Shelly Cashman Series Discovering Computers Link to the Future

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					Chapter 1
Introduction to Computers
CHAPTER 1 OBJECTIVES
  Recognize the importance of computer
  literacy
  Identify the components of a computer
  Discuss the uses of the Internet and World
  Wide Web
  Identify the types of software
  Describe the categories of computers
  Identify the types of computer users
  Discuss various computer applications in
  society
COMPUTER LITERACY

Computer literacy
  Knowledge and understanding of
  computers and their uses
Computers are everywhere!
WHAT IS A COMPUTER AND
WHAT DOES IT DO?
Electronic machine controlled by
instructions stored in its own memory
Can accept data (input)
  raw facts, figures, and symbols
Can process data into information
Can produce results (output)
Can store the results for future use
WHY IS A COMPUTER SO
POWERFUL?
Speed
Reliability
Consistency
Storage
Communications
WHAT DOES A
COMPUTER DO?
Information Processing Cycle
  Input
  Process
  Output
  Storage
  Communication
 THE COMPONENTS OF A
 COMPUTER
Input Devices
Output Devices
System Unit
Storage Devices
Communications
Devices
NETWORKS AND THE
INTERNET
Network
  Collection of computers and devices
  connected together
Sharing resources
  hardware, software, data, information
Types
  Local area network - LAN
  Wide area network
NETWORKS AND THE
INTERNET
Internet: world-wide collection of
networks that connects millions of
computers
  Communications
  Information
  Shopping
  Banking and investing
  Classes
  Entertainment
NETWORKS AND THE
INTERNET
World Wide Web: billions of documents,
called Web pages, available to anyone
connected to the Internet
  Web page
  Web site
  Web browser
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
Software = Computer programs: the
series of instructions that tells the
computer what to do
  Installing programs
  Running programs
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
System Software
  Operating system
  Utility program
User interface
  Graphical user interface (GUI)
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
Application Software
  Performs specific tasks for users
   • Examples: Word processing, Spreadsheets,
     Games, Browsers, and much more
  Packaged software
  Custom software
COMPUTER SOFTWARE
Software Development
 Computer programmers
 Programming language
CATEGORIES OF
COMPUTERS
Personal computers (desktop)
Mobile computers and mobile devices
Mid-range server
Mainframe computers
Supercomputers
Embedded computers
PERSONAL COMPUTERS

Can perform all of its input, processing,
output, and storage activities by itself
One user
Size: fits on desk or lap
  desktop, notebook, laptop
Price: several thousand $ or less
MOBILE COMPUTERS AND
MOBILE DEVICES
Input through small keyboard or a
stylus; some use voice input
PDA (personal digital assistant)
  Provides calendar, appointment book,
  address book, calculator, notepad
Web-enabled handheld (smart phone)
  Price: several hundred $ or less
Tablet PC
  Price: several thousand $ or less
MID-RANGE SERVERS

Formerly called a minicomputer
Supports thousands of users
Users connect via a PC or terminal
MAINFRAME COMPUTERS

Large, expensive, very powerful
computer
Can handle hundreds or thousands of
connected users
Store huge amounts of data,
instructions, and information
SUPERCOMPUTERS

Fastest, most powerful computer
Used for applications requiring complex
mathematical calculations.
  Examples: weather forecasting, defense
COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
IN SOCIETY
 Education
 Finance
 Government
 Health care
 Science
 Publishing
 Travel
 Industry
Chapter 1 Complete