     should be kept separate

               What Is

• Supervision cannot rely on the existing
  work environment of schools to
  stimulate instructional improvement
• Supervisors cannot assume that teachers
  are reflective, autonomous, and
  responsible for their own development
• Supervisors will have to redefine their
  responsibilities--from controllers of
  teachers instruction to involvers of
  teachers in decisions about school
  instruction. (Carl Glickman, 1991)

           What Can Be

• Supervision can strengthen teachers
  belief in a course beyond oneself
• Supervision can promote teachers sense
  of efficacy
• Supervision can make teachers aware of
  how they complement each other in
  striving for common goals
• Supervision can stimulate teachers to
  appraise, reflect, and adapt their
• Supervision can challenge teachers
  toward more varied, abstract thought.

               Proposition 2
 Separation of Summative and Formative
         Evaluations is Essential

• Summative evaluations are based on
  meeting basic expectations
   – Clearly stated and known
   – Basic not desirable
   – All employees need to met all minimums all
     the time
   – Evaluation can occur at any time
   – Used for administrative purposes
• Formative evaluations are intended to
  produce growth
   – Basic characteristics
   – Face to face relationships between teacher
     and supervisor
   – A focus on the teachers actual behavior in
     the classroom
   – Not a remedy applied by the supervisor
   – Teacher centered supervision
   – Designed to help the teacher improve his or 16
     her instructional performance
Model for Separating Formative and
     Summative Evaluations

     Job                       District           Customary
  Descriptions                Standards           Procedures


Does Not Meet
Minimum                                        Meets
Expectations                                 Expectations
      Formal                  Summative
    Remediation                Summative      Pre-observations

                                               Baseline Data
    Summative                                   Collection
                                                Goal Setting
             Does Not Meet
   Removal From                                   Strategy

                                              Data Collection
                                              Based on Goals
         Classical Clinical
                                               Feedback and

                                             Summative Report
                                                Generation       17
    Assumptions of Clinical
      Supervision Model
• To improve instruction, teachers must
  learn specific intellectual and behavioral
• Supervisor should take responsibility for
  helping the teacher develop
   – analytical skills based on data
   – adaptation, experimentation, curriculum
• Emphasis is on the instructional process,
  not teacher personality
• Emphasis is on making and testing
  instructional hypotheses
• Conferences deal with a few
  instructional issues that are important
  to the teacher and amenable to change
• Based on observational evidence
• Continuous cycle of planning. observing,
  and analysis
             Proposition 3
      The Staff Must be Viewed as
• Teachers operate at different levels of
  professional development.
    – differ in ability to analyze instruction
    – to use a repertoire of problem-solving strategies
    – and match strategies to particular situations
• They need to be supervised in different ways
  (because of differing abilities, motivational
  levels, and effectiveness)
    – teachers at lower levels need more structure and
    – teachers at higher developmental levels need less
      structure and a more active role in decision-
• The long-range goal of supervision should be to
  increase every teachers ability to grow toward
  higher stages of thought.
    – more reflective, self-directed teachers will be
      better able to solve their own problems and meet
      the educational needs of their students
    – thoughtful teachers promote thoughtful students
      (Carl Glickman, 1991)                           19
Diagnosis of Teacher Developmental
        Level Case Studies

•   Group 1 Mary, Sam, Ann
•   Group 2 Carl, Ann, John
•   Group 3 Jane, John, Fred
•   Group 4 Mary, Jane, Sam
•   Group 5 Carl, Ann, Fred

       Diagnosis of Developmental

       Analytical   Motivation   Content     Instruction   Student
       Ability                   Knowledge   Knowledge     Knowledge







           Proposition 4

• Conferencing Strategies Should be
  Custom Tailored to the Individual

       Directive Conferences

• Use When
   – Supervisor knows more about the content,
     students, pedagogy
   – When teacher motivational level is low
   – When analytical skills are lacking
• Keys to look for
   –   Difficulty in seeing relationships
   –   Difficulty in understanding data
   –   Wants rules
   –   Relies on authority
   –   Lack of concern
   –   Stagnant
   –   Limited use of instructional techniques

  Collaborative Conferences

• When to use
   – When knowledge of students, instruction,
     and content is roughly equal
   – When motivation is good
   – When analytical ability is good
• Keys
   – Teacher expresses interest in working
   – Give-and-take relationship is productive
   – Teacher is comfortable with supervisor
   – There is an ability to build upon mutual

  Non-Directive Conference

• Use when
  – Teachers knowledge, motivation, and
    analytical ability are high
  – Supervisor knows less than teacher
  – Teacher can be expected to self-improve
• Keys
  – Can define strategies
  – Can draw relationships
  – Can generate novel alternatives
  – Can evaluate and select consequences of each
  – Takes initiative to improve
  – Understands the subject area in relation to
    the scope and sequence
  – Knows subject area beyond existing guides

     Basic Skills of the Three
      Conference Protocols
• Setting tone-adjusting anxiety level to facilitate
• Setting Purpose-describing intended outcomes,
  duration, and success criteria
• Initiating-beginning conference slowly
• Listening-striving for complete understanding
• Reflecting-verbalized understanding of initial
• Clarifying-probing for underlying areas of
  potential growth
• Encouraging-keeping the discussion going
• Reflecting-understanding teachers message and
  identifying general areas of growth
• Problem Solving-identification of growth areas
  and steps to be taken
• Presenting-searching for understanding and
• Standardizing-establishing action plan
• Evaluating-conference feedback for                 26
     Examples of Conference
• Supervisor: Thanks for coming, lets review
  where we are going today
• Supervisor to secretary: Mary, could you hold
  all calls while Jim and I try to establish some
  growth targets this year.
• Supervisor: I hear you saying that .....
• Supervisor: I’m following what you are saying,
  please continue
• Supervisor: Please check my understand. I think
  you are saying that ......
• Supervisor: What would be some alternative
  ways we could approach this issue?
• Supervisor: OK, then we have agreed that the
  focus this year will be decreasing desist
  statements in your math classes. Ill code that
  behavior on a random basis and we will sit down
• Supervisor: Jim, how do you think we might
  work more effectively in these goal setting
    Goal Setting Conferences
• Conference Introduction
   – Purpose: To introduce the conference and
     prepare the participants to get the maximum
     benefit from the chosen format
• Analysis
   – Purpose: To cause the teacher to engage in a self-
     analysis while the supervisor gathers information.
     To make sure the supervisor has an accurate
     perception of the teachers concerns
   – Goal Identification
   – Purpose: To facilitate goal identification and the
     underlying objectives that might be necessary to
     accomplish the overall goal
• Future Planning
   – Purpose: To develop a concrete plan of action that
     specifies the who, what, when, how often, and
     measurement standards of the improvement
   – Critique
   – Purpose: To obtain feedback about the nature
     and conduct of the conference to improve future 28
     developmental work with the teacher.
           Proposition 5

• Evaluation and Staff Development Must
  be Linked Together

           Proposition 6

• Development Must Result in Changes in
  Classroom Instruction


• Major Considerations
   –   What purpose is to be served?
   –   What data sources are needed and available?
   –   What criteria are most relevant?
   –   What procedures are most appropriate?
   –   What instruments are most useful?

                 Data Sources

• Teacher self-reports
   –   self-knowledge
   –   active involvement
   –   low cost
   –   bias, subjectivity, conflict of interest
• Observations
   –   only selected activities
   –   high cost
   –   limited validity without multiple observations
   –   only way to collect some kinds of data
   –   face validity
• Student Reports
   – students have extensive exposure
   – low cost
   – lack of acceptance
• Peers
   –   may lack observation skills
   –   may be limited by contract
   –   can be of high face validity                     32
   –   must be done in trusting environment
    Selected Data Collection
• Selective Verbatim - a type of script tape
   – Focuses on verbal behavior of the teacher or
   – Does not include all behaviors, only those
     selected for observation
   – An objective, non-interpretive record of
   – Relatively simple to use
   – Sometimes important context is lost

   Uses of Selective Verbatim

• Analysis of teacher or student questions
    –   Cognitive level
    –   Amount of information
    –   Redirection to other students or answer given
    –   Probing questions
    –   Multiple questions
    –   Feeling tone of question
    –   Reasonableness of question given student ability
• Analysis of teacher feedback
    – Amount
    – Variety
    – Specificity
• Analysis of teacher directions and structuring
    –   Amount
    –   Type and variety
    –   Time given in the lesson
    –   Specificity

 Observational Records Based
     on Seating Patterns
• At task observational systems - recording the
  extent to which individual students are engaged
  in various activities
• Major considerations when using this system
    –   getting the correct observational position
    –   identifying the students to observe
    –   creating a legend or coding key
    –   deciding the time interval in which to observe the
        particular behavior
• Uses
    – Identify which students are on or off task
    – Identify the extent to which ALT is present across
      differing groups of students
    – To profile the behaviors of differing groups of
    – Identify the frequency and duration of various
      types of teacher behaviors
    – Identify the frequency and duration of classroom
      activity patterns such as small group work, class
      discussions, transitions, conceptual development
      of lesson, etc.
• Verbal Flow
   – Major considerations when using the system
      • getting in the correct observational position
      • identification of the target students
      • designing arrows or other markers that have
        specific meaning
            – directional
            – frequency
            – action taken
   – Uses
      • seating location preferences
      • student preferences
      • interaction patterns
      • categories of verbal interaction that occur in the
        classroom or among students and the teacher
      • verbal behavior preferences

• Movement Patterns
   – tracking of student or teacher activities
• Flander’s Interaction Analysis
   – an examination of the teacher-student
     interaction patterns
   – an examination of teacher verbal behavior
• Global Screen
   – a very broad look at teaching that can track
     a number of patterns such as teacher
     question levels and student responses

     Determinants of Learning

                                                       Monitoring Student
                           Planning                    Progress

   Student       Student                Opportunity to          Quality of
                 Background and TO       QUALITY OF             Instruction
   Ability                              Learn
                 Experiences             INSTRUCTION


  Establishing Classroom                                       Delivering
  Culture and Management                                       Instruction

                                      Organizing and
                                      Developing Instruction

     Basic Ability Level of the
•   Student ability to
     – acquire basic knowledge
     – link basic knowledge into patterns or schema that
       represent concepts
     – link current knowledge to past learning - transfer
     – link knowledge about one subject to another - transfer
     – mentally manipulate abstract ideas
     – synthesis information
     – create new knowledge
•   Schools can not control the students entering cognitive
    ability levels but they can adjust the instructional and
    curricular program to capitalize on existing levels of
•   Key questions for the Principal to ask:
     – Is the instructional and curricular programs
       appropriate for the current ability level of students?
          • Do students understand the lesson and can they describe the
            important concepts or facts?
          • Do students understand the relationships among the concepts
            or facts?
          • Do students understand the relationship between the
            developmental part of the lesson and the assignments?

 Past History and Experiences
        of the Student
• Relates to the breadth and depth of students
  prior history and experiences
• Students bring some of this information with
  them but also acquire a substantial amount from
  prior schooling experiences.
• Key questions for the principal
   – Are essential experiences present?
   – Does the teacher employ diagnostic techniques
     that enables them to use:
       • prior student experiences?
       • prior student knowledge?
       • transfer principles?
   – How does the current lesson link to past school
   – How does the current lesson directly link to the
     previous lesson?
   – How does the current lesson link to lessons in
     other subject areas?
   – How does the current lesson build on or utilize
     student background knowledge?
•   Dependent on five concepts or factors
     – Time allocated - the amount of teacher instructional
       time established for that particular subject
     – Time provided - the amount of time the teacher actually
       devotes to teaching of that particular subject
     – Time experienced - the amount of time a student is
       actually is engaged in learning
     – Academic learning time - the amount of time a student
       is engaged working on teacher directed tasks at a 80%
       success rate
     – Review - the extent to which a student is given the
       opportunity for additional ALT
•   Key questions for the principal
     – What is the engagement rate for the class as a whole?
     – What is the engagement rate for students throughout
       the class period?
     – What is the engagement rate for different groups of
       students (minority, majority, high ability, low ability,
       transfer students, etc.)?
     – Are all students at the ALT level?

•   What the student experiences is the key question.
•   Key Questions for the principal
     – What is the appropriateness of the lesson given the:
          • students developmental level?
          • students readiness?
          • continuity from previously learned contents or processes?
     – How much emphasis is placed on important concepts
       and principles?
          • is their an overemphasis on facts and recall?
          • do the facts help illustrate the concepts?
          • does the teacher relate the concepts to prior learning and
            student experiences?
     – What is the clarity level of the presentations from a
       student perspective?
          • are they organized from the perspective of the student?
          • is the vocabulary appropriate to the students level of
          • can the students anticipate the next steps in the lesson?
     – Are concepts and principals presented with critical
       attributes, non-critical attributes, and non-exemplars?


• The first step in organizing instruction
• Is a thinking process
• Need to engage in the planning process varies
  with experience and analytical ability
• Strong relationship between planning and
  subsequent classroom behavior
• A possible planning sequence
    – Identify content to be covered
        • decisions about what to teach
        • determination of student readiness
        • identification of time constraints
    – Identify instructional materials to be used
        • selection of materials
        • preparation of materials
        • management of materials
    – Identify instructional activities to employ
        • selection of activities
        • sequence of activities
        • organization and management of activities
    – Selection of evaluation procedures              43
•   Content
     –   What do you plan to teach?
     –   What should students be able to do at the end?
     –   What factors are to be considered in selecting the content?
     –   How do you determine that students are ready?
     –   How is the content related to previous or future lessons?
     –   What elements will be emphasized?
•   Materials
     –   What materials and why were they selected?
     –   What preparation of materials is required?
     –   What plans are needed for managing materials during
•   Activities
     –   What activities did you select and for what purposes?
     –   How will you conduct these activities?
     –   What sequence of these activities will you employ?
     –   How will the class be organized and why?
•   Evaluation
     –   How will you determined that the intended learning has taken
     –   How will you assess the extent to which the materials were
     –   How will you determine if other methods of instruction might
         have been more successful?
Specific Concepts in Planning

• Content Coverage
    – Teacher decisions about the subject matter that is
      to be taught during a given segment of instruction
        • identification/selection of content
        • analysis of content - separation into distinct elements
          (concepts, exemplars, skills, etc.)
        • evaluation of content - judges appropriateness of
        • sequencing of content - what order to present
        • pacing of content - amount to be taught in time
• Utilization of Instructing Materials
    – Teacher identification, selection, review, analysis,
      evaluation, or management of materials to be
      used in instruction
        • identification/selection of materials - specification of
          material to be used
        • analysis of instructional materials - what segments or
          parts to be used for what reason
        • evaluation of instructional materials - judges the
          appropriateness of material
        • management of instructional material - preparation and
          management of materials                                  45
•   Activity Structure
     – Teacher specifies what she and the students are to do
       during a segment of instruction
          • identification/selection of instructional activity
          • sequencing of instructional activity - order or pattern of
          • analysis of instructional activity - breaks activity into
            component parts
          • pacing of instructional activity - time for each segment
          • evaluation of instructional activity - appropriateness of activity
            (learner, content, format, time)
          • specification of activity format - appropriateness for class
•   Goal Focus
     – Teacher consideration of general aim or expected
       outcome of instruction
          • identification of expected learner outcome
          • evaluation of goal/instruction congruence
          • justification of goals - reason for selection
•   Diagnosis
     – Teacher statements that focus on student ability or
       achievement, background, preparation, or needs in the
       course of planning a segment of instruction
     – Identification of learner states
          • Matches learner needs with instructional elements              46
          • Evaluation
      Management of Student
       Conduct and Culture
•   Rule explication and monitoring
•   Withitness
•   Overlapping Withitness
•   Quality of desist
•   Group signals
•   Movement characteristics
•   Praise
•   Learning environment

        Organization and
    Development of Instruction
•   Efficient use of time
•   Review of subject matter
•   Lesson development
•   Teacher treatment of students talk
•   Teacher academic feedback
•   Management of seatwork and

     Delivery of Instruction

• Presentation of interpretative
• Presentation of Explanatory knowledge
• Presentation of Academic rules
• Presentation of value knowledge
• Control of discourse
• Emphasis marking
• Task attraction and challenge
• Teacher speech
• Teacher body language

 Monitoring Student Progress

• Assessment preparation
• Assessment administration
• Formative feedback

Development Must be Viewed as
   a Continuous Process for

       Models of Teaching

• Different ways of linking together
  various teacher instructional behaviors
  to achieve different goals through
  different processes
• No particular model of teaching is
  preferable in all situations
• Each model has particular strengths and

Implementing Developmental
• Do I want to work in this district?
• Understand the rules and procedures of
  your district
• Three considerations
   – Yourself
      •   Do I have the necessary skills?
      •   Am I willing to commit to the task?
      •   Will I thrive on the feedback I will get?
      •   Am I willing to learn with the staff?
   – Your staff
      • How receptive will they be?
      • What is there current level?
   – The culture
      • How will your fellow principals view you?
      • What support will you receive from district
      • What impact will a change in practice have in
        your situation?
   Implementation continued

• Process
   – Start slowly maybe with volunteers
   – Explain the process to the staff before
   – Get initial success before expanding
   – Include others serving as coaches
   – Successive approximation
• Celebrate, Recognize, Reinforce, and
  Reward Success
   – Place high value on the process
   – Include yourself and be visible to others
• Link with others


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