Instructional Modifications by sanmelody


									Instructional Modifications

             Students with Mild to
             Moderate Disabilities
Most Frequently Used Methodologies

   1.   Learning Strategies
   2.   Anchored Instruction
   3.   Direct Instruction
   4.   Guided Discovery Learning

    –    Goals for all are to increase independent learning, assist
         with generalization, boost motivation and self-esteem, and
         instill a sense of control over academic outcomes
           Learning Strategies

   Draws on the techniques of applied behavior
    analysis and direct instruction
   Emphasizes:
    –   Steps needed to perform a task
    –   Why and when to use the steps
    –   How to measure the effectiveness of the steps
    –   Transfer to other situations and perform
 Learning Strategies – 3 strands
University of Kansas Research Center

   #1 – Acquisition of information
    –   Word identification, paraphrasing, word problems,
        map reading
   #2 – Storage or remembering of information
    –   Mnemonics, listening, note-taking
   #3 – Expression and demonstration of
    –   Sentence writing, test taking, error monitoring
#1 – Acquisition of information

   Self-questioning strategy sequence

    Attend to clues                      I
                                Identify answers
      Say some questions                  T
                                  Talk about answers
             Keep predictions
         #2 – Storage or remembering
               of information

   Importance of advanced organizers
   Notebook system
   Graphic organizers
    –   Webs, maps, concept diagrams, Inspiration
        #3 – Expression and demonstration
               of understanding

   Reciprocal teaching – teachers and students
    take turns leading discussion about materials
    read with the goal being to construct
    meaning from text
    –   Read material silently
    –   Teacher demonstrates summarizing, questioning,
        clarifying, and predicting
    –   Students work together demonstrating these to
        each other
          Anchored Instruction

   Anchored instruction – students “anchor” the
    instruction around a topic that is interesting
    to them
    –   Story, adventure, or situation that involves solving
        a problem
    –   Instructional materials that are rich resources
           Direct Instruction
         “Lead from the front”

   Outcome – master specific content by
    demonstrating skills
   Components
    –   Demonstration
    –   Guided practice
    –   Independent practice
               Direct Instruction

   Additional components
    –   Small group instruction
    –   Engaged time
    –   Unison responses
    –   Pacing
    –   Monitoring
    –   Corrective feedback
         Guided Discovery Learning
           “Lead from the back”

   Outcomes – knowledge about process of
    learning for problem solving
   Components
    –   Self-regulation
    –   Cognitive training
    –   Strategy learning
    –   Meaning seeking
           Guided Discovery Learning

   Additional components
    –   Contrasts
    –   Example selection
    –   Informed guessing
    –   Active participation
Effective Reading Instruction

   What we thought                What we know
    –   Students with reading       –   Students with reading
        difficulties require            difficulties require
        different reading               increased instructional
        instruction                     time, more precisely
                                        sequenced teaching, and
                                        more precise and
                                        immediate feedback …
                                        but same types of
                                        reading instruction
         Effective Reading Instruction

   What we thought                 What we know
    –   Dyslexia is a visually       –   Dyslexia is more related
        based learning problem           to weakness in
        causing students                 identifying sounds and
        confusion in the way             then associating those
        they see letters and             sounds with written
        words                            letters and words
        Effective Reading Instruction

   What we thought                  What we know
    –   Reading instruction for       –   Research-based
        struggling readers can            instructional material is
        be accomplished through           equally as important for
        any “old” books                   struggling readers. “Old”
                                          discards are not
      Effective Math Instruction

   Have students explain their reasoning
   Encourage “talk” among students
   Embed math activities in contexts
   Use manipulative materials
   Find ways to make math as exciting as art
   Allow calculators at all times
         Effective Math Instruction

   Let children push the curriculum. “You don’t
    want to cover a subject: you want to uncover
    it” (Hawkins, 1987).
   Search for activities across a variety of levels
   Remember that confusion is natural to the
    learning process
   Take delight in students’ thinking
Goals for ALL instruction …

   Learn how to learn
   Communicate well
   Concentrate
   Get information
   Feel deeply
   Make wise decisions

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