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					Teaching and Learning
Resource Package
Bricklaying
TLP 102A
Bricklaying
Contents




   Section 1   Health and Safety
   Section 2   Technical Drawing Skills
   Section 3   Communication and Administration Documents
   Section 4   Brickwork General Topics
   Section 5   Setting Out
   Section 6   Foundations
   Section 7   Damp-proof Courses
   Section 8   Mortars and Mixing
   Section 9   Brickwork Bonding
   Section 10 Jointing and Pointing
   Section 11 Cavity Walling
   Section 12 Arch Construction
   Section 13 Blockwork
   Section 14 Pillars and Piers
   Section 15 Practical Projects
                    1
                   SECTION

MODULE 4
SHEET 36                                                       Health and Safety

                                                                           HEALTH AND HYGIENE



    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations (COSHH)

    These regulations say thay employers must avoid the use of hazardous substances if
    possible. If they cannot then they must have safe systems of work, train employees and not
    exceed ceratin limits for the substances which they use.

    These are the main COSHH symbols which you will see on tins and other containers. If you
    see the symbol your employer should have a COSHH assessment and told you how to use
    the substance safely and without risk to your health.




                                              HIGHLY            EXTREMELY
      EXPLOSIVE           OXIDIZING          FLAMABLE           FLAMABLE            CORROSIVE




                             VERY                                                   HAZARDOUS TO
           TOXIC             TOXIC           HARMFUL            IRRITANT           THE ENVIRONMENT



    Dust

    All dust is hazardous to health and if the amount of dust in the air exceeds 10 milligrams
    per cubic metre, averaged out over an eight-hour working day, then the provisions of the
    Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 2002 will immediately apply.

    A heaped teaspoonful of most dusts would be about 10 milligrams, and if dust can be seen
    floating freely in the air then the 10 milligrams limit is probably being exceeded.

    For some dusts that are particularly hazardous to health, much lower limits have
    been set.




                                                                         0152 - 930 1630
                                                                            2
                                                                          SECTION

                                                                                             MODULE 6
  Technical Drawing Skills                                                                   SHEET 53


  REGULAR FIGURES



  Solid Shapes

  Solid shapes are shapes that are three-dimensional, i.e. they have length, breadth
  and thickness.

  Prisms
  Prisms are solid shapes which have all their sides parallel to each other. If a prism is cut in
  two the cross section shown would be the samee shape as the end shape.

  All prisms are named according to the shape of their ends.
  • Cube > The face is a square and all the sides are equal in length.
  • Cuboid or rectangular prism > The face is rectangular and opposite sides are of
      equal length.
  • Triangular prism > The end shape is a triangle and the other faces are rectangles.
  • Octagonal > The end shape is an octagon and the other faces are rectangles.


                                    Volume                               Surface area
         Cube              length x breadth x height                       2 (l+b)h
        Cube                          lbh
          Cube
        Cube




                                    Volume                               Surface area
                           length x breadth x height                       2 (l+b)h
Cuboid or rectangular
                                      lbh
Cuboid or rectangular
  Cuboid or rectangular
Cuboid or rectangular



                                    Volume                              Surface area
                            area of triangle x height               2 (area of triangle) +
    Triangular              (1/2 base x height) x h                 3 (length x breadth)
    Triangular
       Triangular
   Triangular

                                    Volume                               Surface area
                           area of octagon x height                 2 (area of octagon) +
                                                                     8 (length x breadth)
   Octagonal
   Octagonal
    Octagonal
  Octagonal
                    4
                   SECTION

MODULE 1
SHEET 6                                           Brickwork General Topics

                                                   IDENTIFICATION AND SAFE USE OF HAND TOOLS



     Corner blocks
     These blocks are used instead of line pins to fasten the line to the corner of the brick
     or blockwork.

     These blocks do not harm the brick joints.




     Tingle plate
     A tingle plate is used on long walls to prevent the line from sagging.

     A tingle brick should be laid plumb and to gauge, as near as possible to the centre of the
     wall, and the tingle plate is supported on this.

     The tingle plate is produced from a piece of metal approximately 100mm x 50mm and has
     recesses cut into one end to support the line.
                       5
                      SECTION

MODULE 2
SHEET 15                                                                      Setting Out

                                                                          SETTING OUT EQUIPMENT



    The Builder’s Square

    Most buildings have square corners, i.e. corners set at 90˚ or at a right angle.
    A timber building square can be constructed to check and maintain 90˚ corners.

                                                            Front line




    Corner peg with
    nail in centre
                                          90˚




                                 Second line at right
                                 angles to the front line


    The builder’s square is laid to the previously fixed front line, and the second line is placed to
    the square to produce a right angle.

    Builder’s squares can be constructed of 75mm x 25mm timbers, half-lap jointed at the
    corner to form a 90˚ angle with a diagonal brace, tenoned or dovetailed into side lengths.
    This type of construction will keep the square accurate.

    Timber Pegs

    Pegs are cut to a suitable length and with a sharp point, from 38mm or 50mm square
    timber. Pegs should be hammered in carefully to avoid damaging the top of the peg.
    A nail is knocked into the top of each peg and used to hold ranging lines to ensure
    maximum accuracy.

    Pegs that are spilt or burred should be re-cut square or discarded.
                                                                                           1
                                                                                         SECTION


Setting Out

SETTING OUT PROCEDURES
                                                                                           5                MODULE 4
                                                                                                            SHEET 29




Setting Profiles Level and Square

When setting up profiles, it is essential that they are as level as possible. This ensures
that lines cross very closely at intersections and therefore avoids inaccuracies when
re-measuring walls and diagonals before commencing the brickwork.

The profile can be levelled using an optical or laser level, and is most conveniently levelled
to the DPC level of the proposed building.

                  Level is transferred from
                  datum to corner peg

                                                                        Corner profile set to
                                                                        the required finished
                                                                        floor level




              Temporary datum mark is
              protected with concrete



Boning Rods

A boning rod is a simple device used to quickly position levelling pegs. It consists of two
pieces of timber nailed together at right angles in the shape of a ‘T’. Boning rods can
be used to transfer levels between two known points. Boning rods can speed up the
transference of levels as spirit levels are not required.

After the main level pegs have been set out at either end of the foundation, the extra pegs
in-between these can be set out with the use of boning rods. Eye sight is used instead of a
spirit level to sight the top of each rod.


                                                             Boning
                                                             rod
                                     Line of sight
  Site
  datum           1                                      3                                        2




    Fixed level   A                                                                                B   Fixed level
                                 Line of excavation or depth required                          225mm
                  225mm
                    8
                   SECTION


SHEET 24                                                     Mortars and Mixing

                                                                               STUDENT ACTIVITY



     3. What guidelines should be followed to ensure that a mortar mix will be of a suitable
        quality to produce good brickwork?

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     4. What is the function of a retarder?

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     5. What is the function of an accelerator?

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     6. Why would hydrated lime be added to a mix?

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________

     _________________________________________________________________________________
                                                                        1
                                                                        SECTION


Cavity Walling

WALL TIES IN CAVITY WALLS
                                                                       11                 MODULE 2
                                                                                          SHEET 10




The purpose of wall ties in cavity walls
A cavity wall consists of two slender, independent leaves of brickwork or blockwork. If a
load is exerted to one or both of these slender walls they may buckle or collapse under the
load. If the two leaves are tied together they will virtually be as strong as a solid wall and
they can support more imposed loadings.

To tie the two walls together, wall ties are built into the walls in sufficient numbers and at
strategic positions throughout the wall area.

The bricklayer is responsible for building in the wall ties in their correct positions. Care and
attention must be taken when building them into position, because poor workmanship may
lead to damp penetration, distortion of the wall, cracking or in some cases, collapse of
the wall.




                   Effective wall ties will strengthen cavity walls

Types of wall ties
There are a number of different shapes and sizes of wall ties made from galvanised steel,
stainless steel, alloys or polypropylene. They are manufactured in various lengths to suit
different wall cavity widths.

The type of tie to be used in a particular wall will be specified by the architect.
                                                                   1
                                                                   SECTION


Practical Projects

MIXING MORTAR BY HAND AND MACHINE
                                                                  15                 PROJECT 2
                                                                                     SHEET 9




Mixing Mortar

Work specifications
Mix one third of a cubic metre of mortar.

Specification of mix: 4 parts sand : 1part lime.

Check the information provided on the project marking sheet before commencing.

Setting out instructions
The mortar mix quantity is one third of a metre cubed (½ m³).
                                                        ³

Gauge and mix mortar by hand:
• Select a suitable area, which is clear of all debris.
• Select the correct equipment to mix the mortar by hand – use correct personal protective
  equipment (PPE).
• Select the appropriate raw materials.
• Mix the mortar by hand to the given mortar mix specification.

Gauge and mix mortar by machine:
• Select a suitable area, which is clear of all debris.
• Select the correct equipment to mix the mortar by machine – use correct personal
  protective equipment (PPE).
• Select the appropriate raw materials.
• Mix the mortar by hand to the given mortar mix specification.