FFAG Accelerator Proton Driver for Neutrino Factory

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FFAG Accelerator Proton Driver for Neutrino Factory Powered By Docstoc
					Proton FFAG Accelerator
     R&D at BNL

   Alessandro G. Ruggiero
   Brookhaven National Laboratory
Present BNL - AGS Facility

                                                                   Performance
          1.5-GeV                                           •      Rep. Rate             0.4 Hz
          Booster                                           •      Top Energy            28 GeV
                                                            •      Intensity             7 x 1013 ppp

                          28-GeV AGS                        •      Ave. Power            125 kW
200-MeV
DTL




                            HI Tandem


                                                            Typical DTL cycle for Protons
   Typical AGS cycle for Protons
                                                         0.5 sec               2.0 sec
                             AGS
     0.5 sec


                       2.0 sec
   Booster                                                          4 x 150 µs @ 30 mA (H–)

June 23, 2005                      A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati                                2
   AGS Upgrade with 1.2-GeV SCL

BNL- C-A/AP/151
                                                                   •      Performance
             1.5-GeV
             Booster
                                                        •   Rep. Rate                2.5 Hz
                                                        •   Top Energy               28 GeV
   200-MeV                28-GeV AGS                    •   Intensity               1.0 x 1014 ppp
   DTL                                                  •   Ave. Power               1.0 MW
   1.2 GeV                                                     •       Only Protons, no HI
   SCL

                            HI Tandem
   Upgrade to 400 MeV
                                                       DTL cycle for Protons with 1.2-GeV SCL
         AGS Cycle with 1.2-GeV SCL
                                                                          0.4 sec
             0.4 sec



                                                              1 x 720 µs @ 30 mA (H–)

    June 23, 2005                 A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati                              3
   AGS Upgrade with 1.5-GeV FFAG
BNL - C-A/AP/157

                                                              Performance
              1.5-GeV                                    •   Rep. Rate               2.5 Hz
              Booster
                                                         •   Top Energy               28 GeV
                                                         •   Intensity                1.0 x 1014 ppp
                           28-GeV AGS                    •   Ave. Power               1.0 MW
    400-MeV
    DTL                                                          •       Protons, and HI (??)


                                         1.5-GeV
                                         FFAG
                             HI Tandem
                                                      DTL cycle for Protons with 1.5-GeV FFAG
        AGS Cycle with 1.5-GeV FFAG
                                                                          0.4 sec
          0.4 sec




                                                              1 x 960 µs @ 35 mA (H–)

     June 23, 2005                A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati                                4
                       BNL Proposal to Conduct Accelerator R&D
                              for a Future U.S. Neutrino Physics Program
             Submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy Office of High Energy Physics
                                  by Brookhaven National Laboratory
                                              August 15, 2005
This is a proposal submitted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to the U.S. Department of
    Energy (DOE), Office of High Energy Physics (OHEP), to conduct Accelerator R&D focused on the
    improvement of accelerator systems and capabilities needed for effective pursuit of future
    accelerator-based sources of intense neutrino beams. Our proposal emphasizes the R&D needs
    required by the ‘Super Neutrino Beam’ concept identified in the 2004 Office of Science Future
    Facilities Intiative1. The proposed R&D work will be central to the future effectiveness of the U.S.
    Neutrino Oscillations Program using accelerator sources of neutrinos. We outline a program that is
    structured to evolve over a three-year period, indicating technical goals, requested OHEP support
    levels and staffing to meet the objectives. The proposed R&D topics are described in detail in the
    sections after this summary. A prioritized list of topics and proposed support levels is given here….
Our 1st and 2nd priority topics are for generic high-power, proton target and integrated target/horn meson-
    focusing systems R&D. This proposed R&D work will be needed by any accelerator source that
    proposes to advance the capabilities of the U.S. in future accelerator-based neutrino experiments.
    We also observe that beyond the neutrino-less double beta-decay and reactor neutrino experiments
    currently under consideration for near-term approval, the future effectiveness of neutrino oscillation
    physics will depend upon the development of Megawatt-class target sources and Megaton-class
    detectors. Our 3rd R&D priority is for the development of novel, Fixed-Focus, Alternating-
    Gradient (FFAG) conceptual accelerator designs that could provide a much cheaper, high-
    power proton source for neutrinos than the current SC linac plan. ….


June 23, 2005                       A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati                                5
                            Proposal for R&D to DOE

1.0 Introduction [D. Lowenstein, W. Weng]

2.0 Proton Target Materials R&D: [H. Kirk, N. Simos]

3.0 Integrated Horn/Target R&D: [N. Simos]

4.0 FFAG Conceptual Design R&D: [A. Ruggiero]

5.0 High Temperature Superconducting Magnets: [R. Gupta]

6.0 Plasma Focusing Device Design R&D: [A. Hershcovitch]

7.0 AGS Super Neutrino Beam Upgrade: [T. Roser]

8.0 Neutrino Factory Design Studies: [R. Fernow, J. Gallardo, R. Palmer]

9.0 R&D Support Summary: [D. Lowenstein, W. Weng]




June 23, 2005                      A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati   6
                     Acceleration in the AGS Upgrade FFAG

                             Injection                          Extraction
Kinetic Energy, MeV          400                                1,500
Momentum, MeV/c              954.3                              2250.5
                            0.71306                            0.92300
Revol. Freq., MHz            0.2650                             0.3428
Revol. Period, µs            3.78                               2.92
Harmonic Number                          24
RF Frequency, MHz            6.357                              8.228
Bunch Area (full), eV-s                  0.40
Peak RF Voltage, MVolt                   1.20
Energy Gain, MeV/turn                    0.50
No. of Cavities                          30
No. Protons / Cycle                      1.0 x 1014
Circulating Current, Amp     4.24                               5.49
Beam RF Power, MW            2.12                               2.75
Space-Charge               0.50                               0.16
Full Emittance, norm.                    100 π mm-mrad
Repetition Rate, Hz                      2.5
Injection Period                         1.0 ms (255 turns)
Acceleration Period                      7.0 ms (2,200 turns)
Total Period                             8.0 ms


 June 23, 2005               A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati           7
                          Proton BNL Electron Model for FFAG
                                  Injection                             Extraction
Kinetic Energy, keV               217.85                                816.93
Momentum, keV/c                   519.73                                1,225.66
                                 0.71306                               0.92300
Revol. Freq., MHz                 2.3618                                3.0552
Revol. Period, µs                 0.4234                                0.3273
Harmonic Number                               3
RF Frequency, MHz                 7.085                                 9.166
Bunch Area (full), eV-s                       0.40
Peak RF Voltage, kVolt                        5.824
Energy Gain, keV/turn                         2.427
No. of Cavities                               1
No. Protons / Cycle                           5.446 x 1010
Circulating Current, mA           20.59                                 26.659
Beam RF Power, W                  50.04                                 65.13
Space-Charge                    0.50                                  0.16
Full Emittance, norm.                         100 π mm-mrad
Repetition Rate, Hz                           2.5
Injection Period                              0.1122 ms (255 turns)
Acceleration Period                           0.7854 ms (2,200 turns)
Total Period                                  0.8976 ms
e-Source Current                              161.5 µA

 June 23, 2005                   A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati               8
                         BNL Electron Model for Proton FFAG


Circumference, m                9.05484

Period Length, m                0.377286
No. of Periods                  24
     F: Length, cm              4.375
         Field, G               –38.717
         Gradient, G/m          3,739
     D: Length, cm              8.7
         Field, G               90.586
         Gradient, G/m          –3,275
Drifts: S (half), cm            8.239
        g (full), cm            1.875
Phase Adv. /Period       H      0.32589
                         V      0.28593
Betatron Tune            H      7.82122
                         V      6.86230
Transition Energy, T           16.914 i
Chromaticity             H      –0.8274
                         V      –1.8493


June 23, 2005                  A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati   9
                 Linear Field Profile




June 23, 2005   A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati   10
                Adjusted Field Profile




June 23, 2005   A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati   11
  Solicitation of a SBIR Proposal for the Construction of an Electron-Model
 to simulate the Beam Dynamics of a Proton FFAG with Non-Scaling Lattice

    …….
    We are proposing here the construction of a Non-Scaling Proton FFAG Accelerator
    prototype as a demonstration of the principle. At this purpose we use acceleration of
    electrons instead of protons to allow scaling down the ring dimensions and energy
    range. Tentative parameters of the prototype are given in Tables 1 and 2. The basic
    component is a period made of straight sections and a FDF triplet magnet as shown in
    Figure 1. The bending field distribution across the width of each of the two magnets is
    given in Figure 2 for a Linear Field Profile and in Figure 3 for an Adjusted Field Profile
    that minimize the betatron tune variation across the momentum aperture. We have
    adopted the criterion to emulate as close as possible acceleration of protons in the FFAG
    for the AGS Upgrade. The electron beam energy selected would indeed preserves the
    beam velocity variation in the acceleration cycle. Moreover beam intensity and
    dimensions have been chosen to intentionally create significant space-charge forces at
    injection.
    ……..




June 23, 2005                   A.G. Ruggiero -- NuFact 05 - Frascati                      12

				
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