22nd DANUBIA-ADRIA Symposium
on Experimental Methods in Solid Mechanics
September 28 - October 1, 2005
MONTICELLI TERME / PARMA - ITALY
EXPERIMENTAL ASSESMENT OF BEVEL GEARBOXES
Ass. Prof., Ing. Vojtěch Dynybyl, Ph.D., Ing. Pavel Mossóczy, Ing. Zdeněk Češpíro
FME CTU in Prague, Technická 4, 166 07, Praha 6, Czech Republic
Introduction Theoretical base
An experimental evaluation of two bevel gearboxes has To compare a couple of similar gearboxes an exact
been arranged to compare them. Two parameters methodology of measuring has been designed.
efficiency and lost power have been determined to Conditions of experiments has been determined exactly
discover damage of gears. Parameters of gearboxes are too.
power – 2,5 kW, speed – 1200min-1 and ratio – 3. To compute lost power using SW, two values has been
measured: input torque Mk1 (pos. 4) and speed n1
Arrangement of measuring station (pos. 6). The output torque transducer has been
Fig. 1 shows block diagram of measuring station disassembled. Computing equation of lost power is:
arrangement. M k10 .n1
PZ 0 = [kW] . (1.1)
Oil temperature, surface temperature and ambient
temperature have been measured to complete energy
information of gearboxes.
Since both gearboxes are arranged with tapered roller
bearings preload of them was desirable. It causes high
temperature and high lost power. This preload has to be
realized to fix forces of bevel gears.
Preload of mechanisms influenced the transfer of
power. Efficiency of this transfer shows quality of both
machining and assembling of gearboxes. It is an
important parameter of all gearboxes.
Supposing constant ratio i12, efficiency can be
calculated using SW formula:
η= , (5.3)
M k1 .i12
where Mk2 is measured output torque.
Data acquisition and data processing is done with
Fig. 1 Block diagram of measuring station arrangement graphical programmable software LabVIEW.
Basic measuring station consists of these Results of measurement
equipments and devices: Table 1 shows result of measurement of two gearboxes
1. Measured gearbox, A and B left and right rotation. Gearbox B is two times
2. driving asynchronous electric motor, higher preload than A one.
3. braking asynchronous electric motor,
4. input torque transducer (HBM T20WN),
Mk1 [Nm] Pzo[W]
5. output torque transducer (Vibrometer 100Nm)
6. angle encoder of driving motor, A-Pz-L 0,68 85
7. angle encoder of braking motor, A-Pz-R 0,71 89,5
8. sensor of oil temperature and surface B-Pz-L 1,26 167
temperature, B-Pz-R 1,36 170
9. ambient temperature sensor, Table 1
10. electrical device of out put torque transducer, Fig. 2 shows results of measurement of gearbox A
11. frequency inventor of braking motor, rotating left. Different preload of bearings corresponds
12. frequency inventor of driving motor, to higher difference of power lost.
Fig. 2 An example of lost power measuring Fig. 3 An example of efficiency measuring
An example of measuring (gearbox A rotation left) is Comparing this value with difference of lost power we
documented in fig. 3. Table 2 includes results of can see that the preload influence efficiency is less, if
measured efficiency [%] of gearboxes A and B, load of gearbox is the highest.
rotation left and right. Increasing load of gearbox the
efficiency increases. Conclusions
Load A_L A_R B_L B_R The goal of research was to determine cause of
50% 87,2 86,6 76,7 82 pitting of gear. Solution was surprising. However the
efficiency of gearbox A was higher, the gear of that
60% 89 88,2 81,5 86
one was damaged earlier than gear B. It has been
70% 90,2 89,5 84,5 87,5 probably caused by lower quality of machining of gear
80% 91 90,4 86,3 88,7 and axial vibrations of input shaft. Preload of them did
90% 91,7 91,2 87,9 89,6 not exist and the clearance in tapered roller bearings
100% 92,6 92,8 89,3 91,5 has been detected.
 Dynybyl, V. - Chysky - Mossóczy, P. – Novák, J. –
Žák, P.: Experimental Analyses of Bevel Gearbox
25, kW. Research report. CTU in Prague, Prague 2004.
 Dynybyl, V.: Evaluation of Machine Drives Using
Simulation and Experiment. In: 19th Danubia-Adria
Symposiumon Experimental Methods in Solid
Mechanics-Abstracts. Warsaw : Warsaw University of
Technology, 2002, p. 30-31.
 Dynybyl, V. - Chyský, J.: Equipment for Testing
Fig. 4 Summary of results and Measurement of Elektromechanical Rotary Drives.
In: SEKEL 2002. Trenčín : FM TnUAD, 2002, p. 48-
Summary of results is graphically realized in fig. 4. 50. ISBN 80-88914-73-6. (in Czech).
Percentage difference of efficiency of both gearboxes This research has been supported by MSM grant
is only 3,3, when load is 100%. No. J04/98:21200008.