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CONTOH CONTOH SOAL by sanmelody

VIEWS: 940 PAGES: 8

									                                              MODUL XIII

                                 Cold Forged Rivets to BS 4620: 1998


           Note: The Standard BS 4620 has been declared obsolescent as it is no longer used for
                                           current technologies....




           Non-
           Preferred
           sizes
                               90
                              Deg Snap Hd       Universal Hd   Flat Head
                  Nominal     Csk
                          Dia
                   Shank
                          Tol Nom Nom Nom Nom Nom              Nom Nom
                    dia                                Rad Rad
                               dia dia Depth dia Depth          dia Depth
                                D   D    K    D    K     R   r   D    K

                            +/-
                  1              2     1,8 0,6        2     0,4       3,0 0,6 2     0,25
                            0,07
                            +/-
                  1,2            2,4   2,1 0,7        2,4 0,5         3,6 0,7 2,4 0,3
                            0,07
                            +/-
                  1,6            3,2   2,8 1,0        3,2 0,6         4,8 1,0 3,2 0,4
                            0,07
                            +/-
                  2,0            4     3,5 1,2        4     0,8       6,0 1,2 4     0,6
                            0,07
                            +/-
                  2,5            5     4,4 1,5        5     1         7,5 1,5 5     0,8
                            0,07
                            +/-
                  3              6     5,3 1,8        6     1,2       9,0 1,8 6     0,9
                            0,07
                            +/-
                  3,5            7     6,1 2,1        7     1,4       10,5 2,1 7    1,0
                            0,09
                            +/-
                  4              8     7      2,4     8     1,6       12   2,4 8    1,3
                            0,09
                            +/-
                  5              10    8,8 3,0        10    2,0       15   3,0 9    1,5
                            0,09
                            +/-
                  6              12    10,5 3,6       12    2,4       18   3,6 10   1,8
                            0,09
                            +/-
                  7              14    12.3 4,2       14    2,8       21   4,2 14   2,0
                            0,11
                            +/-
                  8              16    14     4,8     16    3,2       24   4,8 16   2,5
                            0,11




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                   Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I           1
                                    +/-
                        10               20       18     6,0        20    4,0     30    6,0 20
                                    0,11
                                    +/-
                        12               24       21     7,2        24    4,8     36    7,2
                                    0,14
                                    +/-
                        14                        25     8,4        28    5,6     42    8,4
                                    0,14
                                    +/-
                        16                        28     9,6        32    6,4     48    9,6
                                    0,14




           Diameter Paku Keling ( dpk )

           Jika diketahui tebal pelat (t), maka diameter lobang paku keling dapat dicari dengan :
           -       Persamaan empirik Unwin’s , jika tebal pelat yang diketahui lebih besar dari 8 mm :
                       d=6x
           -       Membandingkan kekuatan satu paku keling dalam menahan gaya geser (Fs) dan gaya luluh
                   (FLu), untuk tebal pelat kecil atau sama dengan 8 mm :
                       Fs = FLu
                       τ x (π / 4) x dpk 2 = σLu x dpk x t
                       maka : dpk =


                       Sedangkan besarnya lobang paku keling diperoleh dari tabel perbandingan antara diameter
           paku keling (dpk) dan lubangnya (d) berikut ini :



           dpk        12     14     16      18    20         22     24   27     30     33     36    39   42   48
               d      13     15     17      19    21         23     25   28,    31,    34,    37,   41   44   50
                                                                          5     5      5      5




           Pit (p) Paku Keling

                       Pit paku keling dapat diperoleh dengan membandingkan besarnya gaya tahanan pelat
           terhadap sobek disepanjang kedudukan dengan tahanan paku keling terhadap geseran dari
           rancangan yang sedang dihitung, yakni :
                       Fta = Fs (rancangan)
                       σta x Ata = τ x As
           Dengan ketentuan bahwa :




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                                 Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I              2
           -   pit yang diperoleh tidak boleh lebih kecil dari 2.d, karena akan mengecilkan kekuatan pelat.
           -   Harga maksimum pit untuk pemakaian berat seperti pada boiler, diperoleh dengan
               menggunakan persamaan :
               Pmaks = C x t + 4,128 cm
           Dimana :
                   C = konstanta
                   T = tebal pelat dalam satuan cm.




                                               Bolted Joints


           Bolted joints are one of the most common elements in construction and machine
           design. They consist of cap screws or studs that capture and join other parts, and are
           secured with the mating of screw threads.


           There are two main types of bolted joint designs. In one method the bolt is tightened to
           a calculated torque, producing a clamp load. The joint will be designed such that the
           clamp load is never overcome by the forces acting on the joint (and therefore the joined
           parts see no relative motion).


           The other type of bolted joint does not have a designed clamp load but relies on the
           shear strength of the bolt shaft. This may include clevis linkages, joints that can move,
           and joints that rely on locking mechanism (like lock washers, thread adhesives, and
           lock nuts).



           Theory



           The clamp load, also called preload, of a cap screw is created when a torque is
           applied, and is generally a percentage of the cap screw's proof strength. Cap screws
           are manufactured to various standards that define, among other things, their strength
           and clamp load. Torque charts are available that identify the required torque for cap
           screws based on their property class.




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                     Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I                     3
           When a cap screw is tightened it is stretched, and the parts that are captured are
           compressed. The result is a spring-like assembly. External forces are designed to act
           on the parts that have been compressed, and not on the cap screw.


           The result is a non-intuitive distribution of strain; in this engineering model, as long as
           the forces acting on the compressed parts do not exceed the clamp load, the cap
           screw doesn't see any increased load. This model is only valid when the members
           under compression are much stiffer than the capscrew.




           This is a simplified model. In reality the bolt will see a small fraction of the external load
           prior to it exceeding the clamp load, depending on the compressed parts' stiffness with
           respect to the hardware's stiffness.

           The results of this type of joint design are:

                  Greater preloads in bolted joints reduce the fatigue loading of the hardware.
                  For cyclic loads, the bolt does not see the full amplitude of the load. As a result,
                   fatigue life can be increased or, if the material exhibits an endurance limit,
                   extended indefinitely [1]
                  As long as the external loads on a joint don't exceed the clamp load, the
                   hardware doesn't see any motion and will not come loose (no locking
                   mechanisms are required).

           In the case of the compressed member being less stiff than the hardware (soft,
           compressed gaskets for example) this analogy doesn't hold true. The load seen by the
           hardware is the preload plus the external load.




           Thread strength

           Nut threads are designed to support the rated clamp load of their respective bolts. If
           tapped threads are used instead of a nut, then their strength needs to be calculated.
           Steel hardware into tapped steel threads require a depth of 1.5× thread diameter to
           support the full clamp load.




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                    Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I                    4
           If an appropriate depth of threads are not available, or they are in a weaker material
           than the cap screw, then the clamp load (and torque) needs to be de-rated
           appropriately.


           Threads are usually created on a thread rolling machine. They may also be cut with a
           lathe, tap or die. Rolled threads are about 40% stronger than cut threads.



           Setting the torque


           Engineered joints require the torque to be accurately set. The clamp load produced
           during tightening is about 75% of the fastener's proof load. Over tightening will damage
           threads and stretch the bolt, ruining the joint's strength; see Hooke's law.


           If the hardware is Cadmium plated, or lubricated (or both) the torque is reduced by 15–
           25% to achieve the same clamp load. Specialty coatings exists that allow for a
           reduction of 50% in torque (compared to non-plated, non-lubricated hardware) to
           achieve the designed clamp load. Cadmium plated fasteners are no longer produced
           due to the toxicity of the metal.

           Torquing the bolt is notoriously inaccurate. Even with a calibrated torque wrench large
           errors are caused by dirt, surface finish, lubrication, etc. The turn of the nut method is
           more accurate, but requires additional calculations and tests for each application.

           There are more expensive tools for accurate torque setting, like ultrasonic meters, but
           they are out of reach of most shops.



           Property class


           There are many different property classes (grades) of bolts and nuts. The most
           common are listed below. Note that each nut property class listed can support the bolt
           proof strength load of the bolt it is listed beside without stripping.



             Bolt             Proof               Tensile      Tensile   Bolt    Nut     Nut
                    Material
                             strength                                   marking marking class
           property                                yield       ultimate




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                     Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I               5
            class                         strength, strength,
                                             min.      min.


           ISO, per ISO 898-1


                     Low or
                      med.
             5.8                380 MPa 420 MPa      520 MPa                       5
                     carbon
                      steel


                      Med.
                     carbon
             8.8                580 MPa 640 MPa      800 MPa                       8
                      steel
                      Q&T


                      Alloy
             10.9     steel     830 MPa 940 MPa 1040 MPa                           10
                      Q&T


           SAE, per SAE J429


                     Low or
                      med.
              2                  55 ksi    57 ksi     74 ksi                       2
                     carbon
                      steel


                      Med.
                     carbon
              5                  85 ksi    92 ksi    120 ksi                       5
                      steel
                      Q&T


                      Alloy
              8       steel     120 ksi    130 ksi   150 ksi                       8
                      Q&T




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB            Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I        6
                      Bolted joint Screw joint Pin joint




           Failure modes


           The most common mode of failure is overloading. Operating forces of the application
           produce loads that exceed the clamp load and the joint works itself loose, or fails
           catastrophically. Something that is not considered structural failure, but nevertheless is
           becoming a modern annoyance in new buildings is bolt banging.


           Over torquing will cause failure by damaging the threads and deforming the hardware,
           the failure might not occur until long afterwards. Under torquing can cause failures by
           allowing a joint to come loose. It may also allow the joint to flex and thus fail under
           fatigue.


           Brinelling may occur with poor quality washers, leading to a loss of clamp load and
           failure of the joint.

           Corrosion and exceeding the shear stress limit are other modes of failure.




           Types of bolts




           Bolted joints in an automobile wheel. Here the outer four screws are studs that project
           through the brake drum and wheel, while nuts with conical locating surfaces secure the
           wheel. The central nut (with cotter key) secures the wheel bearing to the steering
           spindle. Other configurations use a bolt into threaded holes in the axle end or brake
           drum.

                  cap screw



PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                    Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I                7
                 machine screw
                 stud



           Locking mechanisms

           Locking mechanisms keep bolted joints from coming loose. They are required when
           vibration or joint movement will cause loss of clamp load and joint failure. And in
           equipment where the security of bolted joints is essential.
                 two nuts, tightened on each other.
                 lock nut (prevailing torque nuts)
                      o   polymer insert
                      o   oval lock
                 lock washer
                 thread adhesive
                 lock wire, castellated nuts/capscrews (common in the aircraft industry)




PUSAT PENGEMBANGAN BAHAN AJAR-UMB                     Ir. Dadang S.Permana ELEMEN MESIN I        8

								
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