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					                                                      Report No: CR-2004/33




                   CONCRETE PAVEMENT RESEARCH
                    Construction Report: CR-2004/33
                        HVS Testing of the Concrete
                   Test Sections on the N3 near Hilton
                                Version: Final



Author:                                                             AC Brink


PREPARED BY:                                           CSIR Transportek
                                                       PO Box 395
                                                       PRETORIA, 0001
                                                       Tel.: +27 12 841 2905
                                                       Fax: +27 12 841 3232


                        Programme:                     Transport Infrastructure
                        Programme Manager:             B Verhaeghe


PREPARED FOR:
Department of Transport      South African National        Cement & Concrete
and Public Works: Gauteng    Road Agency Limited           Institute
Directorate: Design          PO Box 415                    PO Box 168
Private Bag X3               Pretoria                      Halfway House
Lynn East, 0039              0001                          1685
DOCUMENT RETRIEVAL PAGE                                                     Report No: CR-2004/33
Title:    CONCRETE PAVEMENT RESEARCH Construction Report: CR-2004/33. HVS Testing of
the Concrete Test Sections on the N3 Near Hilton
Author: AC Brink
Client:                     Client Reference No:            Date:                  Distribution:
Gautrans                                                    July 2004              Restricted
Project No: TIR90           OE2:    9431: Transport Infrastructure                 ISBN:
                                    9435: Field Operations
Abstract:
Based on the use of cncPave and the monitoring of the performance of existing concrete roads and
trial sections, it became apparent that verification was needed to refine and calibrate the performance
models used in the following four major categories: slab support, materials, load transfer and variation
introduced through construction methods. Although several of the needs that were identified will be
addressed by university students (from the Universities of Stellenbosch, Witwatersrand and Pretoria),
the most prominent ones required some form of accelerated pavement testing to yield the desired
outcomes.


Two HVS experimental sections were therefore constructed near Hilton, adjacent to National Road N3
in order to investigate primarily the relationship between the loss in load transfer through aggregate
interlock at a joint with time (wearing out of aggregate) and loading, aggregate quality and size,
concrete quality and shrinkage, as well as the reduction in load transfer over time, in particular that of
the concrete surrounding the steel, in the dowelled sections that were constructed.


This report describes the environmental conditions experienced during construction of the trial
sections, as well as the quality of the construction materials used. Specific aspects relating to the
construction techniques employed are also highlighted.
Proposals for implementation:
   Research
Related documents (e.g. software, interim or other reports, working drawings etc):
   First and second analysis reports produced after completion of the HVS tests.
   Shrinkage investigation conducted on the concrete used in the construction of the test sections.
Signatures:




Pieter Strauss and                             B Verhaeghe
Bryan Perrie          Ciaran M Mac Carron      Programme             P Hendricks         E van Heerden
Technical Review      Language editor          Manager               Division Director   Info Centre




                                                  i
                               TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                         Page
1     INTRODUCTION                                          1
2     ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION          2
3     PAVEMENT STRUCTURE OF TRIAL SECTIONS                  3
    3.1   IN SITU MATERIAL                                  3
    3.2   SUBBASE                                           3
    3.3   LAYOUT OF THE CONCRETE TRIAL SECTIONS             5
    3.4   CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES                           7
    3.5   DEFLECTION TESTING                                7
4     GENERAL ACTIVITIES                                   11
5     SUMMARY                                              12



APPENDICES:
APPENDIX A: CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS
APPENDIX B: SUBGRADE AND SUBBASE MATERIAL TEST RESULTS
APPENDIX C: CONCRETE MIX DESIGNS
APPENDIX D: FWD TEST RESULTS
APPENDIX E: PHOTOS




                                    ii
1   INTRODUCTION


    Based on the use of cncPave and the monitoring of the performance of existing concrete
    roads and trial sections, it became apparent that verification was needed to refine and
    calibrate the performance models used in the following four major categories: namely slab
    support, materials, load transfer and variation introduced through construction methods.
    Although several of the needs listed below are or will be addressed by university students
    (from the Universities of Stellenbosch, Witwatersrand and Pretoria), the most prominent ones
    require some form of accelerated pavement testing to yield the desired outcomes.


    Two HVS experimental concrete sections were therefore constructed near Hilton,
    approximately midway between Pietermaritzburg and Howick, adjacent to National Road N3
    in order to investigate the following variables in the concrete:


    1.      Joint type:               a.)      Dowels
                                      b.)      Plain Jointed with aggregate interlock
    2.      Aggregate type:           a.)      Dolerite 26 mm stone size
                                      b.)      Quartzite 26 mm stone size

    In order to evaluate these variables the concrete trial sections were constructed as follows:


    1.      A PCC section containing 26 mm dolerite stone, with 6 plain/aggregate interlock joints
            and 6 dowelled joints; and
    2.      A PCC section containing 26 mm quartzite stone, with 6 plain/aggregate interlock
            joints and 6 dowelled joints.


    The concrete slab with dolerite aggregate (from Lafarge Pietermaritzburg quarry) was cast on
    31 July 2003 with concrete supplied by Lafarge Readymix. The concrete slab with quartzite
    aggregate (from Holcim Coedmore quarry in Durban) was cast on 2 August 2003 with
    concrete supplied by Holcim Readymix. For construction of the quartzite concrete sections,
    the aggregate was transported from Durban to the Lafarge site in Pietermaritzburg where the
    cement and water were added. The haul distances for both concrete mixes were thus the
    same. The PCC slab thickness throughout was 150 mm.


    The environmental conditions experienced during construction of the trial sections are
    described in the following report. The quality of the materials used for the various layers, as
    well as for the concrete itself, is presented in detail.       Specific aspects relating to the
    construction techniques employed, workability and differences in the concrete mixes,
    compaction and finishing of the concrete are also highlighted.




                                                                                                    1
2   ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS DURING CONSTRUCTION


    The weather conditions on the two days of concrete casting differed in all respects. On
    Thursday 31 July 2003 the sun was shining, the ambient temperature as measured on site, in
    the shade at 12 o’clock, was 21.5°C and the relative humidity was 37%. In contrast, on
    Saturday 2 August, it was cloudy, with occasional rain. The ambient temperature measured
    on site was 13.3°C and the relative humidity was 72%.      The following air temperatures
    measured on site at approximately the same time each day for a week ranged between 11.2
    and 22.6°C and relative humidity varied between 40 and 74% as indicated in Table 1. The
    corresponding data for Cedara Weather Station (approximately XXX km south of the test site)
    are also given.


    Table 1: Relative humidity and air temperature during construction
       Date                 On site                      Cedara weather station
                  Temperature         RH (%)       Temperature (°C)                 RH (%)
                     (°C)                      Maximum        Minimum
      31/07          21.5              37        20.0             5.8                 87
       1/08            23.0            40        27.0                7.7              43
       2/08            13.3            72        12.3                8.7              59
       3/08                No data               17.5                6.3              88
       4/08            21.1            34        21.8                2.9              63
       5/08            11.2            74         9.8                3.4              95
       6/08            22.5            58        16.3                5.5              93
       7/08            22.6            45        20.6                3.6              70
       8/08            21.3            55        23.3                7.6              51




    The wind speed and wind direction data were also obtained from the weather station at
    Cedara. Records of wind speed and wind direction measured at the Cedara weather station
    indicated that there was no wind at Cedara during the period investigated. However, the
    people who were on site while the concrete was being cast reported that a chilly wind was
    blowing at Hilton itself.




                                                                                             2
3     PAVEMENT STRUCTURE OF TRIAL SECTIONS
3.1   IN SITU MATERIAL


      A total of 20 DCP’s were done on the in situ material to determine its quality. The CBR
      derived from the DCP results was approximately 15 MPa. Based on the CBR values, the in
      situ material or roadbed could be classified as a G7 gravel soil. The laboratory test results
      however, indicated that the in situ material had a CBR of 2% at 93% of modified AASHTO
      density. The Optimum Moisture Content was 17.6% and the Maximum Dry Density (MDD)
      was 1702 kg/m3. As regards the soil constants, the Liquid Limit was 44, the Plasticity Index
      was 12 and the Linear Shrinkage was 6. The quality of the in situ material did not, therefore,
      even meet that of a G10 material (for which a minimum CBR of 3% at 93% of modified
      AASHTO density is required). In terms of road construction this material would be classified
      as spoil. Because of this the in situ material was dug out to a depth of 450 mm and replaced
      with imported weathered granite (G5) material (see 3.2 below).


      The subgrade material test results, as well as the profiles of test pits dug prior to construction
      of the trial sections, are given in Appendix B.


3.2   SUBBASE


      Concrete pavements traditionally consist of a stabilised subbase layer, which provides
      support to the concrete layer, as well as of a subgrade layer. In order to reduce the testing
      time and cost, whilst still meeting the objectives of the study, it was proposed that the support
      layers for the PCC sections consist of three 150 mm G5-layers on the in situ material, which
      would be assumed to be uniform. This assumption would be verified by evaluating the as-
      built data and by conducting post-construction Dynamic Cone Penetrometer (DCP) and
      deflection tests.


      The test results of the material sampled prior to construction of the trial sections are given in
      Appendix B.     The as-built materials test results of the selected and subbase layers are
      summarised in Table 1 and a cross-section of the pavement structure is given in Figure 1.
      The selected and subbase layers were all constructed with weathered granite material.




                                                                                                      3
                              150 mm Quartzite /
                              Dolerite concrete


                              150 mm Weathered Granite,
                              natural gravel (G5) subbase

                              150 mm Weathered Granite,
                              natural gravel (G5) upper selected

                              150 mm Weathered Granite,
                              natural gravel (G5) lower selected




                              In situ soil




Figure 1: Cross-section of pavement structure


Table 2: As-built material test results of selected and subbase layers
 Metres    Position   Depth        MDD             OMC         Density       MC    % Comp.
                                             3                          3
                      (mm)       (kg/m )           (%)             (kg/m )   (%)
 Subbase
   4         LHS       150         2050            9.1              2038     6.5     99.4
   9         RHS                   2050                             2054     6.0    100.2
   15         CL                   2050            9.1              2056     7.8    100.3
   21        LHS                   2050                             2019     7.4     98.5
   28        RHS                   2050            9.1              2084     5.6    101.7
   36         CL                   2050                             2021     6.5     98.6
   41        LHS                   2050            9.1              2013     6.7     98.2
   47        RHS                   2050                             2088     6.2    101.9
 Upper selected
   6         RHS       150         2050            9.1              2001     4.0     97.6
   14         CL                   2050                             2086     5.1    101.8
   20        LHS                   2050            9.1              2037     5.1     99.4
   25         CL                   2050                             2056     3.2    100.3
   31        RHS                   2050            9.1              2048     4.1     99.9
   37         CL                   2050                             2114     3.5    103.1
   42        RHS                   2050            9.1              2024     3.3     98.7
   48         CL                   2050                             2067     4.0    100.8
 Lower selected
   5         RHS       150         2050            9.1              2002     4.1     97.7
   10         CL                   2050                             1975     7.0     96.3
   15        LHS                   2050            9.1              1985     6.1     96.8
   20         CL                   2050                             1902     5.2     92.8
   25        RHS                   2050            9.1              1933     4.2     94.3
   31         CL                   2050                             2021     4.8     98.6
   36        RHS                   2050            9.1              1947     4.5     95.0
   40         CL                   2050                             1983     5.0     96.7
   45        LHS                   2050            9.1              1920     4.7     93.7
   50         CL                   2050                             1938     6.0     94.5




                                                                                            4
3.3   LAYOUT OF THE CONCRETE TRIAL SECTIONS


      Each HVS test is done on an 8 m section. This means that, if a standard 4 m-panel length is
      used, two joints are tested. By appropriate positioning of the HVS, the full length of the mid
      panel (4m in length) together with half the lengths of each of the adjacent panels are tested in
      each HVS test. Thus, to conduct two HVS tests per variable, a minimum of six 4 m-panels
      were required. In addition, panels had to be provided at the beginning and the end of each
      test section to serve as a uniform foundation on which to position the HVS (see Figure 2).




                                   2m
                                  2000                    52000 (13 4m panels)
                                                          52m (13 x x 4000 panels)           ±5m
                                                                                             ±5000


                                             6 x Plain Joints             6 x Dowel Joints
          1m 3.5m 10003500 1000
                3500 1m 3.5m 1m




                                             150mm Concrete with Quartzite aggregate



                                             150mm Concrete with Dolerite aggregate
           1000




                                   3 x 150mm G7




      Figure 2: Schematic layout of trial sections




      During preparation for construction of the trial sections, it was decided that the concrete had
      to match the dolerite concrete mix which had been used in the construction of the
      continuously reinforced concrete inlays on the N3 at Hilton. The concrete containing the
      quartzite stone was therefore designed to match the dolerite concrete mix. In order to meet
      the requirements of the COLTO specification used during the construction of the inlays on the
      N3 the minimum 28-day characteristic strength of the concrete had to be 45 MPa, instead of
      35 MPa.                     The minimum 28-day characteristic strength of the concrete used for the trial
      sections was therefore also set at 45 MPa. The concrete mix designs are given in Appendix
      C. When the cement and water were added to the quartzite concrete mix at the Lafarge
      Pietermaritzburg plant, an additional 4 litres/m3 of Chrysofluid, which had not originally been
      incorporated in the concrete mix design, was added to increase the slump.




                                                                                                             5
Crack inducers (45 mm x 3 mm steel plates) were cast into the concrete at 4 m intervals at
the bottom of the slabs to form aggregate interlock cracks at the predetermined positions. For
the dowelled joints R20 dowels at 300 mm spacing supported on 65 mm x 3 mm steel plates
were placed at the bottom of the slab (see drawings in Appendix A).


At the crack-inducing plates on joints JP2, 3, 4, 16, 17, 18 and 19, crack measuring devices
were cast into the concrete to measure crack propagation. The crack measuring devices,
(illustrated in Photo 2) were designed and made by Dr Irvin Luker of the University of the
Witwatersrand and installed by Sebasti Badenhorst of Holcim (Pty) Ltd and Dr Wynand Steyn
of the CSIR. Movement at the joints and concrete temperatures were measured at 15 minute
intervals for seven days after casting. The results of this part of the investigation will be
published in a separate report.


Along the plain aggregate interlock joints, the dolerite aggregate concrete slab cracked in only
two joint positions and along the dowelled joint section, it cracked in only one joint position.
Along the plain aggregate interlock joints, the quartzite aggregate concrete slab cracked in
one place, approximately 300 mm from a joint and along the dowelled joint section; it cracked
in only one joint position. A schematic layout of the positions where the concrete cracked, with
joint and slab numbers is given in Figure 3.


            joint number                   Plain Joints                                           Dowel Joints


                  JP1        JP2     JP3         JP4        JP5     JP6     JD7     JD8     JD9       JD10        JD11    JD12

Quartzite
               Q1          Q2      Q3         Q4          Q5      Q6      Q7      Q8      Q9        Q10          Q11     Q12     Q13

slab number                                Plain Joints                                           Dowel Joints


                 JP15       JP16    JP17        JP18       JP19    JP20    JD21    JD22    JD23       JD24        JD25    JD26

Dolerite
               D14         D15     D16        D17         D18     D19     D20     D21     D22       D23          D24     D25     D26



                                                                                                     N



Figure 3: Schematic layout of shrinkage cracks with joint and slab numbers




The main reason for the quartzite aggregate concrete slab not cracking as required may be
because additional plasticizer was added to the concrete, which resulted in delayed setting
times. It could also be attributed to the low environmental temperatures, which reduced
hydration temperatures and delayed setting times in the concrete. In addition to this, the main
reason for the slabs not cracking at the crack inducers is that the ends of the concrete slabs
were not restrained against shrinkage movement.




                                                                                                                                       6
      The results of the compressive strength, ITS, modulus of rupture, cylinder E modulus,
      shrinkage and expansion tests done on samples of the concrete are summarized in Tables 3
      and 4. The first delivery of concrete from Holcim was not used. Thus only the results of tests
      on the concrete in trucks 2 to 6 are reported in Table 4.


3.4   CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES


      The layer works for the concrete slabs were constructed with standard construction
      equipment. No special techniques were required. The subbase had to be constructed to
      strict level tolerances in order to create a sound working platform for the concrete. The
      shuttering and joint formers were put up, as shown in Photo 1, with special strain gauges on
      custom made brackets for measuring shrinkage at the cracks (Photo 2).


      The concrete was delivered to site in rotating drum mixers and poured into the shuttering with
      a chute (Photo 3). The concrete was then levelled by hand (Photo 4), compacted with poker
      vibrators and levelled with a wooden float (Photo 5). The concrete surface was treated with a
      white-pigmented resin-based curing compound (Resincure HW from Samsons Construction
      Products), after finishing.


3.5   DEFLECTION TESTING


      Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) testing was conducted during October 2003. On both
      concrete trial sections, tests were done across each joint position both at the northern side
      and at the southern side (in the wheel paths) on the concrete. The normalised deflection
      results are given in Appendix D. The relative movement calculated across the joint positions
      is indicated in Figures 4 and 5.


      As indicated in Figure 3, the concrete cracked close to joint JP3 and at joint JD7 on the
      quartzite concrete section. Similarly, the dolerite concrete section cracked close to joint JP16
      and at joints JP18 and JD21. From Figures 4 and 5 it is obvious that increased relative
      movements occurred where the concrete was cracked.




                                                                                                    7
                                      120

                                                                                                            Quartzite South
                                                                                                            Quartzite North
                                      100
         Relative movement (micron)


                                       80




                                       60




                                       40




                                       20




                                        0
                                            JP1    JP2    JP3    JP4    JP5    JP6    JD7    JD8    JD9    JD10    JD11       JD12

                                                                                  Joint




Figure 4: FWD relative movement across joints in quartzite concrete




                                      120

                                                                                                            Dolerite South
                                                                                                            Dolerite North
                                      100
 Relative movement (micron)




                                       80




                                       60




                                       40




                                       20




                                        0
                                            JP15   JP16   JP17   JP18   JP19   JP20   JD21   JD22   JD23   JD24   JD25        JD26

                                                                                  Joint



Figure 5: FWD relative movement across joints in dolerite concrete




                                                                                                                                     8
         Table 3: Dolerite concrete test results ex Lafarge. Cast 31 July 2003
     Description         Age              Truck 1                   Truck 2                   Truck 3                   Truck 4                   Truck 5
100 x 100 x 100 mm      3 days     2.2      3.5      4.0     3.4      3.4      3.2     6.5      4.3      4.6     5.1      2.2      2.8     6.3      5.3      4.5
cube ITS (MPa)          Average             3.2                       3.3                       5.1                       3.4                       5.4
100mm x 150mm core,     3 days    1.910    2.037    3.226   1.657    1.655    2.165   2.759    2.546    2.491   2.122    1.655    2.377   2.716    2.249    2.249
ITS (MPa)               Average            2.391                     1.896                     2.599                     2.051                     2.405
150 x 150 x 150 mm      7 days    36.5     34.5     36.5    34.0     34.0     37.0    44.0     41.5     42.5    37.5     39.5     42.0    37.5     38.5     36.0
Compressive strength
                        Average            35.5                      35.0                      42.5                      39.5                      37.5
(MPa)
750mm x 150mm beam      7 days    4.033    3.536    3.589                             3.751    4.035    3.868                             3.937    3.655    3.032
strength (MPa)          Average            3.719                                               3.885                                               3.608
100 x 100 x 100 mm      7 days     5.1      4.3      3.9     4.8      5.1      4.1     5.2      5.8      5.5     6.3      6.1      5.9     5.3      6.4      6.9
cube ITS (MPa)          Average             4.4                       4.7                       5.5                       6.1                       6.2
100mm x 150mm core,     7 days    3.268    3.141    3.268   2.292    2.674    3.353   2.886    3.353    2.504   2.452    2.531    2.464   2.504    3.436    2.504
ITS (MPa)               Average            3.225                     2.773                     2.914                     2.519                     2.815
150 x 150 x 150 mm      28 days   47.5     46.0     47.5    48.0     48.0     46.5    45.0     53.5     49.5    50.5     55.0     48.0    48.0     52.5     50.5
Compressive strength
                        Average            47.0                      47.5                      49.5                      51.0                      50.5
(MPa)
750mm x 150mm beam      28 days   4.870    4.790    5.310                             4.650    5.000    5.420                             4.890    4.760    4.940
strength (MPa)          Average            4.990                                               5.090                                               4.860
100 x 100 x 100 mm      28 days    5.8      6.5      5.6     5.6      5.9      5.5     7.5      6.0      6.4     7.4      7.5      8.1     7.4      7.7      6.9
cube ITS (MPa)          Average             6.0                       5.7                       6.6                       7.7                       7.3
100mm x 150mm core,     28 days   3.395    3.056    2.801   2.531    3.608    2.716   3.777    3.735    3.013   3.480    3.692    3.777   3.523    3.353    3.310
ITS (MPa)               Average            3.064                     2.985                     3.508                     3.650                     3.395
E modulus (GPa)         28 days                             32.8     32.6                                       39.6     34.1     36.7    35.4     34.0     34.4
                        Average                                      32.7                                                36.8                      34.6
Shrinkage % (l/l)                                           0.037    0.036    0.380   0.370    0.390    0.041   0.040    0.041    0.040   0.047    0.044    0.043
                        Average                                      0.037                     0.039                     0.040                     0.045
Expansion % (l/l)                                           0.023    0.020    0.023   0.021    0.023    0.021   0.023    0.020    0.020   0.030    0.025    0.025
                        Average                                      0.022                     0.022                     0.021                     0.027




                                                                                                                                                                    9
         Table 4: Quartzite concrete test results ex Holcim. Cast 2 August 2003
     Description         Age             Truck 2                   Truck 3                   Truck 4                   Truck 5                   Truck 6
100 x 100 x 100 mm     3 days     4.4      4.5      4.8     3.9      4.4      4.3     5.0      3.9      4.8     5.4      4.7      4.6     4.1      5.0      4.7
cube ITS (MPa)         Average             4.6                       4.2                       4.6                       5.0                       4.6
100mm x 150mm core,    3 days    2.080    2.716    2.037   1.910    2.334    2.716   2.249    1.740    1.995   1.867    2.037    2.419   2.207    2.080    2.462
ITS (MPa)              Average            2.278                     2.320                     1.995                     2.108                     2.250
150 x 150 x 150 mm     7 days     35.5    34.5     35.0    38.0     34.0     34.5    38.0     38.0     38.0    36.5     31.0     37.0    35.5     35.5     37.0
Compressive strength
                       Average            35.0                      35.5                      38.0                      35.0                      36.0
(MPa)
750mm x 150mm beam     7 days    3.630    3.190    3.490                             3.517    3.505    3.060                             2.964    3.673    3.523
strength (MPa)         Average            3.437                                               3.367                                               3.387
100 x 100 x 100 mm     7 days     5.2      5.4      4.7     5.6      5.7      5.6     5.4      6.4      5.9     5.8      6.6      5.8     6.5      5.6      6.5
cube ITS (MPa)         Average             5.1                       5.6                       6.2                       6.1                       6.2
100mm x 150mm core,    7 days    2.631    2.528    2.334   2.546    1.910    2.886   3.056    3.574    1.740   2.801    2.574    2.589   2.334    2.674    2.419
ITS (MPa)              Average            2.498                     2.447                     2.823                     2.588                     2.476
150 x 150 x 150 mm     28 days    49.5    47.0     51.0    47.5     48.5     49.0    48.0     51.5     46.5    47.0     45.0     45.5    50.0     50.0     45.5
Compressive strength
                       Average            49.0                      48.5                      48.5                      46.0                      48.5
(MPa)
750mm x 150mm beam     28 days   4.930    4.977    4.925                             4.935    4.588    4.911                             4.858    4.999    4.849
strength (MPa)         Average            4.944                                               4.845                                               4.902
100 x 100 x 100 mm     28 days    6.1      6.3      7.1     7.6      6.2      7.1     7.6      6.6      7.3     6.4      8.0      6.9     7.5      6.8      6.7
cube ITS (MPa)         Average             6.5                       7.0                       7.2                       7.1                       7.0
100mm x 150mm core,    28 days   3.310    2.928    3.013   2.886    2.716    3.098   3.395    3.098    2.928   3.310    3.138    2.716   2.928    3.148    3.353
ITS (MPa)              Average            3.064                     2.900                     3.140                     3.070                     3.141
E modulus (GPa)        28 days    30.7    30.9     29.4                              31.7     31.6     39.9    31.4     30.2     34.0    31.4     30.2     34.0
                       Average            30.4                                                31.0                      31.8                      31.8
Shrinkage % (l/l)                0.047    0.051    0.054   0.054    0.049    0.050   0.048    0.054    0.054   0.052    0.051    0.050   0.053    0.054    0.051
                       Average            0.051                     0.051                     0.052                     0.051                     0.053
Expansion % (l/l)                0.025    0.026    0.028   0.033    0.028    0.029   0.025    0.027    0.030   0.027    0.030    0.029   0.029    0.032    0.027
                       Average            0.026                     0.030                     0.027                     0.029                     0.029




                                                                                                                                                                   10
4   GENERAL ACTIVITIES


    Data capturing, validation, processing and analysis will be ongoing activities during the test
    programme and the output data will be incorporated into a first-level output report. A project
    management group, consisting of the Research Project Manager, the HVS Project Engineer
    and the HVS Operational Manager, will be responsible for the day-to-day technical
    management of the project. Monthly site meetings will be held to discuss progress, as well as
    technical and operational issues:


    1.     Weekly progress reports, summarizing the key issues for the client, will be prepared.
           The HVS Technician will compile this report from data provided by the HVS Operator.
           The report will be approved and forwarded to the Client by the CSIR Project Manager
           or the HVS Operational Manager. It will contain the following information: date, week
           number, section number, wheel load, tyre pressure, repetitions for the week and total
           repetitions for the section, water applications, weather details, machine productivity,
           as well as a summary of operational times, pavement condition deterioration,
           measurements taken and scheduled, progress according to plan.


    2.     A monthly report will be presented at each monthly technical meeting. The Client, the
           CSIR Project Manager, the Research Manager, the HVS Project Engineer and key
           members of the project team will be invited to attend this meeting. Other interested
           parties, including members of the APT Steering Committee, will also be invited.
           Issues to be presented and discussed will include: adherence to the objectives of the
           study, testing progress, deviation from the test programme, data collected, laboratory
           testing and interim results. Minutes of the meeting will be recorded and distributed.
           Copies of the minutes and presentations will be stored on the HVS website and
           database.


    3.     A first-level analysis report will be compiled when all testing has been completed and
           data captured. It will provide a summary of the measurements taken, test
           interventions and behaviour. The HVS Project Engineer will prepare the report with
           assistance provided by the HVS Operational Manager, reviewed by the Research
           Manager and approved by the CSIR Project Manager before being submitted to the
           Client. The report will include the following chapters: introduction, general aspects
           and test conditions, HVS test results, section assessment, conclusions and
           recommendations, references, and appendices.


    4.     A second-level analysis report will be compiled on completion of the investigation. It
           will summarise the experimental design, relationships between laboratory test results
           and HVS test results, amongst others, data analysis and the findings. Ways of


                                                                                               11
            implementing the findings will be recommended. The content of the report will be
            aligned with the objectives of the study (i.e. calibration of models addressing load
            transfer across joints and slab support, concrete shrinkage, and estimation of
            remaining life of the inlays). The Research Manager will prepare the report with
            assistance from the HVS Project Engineer and the CSIR Project Manager, in
            consultation with an industry task group.


    5.      The outcomes of the study will be disseminated to industry. A series of courses will be
            held under the auspices of C&CI. Feedback will also be provided at the RPF meetings
            in November 2003 and in May and November 2004, as well as at other appropriate
            venues.




5   SUMMARY


    The layer works for the concrete pavement trial sections at Hilton were constructed during
    July 2003. The PCC dolerite sections were cast on 31 July 2003 and the quartzite sections
    on 2 August 2003.


    The main aim of the concrete trial sections at Hilton was to conduct HVS testing across the
    aggregate interlock and doweled joints created by crack inducers cast into the concrete at
    4 m intervals. However, the concrete did not crack at all the pre-determined positions and in
    some places the joints will have to be saw-cut to induce a crack, thereby creating an 8 m test
    section with two joints/cracks.




                                                                                                12
APPENDIX A: CONSTRUCTION DRAWINGS




                                    13
14
15
16
APPENDIX B: SUBGRADE AND SUBBASE
       MATERIAL TEST RESULTS




                                   17
                              SUMMARY OF MATERIAL TEST RESULTS
SAMPLE DESCRIPTION                   N3 (Soilco results)
 Sample number                         P1285        P1286
 Sample position                        1973          S16
 Date                                                        25-Jul-03
 Sample depth (mm)                                 In situ
                                                   Yel br
                                                   weath
  Material description                 Granite     shale
SIEVE ANALYSIS (% Passing)
                 75.00 mm
                 63.00 mm                           100
                 53.00 mm                            81
                 37.50 mm                            71
                 26.50 mm               100          58
                 19.00 mm               96          56
                 13.20 mm               90          53
                  4.75 mm               57           49
                  2.00 mm               32           45
                 0.425 mm               14          37
                 0.075 mm                4          28
SOIL MORTAR
  Coarse sand          2.000-0.425       58
  Coarse fine sand 0.425-0.250           14
  Medium fine sand 0.250-0.150           10
  Fine fine sand       0.150-0.075        6
  Material                  <0.075       12
CONSTANTS
  Grading modulus                        2.5        1.9
  Liquid limit                           31         44
  Plasticity index                        5         12
  Linear shrinkage (%)                   2.0        6.0
  Sand equivalent
  Classification - TRB                A-1-A(0)    A-2-7(0)
  Classification - TRH14                G6          G10
CBR/UCS VALUES
MOD. AASHTO
                         3
  Max. dry density (kg/m )              2050       1702
  Optimum moisture cont (%)              9.1       17.6
  Moulding moisture content (%)
                     3
  Dry density (kg/m )
  % of max. dry density
  100% mod CBR/UCS
  % swell                                0.0        2.1
NRB
                     3
  Dry density (kg/m )
  % of max. dry density
  100% mod CBR/UCS
  % swell
PROCTOR
                     3
  Dry density (kg/m )
  % of max. dry density
  100% mod CBR/UCS
  % swell
CBR/UCS VALUES
  100% mod AASHTO                       100          3
  98% mod AASHTO                         80          3
  97% mod AASHTO
  95% mod AASHTO                         60          2
  93% mod AASHTO                         40          2
  90% mod AASHTO                         20          1




                                                                         18
IN SITU SUBGRADE PROFILING RESULTS


Test pit     Depth                          Material description                             Origin
number       (mm)
   1        0 – 300     Dark brown slightly moist medium dense intact clayey sand +        Transported
                        roots + gravels
           300 – 600    Dark brown/light yellow-brown moist dense intact clayey sand       Transported
                        + gravels
           600 - 1000   Dark red brown moist dense intact clayey sand                      Transported
   2        0 – 250     Dark brown slightly moist very dense intact clayey sand +          Transported
                        roots + gravels                                                    / Imported
           250 – 540    Dark brown/dark grey very moist dense intact clayey sand +         Transported
                        gravels
           540 - 1060   Dark red-brown moist dense intact clayey sand                      Transported
   3        0 – 450     Dark brown/light yellow moist dense intact clayey sand +           Transported
                        roots + gravel                                                     / Imported
           450 - 1010   Dark red -brown moist dense intact clayey sand                     Transported
   4        0 – 500     Dark brown/light grey slightly moist dense intact clayey sand      Transported
                        + roots + gravel                                                   / Imported
           500 - 1050   Dark yellow-brown dark red moist dense intact clayey sand          Transported
   5        0 – 150     Dark brown moist dense in tact clayey sand + roots + gravel        Transported
                                                                                           / Imported
           150 – 410    Dark brown /ark red-brown moist dense intact clayey sand +         Transported
                        gravel
           410 - 1000   Dark red /ark yellow moist dense intact clayey sand with tillite   Transported
   6        0 – 120     Dark brown slightly moist very dense intact clayey sand +          Transported
                        roots + gravel                                                     / Imported
           120 - 600    Dark brown/dark grey slightly moist very dense intact clayey       Transported
                        sand + shale gravel
           600 - 1080   Dark yellow-orange moist dense intact clayey sand                  Transported
   7        0 – 200     Dark brown/dark grey lightly moist dense intact clayey sand +      Transported
                        roots + gravel                                                     / Imported
           200 – 490    Dark brown/dark yellow lightly moist intact clayey sand +          Transported
                        gravel
           490 - 1030   Dark yellow brown moist dense intact clayey sand with tillite      Transported
   8        0 – 450     Dark brown/dark grey slightly moist very dense intact sand +       Transported
                        roots + gravel + asphalt                                           / Imported
           450 – 660    Dark grey moist medium dense intact clayey sand                    Transported

           660 - 1180   Dark yellow-brown /ght orange moist medium dense intact            Transported
                        clayey sand
   9        0 – 200     Dark brown/dark grey slightly moist very dense intact sand +       Transported
                        roots + gravel                                                     / Imported
           200 – 480    Dark yellow-brown/dark brown moist dense intact clayey             Transported
                        sand + gra-brown /ark brown moist dense intact clayey sand
           480 – 600                                                                       Transported
                        Dark yellow moist dense intact clayey sand with tillite
           600 – 1080                                                                      Transported
  10        0 – 200     Dark brown/dark yellow slightly moist very dense intact            Transported
                        clayey sand + gravel                                               / Imported
           200 – 480    Dark brown/dark grey moist dense intact clayey sand +              Transported
                        gravel
           480 - 1066   Dark yellow-brown moist very dense intact clayey sand with         Transported
                        tillite




                                                                                                      19
APPENDIX C: CONCRETE MIX DESIGNS




                                   20
21
22
APPENDIX D: FWD TEST RESULTS




                               23
DOLERITE CONCRETE: TEST DIRECTION EAST
Date : 2003/10/03
Data File : C:\FWD Data 2003\Corrie du Preez\University of PTA\266-09-03-PS-D\DOLSOUTH.F25

STATION     LOAD      LOAD      PVMT       AIR                                   NORMALIZED DEFLECTIONS                   DEFLECTION BOWL PARAMETERS
             kPa       kN       TEMP      TEMP       D1        D2        D3        D4      D5      D6     D7   D8   D9   Vmax     BLI     MLI     LLI
  0.044      566       40        13        16        157       152       144      128     116      86     63   46   36    157      13      28     29
  0.040      566       40        13        16        168       171       159      137     118      86     62   45   34    168       9      41     32
  0.036      566       40        13        16        166       159       148      132     119      90     66   49   37    166      18      29     29
  0.032      566       40        13        16        224       239       193      165     141     100     68   47   35    224      31      52     41
  0.028      566       40        13        16        158       153       142      127     115      88     66   49   38    158      16      27     27
  0.024      566       40        13        16        144       138       127      112     101      78     59   44   34    144      17      26     23
  0.020      566       40        13        16        197       211       181      156     134      94     67   48   37    197      17      47     39
  0.016      566       40        13        16        144       140       131      114     101      75     56   42   33    144      13      30     26
  0.012      566       40        13        16        161       157       148      130     116      88     66   50   39    161      13      32     29
  0.008      566       40        13        16        154       152       142      123     110      84     63   48   37    154      12      32     25
  0.004      566       40        13        16        141       139       128      110      94      68     47   34   25    141      14      33     27
  0.000      566       40        13        16        157       153       139      121     107      77     56   38   30    157      17      32     30


DOLERITE CONCRETE: TEST DIRECTION WEST
Date : 2003/10/03
Data File : C:\FWD Data 2003\Corrie du Preez\University of PTA\266-09-03-PS-D\DOLNORTH.F25

STATION     LOAD      LOAD      PVMT       AIR                                   NORMALIZED DEFLECTIONS                   DEFLECTION BOWL PARAMETERS
             kPa       kN       TEMP      TEMP       D1        D2        D3        D4      D5      D6     D7   D8   D9   Vmax     BLI     MLI     LLI
  0.112      566       40        13        16        165       159       148      130     117      88     64   48   37    165      17      31     29
  0.116      566       40        13        16        172       171       161      139     120      86     63   45   35    172      11      41     33
  0.120      566       40        13        16        166       155       147      131     119      89     67   49   37    166      19      28     30
  0.124      566       40        13        16        247       271       166      146     127      92     66   46   37    247      81      40     35
  0.128      566       40        13        15        162       155       143      126     113      86     64   47   37    162      19      30     27
  0.132      566       40        13        15        148       140       130      115     103      79     60   45   35    148      18      26     24
  0.136      566       40        13        16        201       215       183      157     135      96     68   49   37    201      19      48     39
  0.140      566       40        13        15        147       141       133      116     102      76     57   44   34    147      14      31     26
  0.144      566       40        13        16        164       161       151      132     117      90     69   52   41    164      13      34     27
  0.148      566       40        13        16        160       156       147      129     114      87     64   47   35    160      13      33     28
  0.152      566       40        13        16        142       138       128      110      95      68     48   33   23    142      14      33     27
  0.156      566       40        13        16        153       153       139      120     106      79     58   41   31    153      15      32     28




                                                                                                                                                        24
QUARTZITE CONCRETE: TEST DIRECTION EAST
Date : 2003/10/03
Data File : C:\FWD Data 2003\Corrie du Preez\University of PTA\266-09-03-PS-D\QTZSOUTH.F25

STATION     LOAD      LOAD      PVMT       AIR                                   NORMALIZED DEFLECTIONS                   DEFLECTION BOWL PARAMETERS
             kPa       kN       TEMP      TEMP       D1        D2        D3        D4      D5      D6     D7   D8   D9   Vmax     BLI     MLI     LLI
  0.232      566       40        13        17        155       148       138      121     110      82     60   43   33    155      17      28     28
  0.228      566       40        13        17        156       146       133      116     102      74     53   38   28    156      23      31     28
  0.224      566       40        13        17        200       206       170      144     121      81     54   37   26    200      31      48     41
  0.220      566       40        13        17        144       136       125      111      98      72     51   36   26    144      19      27     26
  0.216      566       40        13        16        148       139       127      112      98      72     51   36   27    148      21      28     26
  0.212      566       40        13        17        147       137       125      110      97      72     51   37   28    147      21      29     25
  0.208      566       40        13        16        214       227       191      161     136      94     63   42   31    214      23      54     43
  0.204      566       40        13        16        157       147       139      121     106      78     57   42   33    157      18      33     28
  0.200      566       40        13        16        166       161       149      130     115      85     62   46   35    166      17      34     30
  0.196      566       40        13        16        163       155       144      126     109      78     55   39   29    163      19      36     30
  0.192      566       40        13        16        146       137       125      107      93      64     43   30   20    146      21      33     28
  0.188      566       40        13        16        151       141       131      116     101      73     51   35   25    151      20      30     28


QUARTZITE CONCRETE: TEST DIRECTION WEST
Date : 2003/10/03
Data File : C:\FWD Data 2003\Corrie du Preez\University of PTA\266-09-03-PS-D\QTZNORTH.F25

STATION     LOAD      LOAD      PVMT       AIR                                   NORMALIZED DEFLECTIONS                   DEFLECTION BOWL PARAMETERS
             kPa       kN       TEMP      TEMP       D1        D2        D3        D4      D5      D6     D7   D8   D9   Vmax     BLI     MLI     LLI
  0.285      566       40        13        18        162       160       139      125     109      88     51   38   31    162      23      29     22
  0.289      566       40        13        18        155       147       133      115     102      76     54   39   28    155      21      31     26
  0.293      566       40        13        18        196       208       174      147     123      84     55   36   24    196      22      50     40
  0.297      566       40        13        17        145       134       125      111      98      71     49   35   24    145      20      27     27
  0.301      566       40        13        17        149       139       126      111      96      71     50   36   26    149      23      30     26
  0.305      566       40        13        17        143       134       123      107      94      70     50   36   28    143      21      28     25
  0.309      566       40        13        18        211       223       194      163     137      92     62   42   31    211      17      58     45
  0.313      566       40        13        17        150       144       133      117     103      76     56   42   32    150      17      30     28
  0.317      566       40        13        17        163       159       145      127     112      83     60   45   34    163      18      33     29
  0.321      566       40        13        17        158       154       141      122     105      75     52   36   26    158      16      36     30
  0.325      566       40        13        17        146       137       125      108      93      65     44   29   21    146      21      33     28
  0.329      566       40        13        17        152       144       131      115     100      74     51   36   24    152      21      31     26




                                                                                                                                                        25
APPENDIX E: PHOTOS




                     26
Photo 1: Shuttering for dolerite concrete section complete with joint formers for aggregate
interlock joints – dowel cages in background




Photo 2: Aggregate interlock joint former and shrinkage measuring devices




                                                                                        27
Photo 3: First concrete pour




Photo 4: Hand-leveling of concrete



                                     28
Photo 5: Leveling the concrete




Photo 6: Completed concrete slabs




                                    29

				
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