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					                                            CONFERENCE DES REGIONS PERIPHERIQUES MARITIMES D’EUROPE
                                               CONFERENCE OF PERIPHERAL MARITIME REGIONS OF EUROPE

                                                             6, rue Saint-Martin 35700 RENNES - F
                                                         Tel. : + 33 (0)2 99 35 40 50 - Fax : + 33 (0)2 99 35 09 19
                                                         e.mail : secretariat@crpm.org – web : www.crpm.org
CRPMDFR060006 A0




                                 THE REGIONS, LEGITIMATE STAKEHOLDERS
                                  IN AN AMBITIOUS EU MARITIME POLICY

                             DRAFT CONCLUDING DECLARATION OF THE BREST SEMINAR
                                        (BRITTANY) – 17 FEBRUARY 2006

The CPMR member Regions, meeting in Brest at the invitation of Brittany Regional Council, welcome
the high standard of dialogue established between the Regions and the European Commission, especially
with Mr Joe Borg, Commissioner in charge of fisheries and maritime affairs.

They are awaiting publication of the forthcoming Green Paper on the European Union’s maritime policy,
which marks an important stage towards a more ambitious, joined up maritime policy.

They hope to be closely involved both individually and collectively in the consultation phase due to
follow the publication of the Green Paper. Through this, they intend to feed into the future White Paper by
proposing changes to Community instruments designed to fulfil the main objectives and challenges set out
below.

                   -   Enhance Europe’s maritime potential from an economic point of view, thereby generating growth
                       and job creation, and improving Europe’s competitiveness on the world stage.

                   -   Introduce a new development model based on the principles of sustainable development.

                   -   Make sure the development of coastal regions is firmly rooted in the expected move towards taking
                       on board specific territorial features in EU policies by i) introducing a more strategic approach to
                       policies at transnational level; and ii) differentiating instruments on the basis of regional advantages
                       and disadvantages. In this regard, the Green Paper provides a unique opportunity for island issues
                       to be taken into account and gives territorial cooperation grounds for existence, thereby justifying
                       its status as a future policy.

                   -   Improve the overall governance over maritime policies led throughout Europe by the different
                       spheres of government, by taking advantage of experiences led elsewhere and by giving the regions
                       their rightful role in terms of designing policies, as well as decision-making and delivery.

                   -   Seize the timely opportunity of the Green Paper publication and discussions to take forward EU
                       sectoral policies, in order to make them compatible with EU maritime strategy and allowing them to
                       contribute favourably towards it.

In respect of the EU agenda, the CPMR considers that:

                   -   The White Paper should propose a shift in EU policies in favour of the maritime dimension, taking
                       effect from the start of the 2007-2013 programming period. The policy and budget package
                       negotiated under the UK Presidency in December 2006 and due to be “improved” by the European
                       Parliament over the coming months, offers a framework and a window of opportunity to push for
                       progress in the maritime sector.


                                         Draft Concluding Declaration of the CPMR Seminar in Brest
                               “The Regions, Legitimate Stakeholders in an Ambitious EU Maritime Policy” – p. 1
                                                 Ref: CRPMDFR060006 A0 – February 2006
    -   The reorientation of EU policies in the light of the planned mid-term review in 2008 represents
        another opportunity to be seized.

    -   The 2007-2013 period should provide the chance to test improvements and prepare for the next
        programming period starting 2014, when maritime policy will be one of Europe’s top priorities.

    -   Between now and 2009, before the current European Parliament and Commission leave office, the
        European Union should adopt a founding text for this maritime policy, following the example of
        the American Ocean Act.

Looking beyond this timeframe, the Regions are aware that the development of EU policies is an ongoing
process. Opportunities regularly arise in the form of initiatives led by the Commission (Communications,
Green Papers, White Papers) or European Parliament, to which the Regions will respond accordingly.

Faced with the challenges of globalisation and the overhaul of EU policies, the CPMR is not simply
sticking to acting within the institutional timeframe, but is also implementing and will continue to
implement over the coming quarterly periods a timetable for study and action that will result in useful
proposals for maritime policy. These fall for example within the following areas:
    -   Adaptation to climate change: seminar entitled “The Coast under Threat”, Marseille, 3 and 4
        February 2006;
    -   Regions and globalisation, seminar in June 2006 in the Azores;
    -   Regions and demographic changes: launch of a forward study, initial findings to be presented at the
        General Assembly in Murcia, October 2006;
    -   Regions and energy policies, seminar in October 2006 in Navarre;
    -   Implementation of EU policies after 2007: taking on board the dual necessity of involving the
        Regions and ensuring fair treatment of territories in each Member State when delivering structural
        funds and national regional aid; seminar organised in association with the Committee of the
        Regions, 31 May 2006, Brussels.

The Regions welcome the contributions from the CPMR Scientific Council, notably those resulting from
three meetings held in Portugal with the backing of the Portuguese authorities. In particular, the last meeting
in Oporto on 8 and 9 December 2005 helped to pave the way for medium and long term forecasts on how
the sea and oceans can contribute towards a new European development model.

They invite all interested parties, especially the European Commission, to join in with this forward study
exercise. Arrangements will be made for this in due course.

The Regions have taken note of the second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project,
structured around five key work areas: economy and employment – transport, logistics and maritime safety
– research and marine innovation – sustainable development – governance. They wish to thank the group of
around fifty pioneering Regions which are contributing both intellectually and financially towards the
project, with the backing of the Atlantic Cities and the assistance of five European experts.

The cooperation project has reached a stage in its development that allows it to identify the challenges facing
the regions and Europe and to formulate a raft of proposals on how EU policies may be improved. These
proposals still need to be completed and approved by all 154 CPMR member regions.

Detailed proposals from the CPMR will be formulated and validated in several stages and marked by the
following events:
    -   Political Bureau meeting on 18 February in Brest: debate on the CPMR’s second contribution to
        the Green Paper (draft text distributed to delegates attending the seminar);
    -   Political Bureau meeting on 5 May 2006 in Malta, in the presence of Commissioner Borg;
    -   General Assembly, on 26 and 27 October 2006 in Murcia: CPMR’s reaction to the Green Paper.



                          Draft Concluding Declaration of the CPMR Seminar in Brest
                “The Regions, Legitimate Stakeholders in an Ambitious EU Maritime Policy” – p. 2
                                   Ref: CRPMDFR060006 A0 – February 2006
All CPMR member Regions will be able to take part in the consultation phase following the publication of
the Green Paper. This issue will be included on the agenda at the Geographical Commissions’ spring
general assemblies. Furthermore, seminars will be organised in the different sea areas beginning July
2006, to allow the regions to discuss with their maritime partners, or stakeholders, the options open to
themselves and the CPMR. As active interfaces between the people and Europe, the Regions have the dual
responsibility of consulting their regional partners and giving consideration to these issues at local level
from an interregional perspective.

The Regions welcomes the success of the first event of this kind held in Bergen on 16 and 17 January
2006, in advance of the publication of the Green Paper. On this occasion, at the invitation of the CPMR North
Sea Commission, over 120 delegates, including regions, stakeholders and representatives from the European
Commission and Norwegian government, had the opportunity to discuss issues, particularly with regard to
the research & development aspects of EU maritime policy.

In light of the fact that they are instrumental in ensuring the success of the European Commission’s
consultation exercise, they call on the Commission to help them in the task of disseminating concepts,
publicising the challenges involved, and organising the consultation. They welcome with satisfaction the
openness the Maritime Affairs Task Force of the Commission has shown as to the principle of this kind of
partnership.




                          Draft Concluding Declaration of the CPMR Seminar in Brest
                “The Regions, Legitimate Stakeholders in an Ambitious EU Maritime Policy” – p. 3
                                   Ref: CRPMDFR060006 A0 – February 2006
                                              CONFÉRENCE DES RÉGIONS PÉRIPHÉRIQUES MARITIMES D’EUROPE
                                                  CONFERENCE OF PERIPHERAL MARITIME REGIONS OF EUROPE

                                                                 6, rue Saint-Martin 35700 RENNES - F
                                                             Tel. : + 33 (0)2 99 35 40 50 - Fax : + 33 (0)2 99 35 09 19
                                                             e.mail : secretariat@crpm.org – web : www.crpm.org
CRPMPPP060010 A0




                                                                                                                   27 JANUARY 2006
                                                           CPMR POLICY POSITION

                                                OPINION OF THE GENERAL SECRETARIAT
                          (To be approved by the CPMR Political Bureau – 18 February 2006 – Brest – Brittany)


                    THE REGIONS, LEGITIMATE STAKEHOLDERS IN AN
                           AMBITIOUS EU MARITIME POLICY
                                        (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper)


1                  BACKGROUND TO THE SECOND CONTRIBUTION

1.1                 HIGH EXPECTATIONS ON THE PART OF THE REGIONS REGARDING THE GREEN PAPER
                    AND ENSUING WHITE PAPER

On 4 November 2005, the General Assembly adopted the CPMR’s first contribution to the Green Paper. The
present document constitutes the second contribution, which has been supplemented by work carried out
under the Europe of the Sea cooperation project and by the CPMR Scientific Council.

The regions hope to be closely involved both individually and collectively in the consultation phase due to
follow the publication of the Green Paper in the second quarter of 2006. Through this, they intend to feed
into the future White Paper by proposing changes to Community instruments designed to fulfil the main
objectives and challenges set out below.
     - Enhance Europe’s maritime potential from an economic point of view, thereby contributing towards
        growth, job creation and improving Europe’s competitiveness on the world stage.
     - Introduce a new development model based on the principles of sustainable development.
     - Make sure the development of coastal regions is firmly rooted in the expected move towards taking
        on board specific territorial features in EU policies by i) introducing a more strategic approach to
        policies at transnational level; and ii) differentiating instruments on the basis of regional advantages
        and disadvantages. In this regard, the Green Paper provides a unique opportunity for island issues
        to be taken into account and gives territorial cooperation grounds for existence, thereby justifying its
        status as a future policy.
     - Improve the overall governance over maritime policies led throughout Europe by the different
        spheres of government, by taking advantage of experiences led elsewhere and by giving the regions
        their rightful role in terms of designing policies, as well as decision-making and delivery.
     - Seize the timely opportunity of the Green Paper publication and discussions to take forward EU
        sectoral policies, in order to make them compatible with EU maritime strategy and allowing them to
        contribute favourably towards it.

In respect of the EU agenda, the CPMR considers that:
    - the White Paper should propose a shift in policies in favour of the maritime dimension, taking effect
        from the start of the 2007-2013 programming period. The policy and budget package negotiated
        under the UK Presidency in December 2006 and due to be “improved” by the European Parliament
        over the coming months, offers a framework and a window of opportunity to push for progress in
        the maritime sector.


                   Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                           (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 1 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
      -      the reorientation of EU policies in the light of the planned mid-term review in 2008 represents
             another opportunity to be seized;
      -      the 2007-2013 period should provide the chance to test improvements and prepare for the next
             programming period starting 2014, when maritime policy will be one of Europe’s top priorities;
      -      between now and 2009, before the current European Parliament and Commission leave office, the
             European Union should adopt a founding text for this maritime policy, following the example of the
             American Ocean Act.

1.2        OTHER CPMR INITIATIVES IN THE MARITIME SECTOR

Looking beyond this timeframe, the CPMR is aware that the development of EU policies is an ongoing
process. Opportunities regularly arise in the form of initiatives led by the Commission (Communications,
Green Papers, White Papers) or European Parliament, to which the CPMR responds accordingly. Such
examples include the recently adopted marine strategy, the White Paper on Transport currently under
review after a public consultation, or the Commission’s ongoing reflection on territorial dialogue and
governance.

Faced with the challenges of globalisation and the overhaul of EU policies, the CPMR is not simply sticking
to acting within the institutional timeframe, but is also implementing and will continue to implement over
the coming quarterly periods a timetable for study and action that will result in useful proposals for
maritime policy. These fall for example within the following areas:
    - Adaptation to climate change: seminar entitled “The Coast under Threat”, Marseille, 3 and 4
        February 2006
    - Regions and globalisation, seminar in June 2006 in the Azores
    - Regions and energy policies, seminar in October 2006 in Navarre
    - Implementation of EU policies after 2007: taking on board the dual necessity of involving the
        Regions and ensuring fair treatment of territories in each Member State when delivering structural
        funds and national regional aid; seminar organised in association with the Committee of the
        Regions, 31 May 2006, Brussels

1.3        SOURCES OF THE SECOND CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREEN PAPER

This contribution draws on the second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project, structured
around five key work areas: economy and employment – transport, logistics and maritime safety – research
and marine innovation – sustainable development – governance.

It also takes on board contributions from the CPMR Scientific Council, notably those resulting from three
meetings held in Portugal with the backing of the Portuguese authorities. In particular, the last meeting in
Oporto on 8 and 9 December 2005 helped to pave the way for medium and long term forecasts on how the
sea and oceans can contribute towards a new European development model.

Furthermore, the CPMR invites all interested parties, especially the European Commission, to join in with
this forward study exercise. Arrangements will be made for this in due course.

The cooperation project has reached a stage in its development that allows it to identify the challenges facing
the regions and Europe and to formulate a raft of proposals on how EU policies may be improved. These
proposals still need to be completed and approved by all 154 CPMR member regions.

1.4        TAKING FORWARD CPMR’S ACTION

Detailed proposals from the CPMR will be formulated and validated in several stages and marked by the
following events:
     - Political Bureau on 5 May 2006 in Malta, in the presence of Commissioner Borg
     - General Assembly on 26 and 27 October 2006 in Murcia

All CPMR member regions will be able to take part in the consultation phase following the publication of the
Green Paper. This issue will be included on the agenda at the Geographical Commissions’ spring general
assemblies. Furthermore, seminars will be organised in the different sea areas beginning July 2006, to allow
          Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                 (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 2 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
the regions to discuss with their maritime partners, or stakeholders, the options open to themselves and the
CPMR. As active interfaces between the people and Europe, the regions have the dual responsibility of
consulting their regional partners and giving consideration to these issues at local level from an interregional
perspective.

The CPMR welcomes the success of the first event of this kind held in Bergen on 16 and 17 January 2006, in
advance of the publication of the Green Paper. On this occasion, at the invitation of the CPMR North Sea
Commission, over 120 delegates, including regions, stakeholders and representatives from the European
Commission and Norwegian government, had the opportunity to discuss issues, particularly with regard to
the research & development aspects of EU maritime policy.

In light of the fact that the regions are instrumental in ensuring the success of the European Commission’s
consultation exercise, the CPMR calls on the Commission to help them in the task of disseminating concepts,
publicising the challenges involved, and organising the consultation. They welcome with satisfaction the
openness the Maritime Affairs Task Force of the Commission has shown as to the principle of this kind of
partnership.

2       SECOND CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREEN PAPER: CPMR PROPOSALS

The CPMR’s first contribution aimed to give an exhaustive list of the issues to be addressed in the Green
Paper. The work that has been led since then, particularly as part of the cooperation project, has allowed us
to target areas in which the regions can give added value to the European maritime project. This is the aim of
this second contribution. The third contribution will provide further details and clarifications on the
identified priority areas.

The proposals set out below are formulated on the basis of four main priorities:
- EU maritime policy and territorial issues
- EU maritime policy and sustainable development
- EU maritime policy and governance
- EU sectoral policies to support the maritime agenda

2.1       AN EU MARITIME POLICY TO FOSTER TERRITORIAL BALANCE

2.1.1      Regional policy 2007-2013: an instrument to support maritime policy

2.1.1.1      ERDF Objectives 1 and 2

The draft regulations for 2007-2013 on convergence regions and regions eligible under the competitiveness
and employment objective make provisions to fund a series of investments that could contribute towards
Europe’s maritime economy.
This provides an opportunity to introduce innovative structural projects within the maritime sector, e.g.
maritime clusters, port infrastructures and links between ports and hinterland areas particularly with a view
to effectively implementing motorways of the sea.
With the implementation of the Community strategic guidelines in each country, this should allow maritime
investments to be given a rightful budget allocation, and regions should be able to have a say in the relevant
decisions.
The White Paper on Maritime Policy should make mention of the provision to be made for maritime
investments in the ERDF programmes (and also the cohesion fund).

2.1.1.2      Territorial cooperation objective (ERDF Objective 3)

The agreement reached under the UK Presidency of the Union is largely insufficient with regard to the
budget allocated to this instrument, since it is less than for the current period in per capita terms. In the
context of the current inter-institutional negotiations, the CPMR is lobbying for this budget to be raised.



        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 3 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
We feel that this budget re-evaluation is all the more necessary insofar as Objective 3 is designed to become
the main financial instrument for delivering maritime policy over the 2007-2013 period, as far as the
“international aspects” are concerned. The thematic priorities do indeed include the maritime dimension,
although the CPMR proposes to add the issue of adapting to climate change (conclusions of the Marseille
seminar). The three strands of Objective 3 are designed to support a wide range of territorial and trial
projects, the two main ones being:
- the transnational strand, for maritime transport, integrated coastal zone management, risk management,
maritime safety, certain research & development actions and ecosystems. In addition, this strand could
finance a tool for examining and coordinating policies in each sea area (see below for proposals related to
governance).
- support for thematic cooperation networks, for the transfer of experiences between the regions regarding
their maritime policies, support for specialised networks (clusters, research centres, ports, etc.), and
continued funding for ESPON (European Spatial Planning Observatory Network) which could make the
maritime sector one of its priority study areas.

Moreover, Objective 3 has the virtue of giving the regions a key role in setting up, managing and running
programmes, which is not the case of other transnational Community programmes such as the Trans-
European Transport Networks or the Framework Programme for Research and Development.

In the light of the above, Objective 3 will play an essential role in testing instruments and measures that
could be implemented as of 2014.

Before the programmes for the 2007-2013 period get under way, the CPMR requests the Directorate
General for Regional Policy and the Permanent Interreg IIIB Secretariats, in relation with the Maritime
Affairs Task Force, to take the opportunity in 2006 to initiate expert studies on the types of maritime
projects that might benefit from Objective 3 funding. This exercise has already been done for maritime
safety and similarly could be carried out with regard to transport and logics, adaptation to climate change
and ICZM. The final report of the CPMR-led Europe of the Sea cooperation project, due out in July 2006, will
constitute a major contribution to this.

These studies and proposals should be extended within the scope of EU neighbourhood policy.

2.1.2      Maritime policy and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)

This point will be dealt with in the chapter on sustainable development, though it may also be considered as
a territorial approach, both in terms of its concept as well as the instruments designed to implement it, i.e.
Objective 3, transnational governance, etc.

2.1.3      Maritime policy and clusters: towards innovative maritime regions

By maritime cluster, we mean any mechanism designed to link up R&D, innovation and economic
development and implying relatively close cooperation between industry (especially SMEs), research and
training organisations and regional authorities.

This concept cuts across the areas of territorial development, innovation/research/technology transfer, and
maritime industry. Where appropriate, we might also add transport/logistics aspects if a seaport plays a
driving role in the activity of the cluster, or fisheries if it plays a role in exploiting the value of fish stocks, etc.

A certain number of experiences are being led in Europe, and the CPMR will shortly be presenting a sample
of them, together with a typology. This paper is a follow-up to the work led by the Scientific Council
(meeting of 8 December) and a specific survey led under the Europe of the Sea cooperation project.

In order to broaden the scope of consideration and complete the analysis, the CPMR proposes to set up a
European observation system for maritime clusters.

The CPMR considers that strengthening regional maritime clusters and consolidating them internationally is
a key condition for the development of the maritime regions. It therefore wants greater encouragement for
implementing these clusters, both within the framework of regional policies for 2007-2013 (Objectives 1

        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 4 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
and 2) as well as EU innovation policies, and also, as a practical result of coordinated implementation, at
regional level under ERDF and FPRD programmes. This clearly requires conditions to be established in
relation to governance as described in § 2.3.2. below; these clusters could eventually constitute one of the
main subjects of the planned tripartite contracts between the EU, member states and regions in relation to
maritime development.

2.1.4      Maritime policy and specific territories

The CPMR considers that the islands and outermost regions clearly deserve to be given special attention
under EU maritime policy. The Green Paper and ensuing White Paper provide unique opportunities to
highlight the specific features of these territories and above all to exploit the value of their geographical
location. The paragraphs below focus on the islands.

The CPMR Scientific Council will shortly be meeting to discuss the issue of the outermost regions (OMR),
thus allowing the CPMR to contribute towards the public debate on this point, which is explicitly mentioned
as a priority issue in the joint Communication issued by Barroso and Borg in March 2005 (setting out the
aims of the Green Paper).

           Maritime policy and islands

What would the map of the European Union resemble without its islands?

From the West Indies to the Indian Ocean, and from the Aegean Sea to the Baltic, the EU numbers over three
hundred permanently inhabited islands. Their total population amounts to approximately 15 million, i.e.
3.3% of the EU population.

Island areas are defined as a shoreline, and so the islands are, in essence, privileged locations for interacting
with the surrounding sea area. The intensity of this interaction can partly be measured using geographic
criteria such as their degree of remoteness or their “coastal index”. Obviously, in this regard, like in many
others, the EU’s islands present a wide diversity of situations, but nonetheless, the island dimension on the
whole is an essential component of Europe of the Sea.

These regions effectively:

    -      shape maritime borders and the exclusive economic zone falling within the Community area,
    -      favour access to substantial energy resources or fish stocks,
    -      contribute greatly towards the EU’s tourist economy and subsequently to its balance of payments,
    -      contain a wealth of diverse and often unique natural, historic, linguistic or cultural heritage,
    -      enable the EU to monitor shipping lanes, borders exposed to traffic or geo-strategically sensitive
           areas,
    -      contribute towards the development of trade with their neighbouring third countries.

We can see from this that the actual importance of the islands within the EU far outweighs their relatively
small demographic size, and that the mere fact they exist tends to generate welcome effects for the member
states concerned as well as for the Community as a whole.

Paradoxically, the socio-economic situation of these territories seldom reflects this huge potential, since
insularity is also synonymous with a certain number of serious and permanent handicaps:
    - physical remoteness, to varying extents, in relation to the EU’s main centres of production and
         consumption,
    - the limited nature of both natural resources (space, water, etc.) and human resources (e.g. skilled
         workforce),
    - the small size of the local market and lack of economies of scale for economic activities,
    - fragile ecosystems,
    - extreme vulnerability of the island environment, owing to lack of hinterland, and rapid, multiple
         and often forceful interactions between economic, social and environmental factors within a
         restricted area.


        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 5 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
The nature or intensity of these constraints may vary according to time and circumstance. The smallest and
remotest islands, archipelagos or mountainous island areas generally tend to suffer combined or severe
difficulties.

The problem for the EU is to ensure that the islands can gain optimum benefit from the potential offered by
their maritime environment, while reducing as much as possible the effects of the permanent handicaps
resulting from their geography.

In keeping with the concept of territorial cohesion, how, among other things, can we aim towards their
sustainable development while at the same time fully integrate them into the Community area and its
associated requirements?

The success or failure of this action may condition the economic, social, political and environmental balance
of these regions, many of which figure among the most vulnerable areas of the EU’s maritime borders.

The CPMR and its Islands Commission are hoping that the Green Paper will trigger discussions on how
to take greater account of the specific characteristics of the islands in EU policies, both in terms of
compensating for their handicaps as well as maximising the value of their geographic situation.

2.1.5      Towards an EU policy for ports?

Ports are territories that will be instrumental in ensuring the success of a European maritime policy that is to
contribute decisively towards:
    - giving European operators a greater influence in world trade
    - speeding up the modal shift from road to sea in intra-European transport, which is the main goal of
        the European Commission’s White Paper on transport for 2010.

Port development can only be achieved in a concerted manner between port authorities and public
authorities, particularly local and regional governments who occasionally control them or, as is more often
the case, are involved in funding their investments. Furthermore, harbour extensions may be restricted as a
result of the application of European directives (habitat, birds, etc.).

The fierce debates on the draft directive on port services shows that liberalisation of the sector is by no
means neutral: social consequences, the possibility of local operators losing control of operations in favour of
firms that are often owned by non-European capital.

In accordance with other players such as ESPO (European Sea Ports Organisation), the CPMR considers that
the debates on the Green Paper should help to pave the way for a genuine EU policy on ports, the
conditions of which need to be examined further. Should there be a specific Green Paper for this? This policy
should combine the requirements of territorial balance, sustainable development, focus on training and
human resources issues and aim to improve control of port operations by European players, without
excluding the principles of free competition.

2.2      A EUROPEAN MARITIME POLICY THAT FOSTERS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

2.2.1      The maritime dimension of sustainable development can be considered within a two-sided
           context:


. A political context characterised by recent initiatives taken by the European Commission in
complementary areas, i.e. “marine strategy”, “integrated coastal zone management strategy”, and the
priority given to the state of the environment in coastal areas by the European Environment Agency.
Other initiatives are related less directly to the maritime sector, but nevertheless include a strong maritime
dimension, e.g. adoption of the second Community programme on climate change (ECCP II), and the initial
guidelines on the future Objective 3 of cohesion policy which provides wide scope for maritime cooperation.
. A technical context which focuses on making available information, methods and instruments to help
design schemes and projects that take on board the maritime dimension. This technical aspect also includes


        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 6 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
relations between various EU policies with an impact on the sea, e.g. fisheries, regional policy and transport
policy.

2.2.2      Initial proposals from the Regions

The regional position regarding sustainable development of coastal areas focuses on the introduction and
gradual widespread application of the principles of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), a strategy
in which they intend to be fully involved during the phase due to get under way in 2006. For the maritime
regions, it is therefore vitally important to publicise and promote ICZM as part of a move towards a new
model of development.

The regions also support the marine strategy adopted by the Commission, especially with regard to its
ecosystems approach. They do point out however, that this strategy alone is not enough to give a
“sustainable development” approach to the Green Paper. They also underline the importance of the link
between the strategies and instruments designed to implement them, especially schemes that help foster
transnational and interregional cooperation.

The proposals set out by the member regions of the Sustainable Development working group focus mainly
on:
-   the need to provide compulsory Community instruments to address the problem of damage to
    ecosystems as a result of sea or land-based activities;
-   in the short term, the urgent need to introduce instruments to ensure that ICZM can be applied;
-   the need to employ cooperation programmes (Objective 3 for the 2007-2013 period) to test and then
    implement future Green Paper guidelines, and in this respect, the need to introduce a framework for
    these programmes setting out the eligible criteria, subject areas and types of partnership;
-   the need to follow the guidelines put forward by the European Environment Agency to improve the links
    between information and the way it is used in coastal areas;
-   setting up a structure to coordinate initiatives carried out in the different sea areas, with a view to
    encouraging the dissemination and promotion of experiences and best practices, especially for topics
    included in the development of Agenda 21;
-   a reform of the methods of governance so as to promote a joined-up approach in place of the sectoral
    approach that dominates at present.

The maritime regions stress that the Green Paper provides a good opportunity to introduce a new
development model based on the principles of sustainable development. Finally, they underline the
changes that are needed in terms of thinking and action both within the Commission as well as between
the various institutions and their partners, the regions being at the forefront in this regard.

2.2.3      Sustainable development should also contribute towards growth and job creation

The Europe of the Sea cooperation project has helped to identify the different maritime activities that create
added value in the coastal regions. The final report will give a detailed account of this, highlighting the
strengths and weaknesses of the different sectors and their future prospects. Furthermore, it will describe the
limits that may restrict their development, such as pollution problems and pressures related to high
demographic growth in coastal areas.

There appear to be numerous development opportunities for the maritime regions, but these vary widely
across Europe, depending on each region's areas of specialisation and degree of autonomy.

Two instruments could help to promote regional development opportunities:
    -      A maritime cluster observation system, as mentioned above
    -      An observatory of the European maritime economy: the information system that is liable to provide
           back-up for the introduction and follow-through of a maritime strategy is still incomplete, diverse,
           and sectorally-based. It cannot be easily used for regional analyses since most data are only available

        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 7 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
             at national level. Databases on the state of coastal zones still have to be completed and tied up with
             economic data. Efforts therefore need to be made to provide the European Commission with
             adapted information systems. In this context, the ESPON programme (cf. §2.1.2.) could open up a
             field of study specifically devoted to dealing with maritime issues.

In addition, a Community work area needs to be opened up to look at human resources in relation to
maritime activities. This issue should be included among regional, national and EU priorities for
employment and training policies. This is a crucial challenge in terms of employment and safety and in
maintaining Europe’s world ranking: new qualifications and skills to modernise and develop maritime
activities and for restructuring traditional activities, negotiations within the International Labour
Organisation, etc.

The following aspects need to be dealt with in particular: basic training for professionals, working conditions
(hygiene, working hours, etc.) and wage earnings.

The Europe of the Sea cooperation project has so far provided very little information in terms of diagnosis
and proposals in this field. The final phase of the project will allow for progress to be made in this area with
assistance from the CPMR working group on employment and human resources. The CPMR calls for this
issue to be given substantial consideration in the Green Paper and in the debates that follow its
publication.

2.3        GOVERNANCE AND FUTURE MARITIME POLICY: THE REGIONS AT THE CENTRE OF THE
           ARRANGEMENTS

2.3.1        Framework guidelines for maritime governance

The second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project provides a comprehensive account of
oceans governance as it currently stands:

      -      international legal context: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), Convention on
             Biological Diversity, International Maritime Organisation, Convention on Climate Change, Marpol,
             etc.
      -      two major non-legally binding instruments: Agenda 21, which lays out a framework to achieve
             sustainable development, namely the chapters concerning oceans, coasts and islands, and local
             participation; and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, which sets dates and targets for
             achieving Agenda 21 and international treaties objectives.

The report lists as a reminder the regional agreements that complete this legal framework, notably:

      -      The Helsinki Convention (Helcom) for the Baltic Sea
      -      The OSPAR Convention for the North East Atlantic
      -      The Barcelona Convention for the Mediterranean Sea

The final report of the project will focus on the possible links between these instruments and the policies and
how they can be delivered at national and regional level. It will identify the processes that might allow the
regions to contribute towards this.

With regard to the role of the regions, lessons may be learned from experiences led in other geographic
areas, especially the most mature cases, namely Australia and Canada. It is necessary however to take into
account the difference in geographic size between European regions and regions from the aforementioned
countries. For instance, the regions implementing national Canadian ocean policy may be compared more to
a transnational European cooperation area (Interreg IIIB) than the territory of a European region.

Generally speaking, from a global point of view, sub-national government involvement in maritime policies
seems to be quite sketchy and established solely on an ad hoc basis, and the regions do not have adequate
responsibilities and means when it comes to decision-making and delivery, particularly in the following
areas:
    - coherent integrated coastal zone management initiatives;

          Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                 (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 8 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
    -      joined-up management of freshwaters and coastal waters;
    -      offshore activities that may affect the coastal environment and livelihoods of its communities;
    -      cooperation between neighbouring regions;
    -      good neighbourhood policies.

Drawing on this analysis, the interim report indicates that in order to ensure the effective development of
maritime policies at EU, national, regional and local levels, it is urgent to develop a vision for the role of sub-
national tiers of government:
    - clarify the role and mandate for the different tiers;
    - coordinate the mechanisms and institutions between local coastal management and national,
        continental and global levels;
    - provide the necessary means to ensure delivery, i.e. incentives, especially financial ones, for sub-
        national tiers to become involved in and support national and international policies;
    - involve the relevant partners and communities as early as possible in the process.

The transfer of powers from national level to sub-national levels depends on the internal order of each state
and not on any European policy. The interim report therefore suggests three aspects to be taken into
consideration in order to propose a role for the regions in future EU maritime policy:
    - current mandates in which, by virtue of the principle of subsidiarity, the regions are “authorised” to
        participate in EU policy;
    - new roles, not yet planned by national governments, but for which the regions may lay claim with
        regard to action in the fields of oceans management and the socio-economic development of coastal
        zones;
    - legitimate state-held powers that may be delegated to regional or local government; the EU cannot
        intervene in these national internal changes.

Given this background information, the CPMR proposes that the Green Paper provide the opportunity to
take forward governance in maritime policy by working on the following two levels:
    - regional level, through tri-partite contracts between the EU, member states and regions focusing on
        sustainable development in the maritime regions;
    - transnational level within major sea areas for a concerted implementation of different EU policies
        affecting the sea and coastline.

2.3.2      Towards tripartite contracts for the sustainable development of maritime regions

On 25 July 2001, the European Commission adopted its White Paper on European Governance. The CPMR
had supported this initiative, providing its own contribution to the debate and acting as an interface between
the Commission and the regions by organising an internal debate and conducting a survey among all of
Europe’s regions.

The White Paper planned to introduce as of 2002 trial target-based tripartite contracts “in one or more areas
for a more flexible implementation of EU measures”, involving the European Commission, a member state
and a regional or local authority. A Communication from the Commission in December 2002 clarified the
basic legal notions, defined conditions for applying tripartite contracts and proposed a legislative enabling
clause to allow tripartite contracts to be put into practice. In October 2003, the three first pilot initiatives for
target-based tripartite agreements received the backing of the European Commission. These initiatives were
taken by three local authorities – and not regions – and all concerned environmental issues.

In their replies to the survey conducted by the CPMR, the regions based their contributions on their
experiences of partnerships between the Commission, member states and regions for delivering regional
policy, the only EU policy for which there exists a clear framework for involving them as part of a balanced
partnership. They wanted these arrangements to be extended to other policy areas with a high territorial
impact (transport, research, environment, enterprise, rural development and fisheries). They recalled that for
these sectoral policies, common practice was to establish a partnership between the European Commission
and member states, without organising any clear and well-established mechanism for involving sub-national
tiers of government, despite the fact that they were generally called upon to contribute towards the funding
of selected projects.


        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 9 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
The launch of a new EU policy – maritime policy – offers a unique opportunity to introduce in advance a
framework for governance adapted to the regional level.

The CPMR therefore calls for pilot schemes to be initiated involving tripartite agreements between the
European Commission, member states and regions, in order to ensure joined-up implementation of the
different instruments related to maritime policy, whether they refer to EU, national or regional policies. One
of the priority tasks, and one of the most difficult ones, will be to identify the scope of intervention of these
contracts or agreements: aside from the core areas (these being regional and environmental policies), which
other policies may be included? Should they include sectoral policy areas such as transport, energy, fisheries,
research, etc.?

The CPMR requests the relevant services of the European Commission, General Secretariat, Maritime
Affairs Task Force and Directorates-General concerned to start looking into this area as soon as possible
in association with a group of pioneering regions prepared to take part in the trial experience (Asturias
Regional Government has already taken steps in this regard).

It feels that once lessons have been learned from this experimentation phase, tripartite contracts could
constitute one of the main tools for delivering EU maritime policy as of 2010.

2.3.3      The sea basin: a transnational level for ensuring the consistency of maritime policies

Most EU policies designed to foster the sustainable development of maritime regions cannot limit their scope
of intervention to local, regional or national levels alone.

Many of them include a transnational dimension that must be taken on board in future EU maritime policy,
based on the notion of sea basins. For example:
    -      transport: the 4 motorways of the sea included in the Trans-European Transport Network in 2004
           map out inter-state partnership areas, in which the regions need to find a relevant place;
    -      environment: the European thematic strategy for the protection and conservation of the marine
           environment identifies “marine regions” in which member states will be required to consult with
           one another to draw up plans for improving the ecological state of marine waters;
    -      fisheries: in the framework of fish stocks management there are chartered fishing areas, in which
           Regional Advisory Committees are being set up;
    -      international conventions on maritime safety are also based on specific geographic areas, as
           mentioned above (OSPAR, Helcom and Barcelona conventions).

Furthermore, the Interreg IIIB cooperation programme has its own cartography identifying 13 transnational
cooperation areas. Given the marked maritime features of Europe’s geography, all 13 of these areas include
coastal zones. This cartography will be slighted modified as of 2007 within the framework of the future
Objective 3, with a reduction in the number of cooperation areas. However, the maritime element will
continue to be a factor in shaping future boundaries. Moreover, as mentioned hereinabove, this programme
offers two major advantages:
    -      it is based on a genuine partnership between the EU, member states and regions, even though there
           is no doubt room for improvement with regard to arrangements for regional involvement for the
           next programming period, at least within certain perimeters;
    -      the maritime sector is listed as a priority in the presentation of eligible measures.

In the light of this context, the CPMR would certainly not suggest introducing a massive institutionalised
structure based on a fixed set of maps, that would take on board all public authorities and sectoral or general
interests concerned by a wide range of maritime policies in these territories.

In contrast, the CPMR requests that informal ad hoc mechanisms be examined as part of the discussions
on the Green Paper, in consultation with the players concerned. It is too early to consider what form this
new type of multi-actor partnership might take, but it is certainly not too early to start looking into the issue
with a view to reaching conclusions before the 2014-2020 programming period.

        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 10 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
2.4        EU SECTORAL POLICIES TO SUPPORT THE MARITIME AGENDA

The considerations and proposals set out above give priority to introducing public interventions into the
maritime sector, based on the concepts of territory, sustainability and governance.

Horizontal and vertical integration of policies would nevertheless be meaningless if each of the sectoral
policies did not contribute individually to the major objectives fixed by the CPMR, namely the Lisbon and
Gothenburg agendas, the place of the regions and territorial cohesion.

The debate on the Green Paper should therefore provide the opportunity to entirely review these sectoral
policies.

The CPMR has already contributed towards this exercise:
      -      regular policy positions drafted with the support if its specialised working groups on policy areas
             such as fisheries, maritime safety, transport and research;
      -      some initial outline proposals focusing on the issues of maritime transport and research, available
             in the second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project.

The CPMR will carry on with this work:
      -      in the field of energy, particularly in relation to maritime issues;
      -      in other areas, taking advantage of the geographic discussion seminars on the Green Paper that it
             will be organising after its publication; in this regard, the seminar in Bergen on 16 and 17 January
             has already provided a number of useful illustrations in the field of research;
      -      by continuing its action in the field of maritime safety, which particularly aims to make up for the
             shortcomings of the Erika III package;
      -      under the Europe of the Sea cooperation project by taking forward its considerations, up to the
             production of the final report, on the best way in which sectoral policies can contribute towards
             Europe’s maritime agenda.




          Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                 (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 11 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
                                            CONFERENCE DES REGIONS PERIPHERIQUES MARITIMES D’EUROPE
                                               CONFERENCE OF PERIPHERAL MARITIME REGIONS OF EUROPE

                                                             6, rue Saint-Martin 35700 RENNES - F
                                                         Tel. : + 33 (0)2 99 35 40 50 - Fax : + 33 (0)2 99 35 09 19
                                                         e.mail : secretariat@crpm.org – web : www.crpm.org
CRPMDFR060006 A0




                                 THE REGIONS, LEGITIMATE STAKEHOLDERS
                                  IN AN AMBITIOUS EU MARITIME POLICY

                             DRAFT CONCLUDING DECLARATION OF THE BREST SEMINAR
                                        (BRITTANY) – 17 FEBRUARY 2006

The CPMR member Regions, meeting in Brest at the invitation of Brittany Regional Council, welcome
the high standard of dialogue established between the Regions and the European Commission, especially
with Mr Joe Borg, Commissioner in charge of fisheries and maritime affairs.

They are awaiting publication of the forthcoming Green Paper on the European Union’s maritime policy,
which marks an important stage towards a more ambitious, joined up maritime policy.

They hope to be closely involved both individually and collectively in the consultation phase due to
follow the publication of the Green Paper. Through this, they intend to feed into the future White Paper by
proposing changes to Community instruments designed to fulfil the main objectives and challenges set out
below.

                   -   Enhance Europe’s maritime potential from an economic point of view, thereby generating growth
                       and job creation, and improving Europe’s competitiveness on the world stage.

                   -   Introduce a new development model based on the principles of sustainable development.

                   -   Make sure the development of coastal regions is firmly rooted in the expected move towards taking
                       on board specific territorial features in EU policies by i) introducing a more strategic approach to
                       policies at transnational level; and ii) differentiating instruments on the basis of regional advantages
                       and disadvantages. In this regard, the Green Paper provides a unique opportunity for island issues
                       to be taken into account and gives territorial cooperation grounds for existence, thereby justifying
                       its status as a future policy.

                   -   Improve the overall governance over maritime policies led throughout Europe by the different
                       spheres of government, by taking advantage of experiences led elsewhere and by giving the regions
                       their rightful role in terms of designing policies, as well as decision-making and delivery.

                   -   Seize the timely opportunity of the Green Paper publication and discussions to take forward EU
                       sectoral policies, in order to make them compatible with EU maritime strategy and allowing them to
                       contribute favourably towards it.

In respect of the EU agenda, the CPMR considers that:

                   -   The White Paper should propose a shift in EU policies in favour of the maritime dimension, taking
                       effect from the start of the 2007-2013 programming period. The policy and budget package
                       negotiated under the UK Presidency in December 2006 and due to be “improved” by the European
                       Parliament over the coming months, offers a framework and a window of opportunity to push for
                       progress in the maritime sector.


                                         Draft Concluding Declaration of the CPMR Seminar in Brest
                               “The Regions, Legitimate Stakeholders in an Ambitious EU Maritime Policy” – p. 1
                                                 Ref: CRPMDFR060006 A0 – February 2006
    -   The reorientation of EU policies in the light of the planned mid-term review in 2008 represents
        another opportunity to be seized.

    -   The 2007-2013 period should provide the chance to test improvements and prepare for the next
        programming period starting 2014, when maritime policy will be one of Europe’s top priorities.

    -   Between now and 2009, before the current European Parliament and Commission leave office, the
        European Union should adopt a founding text for this maritime policy, following the example of
        the American Ocean Act.

Looking beyond this timeframe, the Regions are aware that the development of EU policies is an ongoing
process. Opportunities regularly arise in the form of initiatives led by the Commission (Communications,
Green Papers, White Papers) or European Parliament, to which the Regions will respond accordingly.

Faced with the challenges of globalisation and the overhaul of EU policies, the CPMR is not simply
sticking to acting within the institutional timeframe, but is also implementing and will continue to
implement over the coming quarterly periods a timetable for study and action that will result in useful
proposals for maritime policy. These fall for example within the following areas:
    -   Adaptation to climate change: seminar entitled “The Coast under Threat”, Marseille, 3 and 4
        February 2006;
    -   Regions and globalisation, seminar in June 2006 in the Azores;
    -   Regions and demographic changes: launch of a forward study, initial findings to be presented at the
        General Assembly in Murcia, October 2006;
    -   Regions and energy policies, seminar in October 2006 in Navarre;
    -   Implementation of EU policies after 2007: taking on board the dual necessity of involving the
        Regions and ensuring fair treatment of territories in each Member State when delivering structural
        funds and national regional aid; seminar organised in association with the Committee of the
        Regions, 31 May 2006, Brussels.

The Regions welcome the contributions from the CPMR Scientific Council, notably those resulting from
three meetings held in Portugal with the backing of the Portuguese authorities. In particular, the last meeting
in Oporto on 8 and 9 December 2005 helped to pave the way for medium and long term forecasts on how
the sea and oceans can contribute towards a new European development model.

They invite all interested parties, especially the European Commission, to join in with this forward study
exercise. Arrangements will be made for this in due course.

The Regions have taken note of the second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project,
structured around five key work areas: economy and employment – transport, logistics and maritime safety
– research and marine innovation – sustainable development – governance. They wish to thank the group of
around fifty pioneering Regions which are contributing both intellectually and financially towards the
project, with the backing of the Atlantic Cities and the assistance of five European experts.

The cooperation project has reached a stage in its development that allows it to identify the challenges facing
the regions and Europe and to formulate a raft of proposals on how EU policies may be improved. These
proposals still need to be completed and approved by all 154 CPMR member regions.

Detailed proposals from the CPMR will be formulated and validated in several stages and marked by the
following events:
    -   Political Bureau meeting on 18 February in Brest: debate on the CPMR’s second contribution to
        the Green Paper (draft text distributed to delegates attending the seminar);
    -   Political Bureau meeting on 5 May 2006 in Malta, in the presence of Commissioner Borg;
    -   General Assembly, on 26 and 27 October 2006 in Murcia: CPMR’s reaction to the Green Paper.



                          Draft Concluding Declaration of the CPMR Seminar in Brest
                “The Regions, Legitimate Stakeholders in an Ambitious EU Maritime Policy” – p. 2
                                   Ref: CRPMDFR060006 A0 – February 2006
All CPMR member Regions will be able to take part in the consultation phase following the publication of
the Green Paper. This issue will be included on the agenda at the Geographical Commissions’ spring
general assemblies. Furthermore, seminars will be organised in the different sea areas beginning July
2006, to allow the regions to discuss with their maritime partners, or stakeholders, the options open to
themselves and the CPMR. As active interfaces between the people and Europe, the Regions have the dual
responsibility of consulting their regional partners and giving consideration to these issues at local level
from an interregional perspective.

The Regions welcomes the success of the first event of this kind held in Bergen on 16 and 17 January
2006, in advance of the publication of the Green Paper. On this occasion, at the invitation of the CPMR North
Sea Commission, over 120 delegates, including regions, stakeholders and representatives from the European
Commission and Norwegian government, had the opportunity to discuss issues, particularly with regard to
the research & development aspects of EU maritime policy.

In light of the fact that they are instrumental in ensuring the success of the European Commission’s
consultation exercise, they call on the Commission to help them in the task of disseminating concepts,
publicising the challenges involved, and organising the consultation. They welcome with satisfaction the
openness the Maritime Affairs Task Force of the Commission has shown as to the principle of this kind of
partnership.




                          Draft Concluding Declaration of the CPMR Seminar in Brest
                “The Regions, Legitimate Stakeholders in an Ambitious EU Maritime Policy” – p. 3
                                   Ref: CRPMDFR060006 A0 – February 2006
                                              CONFÉRENCE DES RÉGIONS PÉRIPHÉRIQUES MARITIMES D’EUROPE
                                                  CONFERENCE OF PERIPHERAL MARITIME REGIONS OF EUROPE

                                                                 6, rue Saint-Martin 35700 RENNES - F
                                                             Tel. : + 33 (0)2 99 35 40 50 - Fax : + 33 (0)2 99 35 09 19
                                                             e.mail : secretariat@crpm.org – web : www.crpm.org
CRPMPPP060010 A0




                                                                                                                   27 JANUARY 2006
                                                           CPMR POLICY POSITION

                                                OPINION OF THE GENERAL SECRETARIAT
                          (To be approved by the CPMR Political Bureau – 18 February 2006 – Brest – Brittany)


                    THE REGIONS, LEGITIMATE STAKEHOLDERS IN AN
                           AMBITIOUS EU MARITIME POLICY
                                        (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper)


1                  BACKGROUND TO THE SECOND CONTRIBUTION

1.1                 HIGH EXPECTATIONS ON THE PART OF THE REGIONS REGARDING THE GREEN PAPER
                    AND ENSUING WHITE PAPER

On 4 November 2005, the General Assembly adopted the CPMR’s first contribution to the Green Paper. The
present document constitutes the second contribution, which has been supplemented by work carried out
under the Europe of the Sea cooperation project and by the CPMR Scientific Council.

The regions hope to be closely involved both individually and collectively in the consultation phase due to
follow the publication of the Green Paper in the second quarter of 2006. Through this, they intend to feed
into the future White Paper by proposing changes to Community instruments designed to fulfil the main
objectives and challenges set out below.
     - Enhance Europe’s maritime potential from an economic point of view, thereby contributing towards
        growth, job creation and improving Europe’s competitiveness on the world stage.
     - Introduce a new development model based on the principles of sustainable development.
     - Make sure the development of coastal regions is firmly rooted in the expected move towards taking
        on board specific territorial features in EU policies by i) introducing a more strategic approach to
        policies at transnational level; and ii) differentiating instruments on the basis of regional advantages
        and disadvantages. In this regard, the Green Paper provides a unique opportunity for island issues
        to be taken into account and gives territorial cooperation grounds for existence, thereby justifying its
        status as a future policy.
     - Improve the overall governance over maritime policies led throughout Europe by the different
        spheres of government, by taking advantage of experiences led elsewhere and by giving the regions
        their rightful role in terms of designing policies, as well as decision-making and delivery.
     - Seize the timely opportunity of the Green Paper publication and discussions to take forward EU
        sectoral policies, in order to make them compatible with EU maritime strategy and allowing them to
        contribute favourably towards it.

In respect of the EU agenda, the CPMR considers that:
    - the White Paper should propose a shift in policies in favour of the maritime dimension, taking effect
        from the start of the 2007-2013 programming period. The policy and budget package negotiated
        under the UK Presidency in December 2006 and due to be “improved” by the European Parliament
        over the coming months, offers a framework and a window of opportunity to push for progress in
        the maritime sector.


                   Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                           (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 1 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
      -      the reorientation of EU policies in the light of the planned mid-term review in 2008 represents
             another opportunity to be seized;
      -      the 2007-2013 period should provide the chance to test improvements and prepare for the next
             programming period starting 2014, when maritime policy will be one of Europe’s top priorities;
      -      between now and 2009, before the current European Parliament and Commission leave office, the
             European Union should adopt a founding text for this maritime policy, following the example of the
             American Ocean Act.

1.2        OTHER CPMR INITIATIVES IN THE MARITIME SECTOR

Looking beyond this timeframe, the CPMR is aware that the development of EU policies is an ongoing
process. Opportunities regularly arise in the form of initiatives led by the Commission (Communications,
Green Papers, White Papers) or European Parliament, to which the CPMR responds accordingly. Such
examples include the recently adopted marine strategy, the White Paper on Transport currently under
review after a public consultation, or the Commission’s ongoing reflection on territorial dialogue and
governance.

Faced with the challenges of globalisation and the overhaul of EU policies, the CPMR is not simply sticking
to acting within the institutional timeframe, but is also implementing and will continue to implement over
the coming quarterly periods a timetable for study and action that will result in useful proposals for
maritime policy. These fall for example within the following areas:
    - Adaptation to climate change: seminar entitled “The Coast under Threat”, Marseille, 3 and 4
        February 2006
    - Regions and globalisation, seminar in June 2006 in the Azores
    - Regions and energy policies, seminar in October 2006 in Navarre
    - Implementation of EU policies after 2007: taking on board the dual necessity of involving the
        Regions and ensuring fair treatment of territories in each Member State when delivering structural
        funds and national regional aid; seminar organised in association with the Committee of the
        Regions, 31 May 2006, Brussels

1.3        SOURCES OF THE SECOND CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREEN PAPER

This contribution draws on the second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project, structured
around five key work areas: economy and employment – transport, logistics and maritime safety – research
and marine innovation – sustainable development – governance.

It also takes on board contributions from the CPMR Scientific Council, notably those resulting from three
meetings held in Portugal with the backing of the Portuguese authorities. In particular, the last meeting in
Oporto on 8 and 9 December 2005 helped to pave the way for medium and long term forecasts on how the
sea and oceans can contribute towards a new European development model.

Furthermore, the CPMR invites all interested parties, especially the European Commission, to join in with
this forward study exercise. Arrangements will be made for this in due course.

The cooperation project has reached a stage in its development that allows it to identify the challenges facing
the regions and Europe and to formulate a raft of proposals on how EU policies may be improved. These
proposals still need to be completed and approved by all 154 CPMR member regions.

1.4        TAKING FORWARD CPMR’S ACTION

Detailed proposals from the CPMR will be formulated and validated in several stages and marked by the
following events:
     - Political Bureau on 5 May 2006 in Malta, in the presence of Commissioner Borg
     - General Assembly on 26 and 27 October 2006 in Murcia

All CPMR member regions will be able to take part in the consultation phase following the publication of the
Green Paper. This issue will be included on the agenda at the Geographical Commissions’ spring general
assemblies. Furthermore, seminars will be organised in the different sea areas beginning July 2006, to allow
          Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                 (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 2 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
the regions to discuss with their maritime partners, or stakeholders, the options open to themselves and the
CPMR. As active interfaces between the people and Europe, the regions have the dual responsibility of
consulting their regional partners and giving consideration to these issues at local level from an interregional
perspective.

The CPMR welcomes the success of the first event of this kind held in Bergen on 16 and 17 January 2006, in
advance of the publication of the Green Paper. On this occasion, at the invitation of the CPMR North Sea
Commission, over 120 delegates, including regions, stakeholders and representatives from the European
Commission and Norwegian government, had the opportunity to discuss issues, particularly with regard to
the research & development aspects of EU maritime policy.

In light of the fact that the regions are instrumental in ensuring the success of the European Commission’s
consultation exercise, the CPMR calls on the Commission to help them in the task of disseminating concepts,
publicising the challenges involved, and organising the consultation. They welcome with satisfaction the
openness the Maritime Affairs Task Force of the Commission has shown as to the principle of this kind of
partnership.

2       SECOND CONTRIBUTION TO THE GREEN PAPER: CPMR PROPOSALS

The CPMR’s first contribution aimed to give an exhaustive list of the issues to be addressed in the Green
Paper. The work that has been led since then, particularly as part of the cooperation project, has allowed us
to target areas in which the regions can give added value to the European maritime project. This is the aim of
this second contribution. The third contribution will provide further details and clarifications on the
identified priority areas.

The proposals set out below are formulated on the basis of four main priorities:
- EU maritime policy and territorial issues
- EU maritime policy and sustainable development
- EU maritime policy and governance
- EU sectoral policies to support the maritime agenda

2.1       AN EU MARITIME POLICY TO FOSTER TERRITORIAL BALANCE

2.1.1      Regional policy 2007-2013: an instrument to support maritime policy

2.1.1.1      ERDF Objectives 1 and 2

The draft regulations for 2007-2013 on convergence regions and regions eligible under the competitiveness
and employment objective make provisions to fund a series of investments that could contribute towards
Europe’s maritime economy.
This provides an opportunity to introduce innovative structural projects within the maritime sector, e.g.
maritime clusters, port infrastructures and links between ports and hinterland areas particularly with a view
to effectively implementing motorways of the sea.
With the implementation of the Community strategic guidelines in each country, this should allow maritime
investments to be given a rightful budget allocation, and regions should be able to have a say in the relevant
decisions.
The White Paper on Maritime Policy should make mention of the provision to be made for maritime
investments in the ERDF programmes (and also the cohesion fund).

2.1.1.2      Territorial cooperation objective (ERDF Objective 3)

The agreement reached under the UK Presidency of the Union is largely insufficient with regard to the
budget allocated to this instrument, since it is less than for the current period in per capita terms. In the
context of the current inter-institutional negotiations, the CPMR is lobbying for this budget to be raised.



        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 3 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
We feel that this budget re-evaluation is all the more necessary insofar as Objective 3 is designed to become
the main financial instrument for delivering maritime policy over the 2007-2013 period, as far as the
“international aspects” are concerned. The thematic priorities do indeed include the maritime dimension,
although the CPMR proposes to add the issue of adapting to climate change (conclusions of the Marseille
seminar). The three strands of Objective 3 are designed to support a wide range of territorial and trial
projects, the two main ones being:
- the transnational strand, for maritime transport, integrated coastal zone management, risk management,
maritime safety, certain research & development actions and ecosystems. In addition, this strand could
finance a tool for examining and coordinating policies in each sea area (see below for proposals related to
governance).
- support for thematic cooperation networks, for the transfer of experiences between the regions regarding
their maritime policies, support for specialised networks (clusters, research centres, ports, etc.), and
continued funding for ESPON (European Spatial Planning Observatory Network) which could make the
maritime sector one of its priority study areas.

Moreover, Objective 3 has the virtue of giving the regions a key role in setting up, managing and running
programmes, which is not the case of other transnational Community programmes such as the Trans-
European Transport Networks or the Framework Programme for Research and Development.

In the light of the above, Objective 3 will play an essential role in testing instruments and measures that
could be implemented as of 2014.

Before the programmes for the 2007-2013 period get under way, the CPMR requests the Directorate
General for Regional Policy and the Permanent Interreg IIIB Secretariats, in relation with the Maritime
Affairs Task Force, to take the opportunity in 2006 to initiate expert studies on the types of maritime
projects that might benefit from Objective 3 funding. This exercise has already been done for maritime
safety and similarly could be carried out with regard to transport and logics, adaptation to climate change
and ICZM. The final report of the CPMR-led Europe of the Sea cooperation project, due out in July 2006, will
constitute a major contribution to this.

These studies and proposals should be extended within the scope of EU neighbourhood policy.

2.1.2      Maritime policy and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)

This point will be dealt with in the chapter on sustainable development, though it may also be considered as
a territorial approach, both in terms of its concept as well as the instruments designed to implement it, i.e.
Objective 3, transnational governance, etc.

2.1.3      Maritime policy and clusters: towards innovative maritime regions

By maritime cluster, we mean any mechanism designed to link up R&D, innovation and economic
development and implying relatively close cooperation between industry (especially SMEs), research and
training organisations and regional authorities.

This concept cuts across the areas of territorial development, innovation/research/technology transfer, and
maritime industry. Where appropriate, we might also add transport/logistics aspects if a seaport plays a
driving role in the activity of the cluster, or fisheries if it plays a role in exploiting the value of fish stocks, etc.

A certain number of experiences are being led in Europe, and the CPMR will shortly be presenting a sample
of them, together with a typology. This paper is a follow-up to the work led by the Scientific Council
(meeting of 8 December) and a specific survey led under the Europe of the Sea cooperation project.

In order to broaden the scope of consideration and complete the analysis, the CPMR proposes to set up a
European observation system for maritime clusters.

The CPMR considers that strengthening regional maritime clusters and consolidating them internationally is
a key condition for the development of the maritime regions. It therefore wants greater encouragement for
implementing these clusters, both within the framework of regional policies for 2007-2013 (Objectives 1

        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 4 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
and 2) as well as EU innovation policies, and also, as a practical result of coordinated implementation, at
regional level under ERDF and FPRD programmes. This clearly requires conditions to be established in
relation to governance as described in § 2.3.2. below; these clusters could eventually constitute one of the
main subjects of the planned tripartite contracts between the EU, member states and regions in relation to
maritime development.

2.1.4      Maritime policy and specific territories

The CPMR considers that the islands and outermost regions clearly deserve to be given special attention
under EU maritime policy. The Green Paper and ensuing White Paper provide unique opportunities to
highlight the specific features of these territories and above all to exploit the value of their geographical
location. The paragraphs below focus on the islands.

The CPMR Scientific Council will shortly be meeting to discuss the issue of the outermost regions (OMR),
thus allowing the CPMR to contribute towards the public debate on this point, which is explicitly mentioned
as a priority issue in the joint Communication issued by Barroso and Borg in March 2005 (setting out the
aims of the Green Paper).

           Maritime policy and islands

What would the map of the European Union resemble without its islands?

From the West Indies to the Indian Ocean, and from the Aegean Sea to the Baltic, the EU numbers over three
hundred permanently inhabited islands. Their total population amounts to approximately 15 million, i.e.
3.3% of the EU population.

Island areas are defined as a shoreline, and so the islands are, in essence, privileged locations for interacting
with the surrounding sea area. The intensity of this interaction can partly be measured using geographic
criteria such as their degree of remoteness or their “coastal index”. Obviously, in this regard, like in many
others, the EU’s islands present a wide diversity of situations, but nonetheless, the island dimension on the
whole is an essential component of Europe of the Sea.

These regions effectively:

    -      shape maritime borders and the exclusive economic zone falling within the Community area,
    -      favour access to substantial energy resources or fish stocks,
    -      contribute greatly towards the EU’s tourist economy and subsequently to its balance of payments,
    -      contain a wealth of diverse and often unique natural, historic, linguistic or cultural heritage,
    -      enable the EU to monitor shipping lanes, borders exposed to traffic or geo-strategically sensitive
           areas,
    -      contribute towards the development of trade with their neighbouring third countries.

We can see from this that the actual importance of the islands within the EU far outweighs their relatively
small demographic size, and that the mere fact they exist tends to generate welcome effects for the member
states concerned as well as for the Community as a whole.

Paradoxically, the socio-economic situation of these territories seldom reflects this huge potential, since
insularity is also synonymous with a certain number of serious and permanent handicaps:
    - physical remoteness, to varying extents, in relation to the EU’s main centres of production and
         consumption,
    - the limited nature of both natural resources (space, water, etc.) and human resources (e.g. skilled
         workforce),
    - the small size of the local market and lack of economies of scale for economic activities,
    - fragile ecosystems,
    - extreme vulnerability of the island environment, owing to lack of hinterland, and rapid, multiple
         and often forceful interactions between economic, social and environmental factors within a
         restricted area.


        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 5 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
The nature or intensity of these constraints may vary according to time and circumstance. The smallest and
remotest islands, archipelagos or mountainous island areas generally tend to suffer combined or severe
difficulties.

The problem for the EU is to ensure that the islands can gain optimum benefit from the potential offered by
their maritime environment, while reducing as much as possible the effects of the permanent handicaps
resulting from their geography.

In keeping with the concept of territorial cohesion, how, among other things, can we aim towards their
sustainable development while at the same time fully integrate them into the Community area and its
associated requirements?

The success or failure of this action may condition the economic, social, political and environmental balance
of these regions, many of which figure among the most vulnerable areas of the EU’s maritime borders.

The CPMR and its Islands Commission are hoping that the Green Paper will trigger discussions on how
to take greater account of the specific characteristics of the islands in EU policies, both in terms of
compensating for their handicaps as well as maximising the value of their geographic situation.

2.1.5      Towards an EU policy for ports?

Ports are territories that will be instrumental in ensuring the success of a European maritime policy that is to
contribute decisively towards:
    - giving European operators a greater influence in world trade
    - speeding up the modal shift from road to sea in intra-European transport, which is the main goal of
        the European Commission’s White Paper on transport for 2010.

Port development can only be achieved in a concerted manner between port authorities and public
authorities, particularly local and regional governments who occasionally control them or, as is more often
the case, are involved in funding their investments. Furthermore, harbour extensions may be restricted as a
result of the application of European directives (habitat, birds, etc.).

The fierce debates on the draft directive on port services shows that liberalisation of the sector is by no
means neutral: social consequences, the possibility of local operators losing control of operations in favour of
firms that are often owned by non-European capital.

In accordance with other players such as ESPO (European Sea Ports Organisation), the CPMR considers that
the debates on the Green Paper should help to pave the way for a genuine EU policy on ports, the
conditions of which need to be examined further. Should there be a specific Green Paper for this? This policy
should combine the requirements of territorial balance, sustainable development, focus on training and
human resources issues and aim to improve control of port operations by European players, without
excluding the principles of free competition.

2.2      A EUROPEAN MARITIME POLICY THAT FOSTERS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

2.2.1      The maritime dimension of sustainable development can be considered within a two-sided
           context:


. A political context characterised by recent initiatives taken by the European Commission in
complementary areas, i.e. “marine strategy”, “integrated coastal zone management strategy”, and the
priority given to the state of the environment in coastal areas by the European Environment Agency.
Other initiatives are related less directly to the maritime sector, but nevertheless include a strong maritime
dimension, e.g. adoption of the second Community programme on climate change (ECCP II), and the initial
guidelines on the future Objective 3 of cohesion policy which provides wide scope for maritime cooperation.
. A technical context which focuses on making available information, methods and instruments to help
design schemes and projects that take on board the maritime dimension. This technical aspect also includes


        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 6 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
relations between various EU policies with an impact on the sea, e.g. fisheries, regional policy and transport
policy.

2.2.2      Initial proposals from the Regions

The regional position regarding sustainable development of coastal areas focuses on the introduction and
gradual widespread application of the principles of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM), a strategy
in which they intend to be fully involved during the phase due to get under way in 2006. For the maritime
regions, it is therefore vitally important to publicise and promote ICZM as part of a move towards a new
model of development.

The regions also support the marine strategy adopted by the Commission, especially with regard to its
ecosystems approach. They do point out however, that this strategy alone is not enough to give a
“sustainable development” approach to the Green Paper. They also underline the importance of the link
between the strategies and instruments designed to implement them, especially schemes that help foster
transnational and interregional cooperation.

The proposals set out by the member regions of the Sustainable Development working group focus mainly
on:
-   the need to provide compulsory Community instruments to address the problem of damage to
    ecosystems as a result of sea or land-based activities;
-   in the short term, the urgent need to introduce instruments to ensure that ICZM can be applied;
-   the need to employ cooperation programmes (Objective 3 for the 2007-2013 period) to test and then
    implement future Green Paper guidelines, and in this respect, the need to introduce a framework for
    these programmes setting out the eligible criteria, subject areas and types of partnership;
-   the need to follow the guidelines put forward by the European Environment Agency to improve the links
    between information and the way it is used in coastal areas;
-   setting up a structure to coordinate initiatives carried out in the different sea areas, with a view to
    encouraging the dissemination and promotion of experiences and best practices, especially for topics
    included in the development of Agenda 21;
-   a reform of the methods of governance so as to promote a joined-up approach in place of the sectoral
    approach that dominates at present.

The maritime regions stress that the Green Paper provides a good opportunity to introduce a new
development model based on the principles of sustainable development. Finally, they underline the
changes that are needed in terms of thinking and action both within the Commission as well as between
the various institutions and their partners, the regions being at the forefront in this regard.

2.2.3      Sustainable development should also contribute towards growth and job creation

The Europe of the Sea cooperation project has helped to identify the different maritime activities that create
added value in the coastal regions. The final report will give a detailed account of this, highlighting the
strengths and weaknesses of the different sectors and their future prospects. Furthermore, it will describe the
limits that may restrict their development, such as pollution problems and pressures related to high
demographic growth in coastal areas.

There appear to be numerous development opportunities for the maritime regions, but these vary widely
across Europe, depending on each region's areas of specialisation and degree of autonomy.

Two instruments could help to promote regional development opportunities:
    -      A maritime cluster observation system, as mentioned above
    -      An observatory of the European maritime economy: the information system that is liable to provide
           back-up for the introduction and follow-through of a maritime strategy is still incomplete, diverse,
           and sectorally-based. It cannot be easily used for regional analyses since most data are only available

        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 7 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
             at national level. Databases on the state of coastal zones still have to be completed and tied up with
             economic data. Efforts therefore need to be made to provide the European Commission with
             adapted information systems. In this context, the ESPON programme (cf. §2.1.2.) could open up a
             field of study specifically devoted to dealing with maritime issues.

In addition, a Community work area needs to be opened up to look at human resources in relation to
maritime activities. This issue should be included among regional, national and EU priorities for
employment and training policies. This is a crucial challenge in terms of employment and safety and in
maintaining Europe’s world ranking: new qualifications and skills to modernise and develop maritime
activities and for restructuring traditional activities, negotiations within the International Labour
Organisation, etc.

The following aspects need to be dealt with in particular: basic training for professionals, working conditions
(hygiene, working hours, etc.) and wage earnings.

The Europe of the Sea cooperation project has so far provided very little information in terms of diagnosis
and proposals in this field. The final phase of the project will allow for progress to be made in this area with
assistance from the CPMR working group on employment and human resources. The CPMR calls for this
issue to be given substantial consideration in the Green Paper and in the debates that follow its
publication.

2.3        GOVERNANCE AND FUTURE MARITIME POLICY: THE REGIONS AT THE CENTRE OF THE
           ARRANGEMENTS

2.3.1        Framework guidelines for maritime governance

The second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project provides a comprehensive account of
oceans governance as it currently stands:

      -      international legal context: United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), Convention on
             Biological Diversity, International Maritime Organisation, Convention on Climate Change, Marpol,
             etc.
      -      two major non-legally binding instruments: Agenda 21, which lays out a framework to achieve
             sustainable development, namely the chapters concerning oceans, coasts and islands, and local
             participation; and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation, which sets dates and targets for
             achieving Agenda 21 and international treaties objectives.

The report lists as a reminder the regional agreements that complete this legal framework, notably:

      -      The Helsinki Convention (Helcom) for the Baltic Sea
      -      The OSPAR Convention for the North East Atlantic
      -      The Barcelona Convention for the Mediterranean Sea

The final report of the project will focus on the possible links between these instruments and the policies and
how they can be delivered at national and regional level. It will identify the processes that might allow the
regions to contribute towards this.

With regard to the role of the regions, lessons may be learned from experiences led in other geographic
areas, especially the most mature cases, namely Australia and Canada. It is necessary however to take into
account the difference in geographic size between European regions and regions from the aforementioned
countries. For instance, the regions implementing national Canadian ocean policy may be compared more to
a transnational European cooperation area (Interreg IIIB) than the territory of a European region.

Generally speaking, from a global point of view, sub-national government involvement in maritime policies
seems to be quite sketchy and established solely on an ad hoc basis, and the regions do not have adequate
responsibilities and means when it comes to decision-making and delivery, particularly in the following
areas:
    - coherent integrated coastal zone management initiatives;

          Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                 (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 8 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
    -      joined-up management of freshwaters and coastal waters;
    -      offshore activities that may affect the coastal environment and livelihoods of its communities;
    -      cooperation between neighbouring regions;
    -      good neighbourhood policies.

Drawing on this analysis, the interim report indicates that in order to ensure the effective development of
maritime policies at EU, national, regional and local levels, it is urgent to develop a vision for the role of sub-
national tiers of government:
    - clarify the role and mandate for the different tiers;
    - coordinate the mechanisms and institutions between local coastal management and national,
        continental and global levels;
    - provide the necessary means to ensure delivery, i.e. incentives, especially financial ones, for sub-
        national tiers to become involved in and support national and international policies;
    - involve the relevant partners and communities as early as possible in the process.

The transfer of powers from national level to sub-national levels depends on the internal order of each state
and not on any European policy. The interim report therefore suggests three aspects to be taken into
consideration in order to propose a role for the regions in future EU maritime policy:
    - current mandates in which, by virtue of the principle of subsidiarity, the regions are “authorised” to
        participate in EU policy;
    - new roles, not yet planned by national governments, but for which the regions may lay claim with
        regard to action in the fields of oceans management and the socio-economic development of coastal
        zones;
    - legitimate state-held powers that may be delegated to regional or local government; the EU cannot
        intervene in these national internal changes.

Given this background information, the CPMR proposes that the Green Paper provide the opportunity to
take forward governance in maritime policy by working on the following two levels:
    - regional level, through tri-partite contracts between the EU, member states and regions focusing on
        sustainable development in the maritime regions;
    - transnational level within major sea areas for a concerted implementation of different EU policies
        affecting the sea and coastline.

2.3.2      Towards tripartite contracts for the sustainable development of maritime regions

On 25 July 2001, the European Commission adopted its White Paper on European Governance. The CPMR
had supported this initiative, providing its own contribution to the debate and acting as an interface between
the Commission and the regions by organising an internal debate and conducting a survey among all of
Europe’s regions.

The White Paper planned to introduce as of 2002 trial target-based tripartite contracts “in one or more areas
for a more flexible implementation of EU measures”, involving the European Commission, a member state
and a regional or local authority. A Communication from the Commission in December 2002 clarified the
basic legal notions, defined conditions for applying tripartite contracts and proposed a legislative enabling
clause to allow tripartite contracts to be put into practice. In October 2003, the three first pilot initiatives for
target-based tripartite agreements received the backing of the European Commission. These initiatives were
taken by three local authorities – and not regions – and all concerned environmental issues.

In their replies to the survey conducted by the CPMR, the regions based their contributions on their
experiences of partnerships between the Commission, member states and regions for delivering regional
policy, the only EU policy for which there exists a clear framework for involving them as part of a balanced
partnership. They wanted these arrangements to be extended to other policy areas with a high territorial
impact (transport, research, environment, enterprise, rural development and fisheries). They recalled that for
these sectoral policies, common practice was to establish a partnership between the European Commission
and member states, without organising any clear and well-established mechanism for involving sub-national
tiers of government, despite the fact that they were generally called upon to contribute towards the funding
of selected projects.


        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 9 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
The launch of a new EU policy – maritime policy – offers a unique opportunity to introduce in advance a
framework for governance adapted to the regional level.

The CPMR therefore calls for pilot schemes to be initiated involving tripartite agreements between the
European Commission, member states and regions, in order to ensure joined-up implementation of the
different instruments related to maritime policy, whether they refer to EU, national or regional policies. One
of the priority tasks, and one of the most difficult ones, will be to identify the scope of intervention of these
contracts or agreements: aside from the core areas (these being regional and environmental policies), which
other policies may be included? Should they include sectoral policy areas such as transport, energy, fisheries,
research, etc.?

The CPMR requests the relevant services of the European Commission, General Secretariat, Maritime
Affairs Task Force and Directorates-General concerned to start looking into this area as soon as possible
in association with a group of pioneering regions prepared to take part in the trial experience (Asturias
Regional Government has already taken steps in this regard).

It feels that once lessons have been learned from this experimentation phase, tripartite contracts could
constitute one of the main tools for delivering EU maritime policy as of 2010.

2.3.3      The sea basin: a transnational level for ensuring the consistency of maritime policies

Most EU policies designed to foster the sustainable development of maritime regions cannot limit their scope
of intervention to local, regional or national levels alone.

Many of them include a transnational dimension that must be taken on board in future EU maritime policy,
based on the notion of sea basins. For example:
    -      transport: the 4 motorways of the sea included in the Trans-European Transport Network in 2004
           map out inter-state partnership areas, in which the regions need to find a relevant place;
    -      environment: the European thematic strategy for the protection and conservation of the marine
           environment identifies “marine regions” in which member states will be required to consult with
           one another to draw up plans for improving the ecological state of marine waters;
    -      fisheries: in the framework of fish stocks management there are chartered fishing areas, in which
           Regional Advisory Committees are being set up;
    -      international conventions on maritime safety are also based on specific geographic areas, as
           mentioned above (OSPAR, Helcom and Barcelona conventions).

Furthermore, the Interreg IIIB cooperation programme has its own cartography identifying 13 transnational
cooperation areas. Given the marked maritime features of Europe’s geography, all 13 of these areas include
coastal zones. This cartography will be slighted modified as of 2007 within the framework of the future
Objective 3, with a reduction in the number of cooperation areas. However, the maritime element will
continue to be a factor in shaping future boundaries. Moreover, as mentioned hereinabove, this programme
offers two major advantages:
    -      it is based on a genuine partnership between the EU, member states and regions, even though there
           is no doubt room for improvement with regard to arrangements for regional involvement for the
           next programming period, at least within certain perimeters;
    -      the maritime sector is listed as a priority in the presentation of eligible measures.

In the light of this context, the CPMR would certainly not suggest introducing a massive institutionalised
structure based on a fixed set of maps, that would take on board all public authorities and sectoral or general
interests concerned by a wide range of maritime policies in these territories.

In contrast, the CPMR requests that informal ad hoc mechanisms be examined as part of the discussions
on the Green Paper, in consultation with the players concerned. It is too early to consider what form this
new type of multi-actor partnership might take, but it is certainly not too early to start looking into the issue
with a view to reaching conclusions before the 2014-2020 programming period.

        Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
               (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 10 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006
2.4        EU SECTORAL POLICIES TO SUPPORT THE MARITIME AGENDA

The considerations and proposals set out above give priority to introducing public interventions into the
maritime sector, based on the concepts of territory, sustainability and governance.

Horizontal and vertical integration of policies would nevertheless be meaningless if each of the sectoral
policies did not contribute individually to the major objectives fixed by the CPMR, namely the Lisbon and
Gothenburg agendas, the place of the regions and territorial cohesion.

The debate on the Green Paper should therefore provide the opportunity to entirely review these sectoral
policies.

The CPMR has already contributed towards this exercise:
      -      regular policy positions drafted with the support if its specialised working groups on policy areas
             such as fisheries, maritime safety, transport and research;
      -      some initial outline proposals focusing on the issues of maritime transport and research, available
             in the second interim report of the Europe of the Sea cooperation project.

The CPMR will carry on with this work:
      -      in the field of energy, particularly in relation to maritime issues;
      -      in other areas, taking advantage of the geographic discussion seminars on the Green Paper that it
             will be organising after its publication; in this regard, the seminar in Bergen on 16 and 17 January
             has already provided a number of useful illustrations in the field of research;
      -      by continuing its action in the field of maritime safety, which particularly aims to make up for the
             shortcomings of the Erika III package;
      -      under the Europe of the Sea cooperation project by taking forward its considerations, up to the
             production of the final report, on the best way in which sectoral policies can contribute towards
             Europe’s maritime agenda.




          Opinion of the CPMR General Secretariat –The Regions, Legitimate stakeholders in an ambitious EU maritime policy
                 (CPMR’s second contribution to the Green Paper) – p. 11 - Ref: CRPMPPP060010 A0 – 27 janvier 2006

				
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