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					                  Government of Barbados

                         July 2002




A NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY & ACTION PLAN
                 FOR BARBADOS




      To the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)
                                   ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The Ministry of Physical Development and Environment is grateful to the United Nations
Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Global Environment Facility (GEF) for the technical
and financial assistance provided to produce this document.

The first draft of this report was the product of a cooperative effort between Simmons &
Associates Inc and the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment (formerly known as
Ministry of Environment, Energy and Natural Resources). The efforts of the drafting team are
acknowledged along with the contributions of the persons who participated in the two roundtable
discussions, and the National Consultation on the conservation of local biodiversity.

The members of the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan Committee, and the National
Working Group on Biodiversity are also acknowledged for their tremendous contributions to the
preparation of the final document, which was managed by Mr K. Emmanuel of the Ministry of
Physical Development and Environment. Special thanks are extended to Dr J. Horrocks (UWI),
Dr S. Carrington (UWI), Dr K. Watson (UWI), Dr H. Oxenford (UWI), Mr C. Parker (Fisheries
Division, MAR), Ms A. Brathwaite (CZMU), Ms K. Downes (EU), Ms N. Belle (MOT), Mr B.
Headley (MF), Dr R. Maitland (MAR), Mr G. Thomas (MAR), Ms I. Sylvester (Graeme Hall
Bird Sanctuary), Mr R. Ward (EU), Mr R. Marshall (SSWPU), Mr T. Sinckler (ESPU), Mr. D.
Springer, Mrs. M. Worrell (EU), and other technical and administrative officers of the EU for
their invaluable assistance with respect to editing the first draft and preparing the final document.




                                                  i
                                     MINISTER’S FOREWORD

By the Minister of Physical Development and Environment, Government of
Barbados.




                                  As Minister with responsibility for Physical Development and
Environment, I have the honour of presenting Barbados’ National Biodiversity Strategy and Action
Plan (NBSAP), which is one of the major national initiatives in fulfilment of the objectives of the
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).
.
This report is the first major document of its kind. It seeks to highlight objectives, strategies and actions
necessary for the conservation and sustainable utilization of Barbados’ biological resources. It is
envisaged that this document will serve as a repository for local biodiversity information to all citizens, as
well as international interests. The NBSAP is also designed to provide the framework for effective
management of local biological diversity and to guide future activities of the biodiversity programme in the
Ministry.

The principal topics examined in the NBSAP are - the local biological diversity status, the issues which
affect the livelihood of terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity and a conservation and sustainable
management plan. The strategy and action plan takes into consideration mobilization of funding; capacity
building; legislation and policy revision and formulation; research, monitoring and mitigation; public
education; incentives development; land use planning; in situ and ex situ conservation; biodiversity
access and benefit sharing; biosafety and biotechnology transfer; and various sectoral environmental
initiatives.

As a small island state, conservation and sustainable utilization of local biological resources is vital for
successful economic and social development of our people and our country. The challenges faced by
SIDS with respect to environmental management and the allocation of scarce resources are now
internationally recognized. Therefore it is hoped that the Secretariat will continue its much appreciated
assistance, thereby ensuring sustained participation by SIDS party countries, as well as the signing,
ratification and implementation of the provisions of the CBD and the Cartegena Protocol by non-party
states.

Biological diversity is unevenly distributed throughout the world, with the Caribbean possessing a large
variety of these living organisms. Local management efforts must therefore guard against loss of species
diversity. Initiatives, such as the Gully Ecosystem Management Study, highlight the Government of
Barbados’ recognition of the importance of conserving the environment. Further, it is a matter of concern
that adequate access to local biological diversity are guaranteed to all Barbadians, and that their
intellectual property rights associated with local knowledge of, and use of these natural resources are
protected.




                                                      ii
The NBSAP is presented as an expression of the commitment of the Government of Barbados to the
CBD, and the recognition of the dependence on biological diversity for sustainable development. I am
grateful to the staff of the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment and the numerous other
individuals and institutions both in the private and public sectors, whose efforts have made this report
possible.

I look forward to your continued collaboration in future efforts.




The Hon. H. Elizabeth Thompson, M.P.
Minister of Physical Development and Environment
June 2002




                                                       iii
                                                            TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS .........................................................................................................................................i

MINISTER’S FOREWORD...................................................................................................................................... ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS ...........................................................................................................................................iv

LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................................................................v

LIST OF FIGURES .....................................................................................................................................................v

LIST OF PLATES .......................................................................................................................................................v

LIST OF APPENDICES .............................................................................................................................................v

LIST OF ACRONYMS ..............................................................................................................................................vi

DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN THE DOCUMENT ................................................................................... vii

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .........................................................................................................................................x

1.     BASIC DATA ON BARBADOS .........................................................................................................................1

2.     BACKGROUND TO THE BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PROCESS ...............................................4

3. POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BARBADOS’
BIODIVERSITY ........................................................................................................................................................ 14

4.     EXISTING CAPACITY FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN BARBADOS .............. 25

5.     ASSESSMENT OF BIODIVERSITY RESOURCES ..................................................................................... 32

6.     THE BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN ......................................................................... 95

7. THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BARBADOS NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND
ACTION PLAN ....................................................................................................................................................... 108

8.     REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................................ 109




                                                                                  iv
                                                      LIST OF TABLES

Table ES 1    Summary of Conventions Relevant to Biodiversity Conservation to which
              Barbados is a Party................................................................................................................. Page xii
Table 5.1     Agricultural Holdings in Barbados Distributed by Parish and
              Principal Agricultural Category ............................................................................................ Page 42
Table 5.2     Area of Holdings in Barbados by Parish and Land Use ......................................................... Page 43



                                                     LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1      Barbados Wildlife……………………………………………………………………………Page 52
Figure 2      Land Use Plan (NPDP)………………………………………………………………………Page 78
Figure 3      Barbados System of Parks and Open Spaces (NPDP)……………………………………….Page 83



                                                      LIST OF PLATES

Plate 1       Sea Rock on the East Coast, Bathsheba (National Park Area)………………………………Page 34
Plate 2       The Graeme Hall Swamp……………………………………………………………………Page 35
Plate 3       The Graeme Hall Swamp white mangrove forest…………………………………………...Page 36
Plate 4       A rare sea cliff species, Strumpfia maritime………………………………………………...Page 39
Plate 5       Barbados black belly sheep………………………………………………………………….Page 47
Plate 6       A bat found in the Jack in the Box Gully, St Thomas……………………………………….Page 49
Plate 7       The green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaceus)……………………………………..Page 53
Plate 8       A green turtle (Chelonia mydas) being observed by a diver………………………………...Page 59
Plate 9       A hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricuta) being fed by a diver………………………….Page 60
Plate 10      A Tidepool site at Bathsheba, East Coast……………………………………………………Page 65
Plate 11      Sponge on a Barbadian reef………………………………………………………………….Page 67
Plate 12      A school of striped grunts (Haemulon striatum)…………………………………………….Page 70
Plate 13      The Caribbean Spiny Lobster (Panulirus argus) at the Cornwallis site in Carlisle Bay……Page 72
Plate 14      A Section of the National Park Area with the East Coast in the background……………….Page 81
Plate 15      Members of a tour group appreciating the natural features in the Jack in the box gully,
              St Thomas……………………………………………………………………………………Page 90


                                                 LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1    Economic Valuation of Biodiversity in Barbados………………………………………….Page 124
Appendix 2a   A Biodiversity Database for Barbados……………………………………………………..Page 142
Appendix 2b   Information Requirements for the Biological Environment………………………………..Page 147
Appendix 2c   Information Requirements for Habitats and Ecosystems…………………………………..Page 150
Appendix 3    Recommendations for Institutional Strengthening…………………………………………Page 151




                                                                      v
                         LIST OF ACRONYMS

AIDS      Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ARVTU     Agronomy Research and Variety Testing Unit
BAMC      Barbados Agricultural Marketing Company Ltd.
BMHS      Barbados Museum and Historical Society
BWA       Barbados Water Authority
CARDI     Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute
CBD       Convention on Biological Diversity
CBO       Community-based Organisation
CBS       West Indies Central Sugar Cane Breeding Station
CITES     Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna
COP       Conference of Parties
CTP       Chief Town Planner
CSEGRIN   Caribbean Seed and Germplasm Resources Information Network
CZMU      Coastal Zone Management Unit
EEZ       Exclusive Economic Zone
EIA       Environmental Impact Assessment
EMLUP     Environmental Management and Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development
          Project
ESPU      Environmental Special Projects Unit
EU        Environmental Unit
FAO       Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations
FMP       Fisheries Management Plan
GDP       Gross Domestic Product
GEF       Global Environment Facility
GIS       Geographical Information System
GOB       Government of Barbados
HIV       Human Immunodeficiency Virus
ICCAT     International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas
ICMP      Integrated Coastal Management Plan
MAPEA     Marine Areas Preservation and Enhancement Act
IUCN      International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources
MAR       Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
MPE       Ministry of Physical Development and Environment
NBSAP     National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan
NCC       National Conservation Commission
NCF       National Cultural Foundation
NGO       Non-government Organisation
NPDP      National Physical Development Plan
NRM       Natural Resources Management Programme
QEH       Queen Elizabeth Hospital
SIDS      Small Island Developing States
SPAW      Protocol (to the 1983 Cartagena Convention) Concerning Specially Protected Areas and
          Wildlife in the Wider Caribbean
TCDPO     Town and Country Development Planning Office
UNCED     United Nations Conference on Environment and Development
UNCLOS    United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea
UNEP      United Nations Environment Programme
UWI       University of the West Indies
WBPA      Wild Birds Protection Act



                                      vi
                  DEFINITION OF TERMS USED IN THE DOCUMENT

Biodiversity. The totality of genes, species and ecosystems in a region.

Biological Resources. Those components of biodiversity of direct, indirect or potential use to
humanity.

Biosafety. The precautionary measures implemented to ensure that Living Modified Organisms
(LMOs) and their products are transferred, handled, used and disposed of safely. LMOs are
generated through biotechnology processes including the transfer of genes between cells of
related or unrelated organisms.

Biotechnology. Any technology that is applied to living organisms to make them more valuable
to people.

Buffer Zones. Vegetated strips of land, or designated marine areas, that are intended to screen
ecosystems from impacts such as pollution and/or disturbance around protected sites, usually
with the aim of providing additional habitats for some flora or fauna.

Conservation. The management of human use of the biosphere so that it may yield the greatest
sustainable benefit to current generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and
aspirations of future generations.

Cultivar. A cultivar is a particular variety of a plant species with characteristics that make it
unique and it is produced by horticulture or by human selection and /or breeding.

Cultural Diversity. Variety or multiformity of human social structures, belief systems, and
strategies for adapting to situations in different parts of the world.

Ecology. The scientific study of the interactions of living things and their environment.

Ecosystem. A dynamic complex of plant, animal, fungal, and microorganism communities and
their associated non-living environment interacting as an ecological unit.

Ecotourism. Travel undertaken to witness sites or regions of unique natural or ecologic quality,
or the provision of services to facilitate such travel.

Endemic. Restricted to a specified region or locality.

Environmental Impact Assessment. Process by which the potential benefits and negative
impacts of proposed projects are evaluated as an integral part of planning the project, alternatives
are analysed, mitigation measures identified and the general public is given opportunity to
comment.


                                                vii
Ex situ Conservation. Keeping components of biodiversity alive outside of their original habitat
or natural environment.

Extant. Still surviving; opposite of extinct.

Fauna. All of the animals found in a given area.

Flora. All of the plants found in a given area.

Food Forest. An unstructured, multi-layered collection of mainly flora which provides food,
medicines and ingredients for beverages, and which constitutes advantages such as constant
accessibility to food and medicines, symbiotic physical, chemical and biological relationships
between farmed living organisms, micro climates, agronomic soil conservation aids, and water
saving characteristics.

Gene. The unit of life found within every living cell, responsible for conferring on an organism
its specific characteristics.

Genetic Diversity. Variation in the genetic composition of individuals within or among species,
the heritable genetic variation within and among populations.

Geographic Information Systems (GIS). A database which relates spatial data (maps) with its
attribute data (characteristics). A GIS can be computerized and the database queried using two
variables and the required information can be extrapolated.

Habitat. The environment in which an organism lives. Habitat can also refer to organisms and
physical environment in a particular place.

Indigenous/Native Species. Plants, animals, fungi, and micro-organisms that occur naturally in
a given area or region.

In situ Conservation. The conservation of biodiversity within the evolutionary dynamic
ecosystem of the original habitat or natural environment.

Intellectual Property Right. A right enabling an inventor to exclude imitators from the market
for a limited time.

Introduced species. A species occurring in an areas outside of its historically known range as a
result of intentional or accidental dispersal by human activities (also known as exotic or alien
species)

Non-governmental organisation. A non-profit group or association organised outside of
institutionalised political structures to realise particular social objectives (such as environmental
protection) or serve particular constituencies (such as indigenous people). NGO activities range
from research, information distribution, training, local organisation and community service to
                                                  viii
legal advocacy, lobbying for legislative change, and civil disobedience. NGOs range in size
from small groups within a particular community to huge membership groups with a national or
international scope.

Protected Area. A legally established land or water area under either public or private
ownership that is regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives.

Species. A group of organisms capable of interbreeding freely with each other but not with
members of other species.

Sustainable development. Development that meets the needs and aspirations of the current
generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs and
aspirations.

Variety. A variety is a sub-species, a work of evolution, and of interest in terms of biodiversity,
evolution and classification.

Wetlands. Any ecosystem in which there is surface water or the substratum is waterlogged for
at least part of the year. Freshwater wetlands include open water streams, watercourses, ponds,
swamps, etc. and semi-terrestrial wetlands e.g. marshes, and brackish saline wetlands including,
estuaries, and maritime salt marshes.




                                                ix
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

ES 1.1 The Importance of Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the totality and variety of genes, species and ecosystems occurring in a region.
The biodiversity in any such region is the result of hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary
history. Biodiversity has also been shaped over time by human intervention through the
domestication and breeding of local varieties of crops and livestock. The various components of
biodiversity have enormous importance to all aspects of human life: food, medicines, industrial
and agricultural products, and as the basis for recreation and tourism. Over time, the greatest
value of biological diversity may be found in the opportunities that it provides humanity for
adapting to local and global change.

The universal effort to conserve biodiversity is enshrined in the Convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD), which was initially signed by 154 nations at the United Nations Conference on
Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. Since UNCED,
additional nations have also signed the Convention. Ratification of the CBD commits
Governments to correcting the imbalance between who benefits from biodiversity protection and
who pays, i.e., finding equitable ways to share biodiversity‟s monetary and non-monetary values;
spur technological cooperation; and establish mechanisms to finance investments in maintaining
the diversity of life on Earth.


ES 1.2 Barbados’ Commitment to the Convention on Biological Diversity

The Government of Barbados (GOB) ratified the CBD on December 10, 1993 and is therefore
responsible for ensuring that the provisions of that Convention are met in accordance with the
particular conditions within the country and with the available financial, technical and other
resources.

The Environmental Unit of the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment (MPE) is
responsible for the implementation of the obligations of the CBD. This unit also chairs a multi-
sectoral Working Group of Biodiversity, which oversees this process. The MPE currently has in
place a work programme for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in Barbados.
The objectives of the Ministry‟s biodiversity work programme are to:

              develop a more informed basis for decision making and policy formulation on the
               management of biodiversity in Barbados;

              develop a more comprehensive information data base for the management and
               utilization of biodiversity;

              enhance the regulation of domestic and international trade in endangered species
               and specimens of flora and fauna;

                                                x
              promote the full appreciation of biodiversity as a national resource.

Among the specific biodiversity programme areas aimed at fulfilling the objectives of the work
programme is the preparation of this National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan (NBSAP)
for Barbados. This undertaking has been funded by the United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) through a Global Environment Facility (GEF) project. The NBSAP is intended to
define the current status of biodiversity, the threats leading to its degradation and the strategies
and priority actions to ensure its conservation and sustainable use within the framework of the
socio-economic development of the country.


ES 1.3 Objectives guiding the development of the National Biodiversity Strategy and
Action Plan

Article 6 of the CBD, “General Measures for Conservation and Sustainable Use” calls for
governments to:

      Develop national strategies, plans or programmes for the conservation and sustainable
       use of biological diversity or adapt for this purpose existing strategies, plans or
       programmes which shall reflect, inter alia, the measures set out in this Convention
       relevant to the Contracting Party concerned; and

      Integrate, as far as possible and as appropriate, the conservation and sustainable use of
       biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and
       policies.

In this context, the specific objectives guiding the development of the NBSAP for Barbados are
the:

              Identification of the current state of knowledge about biodiversity in Barbados;
              Identification of important gaps in the knowledge base and the assessment of
               further needs and associated costs;
              Identification of current pressures on biodiversity and future trends;
              Assessment of the present and future value to Barbadians of the country‟s
               biodiversity;
              Assessment of the costs and benefits of conserving biodiversity in Barbados;
              Identification of the conservation priorities and strategies for conserving
               biodiversity;
              Identification of appropriate mechanisms or actions to carry out the identified
               conservation strategies;
              Identification of the institutional requirements to support the implementation of
               the strategies and actions.

                                                 xi
ES 1.4 Contribution of the NBSAP to National Sustainable Development Planning

The NBSAP is one of several sectoral plans which have been prepared in the past few years with
a view to achieving a comprehensive framework for the sustainable development of natural
resources in Barbados. The existing plans for physical development and natural resources
management in Barbados are:

              The Physical Development Plan (PDP), revised in 1998,

              The Fisheries Management Plan (FMP), first published in 1997 and revised in
               2001,

              The Environmental Management and Natural Resources Management Plan
               (EMNRMP),

              Two area-specific plans to accompany the (EMNRMP): the National Park
               Development Plan, and the Coastal Zone Management Plan.

These plans make provisions for the sustainable management of the majority of the human
activities that impact on the conservation of biodiversity in both the marine and terrestrial
environment. In accordance with the CBD, the NBSAP integrates biodiversity management and
conservation into these sectoral plans and serves to minimise overlap and increase the efficiency
of use of human, financial and equipment resources. In order to achieve this successfully, there
must be an improvement in inter-agency collaboration and coordination of environmental and
natural resources planning and management activities.


ES 1.5 Legal Framework for the Conservation of Biodiversity

ES 1.5.1 International Agreements

International agreements have served as catalysts for much of the effort being expended in many
countries of the world for conservation and protection of the environment and of natural
resources. The CBD is now a key coordinating, catalysing and monitoring mechanism for
international biodiversity conservation. However, there are several other international
conventions, to which Barbados is party, which make provision for some elements of the
conservation and protection of biological diversity. In accordance with the provisions of these
conventions the island has obligations to implement rules for the preservation of biological
resources. From a legal perspective, implementation is by way of the passage and enforcement of
legislation and regulations. From an administrative perspective, new procedures and mechanisms
would have to be employed to facilitate the implementation of biodiversity programmes. In
respect of conventions signed by Barbados, but which have not yet entered into force, the island
has the obligation to refrain from acts that would defeat the object and purpose of the treaty. The
most relevant of these international agreements are outlined in the table below.

                                                xii
Table ES 1    Summary of Conventions Relevant to Biodiversity Conservation to which
              Barbados is a Party


 Convention                      Date Signed                  Responsible Ministries &
                                                              Executing agencies

 United Nations Convention       Barbados became a party 10   Ministry of Physical
 on Biological Diversity.        December 1993.               Development and
                                                              Environment,
                                                              Ministry of Finance, and the
                                                              Ministry of Agriculture and
                                                              Rural Development.


 The Convention on               Barbados became a party 9    Ministry of Physical
 International Trade In          December 1992                Development and
 Endangered Species                                           Environment, Ministry of
                                                              Agriculture and Rural
                                                              Development, and the
                                                              Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                                                              and Foreign Trade

 United Nations Framework        Barbados became a party 23   Ministry of Physical
 Convention on Climate           March 1994                   Development and
 Change and Kyoto Protocol                                    Environment.

 United Nations Convention       Barbados became a party 12   Ministry of Physical
 on the Law of the Sea           October 1993                 Development and
                                                              Environment, and the
                                                              Ministries of Agriculture and
                                                              Rural Development.

 The Convention for the          Barbados became a party to   Ministry of Physical
 Protection and Development      the Cartagena Convention     Development and
 of the Marine Environment of    and the OILSPILL Protocol    Environment, Ministry of
 the Wider Caribbean Region      28 March 1985                Agriculture and Rural
 (Cartegena), and the Protocol                                Development, and the
 Concerning Co-operation in                                   Ministry of Foreign Affairs
 Combating Oil Spills in the                                  and Foreign Trade.
 Wider Caribbean Region,
 (OILSPILL Protocol)



                                               xiii
 Convention                     Date Signed                  Responsible Executing
                                                             agencies

 Convention to Combat           Barbados became a party on   Ministry of Physical
 Desertification                May 14, 1997.                Development and
                                                             Environment, Barbados
                                                             Water Authority, and the
                                                             Ministry of Agriculture and
                                                             Rural Development

 The Vienna Convention for      Barbados acceded to the      Ministry of Physical
 the Protection of the Ozone    Convention and Protocol on   Development and
 Layer, and the Montreal        July 20 1994.                Environment
 Protocol on Substances that
 Deplete the Ozone Layer
                                Barbados became a party on   Ministry of Agriculture and
 The UN Fish Stocks             September 22, 2000           Rural Development
 Agreement
 FAO Compliance Agreement       Barbados became a party on   Ministry of Agriculture and
                                October 26, 2000             Rural Development
 International Commission for   Barbados became a party on   Ministry of Agriculture and
 the Conservation of Atlantic   December 13, 2000            Rural Development
 Tunas


The Government of Barbados has also decided to sign the Protocol (to the 1983 Cartegena
Convention) Concerning Specially Protected Areas and Wildlife in the Wider Caribbean
(SPAW).




                                              xiv
ES 1.5.2       National Legislation

A review of Barbados‟ legislation identifies the need for a legal regime to be developed which
would give a comprehensive response to the requirements for the protection of biodiversity. In
developing this comprehensive legal response, environmental issues that should be considered
include, among others, the following: -

              The local wildlife protection policies and strategies are antiquated and require
               complete revamping in order to promote the conservation and sustainable use of
               biodiversity in general, protect indigenous and endangered species and critical
               habitats, and give effect to Barbados‟ acceptance of the objectives of binding
               international conventions;

              General regulation of the release of pollutants into the environment that cause,
               among other things, contamination of biological resources, is required. In this
               regard, substantially new legislation is required for waste management, toxic
               substances, noise pollution, air pollution and climate change;

              EIA procedures need clear legislative authority;

              Planning legislation should be modified to attempt to ensure greater transparency
               and closer relationship between the granting of planning permission and the
               requirement of conformity with the National Physical Development Plan;

              General terrestrial protected areas legislation is required;

              Forestry legislation is required.


Existing local legislation is stated under Section 3.3.




                                                   xv
ES 1.6 Institutional Capacity for Management and Conservation of Biodiversity

In Barbados, the responsibility for the management of biological resources is fragmented among
several Government Ministries. There are also a number of non-government organisations
(NGOs) and other entities involved in the conservation of biodiversity. The fragmentation of
responsibilities has evolved into a situation whereby a myriad of institutions and agencies have
their own legislative mandate, administrative procedures, resources, work programmes and
priorities. There is often little communication between these organisations or coordination of
their activities. Hence, there is frequent duplication of effort and blurred lines for the authorities
with no clear jurisdiction in biodiversity management matters.

Despite these obstacles, personnel within these institutions and agencies are cognizant of the
need for sustainable use and conservation of biodiversity. They also recognise the need for a
coordinated and integrated approach to biodiversity management.

The various Government Ministries and NGOs with relevant responsibilities include:

              the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment which includes the
               Environmental Unit, the Coastal Zone Management Unit; the Environmental
               Special Projects Unit, Environmental Engineering Division, National
               Conservation Commission; and the Town and Country Development Planning
               Department;

              the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development which includes the Fisheries
               Division;

              the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute;

              the West Indies Sugar Cane Breeding Station;

              the University of the West Indies;

              the Barbados National Trust;

              the Barbados Marine Trust;

              the Caribbean Conservation Association; and

              the Bellairs Research Institute.


The GOB has also demonstrated its commitment to the sustainable development of natural
resources by setting up a National Commission on Sustainable Development mandated to advise
the GOB on national policy for sustainable development of national policy.

                                                  xvi
ES 1.7 Major Threats to Biodiversity in Barbados

The major threats to biodiversity in Barbados are habitat loss and fragmentation and a long
history of alien species introduction. Habitat disturbance does not only precipitate loss of
species, it also irrevocably alters natural habitats. Habitat loss is an on-going challenge to
biodiversity conservation in Barbados. During colonial times, substantial vegetation was cleared
for agricultural purposes, building materials and firewood. More recently vegetation loss has
resulted primarily from land clearing to facilitate residential development, the largely ad-hoc
urbanisation process and the construction of tourism sector developments, such as hotel and golf
course facilities. Since Barbados‟ settlement in 1627, numerous species of plants and animals
have been introduced both deliberately and accidentally. Some species are known to be invasive
e.g. the mongoose (Herpestes javanicus), cane toad (Bufo marinus) and wild sage (Lantana).
Introduced species have successfully preyed upon, competed against and altered habitats of
indigenous species.

Other activities which impact upon biodiversity include resource extraction, monoculture
sugarcane agriculture and tourism development. These activities are generally regarded as
national economic necessities, and as such, need to be carefully planned and strictly controlled to
ensure the minimisation of potential negative impacts, such as loss of species diversity, and
degradation of habitats.


ES 1.8 Summary of the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan

The Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan presents an overall goal with specific objectives and
affiliated strategies and actions which should be applied to the various components of
biodiversity described in the Biodiversity Country Study Technical Reports (Simmons &
Associates, 1998), i.e. Natural Vegetation, Agriculture, Land Resources, Terrestrial Fauna, and
Marine and Freshwater species.         It is envisioned that the implementation of these
recommendations will be undertaken by the various Ministries and NGOs responsible and will
be overseen by a Biodiversity and Natural Heritage Unit established for that purpose.

The overall goal, specific objectives and strategies which form the foundation of the Strategy and
Action Plan attempt to address the range of issues relevant to the management of biodiversity,
from the development and implementation of a national biodiversity policy to research
requirements for specific species.

The specific objectives of the Strategy and Action Plan are as follows:

       1.      To mobilize adequate financial resources for the management and conservation of
               Barbados‟ biodiversity.
       2.      To develop the human resource base and strengthen institutional capacity for
               biodiversity conservation and management
       3.      To conduct essential research to inform the development and implementation of
               management practices for the sustainable use of biodiversity
                                               xvii
       4.      To use the results of the Research Programme to develop appropriate
               management techniques and mechanisms to ensure sustainable consumptive use
               and to preserve non-consumptive use values of biodiversity resources
       5.      To revise, consolidate and formulate policy and legislation to achieve the
               conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
       6.      To promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use through incentives
       7.      To incorporate conservation requirements into land-use planning
       8.      To improve public awareness and education
       9.      To establish effective in situ and ex situ biodiversity conservation measures
       10.     To ensure equitable biodiversity and traditional knowledge access and benefit
               sharing
       11.     To establish biosafety regulations in order to safeguard biodiversity
       12.     To promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in various
               sectors (agriculture, health, fisheries, tourism)

 The strategies and actions that will be implemented to achieve the stated objectives are
described in the Action Plan. The plan also identifies the priority of the proposed actions and the
various institutions that will be potentially involved in the implementation of the strategy and
action plan.




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1.      BASIC DATA ON BARBADOS

1.1     LOCATION AND LAND AREA

Barbados, the most easterly of the islands of the Caribbean, lies south of St Lucia, east of St
Vincent, and north of Trinidad. The island is 34 kilometres long and 23 kilometres wide, giving
it a total land area of approximately 432 square kilometres (166 square miles) and an Exclusive
Economic Zone (EEZ) of 167,000 square kilometres.


1.2     CLIMATE

Barbados‟ climate may be described as mild subtropical. There is a dry season from January to
May and a wet season from June to December when seasonal cooling north-east trade winds
blow steadily. The wet season is humid and hot, but the climate is generally pleasant even then,
as a result of sea-breezes. The island is on the southern edge of the West Indian hurricane zone.
Apart from coastal damage experienced in 1998 due to ocean swells, it has not been affected by
any major hurricane conditions since Hurricane Allen in 1980.


1.3     TOPOGRAPHY

Barbados is a comparatively flat island, rising in a series of terraced tablelands to Mount Hillaby
at 336 m (1,104 ft). The north-east of the island is known as the Scotland District area
(approximately 14% of the island) and is described as eroded and rocky. The rest of the island
(approximately 86%) is coral limestone, crossed with deep river-bed gullies which accommodate
the movement of water during heavy rain. There are no permanent rivers in Barbados. On the
East coast of the island, much of the shoreline is rocky, pounded by strong surf. On the West
and South coasts, natural coral reefs develop in calmer sea conditions and protect beaches of
white sand, making these coasts highly valuable for tourism development.


1.4     GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE

Barbados is divided into two distinct geologic regions. The coral limestone area composed of a
series of gently sloping, step-like terraces that cover the major part of the island, and the steep,
broken slopes of sedimentary rocks that make up the Scotland District.




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1.5     POPULATION

The population of Barbados in 1998 was recorded as 266,800, comprising 48.1% males and
51.9% females. Life expectancy at birth for males and females at this time in Barbados were
72.9 and 77.4 years, respectively. The Barbados Statistical Service Population and Housing
Census for 2000 revealed that the population was 268,792, comprising 129,241 males or 48.1 %
and 139,551 females or 51.9 %. The average life expectancy at birth is presently approximated
at 74 years for males and 79 for females. The large net emigration to the United States of
America, Canada and the United Kingdom during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s, coupled with a
very successful family planning programme, resulted in a low national average population
growth rate. In fact, the average rate of growth during the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s has been less
than one (1) percent, and that trend is expected to continue up to the year 2020.

In the 1990s, there has been a change in the demographic profile in the population, with the
proportion of elderly persons in the population increasing. According to the 1990 census, 31,
275 persons or 11.3 % of the population was aged 65 and over. This figure increased to 32, 373
or 12.3 % of the population by 2000, surpassing the projected figure of 31, 462. This increase
may be attributed in part to the return of persons who emigrated to the United Kingdom, the
United States of America, and Canada between the 1950s and 1970s. This trend is no doubt
encouraged by the Government‟s programme to assist the return of Barbadian nationals who
have been living overseas for extended periods.

Other population trends include a significant decline in the proportion of the population less than
15 years of age resulting from declining birth rates. This trend together with a decline in
emigration is expected to continue as standard of living, quality and accessibility of health care,
and level of educational attainment in the country continue to improve.

The crude death rate has remained relatively constant over the 1990s at about 9.1 per 1000 in the
1990s. Chronic non-communicable diseases are the leading broad group of diseases causing
morbidity and mortality in Barbados. These include Hypertension, Diabetes, Heart Disease and
various forms of Cancer. Besides being the cause of suffering, disability and loss of
productivity, the cost of treatment of these diseases is very expensive. Despite the emergence of
the Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) as a significant cause of mortality,
communicable diseases have generally been on the decline.


1.6     SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS

Education, particularly higher education, is believed to be the main vehicle of social mobility in
Barbados. The enrolment ratio in primary and secondary education is 100 per cent. Tertiary
education is not mandatory, but is free. Barbados boasts one of the highest levels of educational
attainment among the Caribbean territories. The literacy rate in Barbados, which is estimated at
95%, is also believed to be one of the highest in the Caribbean.
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A fundamental social indicator of level of development is that of public health care. Good health
must be sufficient to enable people to lead socially and economically productive lives. The
Government of Barbados has supported the principal of universal access to health care by “free
delivery” of services to all sectors of the population. Several polyclinics have been established
throughout the island providing free or subsidised medical, dental and ophthalmic care to the
general population.

Barbados has an open economy with a very narrow range of exports, a heavy dependence on
imported goods and a fragile and limited natural resource base. Although there has been an
increase in the size of the offshore sector, the expansion of the tourism sector has been the
primary engine of economic growth in Barbados during the 1990s and this trend is expected to
continue into the 21st Century.




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2.      BACKGROUND TO THE BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION PROCESS

2.1     THE IMPORTANCE OF BIODIVERSITY

Biodiversity is the totality and variety of genes, species and ecosystems occurring in a region.
The biodiversity in any such region is the result of hundreds of millions of years of evolutionary
history. Biodiversity has also been shaped over time by human intervention through the
domestication and breeding of local varieties of crops and livestock. The various components of
biodiversity have enormous importance to all aspects of human life especially food, medicines,
industrial and agricultural products, and provide the basis for recreation and tourism.
Biodiversity also provides ecological services such as prevention of soil erosion, removal of
pollutants and maintenance of soil fertility that are essential to sustainable development. Over
time, the greatest value of biodiversity may be found in the opportunities that it provides to
humanity for adapting to local and global change.

Ironically, the destruction and degradation of genes, species and ecosystems has predominantly
occurred as a result of the ways in which human beings have used and misused the environment
in the course of development of their societies. For example, species-rich forests and wetlands
have, over time, been converted to agricultural fields or have been removed to facilitate the
development of residential and tourism facilities along the coastline.

Marine and coastal areas of a small island developing state often are affected by externalities
caused by economic development initiatives and indiscriminate human activities. Coral reefs
and sea grass beds, for example, have been destroyed by careless diving near shore, disposal of
solid waste, indiscriminate alterations to coastal topography mainly for tourism development,
destructive fishing practices, and the practice of anchoring boats over reefs. Since coral reefs and
sea grass beds also act as nursery grounds for juvenile marine species on which fish feed, their
destruction also leads to a reduction in the populations of fish and other commercially important
marine species. As a result of the adverse effects of human activities, the once diverse and
abundant populations of fish and other marine species have become impoverished.

This type of misuse and overuse of biological resources does not just impose a cost on society.
Losing diversity also means the loss of genetic resources and direct values of species, declines in
agricultural productivity, inter alia, all of which lead to adverse effects on human lives.

The situation that therefore exists in practically all countries of the world is that of a double-
sided coin. On the one side, the conservation of biodiversity is increasingly recognised as an
essential component of sustainable development. On the flip side, we are forced to adjust our
patterns of living to find ways to make our societies sustainable so that biodiversity can be
conserved. Biodiversity conservation is concerned not only with the protection of wild species
but also with safeguarding the genetic diversity of cultivated and domesticated species on which
we depend. Essentially, it involves the maintenance of the human life support system provided
by nature and the living resources essential for development.
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The present worldwide movement to conserve biodiversity is enshrined in the Convention on
Biological Diversity (CBD), which was initially signed by 154 nations at the United Nations
Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. Since
UNCED, additional nations have also signed the Convention. As the Convention is ratified,
individual governments accept the responsibility to assess and protect the profusion of species,
habitats, and ecosystems that make up the natural world. Governments also agree to foster
development that promotes sustainable use of biological resources. In this regard, the
Convention recognizes each nation‟s sovereignty over the biodiversity found in its territory and
confers on each the responsibility to conserve that biodiversity.

Ratification of the CBD commits Governments to correcting the imbalance between who
benefits from biodiversity protection and who pays, i.e. to finding equitable ways to share
biodiversity‟s monetary and non-monetary values, to spur technological cooperation, and to
establish mechanisms to finance investments in maintaining the diversity of life on Earth.


2.2     GOAL AND OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT

The Government of Barbados ratified the CBD on December 10, 1993 and is therefore
responsible for ensuring that the provisions of the Convention are met in accordance with the
particular conditions within the country and financial, technical and other resources available.

Article 6 of the CBD, “General Measures for Conservation and Sustainable Use” calls for
governments to:

1.      Develop national strategies, plans or programmes for the conservation and sustainable
        use of biological diversity or adapt for this purpose existing strategies, plans or
        programmes which shall reflect, inter alia, the measures set out in this Convention
        relevant to the Contracting Party concerned; and

2.      Integrate, as far as possible and as appropriate, the conservation and sustainable use of
        biological diversity into relevant sectoral or cross-sectoral plans, programmes and
        policies.

The goal of this project, therefore, is to formulate a National Biodiversity Strategy and Action
Plan (NBSAP) for the protection and sustainable use of Barbados‟ biodiversity within the
framework of the CBD and to prepare a national report pursuant to Article 6 of the CBD and
Decision 11/17 of the Conference of Parties (COP).

The NBSAP defines the current status of biodiversity, the threats leading to its degradation and
the strategies and priority actions to ensure its conservation and sustainable use within the
framework of the socio-economic development of the country.


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In this context, the specific objectives guiding the development of the NBSAP were the:

    1. Identification of the current state of knowledge about biodiversity in Barbados;

    2. Identification of important gaps in the knowledge base and the assessment of further
       needs and associated costs;

    3. Identification of current threats to biodiversity;

    4. Assessment of the present and future value to Barbadians of the country‟s biodiversity;

    5. Assessment of the costs and benefits of conserving biodiversity in Barbados;

    6. Identification of the conservation priorities and strategies for conserving biodiversity and
       projection of future trends;

    7. Identification of Conventions subscribed to;

    8. Identification of relevant legislation;

    9. Identification of gaps in legislation;

    10. Identification of relevant institutions;

    11. Assessment of resources;

    12. Identification of appropriate mechanisms or actions to carry out the identified
        conservation strategies and

    13. Identification of the institutional requirements to support the implementation of the
        strategies and actions.




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2.3     BARBADOS’ COMMITMENT TO FULFILLING THE PROVISIONS OF THE
        CONVENTION ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY

The Ministry of Physical Development and Environment (MPE) is responsible for the
implementation of the obligations of the CBD. The Ministry also chairs a multi-sectoral
Working Group on Biodiversity, which oversees this process.

The MPE currently has in place a work programme for the conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity in Barbados. The objectives of the Ministry‟s biodiversity work programme are to:

            1. develop a more informed basis for decision making and policy formulation on the
               management of biodiversity in Barbados;
            2. develop a more comprehensive information data base for the management and
               utilization of biodiversity;
            3. enhance the regulation of domestic and international trade in endangered species
               and specimens of flora and fauna;
            4. promote the full appreciation of biodiversity as a national resource.

Among the specific biodiversity programme areas aimed at fulfilling the objectives of the work
programme is the preparation of this NBSAP for Barbados. The United Nations Environment
Programme (UNEP) through a Global Environment Facility (GEF) project has funded this
undertaking. The NBSAP will serve as a basis for guiding the future activities of the
biodiversity programme of the MPE through the development of policies, programmes and
projects for the management and sustainable use of the island‟s biodiversity.

On a day-to-day basis, the Town and Country Development Planning Office (TCDPO) considers
the provisions of the CBD during the review of applications for proposed developments. The
TCDPO consults with the Environment Unit in an advisory capacity for clarification of issues
relevant to the protection and management of biodiversity.


2.4     VISION FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN BARBADOS

The NBSAP is intended to provide the basis for guiding the conservation of biodiversity in
Barbados. If the priorities and actions identified in the NBSAP are to realise their desired
objectives, then biodiversity conservation will have to become an integral part of the
development process in Barbados. The vision statements presented in the following paragraphs
express specific goals for the role of biodiversity conservation in the development process in
Barbados.




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       Sustainable Development
        Barbados will become a model of sustainable development for Small Island Developing
        States (SIDS). Integral to this is the development of sustainable ways of living and
        producing for all sectors of society that are founded on the sustainable use and
        management of biodiversity.

       Environmental Preservation
        Barbados will be a nation that appreciates the intrinsic value of its natural assets,
        including ecosystems, landscapes and species. Respect for nature and responsibility for
        its protection will become an important part of the Barbadian consciousness.

       Responsible Economic Decision-Making
        The Government and people of Barbados will recognise the critical role that biological
        resources play in the generation of economic benefits for the country and will endeavour
        to make environmental considerations, including biodiversity conservation, an integral
        part of all national economic decision-making.

       Protection of National Biological Heritage
        Barbados will recognise its biodiversity as part of its national heritage and accord it a
        high conservation priority.

These goals should form part of the mandate of the MPE and of any entity set up within that
Ministry specifically for the management of biodiversity. The time frame for development and
implementation of specific programmes to achieve these goals is a maximum of five (5) years.


2.5 GUIDING PRINCIPLES                      FOR      THE    BIODIVERSITY    CONSERVATION
PLANNING PROCESS

In order to realise the vision for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, there are a
number of guiding principles, which form the basis for research, monitoring and programme
development:

Biodiversity is a national heritage, which must be sustainably managed and used for present
       development needs but also conserved for future generations of Barbadians to allow them
       to reach their development goals.

All Barbadians depend on biodiversity for their social and economic well-being and therefore
       have a responsibility to contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biological
       resources.




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Barbadians of all walks of life must become aware of the importance of biodiversity and should,
      as far as possible, be afforded the opportunity to participate in decision-making that
      affects the use of biodiversity.

The benefits from sustainable management of biodiversity should accrue, directly or indirectly,
      to all sectors of Barbadian society.

It is the responsibility of the Government of Barbados to formulate and implement the policy
        framework for sustainable management and use of biodiversity in close cooperation with
        scientists, the business community and the general public.

The interdependency of nations, particularly of Caribbean States, in the use of components of
       biodiversity must be recognized and taken into account in planning for biodiversity
       conservation efforts and to ensure fair and equitable sharing of biological resources.

An ecological approach to resource management is central to achieving biodiversity conservation
       and the sustainable use of biological resources.

Conservation of biodiversity should proceed on the basis of the best knowledge available, using
      approaches that can be refined as new information is gained.

Biodiversity conservation requires the cooperation of government and non-government
       organizations, resources users and the community in general.

Regional and international cooperative action and sharing of knowledge, cost, and benefits are
      essential to biodiversity conservation.


2.6     FACTORS INVOLVED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE STRATEGY

Pursuant to the guiding principles for conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, there are
certain necessary prerequisites that will facilitate the smooth and successful implementation of
the NBSAP. These prerequisites primarily concern changes that must take place in the ways in
which biodiversity is viewed by the public and private sector, including the general public, and
in the nation‟s commitment to integrating biodiversity considerations into all aspects of our
development process.




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2.6.1 Establishment of a National Policy and Legislative Framework Supportive of
Biodiversity Conservation

Biodiversity is ultimately conserved or lost at the local level. Government policies regarding
agricultural production, urban development, industrial growth, natural resources management,
tourism development and environmental protection, create the incentives that facilitate or
constrain local action. If these policies do not place a high enough value on environmental
resources, they will hasten the loss of the island‟s biodiversity. The biodiversity conservation
planning process in Barbados must therefore include the reform of policies that promote
damaging expansion of urbanisation, tourism and agriculture into natural habitats, over-
exploitation of marine fisheries, excessive use of monoculture production or agrochemicals,
degradation of terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems and any other policies that
catalyse the loss of biodiversity. New policies that promote conservation and sustainable,
equitable use of biodiversity should be adopted instead, in conjunction with the strengthening of
the legislative framework. The benefits of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use are
phenomenal. Maintenance as well as quality of human life is dependent on the efficient
management of natural resources. The livelihoods of future generations are less likely to be
compromised, with the provision of access to equivalent natural resources as present or past
generations. The capacity of institutions that develop policy relevant to biodiversity
conservation must therefore be strengthened through improved training of staff and improved
access to the financial resources required to carry out their functions.


2.6.2 Integration of Biodiversity Conservation with National Sustainable Development
Planning Efforts

Biodiversity is fundamental to the country‟s development process. Though a separate
biodiversity conservation planning process is valuable in identifying what exists and what
conservation priorities for biological resources should be, it is important that the biodiversity
conservation planning process be integrated with wider sustainable development initiatives in the
country. The integration of biodiversity conservation as far as possible into other sector planning
initiatives is in fact required under Article 6 Section b of the CBD. Ultimately, the aim would be
to integrate biodiversity concerns into existing plans, strategies and programmes aimed at
sustainable development and to make these more efficient by reducing overlap and redundancy
between different institutions.




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2.6.3 Making Public Awareness and Public Participation an Integral Part of the Process

An important aspect of achieving the desired level of biodiversity conservation is expanding
people‟s awareness of the importance of biodiversity and appreciation of its significance.
Conservation efforts will only be successful if persons in all sectors of society understand the
values of biodiversity, how biodiversity affects their everyday lives and how to use it to meet
their needs without causing its degradation.

The biodiversity conservation planning process should be as participatory as possible. All
stakeholders in the process should be afforded the opportunity to share responsibility for
developing the strategy and action plan and to jointly implement the plan. Stakeholder
participants are those who have the responsibility for, and live within or otherwise care for, the
variety of life and living resources. There is also a dependence on biodiversity by these
stakeholders for an income. These persons should possess the knowledge, values and
technologies required for successful implementation of biodiversity conservation actions. In
addition, persons who participate in decision-making about what needs to be done and how, are
more likely to understand the purpose of the actions and to be committed to following through
with their implementation. Stakeholder participation has been an integral part of the process of
identifying biodiversity conservation priorities, strategies and actions for Barbados.


2.6.4 Development of Human Resource Capacity to Manage and Conserve Biodiversity

Achieving the desired level of biodiversity conservation also necessitates the building of human
capacity to manage and conserve biodiversity at all levels of society. For example, policy-
makers, scientists, activists, resource managers, educators, school children, householders etc
should be involved in the planning and implementation of biodiversity conservation and should
therefore be armed with the knowledge of effective management techniques, and the related
technology. Initial and on-going training for all levels of society are essential to maximizing the
efficiency of implemented biodiversity management practices. Also, training specific to
managing biodiversity issues experienced in small developing countries is essential because
management models from developed countries do not have to take into consideration small
island issues such as rapid unsustainable economic development. Regional training institutions
such as The University of the West Indies and The University of Guyana are therefore important
in the development of human resource capacity to manage and conserve biodiversity in the
Caribbean and therefore in Barbados. To develop appropriate management strategies, however,
constant research for current information must also be explicitly linked to national resource and
development needs, and the research findings must, in turn, be accessible to all decision-makers,
biodiversity managers and users. An ideal would be to empower every individual to have the
capacity to manage and conserve biodiversity at the local or community level but this will have
to incorporate a well-coordinated and comprehensive public awareness and training programme.




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2.6.5 Development of a Supportive Macroeconomic Environment for Biodiversity
Conservation

Macroeconomic policies strongly influence the way in which biological resources are used and
the level of emphasis that is placed on their conservation. For example, macroeconomic policies
that emphasise tourism investment encourage the acquisition of land in coastal areas for the
construction of tourism facilities. This may result in the degradation of coastal ecosystems and
the species that inhabit them. These policies may also indirectly encourage the conversion of
agricultural lands in more rural areas to residential development because of higher land prices in
the already more developed areas of the country. While biodiversity conservation does not mean
an end to development, it does require changes in the macroeconomic environment to encourage
the use of environmental economics as an analytical tool in determining the costs and benefits of
certain types of development.


2.7       RELATIONSHIP TO NATIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PLANNING

Barbados has taken a lead among the other small islands of the Caribbean region in identifying
itself with the principles of sustainable development. Within the last decade or so, a number of
initiatives have been undertaken and plans developed to meet the needs of the present population
in a way which will not adversely affect the ability of future generations of Barbadians to meet
their needs.

The National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan should complement other plans relevant to
national sustainable development planning which have already been prepared and implemented
or which are in the process of being prepared. There are several plans in existence for elements
of physical development and natural resources management in Barbados that should be
considered:

         The Draft National Physical Development Plan (PDP), revised in 1998, provides policies
          for the use of land and the criteria and controls over the types of development that are
          allowable in different parts of the island.

         The Fisheries Management Plan (FMP), first published in 1997 and revised in 2001,
          contains the schemes for the management and development of fisheries in the territorial
          waters of Barbados as required by law under the Fisheries Act (1993). The 2001 FMP
          contains nine fishery-specific plans that are intended to ensure the sustainable use of the
          Barbados‟ fisheries resources for the benefit of the people of Barbados.

         The Environmental Management and Natural Resources Management Plan, prepared
          in 1998 as part of the Environmental Management and Land Use Planning for
          Sustainable Development Project (EMLUP), provides the framework and policies within
          which the government could protect, regulate the use, and monitor the health of the

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        island‟s environment and natural resources. The Government of Barbados has not yet
        adopted this Plan. .

       The Environmental Management and Natural Resources Management Plan is
        accompanied by area-specific plans, namely: the National Park Development Plan, and
        the Coastal Zone Management Plan. The latter however was not developed under the
        Environmental Management and Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development
        Project (EMLUP). These plans recognize the importance of the National Park Area
        (Scotland District and other significant natural heritage features) and the coastal area of
        Barbados, respectively, to the conservation and economic development of the island. The
        National Park Plan will be augmented by two local area plans currently under
        development for the Folkestone Marine Reserve at Holetown, St. James and for a
        proposed reserve in Carlisle Bay. The National Park Plan also provides direction for the
        preparation of management plans for the Natural Heritage Conservation Areas.

The existing plans and those in process provide a suitable framework for the sustainable
management of the majority of the human activities that impact on the conservation of
biodiversity in both the marine and terrestrial environments. A NBSAP that provides for the
integration of biodiversity management and conservation into the implementation of these sector
plans would serve to minimise overlap and increase efficiency of use of human, financial and
equipment resources. In order to achieve this successfully, there must be an improvement in
inter-agency collaboration and coordination of environmental and natural resources planning and
management activities.




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3.  POLICY AND LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR THE CONSERVATION OF
BARBADOS’ BIODIVERSITY

3.1       CONSERVATION POLICY

Barbados is a small island developing state with finite land space and limited natural resources.
The island also has one of the highest population densities in the world, coupled with a rapidly
improving standard of living that manifests itself in a growing demand for the provision of goods
and services. These increasing demands in turn place ever-increasing pressures on natural
habitats, freshwater resources and energy supplies giving rise to such problems as groundwater
reserve depletion, destruction of natural vegetation and coastal ecosystems along with problems
of solid waste disposal. Negative impacts on the natural environment as a result of development
activities have far-reaching social and economic implications. Thus, the island requires a very
strong policy on conservation that emphasises the protection of remaining natural resources,
habitats and species.

There is currently no comprehensive national policy on the management of biodiversity in
Barbados. However, measures to overcome this deficiency are outlined in various sectoral plans
that are in existence. These are described in Section 2.7. Among the measures being considered
is the setting up of a number of special units within the Ministry of Physical Development and
Environment as outlined in the Environmental Management and Natural Resources Management
Plan (1998).

The Coastal Zone Management Unit armed with the Coastal Zone Management Act is a
government agency that provides for more effective management of the coastal resources and for
the conservation and enhancement of these resources. Important proposed new units relevant to
biodiversity conservation are the Policy and Coordination Unit and the Natural Heritage Unit.
The Policy and Coordination Unit would provide a strong focus for the development and
implementation of national and international environmental policies. Its mandate would be to
provide the Ministry with a well-coordinated approach to dealing with environmental policy
issues and to advise on and articulate such policy. The Natural Heritage Unit would manage
policy implementation related to conservation of natural heritage resources, including the
production of operational guidelines and the compilation of a database on biodiversity inclusive
of a survey of local flora and fauna and the development of species management plans.

The following issues should be considered for guidance in policy formulation for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity:

         Major natural heritage areas and habitats (especially land based) for conservation and
          legal status;

         Past, current and future impacts on these sites;

         Preferred management options;
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         Mechanisms for implementing management options;

         Incentives for biodiversity conservation and sustainable;

         Introduction of alien species, both invasive and non-invasive;

         Mitigation of land based sources of coastal and marine pollution;

         Tourism development and the implications for biodiversity management;

         Food security and sustainable agricultural development.


3.2       INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS

International agreements have served as catalysts for much of the effort being expended in many
countries of the world for conservation and protection of the environment and of natural
resources. The CBD is now the key coordinating, catalysing and monitoring mechanism for
international biodiversity conservation. However, there are several other international
conventions, to which Barbados is party, which make provision for some elements of the
conservation and protection of biological diversity. In accordance with the provisions of these
conventions the island has obligations to implement rules for the preservation of biological
resources. From a legal perspective, implementation is by way of the passage and enforcement of
legislation and regulations. From an administrative perspective, new procedures and mechanisms
would have to be employed to facilitate the implementation of biodiversity programmes. In
respect of conventions signed by Barbados, but which have not yet entered into force, the island
has the obligation to refrain from acts that would defeat the object and purpose of the treaty. The
most relevant of these international agreements are outlined in the following paragraphs.

The United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity was adopted on June 5, 1992, in Rio de
Janeiro, at the end of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment. The CBD
entered into force on December 29, 1993 and Barbados became a party to the Convention on
December10, 1993. A number of ministries are responsible for matters falling under this
Convention, they include:

         The Ministry of Physical Development and Environment; and

         The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.

There is no legislation that comprehensively implements the CBD. However, the GOB has
commissioned the preparation of a “Draft Environmental Management and Conservation Act for
Barbados” which would seek to address local environmental management issues in general, and

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would therefore speak to biodiversity and its management. The Environmental and Natural
Resources Management and Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development Report (1997/98),
(EMLUPSD Report 97/98), which was submitted to the Ministry of Physical Development and
Environment, makes recommendations for the drafting of this all encompassing environmental
legislation.

The Convention on Trade In Endangered Species of Fauna and Flora (CITES) was concluded
on March 3, 1973 in Washington and entered into force on July 1, 1975. Barbados became a
party to this convention on December 9, 1992. Barbados makes annual reports to the CITES
Secretariat regarding measures taken to implement the Convention. Responsibility for the
enforcement of this convention rests with various Ministries and Departments, including:

       The Ministry of Physical Development and Environment;

       The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; and

       The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade.

Legislative provisions that may assist Barbados in controlling international trade are scattered
throughout a number of statutes including: the Fisheries Act 1993 (6/1993), which protects such
species as marine turtles and whales; the Wild Birds Protection Act (cap. 398; the National
Conservation Commission Act 1982 (cap. 393) and the Coastal Zone Management Act which
together offer protection for some species of plant life. Administrative measures taken include
the training of Customs Officers and relevant private sector personnel (e.g., pet shop owners),
and the operationalization of an import/export permit system. Both initiatives took place in
February 1998.

The Convention for the Protection and Development of the Marine Environment of the Wider
Caribbean Region (Cartagena Convention), and the Protocol Concerning Co-operation in
Combating Oil Spills in the Wider Caribbean Region, (OILSPILL Protocol), were concluded in
Cartagena de Indias on March 24, 1983. They entered into force on October 11, 1986.

Barbados became a party to the Convention and OILSPILL Protocol on March 28, 1985.
Executing agencies in Barbados are the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, the
Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, and the Ministry of Tourism and International
Transport. The GOB participates in the biennial meetings of the Contracting Parties that act as a
forum for the communication and exchange of information regarding measures taken to
implement the Agreements.

Although there is no legislation specifically geared towards the implementation of these legal
instruments, a contingency plan exists to deal with oil spill emergencies, and the GOB has
promoted the identification and development of the capability to respond to an oil- spill incident
and the designation of an authority responsible for the implementation of the protocol.

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The GOB is presently examining the Environmental Management and Land Use Planning for
Sustainable Development (EMLUPSD) 97/98 proposal for the development of national parks
legislation. This would offer greater protection to the preservation of rare or fragile ecosystems,
as well as the habit of depleted, threatened or endangered species. This initiative is in
accordance with the SPAW Protocol which the GOB has decided to sign. The protocol, which
covers matters also represented in the CBD, was adopted in Kingston, Jamaica, on January 18,
1990.

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), signed on December 10,
1982, at Montego Bay, entered into force on November 16, 1994. The Convention is relevant to
biodiversity because it prescribes jurisdictional rules for the protection of resources found in the
marine environment.

Barbados became a party to this Convention on October 12, 1993. There are no regular meetings
of parties to review implementation of the environmental regime. Responsibility for the
implementation of this Agreement is shared by:

         the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade;

         the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development; and

         the Ministry of Physical Development and Environment.

Barbados has taken action to implement the UNCLOS regime on jurisdiction, competence and
sovereignty and sovereign rights, over such zones as the internal waters, territorial sea and the
exclusive economic zone. Relevant legislation includes: the Barbados Territorial Waters Act
1977 (cap. 386) and the Marine Boundaries and Jurisdiction Act 1979 (cap. 387), and the
Shipping (Oil Pollution) Act 1994 (1994-16).

The GOB enacted the Marine Pollution Control Act in December of 1999. This is a broad marine
pollution statute, which is crafted to protect various elements of biological diversity in the
maritime zones of the Island.


3.3       EXISTING LEGISLATION

Barbados has no legislation designed specifically to deal with the protection of biodiversity
enacted in response to the country‟s ratification of the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity.
Environment-related legislation currently in force in Barbados is dispersed over several statutes
charging various government bodies with the management of the environment, including
biological resources.

There is also currently no comprehensive legislation in Barbados governing terrestrial protected
areas. Marine protected areas were described under the Marine Areas (Preservation and
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Enhancement) Act (Cap 392) but this legislative document has been repealed since the more all-
encompassing Coastal Zone Management Act was enforced. Preservation and conservation of
ecologically important areas is undertaken in a piecemeal fashion. The most prominent pieces of
legislation providing statutory protection of the environment are described in the following
section.


3.3.1 Land Use

The Town and Country Planning Act (cap.240) makes provision for the orderly and progressive
development of land. The Act provides for the preparation of a Physical Development Plan by
the Chief Town Planner (CTP) which may make provision for: (i) allocation of lands as open
spaces, communal parks, bird and other sanctuaries, protection of marine life; (ii) preservation of
sites of artistic, architectural, archaeological or historical interest; (iii) preservation or protection
of forests, woods, trees, shrubs, plants and flowers; (iv) regulation and control of the deposition
of waste materials, refuse, sewage and the pollution of rivers, lakes, ponds, gullies and the
seashore.

The Land Acquisition Act (cap. 228) makes provision for the acquisition of land for public
purposes, such as the development of parks or caves.

The Constitution (Section 16) provides for the protection from deprivation of private property.
The establishment of protected areas or the imposition of planning restrictions that deprives the
land of its value could attract legitimate claims for compensation. S.16 allows for the
confiscation of property in circumstances where the environment is threatened.


3.3.2 Protected Areas/Habitats

The Soil Conservation (Scotland District) Act (cap.396) restricts the use to which land can be
put in the Conservation Area known as the Scotland District. The Scotland District comprises
both the hinterland and the coastal zones in the parishes of St. Peter, St. Andrews, St. Joseph and
St. John.

The National Conservation Commission Act (cap.393) establishes the National Conservation
Commission (NCC) which has, as one of its main functions to conserve the natural beauty of
Barbados; control and develop public parks; public gardens, beaches and caves; advise on the
removal of coral from the ocean bed; and regulate commercial activities in public parks, gardens,
caves, and on beaches.

The Trees (Preservation) Act (cap.397) provides that the killing of any tree one metre or more in
circumference is an offence unless a permit has been obtained from the CTP. The Act also
empowers the CTP to require the owner of vacant land or land adjoining or near a public road to
plant or replant trees and to clear land of weeds or overgrown grass.

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The Cultivation of Trees Act (cap.390) promotes the cultivation of certain species of trees
through the financial incentive of receiving a tax contribution payment equivalent to the amount
of taxes payable in respect of the land so cultivated, the payment of a fruit tree subsidy or
subsidy payment. Species currently approved for the incentive scheme are mahogany, casuarina,
teak, tamarind and coconut. This piece of legislation only stresses however non-native species
and efforts should be made to promote incentives for the cultivation of species, which are
indigenous to Barbados.


3.3.3 Agriculture/Livestock

The Town and Country Planning Act (cap.240) contains some provision relevant to agriculture
and livestock. These include the use of any land for the purposes of agriculture or forestry,
including forestation and the use of any agricultural purpose, other than dairy farming and the
breeding and keeping of livestock, including any creature kept for the production of food, wool,
skin or for the purpose of its use in farming the land.

The Barbados Agricultural Development and Marketing Corporation Act (BADMCA)
(12/1993) establishes the BADMC with responsibility for the stimulation and development of
agriculture. The Corporation is mandated to develop and manage, on a commercial basis, such
plantations and other agricultural land that may be vested in it and to stimulate and encourage the
private sector.


3.3.4 Marine Resources

The Barbados Territorial Waters Act 1977 (1977-26) which defines the territorial waters of
Barbados as existing within 12 nautical miles around the island. Section 3 (2) provides that these
waters, including the underlying seabed and subsoil, form part of the territory of Barbados and
are, therefore, subject to full territorial sovereignty. Foreign vessels have a right of innocent
passage through the territorial waters but not if the captain or other person in charge of the ship
engages in any calculated act of pollution or acts likely to cause harm to Barbados‟ resources or
its marine environment.

The Marine Boundaries and Jurisdiction Act 1979 (cap. 387) establishes a 200 mile EEZ in
which sovereign rights are vested in the Government of Barbados in respect of the exploration,
exploitation, conservation, protection or management of the natural living and non-living
resources of the sea-bed, subsoil and superjacent waters; and the preservation and protection of
the marine environment and the prevention and control of marine pollution. Barbados has all
other rights in and jurisdiction over, the EEZ recognized in international law.




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The Fisheries Act 1993 (cap. 391) addresses the provision for the management and development
of fisheries (including protection of endangered and critically endangered sea turtles from
exploitation) in Barbados.

The Fisheries Management Regulations (1998) address closed areas and seasons, fishing
methods and equipment to be adopted, and protective measures for lobsters, turtles, sea eggs and
tuna.

The Marine Pollution Control Act (1998) focuses on the quality of the marine waters on the
south and west coasts of the island. The legislation has been approved to help combat the
steadily deteriorating coastal water quality in some locations that has resulted due to the
increased physical development occurring along the coastline over the last three (3) decades. As
in all coastal island states dependant on marine resources, poor water quality poses a serious
threat to human, fisheries and marine ecosystem health. Overall, the legislation seeks to prevent,
reduce and control pollution form its various sources. It recognizes that much of the marine
pollution affecting coastal waters originates from land based sources and activities

The Coastal Zone Management Act (1998-39) provides a comprehensive statutory basis for
coastal management and planning in Barbados. It seeks to coordinate and update the existing
fragmented statutes relevant to coastal management and makes provision for critical areas of
concern not covered by current legislation. The Act provides the legal basis for the preparation
of a Coastal Management Plan, which establishes and clearly sets out Government‟s coastal
management policy and technical guidelines for the use and allocation of coastal resources. The
Act specifically deals with protection of marine resources, for example destruction of corals and
fouling of the foreshore. It also encompasses the designation of Marine Protected Areas and
Marine Parks. This Act repealed the Marine Areas (Preservation and Enhancement) Act
(cap.392).


3.3.5 Protection of Wild Flora and Fauna

Barbados has no legislation for the general protection of wild fauna and flora. Some species of
wild plants are worthy of protection in respect of which no legislation obtains. Similarly, there is
no broad regulation of the international trade in endangered species as required in international
conventions such as CITES. Legislation protecting special areas and wildlife is in evidence,
however there is need for comprehensive regulation which incorporates suitable provisions for
management plans and protection of intellectual property rights.




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The National Conservation Commission Act 1982 (cap. 393) addresses the protection of flora
and fauna found in caves.

The Wild Birds Protection Act 1907 (cap. 398) (WBPA) provides for the protection of some
forty-six (46) species of wild birds specified in the schedule. Any person who knowingly kills or
wounds or attempts such an act is liable to a fine, one-half of which is payable to the informant.
Possession or export of the skin or features of any wild bird is also an offence, which is
punishable by a fine. The only exception is the killing of wild birds for the purpose of obtaining
specimens for natural history provided a licence has been obtained by the Minister (not defined)
to do so.

The Protection of New Plant Varieties Act (2000-17) was formulated because of legal
obligations imposed by the World Trade Organisation. It basically addresses, amongst other
issues, the qualification of rights of plant breeders, their entitlement to protection, licenses and
criminal liability in respect of variety denomination. This act seeks to protect property rights
with respect to flora, and therefore can be used as a tool to regulate and control biodiversity
access.


3.3.6 Legislation Requirements

A review of existing legislation relevant to the management and conservation of biodiversity
identifies the need for a legal regime to be developed which would give a comprehensive
response to the requirements for the protection of biological diversity. The concept of the
protected area, as developed in international instruments to which Barbados is a party, including
the CBD, requires articulation in statute, as does the basic tool of the management plan designed
to achieve specified conservation objectives. These measures must find expression in a
comprehensive environmental enactment that would include existing natural resources
legislation.

In developing this comprehensive legal response the following environmental issues should be
considered:

       Legislation to protect wild flora and fauna are antiquated and require complete revamping
        in order to protect indigenous species.

       General regulation of the release of pollutants into the environment that causes, amongst
        other things, contamination of biological resources, is required. In this regard,
        substantially new legislation is required for waste management, toxic substances, noise,
        air pollutants, climate change, and dumping.




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       EIA procedures need clear legislative authority.

       Planning legislation should be modified to attempt to ensure greater transparency and
        closer relationship between the grant of planning permission and the requirement of
        conformity with the Physical Development Plan.

       National parks legislation is required.

       Protected areas legislation is required.

       Forestry legislation is required.

The GOB has reviewed the EMLUP Report 1997/98. This Report has suggested enactment of
several environmental statutes most of which will be critical to effective protection of
biodiversity.

The “Draft Environmental Management and Conservation Act for Barbados” contains provisions
for the implementation of the CBD and the SPAW Protocol. It makes provision for designation
of specially protected areas, including the Scotland District and coastal planning areas. Line
items of the proposed legislation include the following relevant concepts:

       implementation of biodiversity conventions
       integrated environmental management
       conservation of natural heritage resources, flora and fauna
       protection of cultural knowledge
       prohibition and regulation of discharges into the environment
       enforcement procedures
       regulation of waste management and waste disposal operations
       provision for environmental impact assessment
       establishment of regime for the protection of forestry and arboriculture
       wildlife protection
       pollution control
       regulation of toxic substances and pesticides

The proposed “Revised Town and Country Planning Act” makes extensive revisions to the
existing planning legislation. These revisions will address the aspects of the legislation,
discussed above, which inhibit its effective protection of biodiversity.




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The proposed “Barbados National Parks Act” builds upon existing fragmentary legislation. The
proposed Act includes the following:

        ·       the description of the area to be included in the National Park;
        ·       the creation of the post for a Director of the Barbados National Park;
        ·       the constitution of a National Park Advisory Board;
        ·       the creation of a Barbados National Park Plan; and
        ·       a number of procedures for notification and consultation with other relevant
                agencies.


3.4     ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION

3.4.1 Economic Valuation of Biodiversity

In the process of economic growth and development, trade-offs invariably will have to be made
between development goals and the conservation of the environment. Economics attempts to
facilitate such decisions by providing a yardstick to compare different types of costs and benefits
of natural resources and the environment. This yardstick is the dollar value of costs and benefits.
The concept of “value” of natural resource and environmental goods and services is relatively
new, and based on the neoclassical concept of utility. Application of a utility based valuation
system, which is exclusively anthropocentric, to value a complex commodity like biodiversity
has attracted criticism from some environmental groups. Their protests are often based on the
argument that the intrinsic value of life on earth and the right of species to exist on their own is
not captured in this valuation system, not that ecological services provided by biodiversity are
adequately valued.

Despite these caveats, economic values provide a powerful tool for guiding public policy
decisions as well as in allocation of public funds to various sectors of the economy. For a long
time, environmental causes have generally received little consideration in the decision-making
process because it has been difficult to quantify the qualitatively identifiable benefits and costs.
Economic valuation methods now place the environment on the same footing as the other
traditional sectors of the economy such as health, education, transportation, agriculture and
industry. In addition, it is possible to include the value of natural capital in national accounting
systems. This is known as the “greening of national accounts.” Several developed and
developing countries have used economic valuation methods to value important environmental
resources, such as forestry, fisheries, mines, for national accounting purposes. Valuation of
biodiversity is the next logical step in this process, where values are placed on the physical
inventory of different categories of biodiversity.




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An important component of this project has been to value the natural wealth of the island which
is categorized as agricultural biodiversity, terrestrial flora and fauna and marine resources.
Appendix 2 provides details of these valuations which use only available data and information.
Where data and information were not available, suitable valuation is recommended.


3.4.2 Economic Incentives

In order to develop a meaningful and workable policy for the conservation of biodiversity, it is
important not only to have descriptive information on the causes of biodiversity loss, but it is
also important to have an understanding of the underlying economic forces which are causing the
problems. There are three major, interrelated economic forces driving biodiversity loss and
which must be addressed through a broad range of policy mechanisms:

Unsustainable patterns of consumption and production are a major cause of biodiversity loss.
Barbados‟ much-improved standard of living over the past few decades has led to a
corresponding increase in per capita consumption of energy and natural resources. It is crucial to
remove economic incentives that encourage unsustainable production, in addition to increasing
education about the impacts of excessive consumption. Eco-labelling and certification e.g. for
manufactured goods and for the tourism industry, develop consumers‟ understanding about the
impacts of unsustainable consumption and encourage producers to use sustainable production
processes;

Population growth and distribution are major factors in determining how the country‟s land
resources and biological resources are used. Although population growth in Barbados has been
relatively stable in the decade of the 1990s, the island‟s population density is one of the highest
in the world. This high population density, in combination with improving socio-economic
conditions leads to increasing pressure on land and marine resources for food production, roads,
housing and commercial developments. The high density of tourism related development along
the coastline makes coastal, and marine biodiversity extremely vulnerable to degradation; and

Market failure means that the interplay of market forces does not ensure the economically
correct balance of habitat conversion and conservation. This is because those who convert the
land do not have to compensate those who suffer the consequences of that conversion, locally or
globally, e.g. the loss of biodiversity values. As a result, the private cost of engaging in activities
that adversely impact on biodiversity is artificially low. The cost of losing habitat and wildlife is
shifted to society rather than being internalised by the private actor. This pattern encourages the
overuse of components of biodiversity (OECD, 1996).




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In summary, biodiversity decision-making and policy development will be improved if
information on the state of biodiversity is introduced into the economic accounts and economic
decision-making. In addition, the introduction of economic incentives as complements to
regulatory provisions will aid in the achievement of biodiversity conservation objectives.


4.       EXISTING CAPACITY FOR THE CONSERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN
         BARBADOS

4.1     INSTITUTIONAL CAPACITY

In Barbados, the responsibility for the management of biological resources is fragmented among
several Government Ministries. There are also a number of non-government organisations and
entities involved in the conservation of biodiversity. The fragmentation of biodiversity
responsibilities has evolved into a situation whereby a myriad of institutions and agencies have
their own legislative mandate, administrative procedures, resources, work programmes and
priorities. Despite some inadequacies caused by fragmentation such as lack of real time
communication, these aforementioned institutions and agencies have cooperated in the form of
steering committees and working groups, and therefore are cognizant of the need for a
coordinated and integrated approach to sustainable development and biodiversity management.
The Government of Barbados has also demonstrated its commitment to the sustainable
development of natural resources by setting up a National Commission on Sustainable
Development mandated to advise the Government, inter alia, on national policy for sustainable
development of natural resources.


4.1.1 Ministry of Physical Development and Environment

The Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, through its various Divisions, is
responsible for all matters pertaining to physical planning and development, and environmental
conservation and protection. The mission of the environment sector of MPE is to “promote and
facilitate the sustainable use of our resources encouraging the involvement of all citizens and the
integration of environmental consideration into all aspects of national development planning”.
The environment sector of the Ministry is the main policy-coordinating government department
with regard to environmental policy at the national, regional and international levels. The
environmental units are also responsible for the management of the island‟s energy and natural
resources. The environment sector of the MPE includes the Coastal Zone Management Unit, the
National Conservation Commission, the Environment Unit, the Energy Division, and the
Environment Engineering Division. The MPE also possesses an Environmental Special Projects




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Unit (ESPU) that consists of an Executive Officer, a Director, an Architect, an Environmental
Engineer and three Administrative staff.

The current responsibilities of the environment sector of the Ministry include:

        ·       advising the Minister on national environmental policy and legislation, including
                environmental impact assessment;

        ·       developing and executing environmental education and public awareness
                programs;

        ·       advising the Minister on a range of environmental management concerns
                including the development of protected areas, research and technical assistance
                needs;

        ·       facilitating the integration of the environmental dimension into the development
                planning process;

        ·       advising on the adoption of global environmental initiatives to the local context
                and otherwise articulating local concerns for the international context;

        ·       serving as the technical focal point for a wider range of regional and international
                environmental programs and institutions.

Some of the institutional constraints that the environment sector of the Ministry faces in carrying
out its responsibilities were identified under EMLUP and include the following:

        ·       Inadequate staffing;

        ·       A deficiency in appropriate training, e.g. in communication/media skills;

        ·       Unavailability of vital technical support from the Government Information
                Services (GIS) at most times for environmental programmes;

        ·       A lack of a structured information database or library for technical material; and

        ·       Lack of direct financial support.

Responsibilities of the existing divisions of the MPE relevant to the conservation and sustainable
use of biodiversity are described in the following sections.




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National Conservation Commission

The National Conservation Commission (NCC) is mandated to conserve the natural beauty of
Barbados, control and develop public parks, public gardens, beaches, caves and marine
underwater parks and regulate commercial activities in public parks, gardens, caves, and on
beaches.

The NCC is also involved in cleaning and maintaining these above-mentioned public amenities,
and employs 125 Park Rangers and Wardens in order to administer activities in the national
parks and beaches. There are also some small-scale re-vegetation programs undertaken by the
NCC periodically. The NCC plays an important role in the preservation of biodiversity through
regulation of human activities in ecologically sensitive areas. The National Conservation
Commission may establish restricted areas and the Commission may, with the approval of the
Minister responsible for land issues, make Regulations for the protection of these areas.




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Coastal Zone Management Unit

The Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU) is a scientific government agency specializing in
the environmental management of the coastal zone. It carries out routine monitoring and analyses
of oceanographic conditions around the island, hydrographic surveys, GIS data management, and
coral reef and water quality monitoring. The CZMU also assists in the evaluation of all coastal
related development planning applications submitted to the Town and Country Development
Planning Office. This agency can be said to play a vital role in the preservation of marine and
near shore biological assets.


Environmental Unit

The Environmental Unit (EU) is a technical agency specializing in conducting public awareness
and education programmes, measuring and monitoring sustainable development, protecting and
managing local biodiversity, assisting the adaptation to and prevention of atmospheric changes,
and policy coordination and planning. The latter speciality involves merging international laws
and conventions with national environmental policy.


Environmental Engineering Division

The Environmental Engineering Division (EED) is a technical monitoring agency involved in
marine pollution control, air quality monitoring and control, water quality monitoring and
control, hazardous material management, development control, and noise pollution control. The
EED also contributes to the management of gullies through its Derelict Vehicle Programme,
which focuses on monitoring, and removal of debris.


Environmental Special Projects Unit

The Environmental Special Projects Unit (ESPU) conceptualises and implements practical
environmental projects. The unit is committed to marrying the natural and built environment by
analysing past initiatives and ideas, and therefore designing workable projects. Included in its
portfolio is the redevelopment of Harrison‟s Cave, the development of the National Botanical
Gardens, and beautifying Barbados‟ major Highways.




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Town and Country Development Planning Office

The Town & Country Development Planning Office, under the Ministry of Physical
Development and Environment, is the primary agency responsible for planning the use of land
resources in Barbados. The TCDPO essentially facilitates the “orderly and progressive”
development of land based on an approved National Physical Development Plan. The National
Physical Development Plan is prepared by the Chief Town Planner and approved by the
Minister.

The Development Plan refers to provision for a number of matters that include amenities such as:
(a) allocation of lands as open spaces; (b) allocation of lands for communal parks, bird and other
sanctuaries and protection of marine life; (c) preservation of sites of artistic, architectural,
archaeological or historical interest; (d) the preservation or protection of forests, woods, trees,
shrubs, plants and flowers; and (e) prohibiting, regulating and controlling the deposit of waste,
materials and refuse, the disposal of sewage and the pollution of rivers, lakes, ponds, gullies and
the seashore. The Plan also makes provision for facilitating the establishment and operation of
public services in relation to, for example, power, water supply, sewerage, drainage, sewage
disposal and refuse disposal.

Findings of the EMLUP study have indicated that the TCDPO has generally been unable to
effectively monitor and regulate development activities, which may be in conflict with the Town
and Country Planning Act (TCPA). The TCPA was also found to be inadequate in some respects
as a regulatory instrument e.g. the regulation of sand mining and quarrying activities. It was also
observed that there was a lack of adequate personnel to properly regulate such development or
resource extraction activities.


4.1.2 The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has overall responsibility for agricultural
development in Barbados. Its function is carried out through two divisions, Livestock and Crop,
as well as through several specialized sections, such as the Agricultural Planning Unit, Plant
Pathology Unit, Central Agronomic Research Station, Entomology, Land and Water Use Unit,
Animal Nutrition Unit, Agricultural Stations, Soil Conservation Unit, and Veterinary Services.


The Fisheries Division

The Fisheries Division falls under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. This
agency engages in fisheries planning and management.

The Administration and Services Section provides administrative support within the fisheries
division, and services the fishing industry as required by fishery laws. The principal duties of this
section include:

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        ·       Office property and human resource management
        ·       Incentives, accounting and other administration
        ·       Boat or fisher registration, inspection and licensing
        ·       Boat haul-out service.

The Infrastructure and Development Section assists in providing infrastructure and implements
measures to develop the resources available to the fishing industry in keeping with fisheries
plans and includes:

        ·       Landing site facilities
        ·       Training and extension
        ·       Research, technology and development.

The Fisheries Resource Management Section provides scientific information for planning and
implementing measures for fishery management and development, and includes:

        ·       Catch and effort statistics
        ·       Biological, social and economic information
        ·       Fisheries management measures
        ·       Computer management
        ·       Aquaculture and mariculture
        ·       Library service.


4.1.3 Other Agencies with Relevant Responsibilities

The Barbados Agricultural Management Company Ltd (BAMC) was set up by the government
of Barbados and given a 12-year lease to manage sugarcane farms and factories, which had
become indebted to the banks. The BAMC manages 40% of all lands under sugarcane, is the
largest producer of cotton in Barbados, and cultivates some root crops and hot peppers for
export. The BAMC also operates the Agronomy Research and Variety Testing Unit (ARVTU),
which is geared towards the improvement of sugarcane cultivars and sugar yields and the
reduction of production costs.

The West Indies Central Sugar Cane Breeding Station (CBS) located at Groves in St George, is
operated by the Sugar Association of the Caribbean and is responsible for the production of
seeds each year for distribution to participating variety testing stations such as the ARVTU. The
CBS maintains on 16 ha of land, a working collection of over 1000 commercial clones and 900
species and early-generation inter-specific hybrids.

The Caribbean Agricultural Development Institute (CARDI) sub-regional office located on the
Cave Hill Campus of the University of the West Indies conducts research on animal production


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and development, and crop production and development. CARDI also provides technical
assistance to farmers and government agencies.

The University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus assists in the management and monitoring
of biodiversity in Barbados. Academics, mainly from the Department of Biological and
Chemical Sciences and the Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies
(CERMES), advise Government and the private sector on biodiversity issues, and also
conceptualise and develop sustainable environmental projects. The university also offers
environmental science and management degrees at the undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

The Bellairs Research Institute was established as a marine research facility in Barbados in
1954. It is owned by McGill University in the city of Montreal, Canada. Bellairs goal is to
provide scientists with high quality tropical laboratory and field facilities in the Caribbean.


The office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (DPP) is responsible for the enforcement of
environmental regulations and legislation and the prosecution of violators of these laws. The
DPP office was found in the EMLUP Report to possess inadequate resources, and so lacks the
strength to prosecute violators of environmental conservation regulations. Increased staffing is
required to overcome most of the difficulties presently being experienced by the DPP.




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5.      ASSESSMENT OF BIODIVERSITY RESOURCES

5.1     NATURAL VEGETATION

The first European settlers arrived in Barbados in 1627 and found most of the island covered
with forests, however, within 30 years about 80% of the forested area was cleared for agriculture
(Watt, 1966). Over the past 300 years sugarcane was and continues to be the primary crop
planted on the island, however, there has been a steady decline in the area under sugarcane
cultivation and an increase in the area under natural vegetation. Gooding (1974) noted that, in the
early 1970's, some 25,000 ha out of about 31,000 ha of arable land were planted in sugarcane. In
1989 arable lands accounted for about 17,000 ha (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries,
1992), with sugarcane occupying about 11,000 ha. By 1996 sugarcane cultivation was further
reduced to just less than 9,000 ha. Abandoned sugarcane lands, particularly in the Scotland
District now have some secondary forest and regenerating natural vegetation. It is not known
with certainty what area of these abandoned lands have been converted to other uses such as
housing and tourism development.

The vegetation of Barbados has been described in many studies by several researchers
particularly within the last 50 years. The following paragraphs provide a description of the
various classes of natural vegetation existing on the island.


5.1.1 Natural Plant Communities

Beaches, Sand Dunes and Sandy Bushlands

The beaches on the eastern (windward) side of the island differ markedly from those on the more
sheltered west (leeward) coast, but in both areas they are characterised by predominantly
xerophytic and halophytic vegetation. The former are usually wider, often backed by sand dunes,
a strip bare of vegetation up to about 10m from the high tide mark and impacted by saltwater
spray. The beaches on the windward coast are located from Cattlewash to Morgan Lewis, Foul
Bay, Crane Beach and Long Bay (St Phillip), Chancery Lane and Silver Sands (Christ Church).
On the seaward side of the dunes, isolated creeping plants are common. On the windward coast,
the sandy bush-lands, sometimes referred to as dry thorn scrub communities with cacti and other
prickly shrubs, often appear to be a further development of the Coccoloba association of the
dunes, extending inland with increased number of species.

The leeward beaches are relatively narrow and, where they have not been cleared for coastal
development, are backed by trees and shrubby undergrowth. Examples of this are the small area
of dry woodland, which persists at Batts Rock, St James and Cluffs, St Lucy. Coastal
development up to the high tide mark in many cases is a dominant feature of the west coast.




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Sea Cliffs and Sea Rocks

The windward sea cliffs extend from just west of North point in St Lucy to Cove Bay; from
Consett Point to Chancery Lane; and then near Inchmarlow and South Point. On the vertical
walls of the sea cliffs plant life is sparse and restricted to halophytes which occur in the crevices.
Two rare cliff species are Heliotropium microphyllum (lesser Antillean endemic) found only at
River Bay, St Lucy, and Strumpfia maritima (Caribbean-wide sp), which is found only near
Gemswick to Foul Bay. At the tops of these cliffs, grasses and shrubs are usually abundant.
Further inland from the edge of the cliffs more species appear with increased soil cover.


Rocky Land and Inland Cliffs

The rocky land has evolved from historical soil loss over the past three centuries and is
characterised by protruding rock with a few pockets of shallow soil and can be found at areas
like Kitridge Point in St Phillip, Mount Brevitor in St Peter, and in St Andrew and the Boscobel
area. These pockets support dry scrubby vegetation and many have been planted for grazing
animals.

The vertical walls of inland cliffs usually support sparse vegetation, clinging to cracks in the rock
or in pockets of soil on ledges where stunted plants are common. The slopes of some cliffs that
have more loose boulders and pockets of soil may have additional species.


Gullies

The gullies are steep clefts in the coral cap of Barbados that provide a sheltered environment
with more moisture than the other habitats so far described. The major gullies can be found in the
Parishes of St Peter, St James and St Thomas, however, the ravines in the Scotland District (St
Andrew), which have a different geological history, are less steep sided and tend not to have the
same vegetation characteristics of the gullies in the coralline areas. Historically, gullies have
been used as a source of firewood and some of them provided more suitable areas for the
planting of fruit trees. Today, these gullies tend to have a large and mature collection of native
ferns, climbers, shrubs and trees in Barbados.


Forests

Carrington (1991b) estimated the total tree cover of Barbados to be about 2% of the area of the
island or about 800 ha which included the gullies, coastal woodlands, undercliff woods and other
planted wooded areas. Remnants of the xerophytic coastal forest can be found at Cluffs, Bath
and Batts Rock.


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The undercliff woods lie mainly on talus slopes at the base of the coralline cliff from Sealy Hall
in St John, around the rim of the Scotland District, to Boscobel in St Peter. The best development
of the woods is behind Codrington College in St John, then from Edgecliff passing below
Hackleton‟s Cliff in St Joseph to near Horse Hill (comprising Forster Hall wood and Joe‟s River
wood), and then in clumps between Horse Hill and Boscobel Hill, near Bleak House, Farley Hill
and at Cherry Tree Hill. Turner‟s Hall wood (about 21 ha), in the Scotland District is perhaps the
least disturbed wooded habitat in Barbados and is the best local example of a Tropical
Mesophytic (semi-deciduous) forest. It is considered to be the most species rich site on the
island with respect to plant life. This forest has two discernable tree layers, occasionally a third
layer consisting mainly of palms, a moderately developed evergreen shrub layer, a poorly
developed herbaceous layer, poorly developed climbers and few epiphytes.




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Plate: 1 Sea Rock on the East Coast, Bathsheba (National Park Area), (photo: ESPU)

Coastal Wetlands

Remnants of natural wetlands or wetland vegetation, primarily mangroves, can be found at
Graeme Hall, Chancery Lane, Holetown, near Brighton, near Gibbes and at Lakes/Long Pond.
Graeme Hall Swamp is the largest mangrove area (30 ha) in Barbados and it comprises natural
and man-made water bodies. With respect to coastal wetland plant life, Carrington (1991b)
reported that Conocarpus erectus is now limited to Chancery Lane. The mangrove at Holetown
is essentially a fringe of Laguncularia racemosa, less than 1 ha in area along the bank of the
creek adjacent to the Discovery Bay Hotel. Further, severely degraded mangrove sites with only
a few trees of Laguncularia racemosa persist in seasonally wet areas near Brighton on either side
of the Spring Garden Highway, as well as near Gibbes (St Peter).




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Plate: 2 The Graeme Hall Swamp (photo: Dr Horrocks, UWI)




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Plate: 3 The Graeme Hall Swamp white mangrove forest (photo: Dr Carrington, UWI)


5.1.2 Man-made Habitats

Plantation Forest

Plantation forests consist of Swietenia mahagoni (small-leaf mahogany) many of which were
planted before 1900 on small-holdings, usually not larger than 2 has scattered across the country
(Ramnarine, 1991). Since 1963, about 39 ha at Joe‟s River was replanted with Honduras
mahogany and other exotic timber species. Joe‟s River Forest has been an experimental
plantation rather than a production forest.

Due to the extensive deforestation in previous centuries and the dominance of agriculture, forests
are nonexistent in Barbados. However, the planting of trees was encouraged through the
designation of Arbor Day from 1905, when the colonial government advertised and provided
plants for free distribution to be planted on a designated day. At least 70 exotic species of plants
were widely distributed between 1907 and 1930, and in some years, as many as 13,000 trees and
shrubs were given out (Chandler, pers.comm.) for planting around homes, roadsides, open spaces
and other property. Arbor Day became dormant after 1950 but was reactivated by the
Government of Barbados in September 1997.

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Sugarcane Plantations

Sugarcane plantations are distributed throughout the island, however, plantations greater than
300 ha in size are found only in the parishes of Christ Church, St George, St Phillip, St John, St
Peter, and St Lucy (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, 1992). Eleven varieties of
sugarcane account for the majority of land currently under sugar production and a variety of
chemicals are applied for the control of invasive weeds in these plantations. These weeds are
more dominant during the period of land preparation and planting of the sugarcanes, during early
growth of the sugarcanes, and after harvesting of the crop when the land is fallow or until the
ratoons have grown sufficiently to shade out most of the weeds. These weeds can also be found
in and around vegetable gardens where manual or chemical weed control is not practised.


Pastures

Land, where the soil was too shallow or too poor for other crops, was often planted for pastures
and was either cut at intervals for fodder or direct grazing by animals were permitted. Some
pastures have been created on more favourable soils, primarily in the Scotland District.


Cane-field Roads

Cane-field roads are numerous, traversing all sugarcane plantations, and varying from well made
and well kept roads of crushed stone bound with marl, free of all plant growth, to tracts of
compacted earth with or without crushed stones, often bordered on either side with earthen
banks. Many of the weeds found in the sugarcane plantations will be found along cane-field
roads.


Roadsides

Most of the roads are asphalted with some bordered by cane-fields and relatively deep soil banks
or shallow gutters and trenches. Others are cut through the coral cliffs creating steeps rocky
walls at the roadside. Paved shoulders usually with no roadside vegetation border roads passing
through towns. Wayside gutters and trenches may contain some residual moisture and may have
more luxuriant growth herbs and shrubs. However, these are often cutback or clean weeded by
roadside maintenance crews.


Ponds and Streams

There are virtually no natural ponds in Barbados and only three watercourses (at Joe‟s River,
Farmer‟s Gully and the Three Houses stream) have water all year round. Man, however, has

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extensively modified these watercourses. At the margins of ponds, weed control has reduced the
extent and diversity of the natural plant associations, and few species are prominent.


Miscellaneous Waste Sites

Any land such as disused quarries, disused building sites, and abandoned agricultural lands soon
become colonised by a range of herbs, shrubs and trees provided there is no intervention by
grazing livestock


5.1.3 Endemic, Rare and Endangered Plants

There are about 700 species of flowering plants in Barbados with only two endemic species
identified so far, neither of which are rare or endangered: Phyllanthus andersonii - a gully shrub,
and Metastelma barbadense - a slender climber (Carrington, 1993). A recent study by Rogers
(1999) indicates that the species Agave barbadensis - the maypole, commonly thought, until
recently, to be endemic to Barbados, is synonymous with Agave karatto, found throughout the
Lesser Antilles.

Carrington (1991) indicated that there were 23 plants in Barbados that require protection,
although all are found elsewhere in the Lesser Antilles. Fifteen of these species are known from
only one site and eight species were considered rare or endangered in Barbados.

Some of the Bryophytes and Pteridophytes in Barbados have been inventoried but not much
research has been conducted on these groups when compared to the flowering plants. Coulter
(1968) lists 37 species of ferns and fern allies for the country with only one endemic, Adiantum
tenerum var. farleyense, commonly known as the Barbados Farley Fern. Pearce (1963), and
Welch and Crum (1969) have collectively identified 22 species of mosses, four species of leafy
liverwort and one hornwort. Carrington (1991) lists the following lower plants as rare or
endangered: Psilotum nudum - a fern ally, Adiantum tenerum var. farleyense, and Cyathea
arborea - a tree fern. A study by Rogers (1998) overturns earlier evidence on the Barbados
Farley fern. The Rogers study indicates that the Farley fern is neither a wild plant nor a variety;
it is a cultivar. According to Rogers, the Farley Fern has no wild representation and probably
never did. Further, being widespread in cultivation, it is not rare or endangered.

Much work needs to be done on Caribbean lower plant groups such as algae and Bryophytes,
those of Barbados being no exception. Most of the published collection and identification of
Barbadian seaweeds, for example, was carried out about a century ago (Dickie, 1875; Vickers,
1905, 1908) with some 222 algal species documented (Howe, 1928). There is no reference
collection of algae in the Barbados Herbarium (BAR) at the UWI. Likewise there is no
collection of Barbadian lichens or macrofungi.



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Plate: 4 A rare sea cliff species (Strumpfia maritime) (Photo: Dr Carrington, UWI)




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5.1.4 Major Impacts on Vegetation Biodiversity

The potential major impacts on current vegetation biodiversity are from tourism development
and uncontrolled grazing of livestock. The construction of hotels and marinas, particularly along
the west coast, for example, Port St Charles in St Peter, and also along the south coast have
caused the destruction of native plant communities and introduction of exotic species in areas not
under concrete and asphalt. Several proposals for the creation of golf courses were submitted by
investors to the government for approval. The areas targeted for these facilities are likely to be
abandoned agricultural lands, which are being recolonised with natural vegetation. The provision
of housing and settlements expansion are also likely to utilise marginal abandoned agricultural
lands.

The beaches, dunes and sandy bush-lands on the east coast, gullies and under-cliff woods do not
seem to be under threat for conversion into tourism infrastructure. Plans to modify the privately
owned western side of the Graeme Hall Swamp are underway and will include modification of
the wetland to accommodate wading ponds, aviaries, a restaurant and other visitor facilities (The
Broad Street Journal, November 26, 1997: page 4).

Free range grazing by cattle, sheep and goats, has been a historic practice in rural Barbados. No
data were readily available which evaluated the extent and effects of this practice on selected
natural plant communities in the island. Gooding (1974), however, suggested that grazing
suppressed the development of shrubs and trees in some gullies; this would allow grasses and
other herbaceous plants to become dominant.

While there have been no definitive local studies on alien invasive species in Babrbados, there is
anecdotal evidence (Carrington, pers. comm.) that some exotic plant species may be displacing
local species in certain key habitats. In some forested areas, the cultivated Macarthur Palm
(Ptychosperma macarthuri) seems to be displacing the indigenous Macaw Palm (Aiphanes
minima) as the dominant understorey species. In certain forested gullies, the characteristic shrub
layer has been replaced by solid stands of Sweet Lime (Triphasia trifiolia) or Mother-in-law‟s
tongue (Savsevieria hyacinthoides), both garden escapes. While Casuarina has been deemed
serious alien invasive species in Florida and elsewhere, it seems in Barbados to be invasive
solely in the Scotland District.


5.2     AGRICULTURAL BIODIVERSITY

Agricultural production was the primary occupation of early settlers to Barbados, not just for
local consumption but also for export to England and for trade with other colonial territories. The
first European settlers arrived in Barbados in 1627 and found much of the island covered with
forests. By 1700, most of this forest was eradicated and replaced with agricultural crops (Watts,
1966). Much of the landscape therefore was transformed from natural ecosystems into


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agricultural ecosystems comprised of large mono-specific plantations such as sugar cane, small-
scale vegetable, root crop and fruit tree cultivations, and pastures with livestock.

The land area under agricultural production in Barbados has continued to decline over the past
two (2) decades, primarily through the demand for land for settlements and tourism
development, particularly, hotels and golf courses. Sugarcane has long been considered the
major agricultural crop, accounting for about 75% of the arable land, but has continued to
decline because of reduced sugar prices, high production costs and labour shortages.

Certain local cultivars of vegetables and root crops, which were traditionally cultivated, have
disappeared being replaced by higher yielding exotic varieties.


5.2.1 Agricultural Holdings

The 1989 Agricultural Census recorded 17,178 agricultural holdings with a total area of 21,560
hectares, distributed among the 11 parishes in the country (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and
Fisheries, 1992) (Table 5.1 and 5.2). These holdings were categorized as producing, either sugar,
vegetables, root crops, fruits, livestock, poultry, mixed or other agricultural uses.

The land occupied by agriculture in Barbados is about 50% of the total area of the island. Arable
land is considered as land capable of being cultivated and having some form of production.
These lands contain a wide variety of crops, fruit trees and other foliage that adds to the diversity
of the agricultural resources.




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Table 5.1        Agricultural Holdings in Barbados Distributed by
                 Parish and Principal Agricultural Category.

 Parish        No. of      Size of                                   Principal category (ha)
               Holding     Holdings
               s           (ha)        Sugar    Vegetables      Root       Fruits    Livestock/   Mixed   Other
                                                                crops                Poultry

 St Michael    2950        837         116      33              2          93        183          401     2

 Christ        2753        2536        815      47              7          154       46           1262    204
 Church

 St George     1764        2295        350      27              2          59        39           1814    2

 St Phillip    2091        3711        810      82              4          79        125          2498    113

 St John       1277        2516        320      144             2          42        45           1963    0

 St James      1315        1008        90       6               1          81        56           772     2

 St Thomas     1122        2664        174      9               0          34        29           2411    6

 St Joseph     928         1129        238      15              -          117       191          564     3

 St Andrew     876         744         149      6               1          23        73           489     1

 St Peter      991         2612        496      3               1          17        34           2059    1

 St Lucy       1075        1507        362      48              3          221       113          760     0

 TOTAL         17178       21560       3920     419             23         921       933          14996   334
As reported in the Census of 1989 (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, 1992).




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Table 5.2 Areas of Holdings in Barbados by Parish and Land Use

 Parish        Total                                 Arable Land                                  Permanent Pasture           Wood                Other Land
               Area                                                                                                           and
               (ha)     Temporary     Temporary        Temporary         All     Permanent        Cultivated       Natural    Forest       Potential         Roads /
                        Crops         Meadows          Fallow            other   Crops                                                     Production        Buildings

 St Michael       871           320             39                  61      44               94           116            92            1                9    95

 Christ         2541           1742             45                 185     104               74            10           109            6                11   255
 Church

 St George      2259           1501             40                 195     116               59            15           127        51                   20   136

 St Phillip     3772           2120             33                 568     424               63            56           262            1                1    244

 St John        2511           1933             28                 143      62               51            14           116        32                   3    128

 St James         807           402             12                  66      64               31            18           111        19                   13   71

 St Thomas      2248           1226             29                 300     169               41           111           187            6                3    177

 St Joseph      1180            425             76                 120     169               48            16           195        10              100       120

 St. Andrew       747           251             48                 149     112               26                6         88        11                   5    50

 St Peter       2350           1479             25                 444     131               19                5        113            1                0    135

 St Lucy        1304            746             24                 172     110               20                7        154            1                1    69

 TOTAL         20590          12144            399             2404       1506           525              374          1554      138                    67   1476
As reported in the Census of 1989 (Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries, 1992).




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5.2.2 Agricultural Products

Crops

Agriview, the agricultural report of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development for 1995,
records some statistics for the following crops: sugarcane, cotton, root crops, corn, onions, other
vegetables, bananas/plantains/figs, other fruits and cut-flowers and foliage. Production surveys
done by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development show an increase in the area under
vegetable production and a decrease in sugar production over the past few years.


Fruit Trees

During the last decade mainly private growers have planted fruit trees on over 200 ha of land for
local consumption. The productivity of these orchard crops has been varied due to the limitations
of soil moisture and fertility, and the lack of understanding of the requirements of fruit trees
(Skeete, 1995). The Soil Conservation Unit of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development (MARD) produce seed and planting materials for a variety of orchard crops from
its 4.2 ha nursery. The government also has about 3.3 ha under fruit crops at the Codrington
Agricultural Station. Citrus, mango and avocado are in greater demand by growers.


Cut flowers and Foliage

An estimated 25.1 ha were under cut flower and foliage production in 1995 as compared to 24.2
ha in 1994 (Agriview 1995). Cut flowers are sold mainly to hotels and florists during the tourist
season.


Livestock

Livestock production consists mainly of chickens, turkeys, cattle, sheep, goats, and pigs. Large-
scale poultry production is done by private farmers with a stocking density of about 1 ft2 per bird,
however, backyard or domestic rearing of chickens and ducks is common in rural areas. Free
range and semi-intensive system is practiced for ruminants, so stocking density varies according
to access to grazing land and number of animals. Estimated production of livestock products is
generally increasing, however importation is still required to satisfy local demand.




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5.2.3 Germplasm Conservation

Sugarcane

The West Indies Central Sugar Cane Breeding Station (CBS), located in Groves, St George, is
funded by Caribbean sugarcane growers and is responsible for producing disease resistant, high
yielding commercial varieties of sugarcane. Its Genetic Base Broadening programme runs
concurrently with its Commercial Crossing programme, utilising Saccharum officinarum and S.
spontaneum as the main donor species, and to a lesser extent, S. robustum and Erianthus
arundinaceus. About 30,000 varieties have been bred and are being tested for commercial
application by the Agronomy Research and Variety Testing Unit of the Barbados Agricultural
Management Company Limited. Over the past 21 years sugarcane breeding has produced about
20 million genotypes which are kept in cold storage. About 2600 accessions are kept in field
plots, of which 12 varieties have found commercial application in Barbados over the past decade


Other crops

There is no national programme for conserving plant genetic resources in Barbados (Wickham,
1995), however, other than the activities at the CBS, sweet potato conservation is done by both
the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development and the Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute (CARDI). Cassava, yam, pineapple, onion, pigeon peas, and maize
germplasm are also conserved by CARDI. The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
has a conservation plan for fruits and cut flowers. With respect to fruits, the Ministry has an
informal system for propagation, which uses several varieties of mango, avocado and citrus on
private and government lands. These fruit tree varieties, which are grown at Haggats, St Andrew
and Codrington, St John, are used in the Ministry‟s grafting programme. With respect to
germplasm, the Andromeda Botanic Garden was formerly designated a repository by the
Heliconia Society International however some local flower farmers probably have more
important germplasm collections.


Livestock

Stock for many of the breeds of commercially important animals have been imported, however,
for cattle and goats much of the local stock are considered as “creole”, which resulted from
uncontrolled cross breeding and having no easily determined major pedigree.

The black belly sheep is one such commercially important animal and it is being aggressively
marketed locally and internationally for its good quality meat. It is known for its prolificacy and
demonstrates the ability to live under Barbadian conditions of climate, and the food availability.
Improving the genetics of the black belly sheep is emphasized locally, and a high growth rate is
encouraged to maximise the potential of commercial rearing. This initiative forms the basis of
the Government‟s Barbados Black Belly Sheep Improvement Program. Within this programme,

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the genetic base of the breed is improved by selecting female and male lambs based on their
performance during a 120-day observation period starting directly after birth. The only
Government owned farm rearing the black belly sheep is the Greenland Agricultural Livestock
Research Station in Greenland, St. Andrew, which is under the MAR. However there are many
private farms and privately owned sheep scattered throughout Barbados. Presently the MAR is
in the process of patenting the DNA profile of the Barbados black belly sheep.




Plate: 5 Barbados black belly sheep (photo: MAR)




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5.2.4 Major Impacts of Agriculture on Biodiversity

Agricultural plantations over the last 300 years have reduced the extent of natural terrestrial
ecosystems to relatively small isolated patches and created several monospecific,
agroecosystems, the most persistent of which has been sugarcane. This long history of intensive
agriculture has contributed to erosion of topsoil, decrease in soil fertility, and subsequent large
inputs of agrochemicals, particularly pesticides and chemical fertilizers, as a means of
maintaining productivity. Due to the coralline nature of most of the soils in Barbados, percolation
of water and subsequent discharge into subsurface water bodies as well as overland runoff,
eventually reaches the sea in a relatively short timeframe. Agrochemical contamination of
underground water supplies, nearshore waters and biota is not well documented for Barbados but
presents a serious risk to human and animal health.


5.3     TERRESTRIAL FAUNA BIODIVERSITY

The assessment of Terrestrial Fauna Biodiversity of Barbados has been restricted to mammals,
birds, reptiles, amphibians and terrestrial invertebrates of social or economic importance, namely
insects and allied arthropods for the purpose of this study.           For each group, the species
composition is described, and information on the abundance and distribution of populations, their
habitats, the threats to populations and habitats, the current and future value of populations and
existing monitoring and management infrastructure is presented.


5.3.1 Class Mammalia

The only remaining extant indigenous mammals of Barbados are six species of bats, about which
very little is known (Horrocks 1997). Instead, the mammalian fauna of Barbados is dominated
by mammals introduced since the island was colonized e.g. rats, green monkeys and mongooses.
None of Barbados‟ mammals are endangered, with the exception of the raccoon (Procyon
gloveralleni) should it be proved still extant. However, the hare (Lepus capensis) is rare. There
is no protective legislation for mammals in Barbados, either for the species themselves or their
habitats. Indeed, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has offered a bounty on
monkey tails since 1975. Barbados is probably one of only a few countries in the world that
offers a bounty for a primate species (J. Horrocks, pers.comm.).




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Order Chiroptera

Bats

Jones and Phillips (1970) list six species of bats as being present in Barbados. One of the six
Monophyllus plethodon plethodon is an endemic sub-species, and another is an undescribed and
likely endemic subspecies of Myotis nigricans. There is no available information on the
distribution and abundance of bats in Barbados, except that the house bat Molossus molossus
molossus is apparently common.

A general lack of knowledge about the ecology of the bats of Barbados makes it difficult to
assess additional threats to populations or habitats. One or possibly two of the bats of Barbados
are endemic sub-species. They are therefore unique to Barbados and of significant scientific,
educational and intrinsic value.




Plate: 6 A bat found in the Jack in the Box Gully, St Thomas (photo: ESPU)


Order Carnivora

The Raccoon

The Barbadian raccoon, Procyon gloveralleni, is presumed to be an early human-assisted
introduction to Barbados (Lazell 1972). According to Lazell, it is distinguishable from the
closely related North American species, Procyon lotor, on the basis of its teeth. However, the
specimen in the Barbados Museum is reported to not closely resemble either the North American
raccoon or the South and Central American raccoon, Procyon cancrivorous (J. Baulu, Barbados
Wildlife Reserve, pers. comm).

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The last published report of a raccoon sighting was an animal killed on a road near Bathsheba, St.
Joseph in 1964 (Lazell 1972). There is no published information on the habitat use of the
Barbados raccoon. In the unlikely event that a viable population of raccoons still exists in
Barbados, their rarity would make them extremely valuable for their scientific, educational and
intrinsic values, and for their direct economic value if they were exploited as an eco-tourism
attraction. There are however no efforts underway to confirm whether a viable population of
Barbados raccoons remains.


The Mongoose

The mongoose, Herpestes javanicus, was introduced to Barbados from Jamaica between 1877
and 1879 to control rats that had become serious sugar cane pests. Mongooses are omnivorous
generalists and include rats, mice, domestic fowl, lizards, frogs, cane toads (may only eat the legs
to avoid toxic parts), lizards, snakes, crabs, eggs (including turtle, and perhaps tortoise, eggs),
centipedes, spiders, insects, and fruit in their diets. They are considered to be amongst the most
serious of invasive species globally. They have the potential to be crop pests if animal material
is not readily available (Horrocks 1997b). The mongoose is likely to thrive in many types of
habitats, even those that are heavily human-disturbed.

The absence of predators of the mongoose in Barbados, and its omnivorous diet, resulted in
mongooses becoming numerous soon after introduction. Horrocks (1997b) reports an
observation that the mongoose is less common in the areas where snakes are still found, than in
other parts of the island. However, more quantitative information on the distribution and
abundance of mongooses in Barbados is unavailable.


Order Lagomorpha

The Wild Hare

By 1870, hares Lepus capensis were common enough in Barbados that one man was reported to
have shot between 200-300 hares annually (Feilden 1890). The mongoose was introduced to
Barbados in the late 1870s. By 1890, the numbers of hares had declined, presumably partly in
response to the growing mongoose population and partly because people had greater access to
firearms. However, by the 1940s, the hare population had recovered and they were reported to
be quite common. Explanations for the most recent recovery evident in the hare population
include the suggestions that more of the hares‟ favoured crops that were being grown, that more
grassland that was formerly under sugar cane is now available, and that less poisonous herbicides
are being used in the fields than in former years (Horrocks 1997b).




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Anecdotal reports suggest that hares are patchily distributed on an island-wide scale, primarily
occurring in the higher, central area of the island (Horrocks 1997a,b). They are also patchily
distributed on a smaller spatial scale, being most often observed in open grassy areas adjacent to
cane fields (Marsh 1981) (see Figure 2).

There have been no efforts to monitor the hare‟s population or habitat requirements
quantitatively. A study of the hare‟s biology, abundance, distribution and ecological
requirements would be a necessary prerequisite to guide appropriate wildlife protective
legislation. Consideration should be given to protecting hares from hunting by establishing a
closed season that encompasses the primary breeding season, or by prohibiting shooting within a
designated protected area(s). Consideration should also be given to the possibility of maintaining
a small hare population in captivity. Efforts are currently underway to determine if the Barbados
hare has diverged genetically from its European ancestors (Horrocks pers. comm.).


Order Primates

The Green Monkey

The Green monkey Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus was introduced to Barbados from West
Africa soon after the island was settled in 1627. Green monkeys live in troops, with an average
size of 15 individuals. The typical age-sex composition is 1-2 adult males, 4-5 adult females and
their offspring (Horrocks 1986).           Green monkeys have been described as an extremely
adaptable, semi-terrestrial, territorial species that has flourished in the human-disturbed Barbados
environment. They have no predators except humans and dogs.

The first assessment of the size of the monkey population in Barbados was in 1980, at the onset
of trapping by the Monkey Crop Damage Control Programme. A total of 14,200 monkeys was
estimated from that survey (CARDI 1981, Boulton et. al 1996). The population was assessed
again in 1994 and was estimated at 14,792(Boulton etal 1996).

Their distributional preference for wooded areas supports the evidence to suggest that the
population size of green monkeys in Barbados may be limited more by the availability of
woodland cover, which they use for refuge and food, than by predation (Boulton et al. 1996;
Horrocks 1985).

The Barbados green monkey has been successfully marketed by the Barbados Primate Research
Centre & Wildlife Reserve as a valuable natural resource for biomedical research, especially for
the production and testing of vaccines and as a tourist attraction. Barbadian green monkeys are
currently responsible for 75% of the world‟s polio vaccine production.




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Plate: 7 The green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) (photo: Dr Horrocks, UWI)


5.3.2 Class Aves

Birds

The bird fauna of Barbados is much more diverse than the island‟s mammalian fauna. However,
much of the diversity is attributable to seasonal migrants passing through the island on their way
to the South American continent towards the end of the year. The resident bird species are
relatively few by comparison, the numbers of species having declined primarily due to habitat
loss following the island‟s colonization in the 1600s and through predation by introduced
mammals such as the mongoose and the green monkey.




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Resident avifauna

Watson (1993) reports at least 36 species of birds as resident and confirmed as nesting in the wild
in Barbados, including the first record of breeding by the little egret (Egretta garzetta) in the
Western Hemisphere. The thirty-six species include at least sixteen exotics, eight of which occur
naturally due to expanded range (although some may have been unintentionally human-assisted),
and eight of which have been deliberately introduced. Most of the resident species adapt well to
human-altered habitats, and are considered to be common (Watson, 1996). A few species with
more specialized habitat requirements e.g. Audubon‟s shearwater and the yellow warbler are
rare. The cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) expanded its range to Barbados in 1957, but is likely to
have received assistance from shipping in its original range expansion from Africa to the
Western Hemisphere. It is now well established in Barbados, with at least four breeding colonies
and a population size of over 14,000 recorded in 1997 (J. Horrocks, pers.comm.). The increase in
the number of cattle egrets has caused concerns for aviation safety and amongst sectors of the
farming community.

Parrots and parakeets nest in holes in trees and in abandoned buildings, mainly in the Greater
Bridgetown area. There are about 10 pairs of parrots, mainly orange-winged (Amazona
amazonica), nesting in the hollow palms in Belleville (in the vicinity of 7th-10th Avenue). Illaro
Court, Government House, the Military cemetery, and the deserted Paradise hotel complex also
provide nesting habitat for parrots (Horrocks 1997b).

Wetland and forest habitat has been severely reduced by human activity in Barbados. The
Graeme Hall swamp is the only significant mangrove ecosystem remaining on the island, and
includes the largest body of fresh/brackish water on the island. It has the highest avian
biodiversity in Barbados. There are some concerns surrounding the recent development of part of
the swamp as a nature reserve primarily for waterbirds.

Many of the island‟s resident avian species are protected under the Wild Birds Protection Act cap
398 (1985). This list needs updating to include missing resident species and to add visiting
species in need of protection. Private citizens and institutions have also reintroduced species that
formerly bred in Barbados.


Migratory birds

Over 150 species of migratory birds have been recorded in Barbados, including seabirds (e.g.
gulls and terns) and shorebirds (e.g. plovers and sandpipers). Barbados lies on a major migratory
flyway for the eastern North American populations of many species of shorebirds heading for
South America over-winter. Thirty-five, representing the more common shorebird species, pass
through Barbados between July and December. Bad weather causes migratory birds to fly low
over Barbados, and the presence of suitable aquatic habitat attracts the birds to land.



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The privately owned western portion of Graeme Hall swamp is being restored to attract
migratory shorebirds by creating shallow foraging habitat, similar to the trays used to attract
birds when the site was maintained as a shooting swamp in former years. Apart from Graeme
Hall swamp, there are three other natural areas with critical habitat for migratory birds -
Chancery Lane swamp, Green Pond and Long Pond. Chancery Lane swamp is located behind a
well-developed coralline sand dune system on the south east coast of the island. It is seasonally
filled with water and is important for both resident and migratory birds. Both Green Pond and
Long Pond on the north east coast also provide important habitats for migratory birds. Green
Pond is the estuary of the Greenland River. Long Pond, to the south of Green Pond, is a
permanent water body fed by two small rivers. In addition to these areas of natural habitat, there
are twelve artificially maintained shooting swamps where birds alight and feed. An artificial
swamp called Cole‟s swamp, one mile to the south east of Ragged Point, is currently maintained
as a private bird sanctuary. Although providing preferred habitat for species such as gallinules
and gaulins, the manmade freshwater swamps are not the preferred habitat of most migratory
species, which generally prefer shore or tidal marsh areas.


Winter residents

A substantial number of bird species are regular winter visitors to Barbados, e.g. osprey (Pandion
haliaetus), purple gallinule (Porhyrula martinica), great blue heron (Ardea herodias) and little
blue heron (Florida caerula). Graeme Hall swamp, Chancery Lane swamp, Long Pond and
Green Pond provide important foraging and refuge habitat for these over-wintering species. The
American redstart, Setophaga ruticilla, can be seen in Turner‟s Hall woods and in small numbers
in east coast woodlands e.g. at Farley Hill, between October and April.

The winter residents have habitat needs overlapping with those of resident and migratory birds.
Critical habitats include Turner‟s Hall woods, woodlands in the upper reaches of less accessible
gullies, and the wetland areas of Graeme Hall swamp, Long Pond, Green Pond and Chancery
Lane, as well as remnant swamps along the west coast of the island. There is no monitoring of
winter residents aside from the information recorded by local naturalists and bird-watchers, and
no management infrastructure is in place.


5.3.3 Class Reptilia

The class Reptilia in Barbados is represented by terrestrial lizards, geckos, snakes and tortoises,
as well as marine turtles.




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Order Squamata

Snakes

There is at least one species of colubrid snake in Barbados. The snake that many people had
assumed was the endemic grass snake, Liophis perfuscus, for the past few decades, was identified
from an incomplete specimen as Mastigodryas bruesi in 1997 (Underwood et. al 1999). This
species is likely to have been accidentally introduced from St. Vincent thirty years ago. A
confirmed sighting of Liophis perfuscus has not been made since 1961 (Emsley 1963). There is
also a worm snake, Leptotyphlops bilineata. This snake grows to about 9cm and is dark brown
with two yellowish stripes down the sides. The status of the worm snake is unknown.

The habitats in the area of the island where snakes are most commonly sighted seem cooler and
damper than many other parts of the island (Horrocks, pers. comm.), although it has been
suggested by a local resident that the mongoose may be rarer in the area where snakes are found.
Horse Hill, an area where snake sightings are relatively frequent, straddles the wooded areas of
the northern end of Hackleton‟s Cliff and that of Joe‟s River. Relatively inaccessible woodland
areas in the vicinity of Joe‟s River and Hackleton‟s Cliff may be functioning as last refuges for
one or both snake species.

Both colubrid snake species are likely to have been affected by human, rat and mongoose
predation, but Mastigodryas may have fared better because of its more arboreal habit. Habitat
disruption or loss may have also played a significant role. Joe‟s River became an experimental
area for growing tree crops in the 1960s, and it is possible that the land clearance and pesticide
use associated with this type of agriculture may have contributed to Liophis‟ disappearance
(Horrocks 1997a). Periodic fires in cane fields that spread to adjacent gullies and sour grass
pastures may also be a significant mortality factor. If it is not already extinct, Liophis is certainly
one of the world‟s rarest species, and there is therefore an urgent need to assess its status and
initiate a conservation programme.


Lizards and Geckos

Confirmed endemic lizards in Barbados are the tree lizard (Anolis extremus) and the leaf-toed
gecko (Phyllodactylus pulcher). A. extremus is the only anole on Barbados, is common, and is
found throughout the island. Phyllodactylus, the Barbadian leaf-toed gecko, is reported from
Ragged Point, St. Philip, but its range has not been systematically investigated.

The other extant reptiles of Barbados include the large teiid ground lizard Kentropyx borkiana,
which Corke (1992) considered to be rare in Barbados. This species is primarily distributed in
the central parishes of the island, particularly St. Thomas and St. George, where it can be locally
quite common, and has also been reported from St. Michael and St. James in recent years
(Horrocks 1997a). Feilden (1889) stated that the species was once common in Chancery Lane,
but there have been no reports in recent times. Kentropyx is more ground dwelling than Anolis,

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and is likely to have been more seriously affected by domestic cat and mongoose predation. The
other terrestrial reptiles in Barbados are a small, bronze and black burrowing ground lizard
Gymnopthalmus underwoodi, a bronze coloured skink Mabuya mabouya (possibly extinct), and a
gecko Hemidactylus mabouia. Hemidactylus, the wood slave, is thought to be an introduced
species (Corke 1992) although its introduction to this hemisphere may have been far earlier than
originally thought and is commonly seen in houses. Although the species discussed in this
paragraph are known not threatened, there is a need to conduct quantitative surveys to assess
their abundance.

There is insufficient knowledge of the abundance of lizards and geckos and of their habitat
requirements to know what factors may be threatening them. However, lizards and geckos are
often sprayed with insecticides if seen inside houses. Lizards are consumed both by exotic
predators (e.g. mongoose and cattle egrets, see Horrocks 1993) and domesticated predators (i.e.
cats).


Order Chelonia

This order includes all tortoises and turtles. There is one species of tortoise in Barbados, the red-
footed tortoise, Geochelone carbonaria1. It is unlikely that these reptiles have a viable breeding
population in the wild, since individuals encountered outside of captive environments have
always proven to escape from those environments. There are two species of marine turtles
nesting in Barbados (Eretmochelys imbricata and Dermochelys coriacea) and another species
that only feeds in the nearshore waters of the island, Chelonia mydas.


Tortoises

Ray (1964) reported a giant tortoise, Geochelone sp. now extinct, from fossilised remains found
at Spring Bay, St. Philip. For much of this century there has been a captive population of
Geochelone carbonaria in Barbados. Captive tortoises (often marked for identification)
frequently escape into the wild, but it is not known whether there are sufficient numbers of wild
animals to form a breeding population, or whether the vulnerable hatchlings could survive
predation pressure, particularly from the mongoose. Given no remains of Geochelone
carbonaria either fossilised or associated with prehistoric settlements, and no mention of
tortoises by early writers of Barbados‟ natural history, it seems most likely that the red-footed
tortoise was introduced to Barbados subsequent to Schomburgk‟s 1848 Natural History of
Barbados (Horrocks 1997a, see also Censky (1988) and Corke (1992).



        1

The latest herpetological data available (TFH Atlas of Reptiles and Amphibians) reclassifies the
new world tortoise under the genus Chelouridis.
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There is a substantial breeding group of G. carbonaria held in captivity by the Barbados Wildlife
Reserve. There was previously another large breeding group held at the Oughterson Zoo Park,
but this Park is no longer in existence. A breeding colony of 25 adults, which have consistently
produced about 100 hatchlings per annum, is held by Exotic Tropical Import Export and is
probably the second largest breeding group of G. carbonaria in Barbados. There are also
believed to be several breeding groups held at private residences.

Given the amount of gully woodland remaining on the island, there is probably not a shortage of
suitable habitat. However, mongoose and rat predation on hatchlings is likely to be high.


Turtles

There are two species of marine turtle nesting in Barbados. They are the Critically Endangered
(IUCN, 1996) hawksbill turtle, Eretmochelys imbricata, and the Endangered (IUCN, 1996)
leatherback turtle, Dermochelys coriacea. The hawksbill is valued for its meat, eggs and shell,
and current estimates suggest that 100 – 120 hawksbills nest in Barbados each year (Horrocks,
pers. comm.). Since there are 2-3 year gaps for an individual female between nesting seasons,
this gives a total population of about 250 adult females nesting in Barbados. About ten
leatherback females are estimated to nest in Barbados each year. The numbers nesting in
Barbados may always have been relatively small compared to some other Caribbean islands.

Marine turtles generally show high levels of nest site fidelity, returning repeatedly to the same
beach or beach stretch to nest. The hawksbill primarily nests on the west and south west coasts
(Horrocks and Scott 1991, Vermeer 1994), and on the east coast at the wave-sheltered Bath
beach. Less frequent nesting occurs on north east coast beaches (e.g. Abbotts Bay), along the
East Coast Road and on south east coast beaches (e.g. Peat Bay, BelAir, Long Beach). The most
important hawksbill nesting site on the island is between the Hilton and Coconut Court hotels on
the south west tip of the island e.g., over 150 nesting activities were recorded during the 1997
nesting season (Poponi et al. 1998). The leatherback nests primarily between Morgan Lewis and
Cattlewash. Other sites where leatherbacks have been recorded nesting occasionally is on
Brandons, Southern Palms and Miami Beach.

The spongivorous hawksbill forages primarily on the bank reef along the west coast and on south
coast patch reefs, and the Endangered (IUCN, 1996) green turtle, Chelonia mydas, is reported to
forage on algae and sea grass at ten main nearshore sites (North Point Resort, Barclays Park,
Congor Bay, Consett Bay, Foul Bay, Long Bay, Casuarina, Hilton (Castle Bank), and Carlisle
Bay; see Horrocks 1997b). The leatherback leaves Barbados to forage in more temperate waters
immediately after finishing its nesting season.

Critical hawksbill nesting beaches are found particularly along the west and south coasts.
Horrocks (1992) provides a detailed account of the stresses facing nesting turtles in Barbados.
Apart from predation by man, three problems are particularly severe for hawksbills nesting on
the south and west coasts. These are buildings or enclosures that are constructed too close to the

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high water mark, thereby preventing turtles from finding a suitable area of dry beach on which to
lay their eggs, beach armouring that similarly prevents females from nesting, and beach lighting
that disorientates adult females and hatchlings.

The three primary problems, apart from predation, facing nesting hawksbills and leatherback
turtles on the east coast are sand mining, vehicular use of beaches, and oil/solid waste pollution
of beaches. Sand mining, particularly in the Green Pond/ area, has the potential to destroy
nesting habitat for leatherback turtles. Use of 4-wheel drive vehicles on the beach damages
beach vegetation and crushes turtle nests, and tyre ruts prevent hatchlings from reaching the sea.
Solid waste on beaches can impede the access of females to nesting sites and, once buried, can
prevent hatchlings from emerging from nests. Chronic tar pollution may contaminate beaches
and interfere with incubation (Horrocks 1997a). Coral reefs and seagrass beds are negatively
affected by components of land run off such as high sediment load and sewage pollution, as well
as poor boat anchoring practices and over-fishing.




Plate: 8 A green turtle (Chelonia mydas) being fed by a diver (Photo: ESPU)



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Plate: 9 A hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) being observed by a diver (photo: ESPU)


5.3.4 Class Amphibia

Order Anura

Frogs and Toads

The Order Anura includes frogs and toads. There are only two species of amphibians in
Barbados, the cane toad, Bufo marinus, and the whistling frog, Eleutherodactylus johnstonei.
Both species are thought to have been introduced, and the cane toad is considered t be amongst
the worst of invasive species.




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The Cane Toad

Schomburgk (1848) reported that the cane toad was introduced in the 1830s to control insect
pests of sugar cane. The toads are now abundant and widespread across the island, particularly
in rural areas.

Cane toads have a broad diet and consume small vertebrates as well as invertebrates, which
would presumably include the eggs and nestlings of ground nesting birds. The toxic dorsal skin
of the toads protects them from most predators, although they do fall prey to some e.g. the
mongoose, which attacks their unprotected legs. The toads are known to lay their eggs in large
puddles, streams and ponds.

There has been no survey of cane toads to assess their population, but there is no reason to
believe that numbers are threatened, and no reason to be concerned if they are, given their
invasive impacts on native fauna. Mongooses do successfully attack toads, but they are unlikely
to be a preferred food. Toads are particularly susceptible to being run over by vehicles on roads
at night during and following heavy rain, and being amphibians they are generally particularly
vulnerable to habitat alteration because they require both terrestrial and aquatic habitats to
complete their life cycles. The potential impacts of pesticides/herbicides on adults or eggs have
not been investigated.


The Whistling frog

Whether the whistling frog Eleutherodactylus johnstonei is indigenous to Barbados is
controversial. Marsh (1983) points out that Ligon (1657) described a noise in the woods like that
of whistling frogs, without knowing what kind of animal he was hearing. Feilden (1889) claims
that whistling frogs were not known in Barbados in 1869, but were found island wide twenty
years later. Schwartz (1967) considers them to have been introduced to Barbados in about 1879
(see Horrocks 1997b).

A primary predator on whistling frogs is the cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis). Stomach content
analysis revealed that egrets nesting at a former colony located at Frizers, St. Andrew consumed
an average of 3.63 frogs/bird every one to two days (Horrocks 1993). However, given the
densities of frogs recorded by Ovaska (1991), at present population sizes, egrets are unlikely to
be negatively affecting the frog population. Agricultural and household pesticides may be
having an effect on adult and egg mortality. One pest exterminating company reported that they
were regularly asked to spray houses, particularly rented properties on the west coast, to remove
whistling frogs.

The sound of whistling frogs at night is an intrinsic part of the nocturnal background noise in
Barbados, which would probably be missed should the species decline or disappear. However,
Eleutherodactylus johnstonei is considered to be an invasive species in some Caribbean islands
(Horrocks, pers. comm.).

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5.3.5 Class Insecta and Allied Arthropods

Insects

Aside from investigations of pests of economic importance, their natural enemies and other
associates, there have been few efforts to systematically collect any taxonomic groups of insects
in Barbados. The most up to date list of insects and allied species of arthropods is that of Bennett
and Alam (1985). Bennett and Alam‟s list includes approximately 1,320 species, which is three
times the length of the list provided by Tucker (1952).

There is no quantitative information on the distribution and abundance of insects and allied
species on a species by species basis in Barbados except for significant crop pests such as the
diamond-back moth Plutella xylostella (Jones 1985, Gibbs 1993), or significant livestock
parasites e.g. the tropical bont tick (Amblyomma variegatum). The library at the Caribbean
Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Cave Hill Campus has an extensive collection
of insects, and literature on pest insects and allied species.

Insects cause damage to crops and disease to livestock and animals (e.g. tropical bont ticks carry
the causative rickettsia or heartwater fever in cattle and mosquitos cause dengue fever in
humans). However many insects are also beneficial to agriculture and natural plant communities.
Apart from being predators or parasites of insect pests, they are also pollinators of crop plants
and important in maintaining soil fertility. Conservation of Barbados‟ insect and allied arthropod
fauna provides options for future biological control of pests.


5.4       BIODIVERSITY OF MARINE AND FRESHWATER HABITATS

The marine and freshwater habitats of Barbados support a diverse collection of living organisms.
Brief descriptions of each habitat in terms of its location, description (main features), status and
biodiversity are presented in the following sections.


5.4.1 Wetlands

The Graeme Hall Swamp is the largest body of inland water in Barbados with the largest
remaining area of red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and white mangroves (Laguncularia
racemosa). It provides a watering hole for many migratory birds and a permanent home for
several resident birds including the locally rare and endangered red seal coot (Gallinula
chloropus barbadensis) and the yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). The Graeme Hall Swamp
also serves as a sanctuary for juveniles of marine fish. Biodiversity for Graeme Hall Swamp
includes several species of fish, crustaceans, insects, amphibians and wetland plants.


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There are also smaller wetlands at Chancery Lane, Christ Church and at Long Pond, St. Andrew.
The Chancery Lane wetland is only site where the Conocarpus erectus can be found. There is
also a number of permanent surface catchments, the major ones being the Careenage,
Bridgetown; Holetown Hole, St. James; Salt Pond, St. Peter; Maycocks, St. Lucy; Bawdens,
Green Pond, Hillaby, St. Andrew; Joe‟s River, St. Joseph; Bathsheba, Codrington and Consett,
St. John; Culpepper and Three Houses, St. Philip.


5.4.2 Water Catchments

The permanent surface freshwater catchments for which biodiversity has been reported are
Bawdens, Long Pond, Green Pond, Hillaby, Bathsheba, Conset, Codrington, Three Houses and
Culpepper. Known biodiversity in permanent and temporary freshwater catchments include
several species of shrimp. Other than Turnbull (1979) who studied the water quality and benthic
communities in the Careenage, there have been no other published studies of the biodiversity in
the fresh and brackish water catchments. Biodiversity reported for the Careenage includes
several species of Foraminiferans, Sipunculids, Mollusks, Annelids, Crustaceans and
Echinoderms.


5.4.3 Rocky Intertidal Areas

The intertidal area is that area that straddles the marine and terrestrial habitats where the shore is
washed by the sea at low or high tides. Organisms inhabiting the intertidal areas are exposed to
harsh and highly variable conditions such as heavy wave action, periodic desiccation and high
temperatures. The intertidal area in Barbados may be categorized as sandy or rocky. Rocky
shores predominate along the north and southeast of the island, while the rest of the coast is
dominated by sandy shores, interrupted occasionally by rocky areas. In some rocky areas there
are limestone platforms that retain water at low tide to form tidepools. Both the rocky areas and
the tidepools provide habitats for a diverse collection of living organisms. Lewis (1960) reported
three categories of rocky intertidal areas:- local rocky cliffs, pebble beaches and low-lying
platforms.


Rocky Cliffs

Lewis (1960) described the local intertidal rocky cliffs at River Bay, Bathsheba, Consett Bay,
Silver Sands, Oistins and Payne‟s Bay. Other investigations revealed that the rare plant species
Heliotropium microphyllum and Strumpfia maritima are located on some of the rocky cliffs of
Barbados. There is a need to assess the present status of cliff biodiversity and factors impacting
on the biodiversity, and to recommend measures required to conserve the biodiversity and the
habitat within which it exists.



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Pebble Beaches

The pebble beach is characterized by having pebbles, boulders and outcrops of limestone along
the outer edge of the beach, and a reef flat extending from the beach seaward for several metres.
Lewis (1960) described the pebble beaches located at Tent Bay, St. Joseph. Since that study,
there has been no update of information on the biodiversity of pebble beaches at Tent Bay.


Low-Lying Platform

This type of rocky shore is characterized by a low-lying platform that slopes gently upward from
the sea towards the land. The following four zones are visible on low-lying platforms: surf zone;
Fissurella zone; boulder zone and a Neritina-Ulva zone. Low-lying platforms are located at Six
Men‟s Bay, Stroud‟s Bay and Sam Lord‟s Castle.


Tidepools

Tidepools are found mainly along the north, east and southeast coasts of Barbados. Tidepools
play an important role as nursery habitat (Mahon and Mahon, 1994) and a significant role in
recruitment (Halcrow et al, 1998) for some reef fish. An assessment of the role of tidepools in
recruitment of juveniles to commercial fisheries is required.

The plateau at Martin‟s Bay on the east coast is protected from the full force of the wave action
by headlands and an offshore reef. The plateau measures about 50m at the widest point in the
onshore-offshore direction and about 200m in the long-shore direction. Shoreward, the plateau is
bounded by the beach. The seaward edge, where the plateau drops off, is honeycombed with
burrows of the sea urchin, Echinometra lucunter. The surface of the plateau is covered with a
mat of algae and dotted with depressions, which become pools at low tide. The sides of the pools
are usually vertical with holes and undercuts. The substrate may consist of bare-sand, sand with
turtle grass (Thalassia testudinum), rock covered with algae or limestone rubble.




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Plate: 10 A tidepool site at Bathsheba, East Coast (photo: ESPU)


5.4.4 Seagrass Beds

Seagrasses are marine flowering plants with extensive root and rhizome systems, dense leaf
development and high growth rates, (Vermeer, 1997). Four species of seagrasses have been
reported for Barbados (Delcan 1994, Vermeer 1997). They are Thalassia testudinum (turtle
grass), Syringodium filiforme (manatee grass), Halodule wrightii (shoal grass), Halophila sp..
Seagrass areas, like coral reefs, are highly productive areas. They play an important role:

       as primary producers in the food chain of the reef community;
       in fixing nitrogen;
       in providing habitats – feeding, breeding, recruitment sites and nursery grounds - for
        juveniles and adults of reef organisms including the major commercial species;
       in reducing sediment movement in nearshore waters and removing sediments from the
        water column;
       in decreasing turbidity of the water; and
       in stabilizing the coastline.

Seagrass areas, commonly known as seagrass beds or meadows, are distributed along the coast in
shallow water where sunlight penetration is adequate to facilitate photosynthesis. Delcan
(1994b), reported seagrass beds along the west coast at Shermans, Six Men‟s Bay, Speightstown
and Brighton; along the southwest coast at Bridgetown, Hastings, Rockley, Worthing, St.


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Lawrence, Dover, Maxwell, Welches, Oistins, Enterprise and Atlantic Shores of Barbados; and
along the east coast at Bath and Conset Bay.

There is evidence that the quality of the local coastal marine water is deteriorating due to
increased sedimentation, eutrophication and sewage pathogens, localised increases in
temperature, decreases in salinity, and perhaps increases in toxins (Delcan, 1994a). There is also
evidence to suggest that grazing by fish and sea urchins is an important mechanism for recycling
nutrients within the beds. Heavy fishing pressure that results in the removal of these animals can
therefore also negatively affect the vibrancy seagrass beds. Physical damage in coupled with
poor water quality will negatively impact on the vibrancy of seagrass beds. It is therefore
probable that the local seagrasses are being impacted negatively by many coastal activities and
land based sources of pollution and urgent attention must be given to ways of minimizing these
impacts.


5.4.5 Coral Reefs

The coral reef communities are of immense ecological and socio-economic importance to
Barbados. Ecologically, the coral reefs contribute significantly to the national biodiversity by
providing shelter, feeding and breeding grounds, recruitment sites and nursery grounds for a
diverse collection of adult and juvenile marine organisms. In addition the coral reefs contribute
to food supplies by supporting several commercial fisheries. Many medicinal properties of coral
reefs are also presently being discovered and this phenomenon will have important ramifications
for Barbados. Socio-economically, the coral reef communities with their diverse marine life and
associated white sand are of tremendous aesthetic, recreational and educational value to both
visitors and locals. Coral reefs also contribute to employment and foreign exchange earnings. In
addition they are important for coastline protection from erosion and for providing sand as the
source of beach nourishment.

Barbados is for the most part surrounded by a narrow shelf, with the 200 m isobath lying
approximately 2 - 3 km offshore. The coastline can be divided into five sections, west,
southwest, southeast, east and north, each with its own characteristics. The total area covered by
the bank reefs is estimated at 4.9 km 2, while the fringing reefs cover 1.4 km 2. The fringing reefs
generally have three (3) distinct zones - back reef, reef flat, and the spur and groove zone, while
the bank reefs are characterised by a narrow crest and steep landward and seaward slopes.




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Plate: 11 Sponge on a Barbadian reef (photo: ESPU)


5.4.5.1 West Coast

The west coast is relatively calm with little or no surf and is characterised by a sloping shelf on
which fringing reefs grow. These reefs generally extend 300 m out from the beach and to a depth
of 10m. Extending from these reefs are the patch reefs, which terminate at 30m and seaward of
the patch reefs are two ridges which run approximately parallel to the shore. The inner reef is
found 700 -900 m offshore and the outer reef between 1300m and1 km. These are the bank-
barrier reefs.


5.4.5.2 South-west Coast

The southwest coast is periodically exposed to Atlantic swells, with moderate surf. There are
generally relic, fringing reefs, then a gently sloping sandy shelf and in depths of 6 - 15m

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extensive patch reefs. At approximately 1000m from shore, the bank reef runs parallel to shore
and is continuous with the west coast bank reef.

5.4.5.3 South-east Coast

The southeast coast is fully exposed to the Atlantic swells and there is heavy surf. There are no
actively growing fringing reefs in this area. There is however a flat, shallow bank reef, 400-
800m from shore running roughly parallel to it.

5.4.5.4 East Coast

The east coast is fully exposed to Atlantic swells. Limestone pavements dominate the southern
areas, a generally gently sloping featureless ramp extending from the beach out to 40-60m. Off
the Scotland District and further north (off Pico Tenerife), the bottom type changes abruptly as a
result of a submarine canyon. To the north of the canyon the shelf is terraced and carbonate rich,
while to the south there is more siliclastic material and a gentler slope.

5.4.5.5 North Coast

The north coast has a rock terrace which extends seaward from the base of the cliffs 960 - 100m
high) out to 40 - 60m. At the end of this is a ridge, which runs parallel to shore, and further
seaward is another terrace and isolated ridges and mounds. The north west coast in particular is
well sheltered and supports the most extensive and diverse hard coral reefs on the island.


5.4.5.6 Status of Coral Reefs

The Bellairs Research Institute has carried out quantitative coral reef surveys on Barbadian coral
reefs for the Coastal Zone Management Unit, since 1982. The initial surveys were concentrated
on the west coast, with the south coast surveys being included in 1987. These surveys are carried
out at 5-year intervals. The east, northeast and southeast coasts were included in 1997 as part of
the Coastal Conservation Project, Phase 1. In general, health status was indicated by live coral
cover and coral species diversity. Commencing April 2002, the Unit will carry out quarterly
video monitoring of specific coral reefs.


5.4.5.7 Coral Health

Studies conducted have revealed that generally, there has been significant deterioration in the
health of the coral reefs, with slight increases in coral abundance being found on the west coast
fringing and south coast patch reefs during the last monitoring event in 1997. The bank reefs are
generally in relatively good condition, although some deterioration and signs of disease have
been observed. From the initial surveys carried out on the Atlantic coast, it appears that the reefs
are relatively healthy and support a rich and diverse community of marine fauna in particular.

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On the west and south coast bank reefs, hard coral abundance decreased from an average of
42.1% in 1987 to 30.69% in 1997. Macroalgae abundance increased during the same time
period. Hard coral abundance increased on the west coast fringing reefs from an average of
8.89% in 1987 to 12.86 in 1997, and on the south coast patch reefs from 8.7% in 1987 to 19.9%
in 1997. On the south coast macroalgal abundance decreased while on the west it increased in
abundance. The primary cause of reef deterioration appears to be eutrophication, and on the west
coast in particular, coupled with the decimation of Diadema antillarum, the black sea urchin. In
1983 mortality of Diadema antillarum occurred at Barbados with the epidemic reaching its peak
in early September. This phenomenon had a great impact on Caribbean reefs, as these animals
were some of the primary grazers on coral reefs. With their demise, there was a corresponding
increase in algal abundance on coral reefs.


5.4.5.8 Anthropogenic Threats To Coral Reef Biodiversity

Eutrophication

This is thought to be the primary cause of coral reef degradation in Barbados, resulting from a
combination of sewage, fertilizer and pesticide use. The Government has embarked on a sewage
treatment project for the south and west coasts of the Island largely as a result of the
identification of this problem. In addition, the Marine Pollution and Control Act was passed in
1998 in order to control land-based sources of pollution.

Diver/Anchor Damage

As in all dive destinations, divers here have impacted on the reef systems by both intentional and
unintentional practices. PADI is the main diver certification body on the Island and as part of
their course, simple aspects of coral safety and marine ecology are taught in order to educate
divers about the importance of these ecosystems and ways in which they can minimise damage to
them. In addition, a series of permanent moorings have been installed in a joint public and
private sector activity, in order to eliminate the threat of anchor damage. Draft dive legislation
in which anchor damage is an offence has been accepted by Parliament. The destruction of corals
by any means is also an offence under the Coastal Zone Management Act and the Fisheries
Regulations.


Over Fishing

Over fishing is evident in the decreases in fish numbers as well as decreases in the average sizes
of especially the reef fish caught. Fish counts taken during the coral reef monitoring surveys
have indicated that decreases in the number of grazers coupled with the Diadema die off in the
1980's resulted in significant overgrowth of corals by algae. This situation, however appears to
be improving. The Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has

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also initiated the implementation of their Fisheries Management Plan, which is aimed at
producing a sustainable fishery as well as providing protection to the coral reefs.


Poor Construction Practices

Coastal construction usually results in sedimentation, which has a deleterious effect on corals. It
is stipulated that turbidity coastal measures must be utilised during these activities.


Harvesting

The harvesting of corals is carried out on a limited scale, primarily for sale to tourists. This
practice however has become an illegal activity under the Coastal Zone Management Act, passed
by Parliament in 1998.


5.4.6 Fisheries Resources

The local fishery may be divided into four groups, based on the area in which the fish are found.
These are nearshore shallow shelf resources, offshore deep slope resources, coastal pelagic
resources and offshore pelagic resources.




Plate: 12 A school of striped grunts (Haemulon striatum) (photo: ESPU)

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5.4.6.1 Nearshore Shallow shelf Resources

Nearshore coral reefs and associated habitats (seagrass, rubble) provide habitat for many of the
species that are harvested by fishers. The main fishery resources are coral reef fishes, sea
urchins, and lobsters. Small quantities of conch and octopus (sea cat) are also harvested.


Shallow-shelf reef (trap or pot) fishery

The main nearshore fishery resources inhabit the fringing reef and seagrass beds all around
Barbados, however, the fishery is concentrated on the more protected south and west coasts
because of the difficulty of setting fishing gear in east coast sea conditions. The shallow-shelf
reef fishes are harvested mainly by wire-meshed, wooden framed Antillean traps, and to a lesser
extent handlines, seine nets and spear guns. At least 60 species have commercial importance.
Small, open boats with outboard engines (moses) are the most commonly used vessels for
harvesting shallow-shelf reef fishes. Dynamite, poison and noxious substances, though
prohibited under the Fisheries Act (1993-6) are rarely used in harvesting. The potential yield is
unknown due to lack of accurate time-series of biological or catch and effort data.


Sea Urchin Fishery

The main fishing areas for the sea urchin or sea egg Tripneustes ventricosus are located on the
east and southeast coasts and to a lesser extent on the northwest coast. Both sexes are harvested
for their gonads, which are considered to be a delicacy. Sea urchins are harvested close to shore
by divers using masks, snorkels and fins or SCUBA. It should be noted that in 1998 Government
banned the use of SCUBA for the harvesting of sea eggs. Between the mid-1980‟s and 2000 the
size of the local sea urchin stock had declined to a level that was too low to support a viable
fishery. However, following very successful recruitment in 2000, stock size increased
dramatically making the 2001fishing season the most successful harvest recorded in decades. The
sustainability of the stock and the fishery in the future relies heavily on prudent management of
the fishery.


Spiny Lobster

Adult lobsters are commonly found in coral reefs from 4 – 40 metres and also in deep-slope
habitats (rocks and coral rubble) at depths down to 200 metres. Juveniles inhabit shallow coastal
habitats such as seagrass, coral rubble, benthic sargassum and coastal defence structures. As the
juveniles grow older and larger they gradually move into deeper water, coral reefs and deep slope
habitats. Lobsters are taken along with reef fish in the shallow shelf trap fishery as well as with
snappers in the deep slope trap fishery. The lobster fishery is a minor fishery. There is also a
relatively minor lobster-specific fishery with lobsters being captured mainly along the east coast
by skin or SCUBA divers using spears. The potential yield of the local lobster fishery is

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unknown. The Fisheries Division does not collect biological or catch and effort data on lobsters.
However, anecdotal information suggests a possible increase in abundance in recent years.




Plate: 13 The Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) at the Cornwallis site in Carlisle Bay
(photo: ESPU)


Sea Turtles

The hawksbill (Eretmochelys imbricata) and the leatherback (Dermochelys coriacea) nest on
local beaches, while the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) forages in nearshore waters. The
loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is occasionally caught by fishermen in open waters. The
turtle fishery was a minor fishery of little economic importance. Internationally, stocks are
severely overexploited and, in some cases, threatened with extinction. All turtles found in
Barbados are on the list of endangered species included under the Convention on International
trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) to which Barbados is signatory.
In response to the threatened status of these animals, in 1998 Government imposed an indefinite
ban on the harvesting of turtles, disturbing of their nests and the sale of turtle products.




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Conch

Small quantities of two species of conch are harvested in Barbados. The queen conch (Strombus
gigas) is harvested mainly along the south coast. The helmet conch (Cassis madagascariensis) is
harvested along the northwest coast. Both species are harvested for the shells, which are sold as
curios. The flesh is also consumed but usually not sold on the open market. There is no accurate
information on the local status of these species of conch. However, the queen conch population
is believed to be small compared to other islands in the Caribbean and restricted to deep water,
while that of the helmet conch is restricted to the northwest coast in relatively shallow waters.
The queen conch is listed in CITES Appendix II. Management plans for the conch fishery have
been included in the 2001-2003 Fisheries Management Plan.


5.4.6.2 Offshore Deep Slope Resources

Snapper Fishery

The snapper fishery targets snappers on the deep-slope and outer bank reefs, especially, on the
south and west coasts. Handlines are used to fish queen snappers (Etelis oculatus) and vermilion
snappers (Rhomboplites aurorubens), while traps set on the slopes and banks are used to target
silk (Lutjanus vivanus), and vermilion snappers. The annual estimated catches for the period
1986-95 ranged between 30 to 60 MT (Fisheries Division, 1997). The fishery is practised year
round by a few fishers and seasonally (during summer months) by others. These resources are
considered as under-exploited.     The total potential yield from the slopes of Barbados is
estimated at around 18 to 80 tonnes/year (FAO, 1990). Snappers are a highly priced and high
demand species.


5.4.6.3 Coastal Pelagic Resources

This fishery targets the small, schooling pelagic fish resources within 2 km from shore. Seine
nets are used mainly to target carangids (commonly known as jacks and cavalli). A variety of
trolling and hand-lines from “moses” or launches are used to capture a number of species
including small tunas (locally known collectively as blowgoats), Spanish mackerels and small
kingfish. Castnets are used to capture small schooling pelagics such as herrings and silversides,
which are used mainly as bait. The status of most of the coastal pelagic resources is unknown.
Annual estimated catches of jacks and small tunas from 1986-95 ranged from about 8 to 40 MT,
with no clear trends.




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5.4.6.4 Offshore Pelagic Resources

Large Pelagic Fishery

The large pelagic fishery is an offshore fishery which targets a number of different species. The
most important large epipelagic (surface) species are dolphin fish (Coryphaera hippurus) and
wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri), although many other species of tuna, shark and billfish are
also taken. The most important sub-surface pelagic species are yellow fin tuna (Thunnus
albacares) and swordfish (Ziphias gladius), although several species of shark and other billfish
(blue marlin, white marlin and saltfish) are commonly taken. The large pelagics are believed to
be of two groups: Caribbean stocks that migrate within the area of the Lesser Antilles e.g.
dolphin fish; and Western Atlantic stocks or oceanic stocks (e.g. yellow fin tuna, swordfish,
wahoo) whose range extends throughout at least the Western Atlantic. The fishing methods
include the traditional trolling and lurk-lining for surface species, and the more recently
introduced longlining for sub-surface pelagics. The International Commission for the
Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) reports that many of the large tuna species and all of
the billfish species, in the Atlantic in general, are either fully exploited or overexploited. The
status of most other tuna and tuna-like species in the Western Atlantic and Caribbean is
uncertain.


Flyingfish Fishery

The flyingfish fishery is the “mainstay” of the local fishing industry. Flyingfish accounts for
over 50% of total landings in most years. Annual estimated catches of flyingfish between 1986
and 1995 ranged from about 1200 to 2800 MT. The effort directed at flyingfish increased since
the 1980's by expansion of the number and the capacity of flyingfish vessels. The four-winged
flyingfish Hirundichthys affinis comprise over 90% of the total flyingfish catch. Other fish
species taken in this fishery include margined flyingfish, known locally as guineaman,
(Cypselurus cyanopterus) and turpits (Canthidermis sp.).


5.4.7 Marine Mammals

Current information on marine whales is based on unpublished data collected by Dr. Julia
Horrocks of the University of the West Indies. Barbados does not have a resident population of
whales, however several species are known to migrate through Barbadian waters. A local whale
fishery existed up until the early years of the 20th century, targeting the humpback whale.

However, all the species recorded in Barbados (Horrocks, unpub. info.) are considered to be
depleted. Consequently, all are listed under the Convention on the International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and some under the International Union
for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Animals.


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5.4.8 Conclusion

The local marine and freshwater ecosystems support many habitats where a diverse collection of
aquatic organisms interact with each other, feed, grow, reproduce and find shelter. The diversity
and survival of these organisms depends on the water quality of the ecosystems. The information
reviewed for this assessment indicates that 990 genera and 1548 species of organisms have been
identified in the marine and freshwater ecosystems of Barbados. However, there are several
organisms that have not yet been identified to the species level.

There are indications that the marine and possibly the freshwater ecosystems are under stress.
The nearshore benthic marine communities has been degraded primarily by deteriorating water
quality, arising mainly from increased sedimentation, eutrophication and sewage pathogens,
localised increases in temperature, decreases in salinity and perhaps increases in toxins,
overfishing, physical damage (Delcan, 1994a) and use of destructive fishing methods, such as
dynamite.

Delcan (1994a) identified surface water runoff and groundwater discharge as main mechanisms
by which terrestrial pollutants (nutrients, suspended solid material and sewage pathogens) enter
the marine environment. By extrapolation, it is likely that similar pollutants are also entering the
surface water catchments, since the catchments also receive water from surface water runoff and
groundwater discharge.


5.5     LAND RESOURCES

Land is one of the most important natural resources in Barbados due to its scarcity in this
developing small island state. Barbados has a total land area of 430 km2 and an EEZ of 167,000
km2, which is approximately 388 times larger than its land area. Approximately 43,000 ha of
available land existed in 1989, of which 21,000 ha were classified as arable at that time, (The
Environmental Unit, Consumer Affairs & the Environment, 1992).

Barbados has a well-developed physical and social infrastructure including transportation
networks. The island also has one of the highest population densities in the world. These factors
over time have led to the rapid expansion of development throughout the country, and resulted in
the existence of very few areas that can be considered remote. Consequently, the island‟s
terrestrial biological diversity is limited and restricted in range, and the existing natural habitats
are constantly under threat from the encroachment of human activity.

The above-mentioned anthropogenic pressures on land use and by extension the biodiversity
assets of Barbados, have been inadequately addressed in the past. Developments, including golf
courses and other tourism developments, scattered residential and commercial development
occurring outside of the “Urban Corridor”, rural subdivisions, and intensive mono-culture
agriculture, are among the contemporary issues with the potential to impact negatively on the
island‟s biodiversity. These issues, coupled with the island‟s relatively scarce land resource

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endowment, create an even greater need for specific strategies to conserve biodiversity in
Barbados.


5.5.1 The Evolution of Current Land Use Patterns

Barbados‟ early economic wealth was based primarily on the production of sugar. The large-
scale clearing and cultivation of land has therefore greatly influenced the patterns of land use that
have developed on the island. Agricultural production was the primary occupation of early
settlers to Barbados, both for export to England and for trade with other colonial territories. As
early as the 17th century, large sugar estates dominated the island. Much of the landscape
therefore was transformed from natural ecosystems into agricultural ecosystems comprised of
large mono-specific plantations such as tobacco and sugar cane, small-scale vegetable, root crop
and fruit tree cultivation, and pastures with livestock.

The activities associated with operating the large sugar estates influenced the establishment of
the early transportation routes. A network of „cart roads‟ developed on the island to service the
industry, primarily linking the estates to the port of Bridgetown for shipping sugar, rum and
molasses overseas. Bridgetown, and on a smaller scale, Speightstown and Oistins, also served as
commercial centres for supplies and materials, as well as meeting places.

The emergence of tourism as a viable industry began in the 1950s, and with it the „urbanization‟
of the south and west coasts of the island. The land on these coasts, with very accessible coral
sand beaches, made these areas particularly attractive for tourism and up-market residential
developments. This trend has continued well into the 1990's and was certainly sustained going
into the 21st century. Tourism related-service industries emerged, mainly in and around
Bridgetown as the south and west coasts developed for the tourism sector, which became the
dominant economic sector. With the expansion of business and increased opportunities for work,
the demand for housing also grew. As a result, the development of Bridgetown and the greater
Bridgetown area grew unplanned and unchecked for decades.

In 1963, five classes of water protection zones were established. Development and waste
disposal practises are regulated to various degrees in these zones. Also these zones have played a
major part in influencing the land use patterns on the island.

Physical planning as a government function is based on the Town and Country Planning Act,
1965. The first Physical Development Plan for Barbados was published in 1970 and came into
full operation in 1976. The Chief Town Planner carries out a survey of the island every five years
and in addition to any alterations or additions to the plan submits an updated NPDP to the
Minister.




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The most current development plan is the February, 1998 Draft National Physical Development
Plan (NPDP) 2; this draft was prepared as part of The Environmental Management & Land Use
Planning for Sustainable Development Project (EMLUP). In this NPDP an attempt was made to
address some related biodiversity conservation concerns. The relevant studies include The
Environmental and Natural Resources Management Plan, The National Park Plan, GIS Data
Custody & Implementation Strategy, Environmental Impact Assessment Guidelines and
Procedures for Barbados, and the report on Institutional Strengthening of the Planning System.

5.5.2 Major Land Use Issues Affecting Biodiversity in Barbados

Habitat Loss & Fragmentation

The major contributing factors to the loss of biodiversity in Barbados are habitat loss and
fragmentation. Habitat disturbance precipitates loss of species, and is an on-going threat to
biodiversity in Barbados. During colonial times substantial vegetation was cleared to make way
for agriculture and to provide building materials and firewood. More recently vegetation loss has
resulted primarily from clearing to facilitate residential development, and the construction of
tourism sector developments such as hotel and golf course facilities.


Natural Resource Extraction

Resource extraction is generally regarded as a national economic necessity in the context of the
island‟s relatively scarce natural resource stock. In this regard, these operations need to be
strictly controlled to ensure minimization of the potential negative impacts, such as soil erosion,
flooding in coastal areas and the degradation of terrestrial and marine habitats.

Natural resource reserves include sand and clay reserves, which are mainly found within the
boundaries defined for the National Park, and oil and gas reserves occurring predominantly in the
St George Valley and the Woodborne area of St. Philip. There are five active quarry and sand
mining operations within the National Park boundaries, in addition to numerous limestone
quarries scattered throughout the island. The quarries characteristically range from very low
impact resource extraction (such as that associated with pottery operations), to high impact
mining of sand from the beach and sea berm at Walkers Savannah, or some of the limestone
quarries where operations involve blasting.


        2
           The Draft National Physical Development Plan (NPDP), 1998, was compiled by the Environmental
Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP) Project Team. The Draft NPDP
Document has been submitted to the Cabinet of the Government of Barbados and is currently pending approval. The
reference to the EMLUP Research documents, serves strictly as an indicator of current government policy trends,
and to provide the most current baseline research, which reflects the socio-economic and demographic status of the
country, including infrastructural development and land use resource allocation trends, occurring in the island of
Barbados.


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Intensive Monoculture Agriculture

The cumulative effects of the intensive sugarcane monoculture agricultural system on Barbados‟
biodiversity has not been studied in detail to date. However, the significant effects of reductions
of crop and livestock varieties due to selective breeding, decreases in the size of natural habitats
over time, increased erosion and the eutrophication of marine habitats, in addition to pollution of
marine environments by agro-chemicals are factors which have, no doubt, adversely effected the
island‟s biological resources. (WRI, IUCN, and UNEP 1992).


Growth Management

Barbados has been characterized by a relatively low rate of population growth over the past
twenty years. Recent projections indicate that this trend will continue, with population increasing
from 266,990 in 1997 to 274,200 by the year 2010. It is estimated that approximately 9,000
additional housing units will be required during the 1997 to 2010 period. It is estimated that some
1,400 hectares of additional residential land will be required to accommodate this growth during
this period.

In recent years, Barbados‟ economy has experienced expansion in the tourism sector,
accompanied with a decline in the agriculture sector, particularly with respect to sugar
production. In this regard, concerns have arisen as agricultural lands are lost to higher value uses
such as residential and golf course developments. If this trend continues, in the absence of a
strategy for managing the impacts on biodiversity, one likely result will be the loss of unique
plant and animal species which are now important for agricultural production.

Key growth areas include the areas around Warrens, Wildey, coastal areas in St.Philip, and the
escarpments along the northern edge of St. Georges Valley. Housing is a serious consideration
for a small island with limited land resources. However, in the Barbados context, a switch to
higher density housing and the development of the existing subdivisions within the urban
corridor will greatly reduce the pressures for outward expansion of urban/residential land in the
coming years.

The NPDP identifies four growth management areas for Barbados (see Figure 4). These are
classified as follows:

        i.      The Urban Corridor

                This area includes a full range of residential, commercial, industrial and
                institutional land uses. The urban corridor is thought to contain sufficient lands to
                accommodate projected urban growth over the next thirty years. The majority of
                growth during the projected life of NPDP is to be directed to the urban corridor.


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        ii.     The Rural Villages

                Limited residential, commercial and institutional development will be permitted
                within the rural and national park villages, which are communities that lie within
                areas designated or proposed to be designated as national parks.

        iii.    Agricultural Areas

                Within areas delineated as “agricultural,” predominantly agricultural and related
                land use activities and passive recreation uses will be permitted. Limited
                subdivision of lands to provide opportunities for small farming may also be
                permitted.

        iv.     The National Park Area

                Within the National Park Area only activities related to agriculture, conservation,
                forestry, passive recreation and facilities related to the National Park will be
                permitted. The NPDP details a set of policies to guide land use in this area.




Plate: 14 A section of the National Park Area with East Coast in the background (photo: ESPU)


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The urban corridor contains the largest population density concentrations on the island, and
consequently presents the greatest challenges for preserving biodiversity. The ongoing outward
expansion of this area also exacerbates the encroachment of development into biologically rich
areas.


5.5.3 The Proposed NPDP System of Parks and Open Spaces

The revised NPDP recommends the establishment of a nation-wide system of parks and open
spaces. This system aims to ensure the protection and conservation of national and cultural
assets, while supporting the social and economic development of existing communities within the
park boundaries. The national open space system comprises six open space categories:

        OS1: The Barbados National Park. This designation applies to the entire area of the
        National Park. This park encompasses various land use activities including conservation,
        forestry, tourism, resource extraction, and rural village settlements.

        OS2: Natural Heritage Conservation Areas. These include features and locations that
        are important to the natural and physical heritage of the island. This designation
        encompasses both terrestrial and marine environments, which are deemed to require
        protection from urban and recreational development pressures.

        OS3: Coastal Landscape Zones. This designation refers to two coastal areas outside of
        the national park, which are said to exhibit natural character and possess unique physical
        or cultural attributes.

        OS4: Public Parks and Open Spaces. These include publicly owned sites in both urban
        and rural settings that have been designed specifically to serve as recreation areas.

        OS5: National Attractions. This designation refers to attractions used for public
        enjoyment and as part of the tourism plant.

        OS6: Barbados National Forest Candidate Sites. These are crown-owned sites, which
        are predominately covered in mature or emerging forests.

The OS1, OS2, OS3 and OS6 areas posses immense value in terms of their potential in situ
conservation of Barbados‟s biological diversity. These proposed designated parks and open
spaces contain many natural features supportive of natural habitats. It is envisioned that the
official designations of parks and open spaces as natural reserves, would result in greater
regulation of human activities, which may adversely impact on existing biodiversity in these
marine and terrestrial areas. The following section 5.5.4 outlines some of the significant and rich
biodiversity areas, which are contained throughout the above mentioned areas.


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The National Park Development Plan

The goals and objectives outlined in the draft National Park Development Plan include the
following:

        ·       To conserve and enhance the character and quality of the landscape and marine
                resources of the park, including all features of natural and cultural heritage.
        ·       To define and protect a functionally connected natural heritage system based on
                an ecosystem approach.
        ·       To foster an awareness of the value of the National Park to the daily lives of
                residents of Barbados.
        ·       To ensure that the use and management of the land and marine resources of the
                park is of a sustainable nature and is supportive of social and economic
                development of local communities.
        ·       To establish a strong presumption against activities which conflict with or are
                detrimental to the landscape, seascape and environmental qualities that led to the
                national park designation.
        ·       To provide opportunities for informal recreation and to promote understanding
                and enjoyment of the special qualities of the park.
        ·       To conserve and enhance the biodiversity of the area including terrestrial and
                marine ecosystems, habitats and species. (NPDP, 1998)

The plan identifies the following Natural Heritage Conservation Areas and National Forest
Candidate Sites to be part of an ecosystem approach towards the management of the Barbados
National Park.

Natural Heritage Conservation Areas:
       ·       Walkers Savannah, St Andrew
       ·       Graeme Hall Swamp, Christ Church
       ·       Chancery Lane Wetland, Christ Church
       ·       Folkstone Marine Reserve, St James
       ·       Carlisle Bay, St. Michael
       ·       Harrison‟s Cave, St. Thomas

National Forest Candidate Sites:
       ·      Hackleton‟s Cliff Woods, St. Joseph
       ·      Joes River Forest, St. Joseph
       ·      Turners Hall Woods, St. Andrew
       ·      Bruce Vale, St. Andrew
       ·      Pico Teneriffe, St. Peter
       ·      Forest Linkages




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5.5.4 Significant Biodiversity Resource Areas

The EMLUP report on Environmental and Natural Resource Management identified the
following “spatially limited and unique habitats”: The Graeme Hall Swamp, Turners
Hall/Hackletons Cliff, Walkers Sand Dune, Long Pond Estuary, the Chancery Lane Wetland and
Sand Dune features, and the islands extensive Gully network. The further identification of
significant and unique biodiversity supporting habitats should be an ongoing activity for
researchers working in this area. In this regard, Needham‟s Point in St. Michael is also
considered      to      be       a     significant     biodiversity     resource      area.

The following areas contain a number of natural features and habitat areas that are described as
“ecologically diverse and environmentally sensitive”, and require special measures be put in
place for their protection. A brief discussion of these areas is described in the following sections.

       Coastal Land Resource Areas

        The coastal zone areas of Barbados provide unique landscapes and areas for public access
        to the sea and walking areas. The coastal zone area is generally defined as the interface
        where the land meets the ocean, and encompasses shoreline environments as well as the
        adjacent coastal waters. Its components includes:

        ·       coastal plains
        ·       wetlands
        ·       beaches
        ·       sand dunes
        ·       reefs
        ·       mangroves and other coastal features.

        These dynamic and biologically diverse ecosystems provide crucial nursery habitats for
        many marine species. The coastal zone areas in Barbados in recent decades have attracted
        many human settlements due to the increased demands for tourism development and
        increased demand for beachfront residential properties.

       Sand Dunes

        Sand dune areas occur primarily in the Scotland District and specifically along Walkers
        Beach and Walkers Savannah. The most remarkable sand dunes occur at Morgan Lewis
        Beach, Salt Cave Point, Chancery Lane and Long Pond. The island‟s sand dunes are
        highly significant in terms of their support of various terrestrial plant communities, and
        provide habitats and nesting grounds for various species of crabs and sea turtles among
        other species. These sand dunes also provide a relatively high aesthetic value to the coasts
        of Barbados.



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        These dunes also offer protection against salt water flooding into low lying areas, and, in
        conjunction with coastal vegetation, effectively slows the process of beach erosion by
        wave action, and blow outs caused by wind. Coastal erosion is most active along the
        coastline in St Lucy, the eastern and southeastern coasts of St Philip and along all of the
        island‟s beaches. These sand dunes are described in the NPDP as being under serious
        pressure from sand mining activities. In this regard, sand mining activities must be
        carefully managed to minimize negative impacts on this sensitive resource. An attempt at
        efficient management of these sand dunes is fulfilled under the Coastal Zone
        Management Unit which addresses sand mining activities and the protection of sand
        dunes.

       Turtle Nesting Sites

        Turtles such as the hawksbill turtle are known to frequent the waters and shores of
        Barbados. Turtle nesting sites are scattered throughout the south, west and east coasts.
        The hawksbill, which is Barbados‟ only indigenous Critically Endangered (c.f. IUCN)
        species, has a significant nesting site at the Needham‟s Point area, which stretches from
        the site of the Hilton Hotel, Needhams Point, St. Michael to Coconut Court, Hastings,
        Christ Church. Over 25% of all hawksbills on the island nest on this 1.5 km stretch of
        beach. Special protection and efficient management of this critical habitat is vital to
        sustain a viable population.

        The Integrated Coastal Management Plan (ICMP) and the Coastal Zone Management Act
        (CZMA) provides support through several statutory and policy mechanisms, for the
        management of turtle nesting sites on the island which occur scattered throughout the
        south, west and east coasts. These mechanisms include elements of beach management in
        relation to sand mining, setbacks, vehicular beach access, enclosures and fences, in
        addition to replanting and protection of littoral vegetation.

        As part of the development control process, the CZMU carefully reviews any application
        which proposes lighting for upper beach areas, and recommends appropriate adjustments
        in lighting arrangements to prevent adverse impacts on sensitive nesting and hatching
        turtles to lighting and the disorienting impacts of lighting on turtle hatchlings.

       Coastal Wetlands

        Remnants of natural wetlands or wetland vegetation are found along the south and west
        coasts. Mangroves can be found at Graeme Hall, Chancery Lane, St. Lawrence,
        Brighton, Holetown, Heywoods, and Lakes/Long Pond. These sites have been under
        threat from large scale encroachment by residential/commercial development by various
        degrees over time.

        The importance of mangroves as a biodiversity resource lies in their high level of organic
        productivity, which enables them to sustain fish and wildlife populations. Mangroves

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        serve as a nursery and breeding grounds for reef fish and crustaceans. In addition the root
        system acts as a sediment trap, thus reducing the amount of sediment particles that may
        enter the open sea and impact on the reefs. There is therefore a strong interdependence
        between mangroves and coral reefs.

       The Graeme Hall Swamp

        The largest and most significant mangrove swamp is the Graeme Hall Swamp with a total
        area of 30 ha. The swamp is colonized by red mangrove and white mangrove, which form
        the dominant species in the wooded parts of the swamp. The man-made drainage canals
        contain a variety of plants including water lilies, water lettuce and filamentous algae
        while sedges, grasses and other wetland plants grow on the banks. This swamp provides a
        watering hole for many migratory birds, as well as a permanent home for several resident
        birds including the locally rare red seal coot and the yellow warbler. It also serves as a
        sanctuary for many juvenile marine fish and provides a recreational site for bird
        watching, fishing, and model boat racing.

       The Chancery Lane NPDP Special Study Area

        An area in Chancery Lane, situated at the extreme south west of the island, has been
        designated as a Special Study Area in the revised NPDP. The area is of national
        environmental significance because of its coastal wetlands, which are rare in terms of
        ecosystems in Barbados. Also significant, is the area‟s importance as a bird and sea turtle
        nesting area and as an archaeological site. The Chancery Lane beach and the
        surroundings are also a popular recreation area for local residents and tourists who stay in
        the hotels and small guesthouses nearby.

        The Chancery Lane Special Study Area includes the escarpment, a swamp, an extensive
        beach and sand dune ecosystem system, which together contain a wide range of natural
        habitats, along with open water, wet meadows, marshes, and inland coral stone cliffs
        covered by trees and shrubs. Unfortunately, a large portion of the land in the Chancery
        Lane Special Study Area has already been approved for development activities, which
        potentially could cause severe damage to the landscape value and result in the destruction
        of the habitats.

        Special attention will be given by the TCDPO, in consultation with the director of the
        Natural Heritage Unit, to site planning issues such as regulation of appropriate
        development densities, lighting, separation distances and setbacks between developments
        and natural features, treatment and disposal of storm water runoff and preservation and
        enhancement of natural vegetation.




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       The Folkestone Marine Reserve

        The Folkestone Marine Reserve is located on the west coast of Barbados, stretching from
        Sandy Lane Hotel in the south to Colony Club Hotel in the north, and extending seaward
        for 660 to 950 metres. This Reserve consists of four zones: a Scientific Zone; a Northern
        Water-sports Zone; a Recreational Zone; and Southern Water-sports Zone. The Reserve
        contains an offshore bank reef and a series of near shore fringing reefs that are separated
        by sand. Within the reserve there is an underwater trail that highlights the corals and fish
        of interest in the Reserve.

        Rakitin (1994), noted that the Reserve was located in an area subjected to rapid coastal
        development for tourism and recreational activities and hence is continuously exposed to
        a variety of environmental stresses. These include damage to off shore reefs from diving
        and illegal fishing activities, and the disturbance of turtle nesting areas from tourism
        related and other human activity on the beaches.

        The Holetown Hole is also a major source of pollutants, which breaks through the sand
        barrier and discharges large amounts of fine silt, agro-chemicals and domestic waste into
        the Reserve when major rainfall occurs.

       Inland Escarpments

        A series of escarpments, paralleling the south and west coasts of Barbados are described
        by the NPDP as environmentally sensitive. These rocky land features have evolved from
        historical soil loss over the past three centuries and is characterized by protruding rock
        with a few pockets of shallow soil and can be found at areas like Kitridge Point in St
        Phillip, Mount Brevitor in St Peter, and in St Andrew and the Boscobel area. These
        pockets support dry scrub or woodlands, and many have been planted for grazing
        animals.

        The vertical walls of inland cliffs usually support sparse vegetation, clinging to cracks in
        the rock or in pockets of soil on ledges and stunted plants are common. The slopes of
        some cliffs, which have more loose boulders and pockets of soil, may have additional
        species.

        The islands limestone cliffs typically possess numerous caverns, which provide habitats
        particularly for various species of bats and nesting birds. These cliff tops are rapidly
        becoming more attractive for residential development due to the pristine views afforded
        by these higher elevations. Issues associated with development adjacent to these
        escarpments include loss of stability and erosion at the edge of these escarpments, rock
        falls at the bottom of the escarpments, and deforestation at the top of the escarpments that
        can increase the rate of erosion and reduce the visual quality of the escarpment.



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           Forested Areas

        Forests are important in the preservation and enhancement of terrestrial ecosystems, soil
        stabilization, water recharge into aquifers and flood control. In this regard, the NPDP
        stressed the importance of preserving the remaining forest cover and allowing natural
        regeneration to continue. Requirements for encouraging tree planting in residential
        subdivisions and replacement planting plans are being incorporated in the development of
        the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Areas. Almost all of the remaining forested
        areas are in the National Park and can be described under four main categories.

                i     Barbados National Candidate Forest Sites are located on publicly owned
                         lands and represent a variety of forest communities of contrasting
                         “environmental quality” and potential to develop as National Forests;

                ii Existing Forests are typically mature forested areas characterized by a diverse
                      range of vegetation, species, ages and habitats;

                iii Emerging Forests are mid-successional forests, and are younger than the
                      existing forests. Although these forests are in the earlier stages of natural
                      regeneration, they provide a wide range of vegetation and species habitats;
                      and

                iv Forested Linkages are areas undergoing very early stages of natural
                      regeneration. Mainly scrub vegetation and some young trees characterize
                      these forested areas. However, it is estimated that these early successional
                      areas can possibly evolve into mature forests in about twenty years if left
                      in an undisturbed state.

           Gullies

        Gullies are important from an ecological perspective as sanctuaries for plant and animal
        species. Gullies typically provide relatively sheltered habitats due to the characteristic
        steep inclines and thick foliage, and provide favourable moist conditions for mature and
        diverse collections of native flora. In this regard, it is important that public access and
        development activities in close proximity to these areas be carefully controlled.

        Presently the MPE is managing the Gully Ecosystem Management Study and this
        initiative has two objectives.

                     To prepare a comprehensive integrated management strategy and programme
                      for the national gully systems which recognizes:
                          -       The preservation and enhancement of biodiversity resources;



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                        -        The maintenance of storm water flow patterns, including the
                             protection of critical groundwater catchment areas and abstraction
                             zones; and
                        -        Identification of sustainable socio-economic uses of selected gully
                             systems.

                   The development and implementation of an appropriate public awareness and
                    education programme which is complementary to the aforementioned
                    objective.




Plate: 15 Members of a tour group appreciating the natural features in the Jack in the Box gully
(photo: ESPU)


       Freshwater Springs and Water Catchments

        The majority of the freshwater spring systems drain into east coast drainage basins and
        watercourses with the notable exception of Porey Spring, which originates in St Thomas
        and drains into a west coast catchment. The rest of these springs include Three Houses in
        St Philip, Pot House, Bath, Codrington College, and New Castle located in St John, the

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        two Whitehill spring systems, and the spring systems which feed Green Pond, Long
        Pond, and Joes River water courses in St Andrew.

        The permanent surface water catchments, which support significant aquatic biodiversity,
        include Bawdens, Long Pond, Green Pond, Hillaby, Bathsheba, Consett, Codrington,
        Three Houses and Culpepper. Freshwater species, which occur in these surface water
        bodies, consist mainly of species of freshwater fish, crustaceans, and some species of
        aquatic flora, insects and amphibians (Felix, 1991). The major surface water catchments,
        which retain water year round, need to be studied in detail in order to ascertain their
        significance in terms of their support of freshwater aquatic species.

        In light of the paucity of permanent surface water bodies in Barbados the few existing
        natural water catchments can be regarded as being an extremely valuable natural
        resource, both in terms of their potential as an alternative water source, and in their role in
        supplying terrestrial aquatic habitats with fresh water.

        Water sampling and testing programmes carried out mainly by the Environmental
        Engineering Division, and the Coastal Zone Management Unit, on these fresh water
        springs in Barbados have indicated relatively high levels of water pollution in recent
        times, noted by exceedingly high levels of pathogens. There is a need to preserve these
        terrestrial water sources from the adverse impacts, and modifications of watercourses as a
        result of unsustainable development, and human activities in proximity to these sensitive
        land resource areas.

       Natural Corridors and Linkages

        Natural corridors and linkages exist where there are spatial associations between land
        resource features such as the gully systems, escarpments, coastal zone areas, non-arable
        lands undergoing regeneration, and other contiguous vegetation or open space units that
        may support various ecosystems, and also define the range of particular terrestrial or
        aquatic species habitats.

        There is a need to evaluate all proposed development activity which may occur within
        close proximity to identified areas of significant open space vegetation and assess the
        potential of these activities to encroach upon or fragment existing habitats, and negatively
        impact upon associated ecosystems.


5.5.5 Conclusion

Land use conflicts in Barbados are exacerbated by the relative scarcity of land resources
characteristic of small island countries, coupled with the strong developmental pressures which
exist in the Barbadian economy at this time. Some mapping of the island‟s land resources has
been carried out under various unrelated projects, and by various government departments over

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the years, the most recent to date being the EMLUP study in 1998. Significant gaps however still
remain in available large scale and detailed spatial data with respect to the vegetation
classification, and the distribution of ecosystem supporting habitats in Barbados at a national
level. The relevant researchers must address these gaps in information in order to facilitate more
comprehensive assessments of development activities and their potential to negatively impact on
existing biological resources. Presently, the Gully Ecosystem Management Study is in its initial
stage and it is expected from its outputs that geographical information on presence and
abundance of flora and fauna within the gullies will be ascertained.

Areas of regenerating vegetation and open space linkages generally tend to be natural features
such as gullies, escarpments, uncultivated open lands and other areas of contiguous or associated
vegetation. These areas have been traditionally undervalued in terms of importance in supporting
biodiversity, and this is generally due to the lack of awareness, and information supporting the
relative importance of these open lands. The fact that these open spaces are usually the first areas
earmarked for development should no doubt warrant further research in order to re-evaluate some
of these lands in terms of ecological value.


5.6     SOCIO-CULTURAL ENVIRONMENT

Most threats to the preservation of biodiversity are the direct or indirect results of human
activities, therefore, developing an effective management plan for biodiversity conservation
requires not only a scientific assessment of existing biological resources and their value but also
an examination of the social context in which those resources are used. This section of the report
assesses existing socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions in Barbados as a basis for
evaluating the patterns of use of biological resources (e.g. agricultural plant and animal species,
fisheries resources, natural vegetation) on the island. The assessment is also useful for
determining the degree of threat and the time frame for addressing problem areas.


5.6.1 Human Diversity

In 1996, the human diversity of Barbados was ninety per cent (90%) of African descent; 4% of
European descent, the remaining 6% being partly of Asian descent and partly of mixed
(European and African) descent (Commonwealth Yearbook, 1998). This population composition
can clearly be traced to three major periods in the island‟s history: (i) the period of colonisation
by Britain; (ii) the slavery period which saw the forcible migration of large numbers of Africans
to the island to work on the sugar plantations and unions between planters and slaves during this
period also resulted in the emergence of a noticeable sector of the population of mixed race; (iii)
the post slavery period when indentured servants were brought in to do the work on the
plantations that had previously been performed by the African slaves. These labourers were
mainly from Asia and China but there was also a significant number of white labourers from
northern England, Ireland and Scotland.


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5.6.2 Historical Factors Influencing the Culture of Barbados

Archaeological evidence suggests that prehistoric Barbados was inhabited by cave dwellers of
the Ciboney culture, from Florida. Later, the Arawaks, who were agriculturalists, weavers and
potters, arrived from South America. The early English settlers were primarily agriculturalists,
producing tobacco, cotton and indigo. The introduction of sugar by the Dutch in the 1650s led to
the development of large plantations and to the importation of vast numbers of African slaves to
work on them. By the end of the 18th Century, Barbados had 745 plantations worked by over
80,000 African and African descended slaves. After slavery was abolished between 1833 and
1834 throughout the British Empire, indentured labourers were brought to Barbados to work on
the sugar estates. The use of indentured labour allowed plantation owners to continue to
dominate the country even into the 20th Century (Commonwealth Yearbook, 1998).

An important feature of Barbadian heritage is the legacy of the extended period of British
colonisation. This legacy is very evident in the governmental, organisational and educational
systems, which exist on the island today. Barbados has a history of governmental stability,
which persists today. Unlike other islands in the English speaking Caribbean, Barbados did not
experience the numerous changes in colonial rule, and the change over to from British colonial
rule to self-government was virtually unchallenged. This factor has contributed to the
progressive economic and social development, which is characteristic of the island and must be
considered as part of its culture.


5.6.3 Population

The population density of Barbados, at approximately 615 persons per square km, continues to
be one of the highest in the world. In order to be able to use biological resources sustainably,
pressures from population growth and/or movement must not exceed the ability of species to
replenish themselves or to adapt to changing environmental conditions. The statistics show that
although the population size in relation to the land area of the country is rather large, the actual
rate of growth of the population is comparatively low. This can be attributed to a number of
factors such as the availability of a high standard of health care and educational opportunities to
all sectors of the population, a high standard of living and positive economic growth resulting in
low unemployment levels. This implies that population growth factors do not pose any serious
threats to the conservation of biodiversity in Barbados.


5.6.4 The Economy

The 1995 UN Development Programme‟s Human Development Index ranked Barbados
twentieth in the world. This gives the country the highest “quality of life” rating of any
developing country, higher than several Western European countries. The economy, formerly a
sugar monoculture, has been carefully developed over three decades to achieve greater diversity.

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The three main sectors in decreasing order are currently tourism, light industry and sugar
production.

By the end of 1996, the Barbadian economy had expanded significantly, with real output
increasing by 5.2 per cent. The value of real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 1996 was
estimated at $903.6 million, an increase of $44.7 million over 1995. Per capita GDP for 1996
was $12,800 (US $6,400) representing an increase of $900 or 7.6 percent. This significant
growth in per capita income is indicative of the recovery of the economy (Barbados Economic
Report, 1996).


5.6.5 Employment

One major feature in the performance of the Barbadian economy in 1996 was the reduction in the
rate of unemployment from 19.7 percent in 1995 to 15.6 percent. This continued the pattern of a
falling unemployment rate observed since 1993 when the rate was 24.7 percent. In 1996, some
114 300 persons were employed compared to 109 900 thousand in the previous year.


5.6.6 Poverty

Poverty may be considered as the inability of an individual or household to satisfy the basic
needs (food, clothing and shelter) required for survival due to a lack of adequate financial
resources. Poverty can have profound impacts on the preservation of biodiversity. If conditions
of poverty persist over the long term, biological resources may be exploited to the point that they
become irreversibly depleted.

Barbadians enjoy a relatively high standard of living in comparison to other developing countries
and some European countries. Poverty is present in some vulnerable sectors of the population,
such as the elderly, the undereducated and teenage mothers, but it is not a widespread situation.
Barbados has a relatively sophisticated social services sector, which is funded in large measure
by taxpayer contributions. The objective of the social services sector is therefore to provide a
support system which fills the gap in meeting the basic needs of those members of the population
who, for whatever reason, are unable to find means to satisfy these needs themselves.


5.6.7 Health Care

The effectiveness and sustainability of the health care system is essential to maintaining the
health status of the population at such a level that the productivity of the work force and hence
the economic viability of the country is not compromised. The GOB continues to view health
care as a fundamental right of all Barbadians and its goal is to provide comprehensive health care
to all Barbadians at a price which the country can afford. To achieve the health care policy goals,
emphasis has been placed on a community approach to Primary Health Care and making

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effective use of government and non-governmental organisations in all aspects of health care. In
addition, the GOB is continuing to strengthen the institutional capacity at the secondary and
tertiary levels of care.

The chronic non-communicable diseases, particularly hypertension, diabetes and all forms of
cancer; and the spread of HIV infection have the capacity to bring about a health crisis if not
aggressively managed and controlled. Such a crisis would inevitably undermine the productivity
of the work force and the country at large. In recognition of the potential for such a situation to
occur, the GOB has taken a very pro-active approach towards the prevention of further growth in
incidences of these diseases. Aggressive public education campaigns, particularly in the case of
HIV, are a key component of this approach. A national AIDS Programme was established in
1988 with the Ministry of Health and the Environment as executing agency, to implement
projects, which would serve to reduce the transmission of HIV and give care and support to
people infected with or affected by HIV. There is also a strong and committed national Advisory
Committee on AIDS, and an AIDS management team at the QEH, which provide assistance and
support to the Programme.


5.6.8 Transport Infrastructure

The island‟s road network was developed, in part, to serve the sugar cane industry transporting
goods from the various plantations to the capital, Bridgetown. With the emerging dominance of
Bridgetown, this trend led to the development of a strong radial network. The seven main
highways (Highways 1 to 7) radiate from central Bridgetown. In recent times, there have been
four major additions to the highway network.

The current development pattern characterised in transport terms exhibits a concentration of
demand along the west and south coasts in a band from Speightstown through Bridgetown to
Oistins. In this west-south development axis, the Bridgetown Port and the international airport
are also located. The existing transport infrastructure pattern is being reinforced through
proposals to expand the port and the airport and to extend the ABC Highway artery along route
2A.

To the extent that a dominant transport infrastructure pattern has evolved along the South and
West Coasts and around Greater Bridgetown, and that recent investment in the sector will tend to
reinforce this pattern, it is difficult to identify any significant different and realistic alternative
land use/transport strategies that could emerge in the future. Transport related environmental
problems are more likely to be identified from intensification in traffic levels and congestion,
impacts of vehicular emissions, mortality of fauna caused by collisions with vehicles, and on-line
improvements to existing highways rather than from provision of major new infrastructure.




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5.6.9 Cultural Heritage

Cultural heritage can be defined as the present manifestation of the human past. It refers to sites,
structures and remains of archaeological, historical, religious, cultural or aesthetic value and is a
record of humanity‟s relationship to the world, past achievements and discoveries. Much of this
heritage is under threat, particularly in developing countries as a result of modernization and
development. If archaeological and historical sites and structures are allowed to disappear,
important testaments to a society‟s creativity and the knowledge base for shaping the future will
be lost.


Architecture

Barbados has a diversity of architectural styles unique to the island. These include chattel
houses, parish churches, plantation houses, army barracks, sugar factories and much more.
These buildings are critical aspects of the island‟s cultural heritage and should be preserved. One
organisation that has been instrumental in this area is the Barbados National Trust. The Trust
was founded in 1961 by an Act of Parliament to preserve the unique heritage of Barbados,
whether it is historic buildings, places of natural beauty or the island‟s flora and fauna. The Trust
works to ensure that the public has access to as many of them as possible, and it actively
promotes restoration and preservation. It also places plaques, with the permission of the owners,
on buildings of historical and architectural interest. There are presently eight (8) properties
administered by the Barbados National Trust.


Archaeological Sites

An extensive survey of the coastline of Barbados to locate pre-historic sites was undertaken
during of 1985/86 by archaeologists from the Institute of Archaeology, University College of
London in conjunction with the Barbados Museum and Historical Society. This survey
supplemented findings of known sites derived from the literature, museum collections and
information provided by members of the Barbados Museum and Historical society. Sites
discovered since 1986 have been added to this list. The 1985/86 survey reinforces the earlier
research and confirmed the predisposition towards coastal sites in early settlements. Following
the extensive field survey, four coastal sites were selected for detailed study. These were
Heywoods on the west coast, Highcrest on the east coast and two south coast sites at Chancery
Lane and Silver Sands.


Traditional Knowledge

There is a need to identify indigenous communities and peoples, and if this proves to be difficult
ascertain their traditional knowledge base for future reference.         Traditional knowledge

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constitutes the cultural and spiritual values of biological diversity, and is developed by
indigenous people to be transmitted to future generations as the basis of their continued existence
as a people.

Traditional knowledge regarding sustainable use of biodiversity has not been adequately studied
or publicised in Barbados despite its importance. Activities such as herbal medical practices,
waste management, and environmentally friendly agricultural practices have cultural and
spiritual influences, and therefore traditional knowledge can assist in their planning and
management.

The foundations for Barbados‟ folk healing tradition, for example, were established during the
period of slavery and African medical traditions played a crucial role in contributing to this
foundation. In general, historical sources refer to many medicinal plants, however the
information on traditional knowledge with respect to their use by different races is unclear.

The names, stories, and folklore about flora and fauna present in Barbados are part of the local
culture and need documenting as much as the scientific aspects. For example, in Barbados one
species of the land crabs are called “swampee”, and marine crabs are called “shaggers” and these
names can be considered important when implementing an environmental management plan for
traditional communities. Therefore for cultural, spiritual, as well as scientific reasons, it would
be instructive to carry out a survey of the persons in Barbados knowledgeable in the use of
biological diversity for herbal medicine or for other cultural or spiritual uses, document their
claims and undertake systematic and detailed study of these plants and animals.


5.6.10 Conclusion

It is well recognised that prevailing socio-cultural and socio-economic conditions in a country
affect the patterns of use of biological and cultural resources. A country, such as Barbados, with
a stable political environment, relatively high per capita income and stable or declining
population growth rate would be in a position to allocate financial and technical resources for
ensuring the sustainable use of biological and cultural resources.

Barbados has a rich cultural heritage which is evidenced in the number of sites and structures of
archaeological, historical, religious, cultural and aesthetic significance along with a rich tradition
of festivals, music, art, dance and folklore. There has been a considerable amount of work
undertaken by both governmental and non-governmental organisations such as the National
Cultural Foundation, the Barbados National Trust, the Barbados Museum and Historical Society,
the Caribbean Conservation Association and interested individuals for the preservation of
cultural heritage of the island.




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6.      THE BIODIVERSITY STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN

The Strategy and Action Plan presented in this section comprises goals, strategies and actions
which seek to guide the development and application of management approaches for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity across the entire range of economic, social and
cultural sectors identified in the Country Study Technical Reports (Simmons & Associates,
1998).

The magnitude and range of actions proposed require the involvement of several ministries,
agencies and many individuals spanning both governmental and non-governmental institutions,
as well as the application of multi-disciplinary approaches, which are sometimes non-existent or
insufficiently developed. This shortcoming will present major challenges for the proposed
Natural Heritage Unit, which is for the purpose of managing the implementation of biodiversity
conservation initiatives proposed

Costs for implementing these recommended actions are also expected to present added
challenges, particularly when the exigencies of other development parameters are considered.
However, the contents of the NBSAP clearly illustrate the importance of biodiversity for its
sustainable development, reinforcing the importance of finding adequate funding for the
implementation of this Action Plan.

The overall goal of the NBSAP is to promote the conservation and sustainable utilization of
the island’s terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity. To achieve this, a number of major
objectives have been identified. For each objective, the strategy and the actions required are
described. All actions are considered to be important to achieve the overall goal of the NBSAP,
but within each section, those actions of highest priority have the identifier [H] attached.




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  Objective 1: To mobilize adequate financial resources for the management
                 and conservation of Barbados’ biodiversity
Strategy: Develop mechanisms for funding the conservation and management of biodiversity,
ensuring that the costs of protection are equitably shared.
Actions
1.     Define and implement a specific mandate for negotiating with financial and technical
       assistance agencies in the regional and international arenas to fund NBSAP project
       priorities. This initiative will entail creating and filling the positions of Fund Raising
       Specialist and Assistant in the Ministry responsible for the environment. The
       responsibilities would include the submission of suitable projects to the Global
       Environment Facility. [H]
2.     Allocate additional Government funds for biodiversity conservation and management.
3.     Establish appropriate user fees for biodiversity resource users (for example, hoteliers,
       fisherfolk, SCUBA operators, tour operators).

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment



     Objective 2:       To develop the human resource base and strengthen
      institutional capacity for biodiversity conservation and management
Strategy: Strengthen the institutional and technical capacity of environmental government
agencies to effectively manage the components of biodiversity and promote their sustainable
use.

Actions
1.     Endorse and encourage the recommendation arising out of EMLUP to establish a Natural
       Heritage Unit with the purpose of managing the sustainable use and conservation of
       biodiversity within the Ministry responsible for the environment. Full time, trained staff
       within this proposed Environment Division would be employed to coordinate the
       Government‟s biodiversity activities.        This Unit will interface with other relevant
       agencies. [H]
2.     Define specific mandates for the relevant governmental institutions with respect to the
       conservation of biodiversity.
3.     Acquire and/or train key personnel within Government in biodiversity conservation and
       management.
4.     Establish and/or strengthen links with Governmental and Non-governmental agencies
       (local and international) with responsibilities related to the conservation and sustainable
       use of biological resources.
5.     Encourage cooperation between local Governmental and Non-governmental agencies to
       reduce duplication of activities, and encourage more efficient information sharing. [H]


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6.      Enhance the capacity of a selected institution(s) to scientifically describe, classify and
        store collected specimens. [H]

Implementation Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, The University of the West Indies



     Objective 3:   To conduct essential research to inform the development
      and implementation of management practices for the sustainable use of
                                 biodiversity
Strategy: Establish a national Research Programme to document the status of, threats to and
value of, biodiversity.

Actions
1.     Prepare and implement a prioritized programme on biodiversity research, incorporating
       appropriate governmental and non-governmental agencies, students and staff of UWI,
       polytechnics and colleges, schools, communities and user groups in appropriate elements
       of the programme.

        The programme will include the following research and monitoring elements:
        a)     Development of a full reference collection of work already conducted on
               Barbadian species and habitats by local and overseas researchers. [H]
        b)     Assessment of existing data on presence/absence, abundance and distribution of
               terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity. [H]
        c)     Research on species and communities that are indigenous, rare or threatened,
               particularly those that require urgent protective measures, and development of a
               GIS compatible database. [H]
        d)     Research on the presence, distribution and abundance of alien and genetically
               modified species and the development of a GIS compatible database.
        e)     Development/support of monitoring projects designed to assess impacts of
               exploitation, habitat loss, pollutants and alien species on the distribution and
               abundance of terrestrial, marine and freshwater biodiversity, alien, indigenous and
               rare species.
        f)     Adoption of the biodiversity indicators under the National Indicators programme
               as well as the identification of additional potential indicators that can be used to
               highlight biodiversity degradation.
        g)     Documentation of research on indigenous knowledge, innovations and practices
               with respect to utilization of biodiversity (for example, medicinal plants).
        h)     Assessment of past, current and future patterns of consumptive use of
               biodiversity.
        i)     Assessment of the economic value of consumptive use of biodiversity resources.
        j)     Preliminary assessment of non-consumptive value of biodiversity e.g. in
               biological control, prevention of soil loss, ecotourism.


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        k) Assessment of the role of education in biodiversity conservation and management.
        l) Assessment of the effects of climate change on biodiversity conservation and
           management.

2.      Convert the Herbarium of the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, to a
        National Herbarium (using the Government-funded and staffed UWI-based herbarium in
        Trinidad as a model). [H]

3.      Develop a National Clearing House Mechanism (internet web site) to provide a forum for
        national/regional biodiversity researchers. [H]

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development, The University of the West Indies, Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute, Barbados Museum, Barbados National Trust, Caribbean Conservation
Association



  Objective 4:     To use the results of the Research Programme to develop
  appropriate management techniques and mechanisms to ensure sustainable
 consumptive use, and to preserve non-consumptive use values of biodiversity
                                  resources
Strategy 1: Develop management approaches for the sustainable consumptive use of flora and
fauna.

Actions
1.     Identify ecological factors affecting the population status of exploited species e.g.
       predation rates, habitat loss, and disease.
2.     Identify management measures needed to prevent over-exploitation of biodiversity
       resources by users, including measures to control negative biotic interactions that are
       simultaneously impacting on exploited biodiversity, e.g. control of invasive species that
       compete with or prey on the biodiversity resource, and measures to protect critical refuge,
       foraging or breeding habitats. [H]
2.     Develop taxon-specific management plans for the consumptive use of key biodiversity
       resources e.g. green monkeys, migratory birds, rock balsam, inter alia, taking into
       account non-consumptive use values where appropriate (see Goal 5). The Fisheries
       Management Plan 2001 consists of taxon-specific plans for conch, sea eggs and pot fish,
       and therefore should be reviewed and revised if necessary. [H]




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Strategy 2: Develop management approaches for conservation of species and ecosystems that
have significant non-consumptive use value, for example, for tourism or for ecological
services provided.

Actions:
1.     Identify key biodiversity resources with high non-consumptive use value e.g. coral reefs,
       gullies, green monkeys, and sea turtles. [H]
2.     Develop taxon-specific management plans to protect species of significant non-
       consumptive use value e.g. insectivorous and frugivorous bats, snakes, reef fish, sea
       turtles inter alia. [H]
3.     Ensure that appropriate elements are incorporated into management plans to protect
       biodiversity that is of simultaneously high consumptive and non-consumptive use value
       e.g. coral reefs, green monkeys. [H]
4.     Develop management approaches to control alien species where studies have shown
       demonstrable negative impacts on indigenous biodiversity. These may include
       mongoose, cane toads, cattle egrets, Casuarina, water hyacinth, inter alia.
       Ensure adequate legal protection for critical habitats of key species and important
       ecosystems.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development, The University of the West Indies, Caribbean Agricultural Research and
Development Institute, Caribbean Conservation Association



   Objective 5: To revise, consolidate and formulate policy and legislation to
         achieve the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity

 Strategy: Implement existing national legislation and revise or develop new legislation to
incorporate biodiversity management policies that are not currently adequately addressed

Actions:
1.     Endorse and encourage the creation of a position of Environmental legal officer which
       was recommended under EMLUP. This officer would be the manager of the proposed
       Policy and Coordination Unit for the Ministry. [H]
2.     Develop regulations to fully implement the revised environmental legislation for
       Barbados under the Environmental Management and Land Use Planning for Sustainable
       Development Project. [H]
3.     Ensure the incorporation of biodiversity concerns in all Environmental Impact
       Assessments (EIA).
3.     Review present incentives and disincentives for conservation and sustainable use of
       biodiversity, and make necessary amendments with the intention of incorporation into a
       national incentives policy.


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4.      Develop regulations under the Coastal Zone Management Act to minimize impacts of
        coastal constructions on the beach and near shore marine environment, for example,
        lighting and beach cleaning regulations to protect sea turtles nesting habitat, regulation of
        discharges to protect coral reefs, for example, chlorinated and grey water, and regulation
        of coral rubble and sea grass removal inter alia. [H]
5.      Strengthen the enforcement of the Marine Pollution and Control Act to reduce marine
        and freshwater pollution and biodiversity kills due to land based sources of pollution, and
        the Coastal Zone Management Act to protect important feeding and breeding grounds in
        the coastal zone. Formulate national legislation relating to biodiversity access and benefit
        sharing.
6.      Finalize the Draft National Physical Development Plan and make it legally binding.
7.      Formulate national legislation to address biosafety and biotechnology concerns.
8.      Formulate national legislation to address biodiversity access and benefit sharing.
9.      Facilitate community and user-group involvement in the drafting process of any revisions
        to existing legislation, development of new legislation and in the enforcement of
        legislation.
10.     Strengthen the mechanisms for the enforcement of all biodiversity protection and
        management legislation.
11.     Conduct biodiversity legislation and enforcement workshops for communities and user
        groups, the Judiciary, the Royal Barbados Police Force, the Barbados Defense Force and
        the Coast Guard.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Attorney General‟s Chambers



      Objective 6: To promote biodiversity conservation and sustainable use
                               through incentives
Strategy: Develop practical incentive measures so that persons are encouraged to conserve
biological diversity

Actions:
1.     Develop innovative mechanisms for funding incentive packages. [H]
2.     Adopt suitable economic valuation methods to value the biodiversity so that it can be
       included in the national accounting system. [H]
3.     Identify sustainable economic alternatives to activities that threaten biodiversity.
4.     Promote the participation of non-governmental organizations in funding incentive
       packages. [H]

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Economic
Development, Attorney General‟s Chambers



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Objective 7: To incorporate biodiversity conservation requirements into land-
                                use planning

Strategy:  Rationalize land use designation and encourage sectoral planning for
environmentally friendly development.

Actions:
1.     Adopt the finalized and legally binding National Physical Development Plan as a blue
       print for land use planning. [H]
2.     Ensure that biodiversity conservation and sustainable use become limiting factors within
       all land use planning decisions and processes. [H]
3.     Establish strong and transparent linkages for land use planning among sectors.
4.     Introduce legally binding environmental regulations into the land use planning processes
       which take into account ecological stability, carrying capacity, vulnerability of
       ecosystems, and impacts on species. These should incorporate EIAs for all hotels and
       condominium developments adjacent to the beach or on clifftops, and all golf courses and
       hotel construction inland. [H]

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Housing and Lands



              Objective 8: To improve public awareness and education
Strategy: Develop public awareness through educational and training activities to ensure
broad based support and involvement in biodiversity conservation.

Actions
1.     Incorporate the Ministry responsible for education into the planning and execution of the
       proposed educational activities.
2.     Disseminate information on biodiversity issues to primary and secondary schools through
       the development of age-appropriate educational materials (posters, books, videos), essay
       and poster competitions, inter alia. [H]
3.     Train teachers to teach courses on the topics of biodiversity conservation and sustainable
       use.
4.     Incorporate studies on the environment and biodiversity into the school curricula.
5.     Provide scholarships for tertiary level studies in fields related to biodiversity management
       e.g. taxonomy, ecology, and biotechnology. [H]
6.      Create a web page on biodiversity issues, concerns and action plans for Barbados. The
       site should also contain pictures and descriptions of fauna, flora and habitats. [H]
6.     Encourage tree-planting schemes along roads, in new housing developments and around
       playing fields.
7.     Conduct community workshops on biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.



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8.      Conduct workshops at hotels to increase the awareness of hoteliers and visitors of the
        special challenges of tourism on small island environments, and of the part that they can
        play in ensuring that the country‟s biodiversity is conserved.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs and
Sports, Government Information Service, Caribbean Conservation Association



Objective 9: To establish effective In situ and Ex situ biodiversity conservation
                                    measures
Strategy 1: Establish an effective and sustainable system of protected areas

Actions
1.     Establish Natural Heritage Conservation Areas and identify National Forest Candidate
       sites under the revised National Physical Development Plan as measures to prevent
       habitat fragmentation, and to protect critical habitats of rare and endangered species in
       terrestrial, coastal, marine and freshwater environments. [H]
2.     Establish a Park Service within the National Conservation Commission with wardens to
       manage the National Heritage Conservation Areas, National Forest Candidate sites and to
       enforce park regulations. This activity will involve institutional strengthening of the
       National Conservation Commission and a shift in emphasis from landscape beautification
       to habitat protection. [H]
3.     Provide for adequate buffer zones and plan for environmentally sound developments in
       areas bordering the protected areas.
3.     Identify degraded ecosystems for rehabilitation and restoration.
4.     Develop and implement ecosystem rehabilitation activities and recovery plans such as the
       removal of alien species and replacement with indigenous species.
5.     Encourage adjacent communities to assist in habitat protection and enforcement of
       regulations.


Strategy 2: Establish effective and sustainable ex situ facilities for biodiversity conservation

Actions:
1.     Identify species of fauna and flora requiring ex situ conservation measures. [H]
2.     Establish or support captive breeding facilities/plant nurseries/arboreta or support
       existing facilities (Governmental or non-governmental) for appropriate threatened
       species.




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3.      Manage and control the collection of biological resources from natural habitats for ex situ
        conservation.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, The University of the West Indies, Ministry
of Housing and Lands



     Objective 10: To ensure equitable biodiversity access and benefit sharing
Strategy: Promote necessary actions to facilitate equitable biodiversity access and benefit
sharing

Actions
1.     Designate authority(ies) responsible for biodiversity and traditional knowledge access.
       [H]
2.     Identify entities that are involved in granting access to biodiversity and traditional
       knowledge and create a database to store this information.
3.     Debate considerations for biodiversity access, such as expectations of all parties, impacts
       on stakeholders, resources required, legal framework required, negotiating training,
       certificates of origin, protocols for field collection and laboratory work, patents, method
       of prior inform consent from local/indigenous communities involved, economic benefits
       (up-front payments, milestone payments, royalties), and duration and termination of
       access. [H]
4.     Debate considerations for traditional knowledge access, such as definitions of traditional
       knowledge, regional harmonization, on going international efforts, list of informal
       innovations to be protected, negotiating training, and certificates of origin.
5.     Create an inventory of local/traditional innovations and technologies.
6.     Creation of conditions to facilitate access to genetic resources for environmentally sound
       uses only.
7.     Review by the Government of Barbados whether it is a sufficient beneficiary in bilateral
       agreements made between local Non-Governmental institutions, companies inter alia, and
       overseas companies that involve the sale of biodiversity.
8.     Creation of conditions and policies to facilitate equitable benefit sharing for access. [H]
9.     Establish equitable and environmentally friendly, bilateral agreements between local
       institutions and international pharmaceutical companies.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development, The University of the West Indies, Barbados Primate Research Center and
Wildlife Reserve




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      Objective 11: To establish biosafety regulations in order to safeguard
                                   biodiversity
Strategy: Encourage activities which will safeguard the environment from risks caused by
genetically modified organisms and other forms of biotechnology.
Actions:
1.         Designate authority(ies) responsible for biosafety control, including the establishment of
           an early warning system. [H]
2.         Develop regulations to reduce the release of, and to control the use of, genetically
           modified organisms in the environment.
3.         Introduce basic standards for testing, labeling, importing, exporting and commercial use
           of genetically modified organisms. [H]
4.         Elaborate detailed procedures and measures for risk assessment concerning the release of
           genetically modified organisms. [H]
5.         Develop appropriate administrative regulations to promote access to the results of
           biotechnologies.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Barbados National Standards Institution,
The University of the West Indies



Objective 12: To promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
in various sectors (agriculture, health, fisheries, and tourism)
Strategy 1 (Agriculture): Encourage agricultural biodiversity conservation and sustainable use
by revising approaches towards agricultural management.

Actions:
1.     Develop an official mechanism for collaboration with the Ministry of Agriculture and
       Rural Development with respect to the conservation and sustainable use of agro-
       biodiversity.
2.     Promote knowledge in the farming sector of the economic value of biologically diverse
       farms arising from improved yields, prevention of soil erosion, biological pest control,
       use of organic fertilizers collected from rearing livestock, and reduction in use of agro-
       chemicals. [H]
3.     Collect and disseminate indigenous knowledge and innovations about environmentally
       sound and biologically diverse farming practices.
4.     Develop local organic farming standards and train persons to certify organic farms.
5.     Establish an organic Farm Management Programme, which promotes and supports
       biologically diverse organic businesses.
6.     Establish a pilot project, which converts an abandoned cane field into an organic food
       forest. This initiative would include the rearing of livestock for food and organic
       fertilizer.
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7.      Establish a National Integrated Pest Management Programme.
8.      Establish an effective National Plant and Animal Quarantine Programme.
9.      Educate farmers about the impacts of agro-chemicals on the environment, including
        effects on human health, and the benefits resulting from the use of organic fertilizers from
        livestock. [H]
10.     Promote the cultivation of crops that require less water and less agrochemicals to produce
        good yields.
11.     Encourage a market system, which will ensure sales for persons involved in diverse
        organic farming.
12.     Promote diverse organic house gardens, including tree crops.
13.     Develop a national planting material programme to include awareness, certification and
        standards for seed exchange.
14.     Regulate and restrict use of herbicides and pesticides, which result in biodiversity loss.
        This can be done in conjunction with a fully staffed and equipped Pesticide Control
        Board. [H]
15.     Establish a national programme to preserve germplasm from the Barbados black belly
        sheep (either by storing the frozen semen or storing the fertilized eggs).

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development, Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Inter American
Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture, Government Information Service


Strategy 2 (Health): Incorporate biodiversity conservation issues into disease control and
waste management practices

Actions:
1.     Review existing management strategies for mosquito and rodent control in relation to
       harmful impacts on non-target species and sensitive ecosystems e.g. Graeme Hall swamp.
2.     Ensure that pesticides in use and timing of application conform to international standards
       in order to minimize negative environmental impacts on biodiversity.
3.     Promote natural biological control of disease vectors where appropriate. [H]
3.     Endorse and support the revision and enforcement of existing legislation by the Solid and
       Sewerage Waste Project Unit to impose significant monetary penalties for illegal
       dumping and littering.
4.     Design and implement a national programme to increase awareness of the value of natural
       habitats for wildlife to deter wide scale de-bushing, and to inform the public of the
       impacts of illegal dumping on terrestrial wildlife and on the marine environment, e.g.
       deterioration of water quality and impacts on sensitive nearshore ecosystems,
       entanglement of fish, sea turtles, and sea birds in plastic garbage inter alia. [H]
5.     Ensure that appropriate techniques and equipment are used to clean up illegal dump-sites
       to ensure minimum disturbance to natural habitats.
6.     Actively support recycling schemes through subsidies and incentives to reduce costs
       associated with landfill maintenance. [H]


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7.      Ensure that solid waste and hazardous waste disposal sites are adequately distanced and
        buffered from sensitive ecosystems and critical habitats of endangered species.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Health


Strategy 3 (Fisheries): Encourage fisheries conservation and sustainable use by revising
approaches towards fisheries management

Actions:
1.     Ensure that important breeding grounds are protected within Natural Heritage
       Conservation Areas.
2.     Provide mechanisms to facilitate consultations between the Fisheries Division, the
       Coastal Zone Management Unit, the proposed Marine Management Agency, fisherfolk
       and other marine and freshwater resource users, including neighboring community
       members.
3.     Ensure that the regulatory systems in place maintain populations of exploited species at
       levels that ensure ecosystem integrity and function. [H]
4.     Regulate fishing apparatus and methods to reduce adverse effects on marine biodiversity,
       for example, damage to corals and incidental catch of non-target species.
5.     Reduce at-sea dumping of garbage and discarded fishing gear.
6.     Maintain comprehensive catch per effort statistics to provide quantitative estimates of
       population sizes of targeted species, and thus provide more accurate information on the
       impacts of exploitation on marine species. [H]
7.     Sensitize fisherfolk to the importance of sustainable fishing practices and the need for
       marine protected areas or reserves to protect critical habitats. [H]
8.     Train fisherfolk to allow for self-enforcement of regulatory measures.
9.     Research and encourage alternative income generation for fisherfolk, and ensure that
       there is a definite market for their catch at all times.
10.    Improve monitoring and enforcement capabilities at sea by strengthening the Coast
       Guard, including the purchase of a helicopter.
11.    Develop and implement a consistent monitoring and surveillance program, to scrutinize
       and document information on the influence that climate change has on the life-cycles of
       the local fish stocks.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural
Development, Barbados National Union of Fisherfolk Organization




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Strategy 4 (Tourism): Encourage measures to reduce threats to biodiversity resulting from
improperly planned and managed tourism development

Actions:
1.     Conduct research to determine the extent to which tourism facilities and their associated
       activities directly and/or indirectly contribute to the loss of biodiversity. [H]
2      Conduct workshops to sensitize the hotel sector to the negative impacts of tourism on the
       environment, e.g. the negative impacts of beachfront lighting on sea turtle nesting
       beaches, groyne and gabion basket placement on beaches, coral rubble clearance.
3.     Encourage the application of sound environmental management techniques at existing
       tourism facilities e.g. encourage the pursuit of Green Globe accreditation by hotels. [H]
4.     Encourage programmes aimed at educating tourism personnel of the importance of the
       relationship between tourism and biodiversity conservation.
5.     Promote regulatory measures (seasonal restrictions, entrance fees) to keep the number of
       visitors in balance with the carrying capacity of sensitive habitats.
6.     Restrict further development of large tourism centers, particularly in or adjacent to,
       protected areas and conduct cost-benefit analyses to determine whether further
       development should proceed.
7.     Prevent high impact tourism development in currently undeveloped areas of significant
       biodiversity importance e.g. Morgan Lewis, Walkers, East Coast Road, St. Lucy coast.
       [H]
8.     Promote only small-scale, fully trained guided tourism in important biodiversity areas.
9.     Consider the need for an additional head tax for all arrivals (including cruise ship
       passengers) specifically to assist in mitigating environment impacts.

Implementing Institutions and Agencies
Ministry of Physical Development and Environment, Ministry of Tourism and International
Transport, Barbados Hotel and Tourism Association, Barbados Tourism Association, Tourism
Development Cooperation




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7.  THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE BARBADOS NATIONAL BIODIVERSITY
STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN

The implementation of the Barbados National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan is ultimately
dependent on the interest and will of all Barbadians. At the national level, the political
directorate will need to confirm that it has indeed recognised and fully accepted the importance
of biodiversity as an integral part of a sustainable development plan for Barbados. Decision
makers will therefore be required to lend their full support to the development of a policy, which
articulates this principle while ensuring that necessary legislative and regulatory mechanisms are
developed to support the enforcement of this policy.

At the technical level, there needs to be an increase in the cadre of professionals who can provide
accurate information and advice to the decision making process. At the macro level this
information will allow policies and major development decisions to be made with concern for
biodiversity issues. At the micro level, where the day-to-day lifestyle decisions of the average
citizens can negatively impact on biodiversity, it is critical that this information be simplified and
made available through accessible channels.

At the local and community levels, the NGOs, CBOs and private agencies, including developers,
banks etc., must become committed to increasing their knowledge of how their work impacts on
the environment. They must begin to operate in ways, which will enhance the environment and
lead their colleagues by example.

Finally, at the individual level, every citizen must be committed to a healthy and safe Barbados,
and to becoming stewards of the environment. Public awareness programmes must be developed
and implemented to ensure that Barbadians recognise that the “bush” at the side of the road has
as much value as the ornamentals which they plant in their gardens; and that insects and reptiles
have not been created solely for the purpose of extermination. Such education will assist in
overcoming morbid fears of certain animals and instil the respect and awe required for a truly
sustainable conservation effort.




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8.      REFERENCES

Sections 1 to 3

OECD, 1996. Saving Biological Diversity: Economic Incentives. OECD Publications Service.

Simmons & Associates Inc, 1998. Country Study Technical Reports - Assessment of Land Resources, Biodiversity
of Terrestrial Flora and Agricultural Biodiversity; Assessment of the Biodiversity of the Terrestrial Fauna of
Barbados; Assessment of Marine and Freshwater Diversity; Assessment of Socio-Cultural Conditions; A
Biodiversity Data Management System for Barbados.

United Nations Environment Programme. 1993. Guidelines for the Preparation of Country Studies on Biological
Diversity.

World Resources Institute in Cooperation with the United Nations Environment Programme and the World
Conservation Union (IUCN). 1995. National Biodiversity Planning: Guidelines Based on Early Experiences Around
the World. WRI Publications, Baltimore.

World Resources Institute (WRI), World Conservation Union (IUCN), United Nations Environment Programme
(UNEP) in consultation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) and the United
Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO), 1992. Global Biodiversity Strategy.


Section 4

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. Environmental
Impact Assessment Guidelines & Procedures for Barbados, Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of
Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998.Institutional
Strengthening of the Planning System, Volume 2 Planning legislation, Ministry of Health and the Environment,
Government of Barbados

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. Institutional
Strengthening of the Environmental Unit and other Institutions, Ministry of Health and the Environment,
Government of Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. The Natural
Database, Biophysical, Cultural and other Planning Related Information, Ministry of Health and the Environment,
Government of Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998.General
Specifications: Future Data Collection, Data Custody & Implementation Strategy, Ministry of Health and the
Environment, Government of Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. Environmental
Impact Assessment Guidelines & Procedures for Barbados, Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of
Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. Environmental
and Natural Resources Management Plan, Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of Barbados.


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Section 5

Natural Vegetation Biodiversity

Agronomy Research and Variety Testing Unit. 1994. Weed control manual for sugarcane fields. Barbados
Agricultural Management Company.

Allan, J.A. 1957. The grasses of Barbados. HMSO, London.

Andromeda Botanic Gardens. 1997. Beachcomber‟s guide to Barbados seashore grasses. Barbados National Trust/
University of the West Indies.

Box, H.E., and Philipson, W.R. 1951. An undescribed species of Mastichodendron (Sapotaceae) from Barbados and
Antigua. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Botanical Series 1, 21-23.

Carrington, S. 1993. Wild plants of Barbados. Macmillan Caribbean.

Carrington, C.M.S. 1991a. Tropical Forestry Action Plan Barbados: Report on biological diversity, herbaria and
conservation of tropical forest ecosystems. CARICOM/FAO/Ministry of Agriculture Food and Fisheries.

Carrington, C.M.S. 1991b. New collections for the Flora of Barbados II. Journal of the Barbados Museum and
Historical Society 39, 60-71.

Coulter, D. 1968. Ferns of Barbados. Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 32, 150-154.

Dickie, G. 1875. On the marine algae of Barbados. Journal of the Linnean Society (Botany) 14: 146-152.

Gooding, E.G.B. 1991. New collections for the Flora of Barbados I. Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical
Society 39, 52-56.

Gooding, E.G.B. 1974. The plant communities of Barbados. Ministry of Education, Barbados.

Gooding, E.G.B. 1970. Historic relics in the flora of Barbados. Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical
Society 23, 101-110.

Gooding, E.G.B. 1947. Observations on the sand dunes of Barbados, British West Indies. Journal of Ecology 34,
111-125.

Gooding, E.G.B. 1944. Turner‟s Hall Wood, Barbados. Caribbean Forester 5, 153-170.

Gooding, E.G.B. 1939-1942. Facts and beliefs about Barbadian plants. Journal of the Barbados Museum and
Historical Society 7, 170-174; 8, 32-35, 103-106, 194-197; 9, 17-19, 84-88, 126-129, 192-194; 10, 3-6.

Gooding, E.G.B., Loveless, AR., and Proctor, GR. 1965. Flora of Barbados. HMSO, London.

Howard, R.A. 1979. Early botanical records from the West Indies, particularly Barbados: Ligon (1657) to Lord
Seaforth (1806). Botanical journal of the Linnean Society 79, 65-96.

Howe, M.A. 1928. Notes on some marine algae from Brazil and Barbados. J. Washington Academy of Sciences
18: 186-194.

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Huges, G. 1750. The natural history of Barbados. London 1972 reprint, Arno Press, New York.

Hutt, M.B. 1981. The Barbados national park. Report of an investigation into the physical and ecological aspects of
the proposed national park. Barbados National Trust.

Light, M.H.S. 1976. Non-flowering plants of Barbados. Ministry of Education, Barbados.

Maycock, J.D. 1830. Flora Barbadensis. James Ridgeway, London.

Pearce, E.J. 1963. A note on the mosses of Barbados. Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society 30,
59-60.

Ramnarine, S. 1991. Tropical Forestry Action Plan Barbados: Report on silviculture. CARICOM /FAO/Ministry of
Agriculture Food and Fisheries.

Randall, R.E. 1970. Vegetation and environment on the Barbados coast. Journal of Ecology 58, 155.

Rogers, G. and Holder, A. 1998. Barbados grasses and sedges of conservation interest. Typescript.

Vickers, A. 1905. Liste des algues marines de la Barbade. Annales des Sciences Naturelles (ser. 9) 1: 45-66, 215-
222.

Vickers, A. 1908. Phycologia barbadensis; Iconographie des algues marines recoltees a l‟Ile Barbade (Antilles),
Librairie Des Sciences Naturelles Paul Klincksieck, Paris.

Watts, D. 1966. Man‟s influence on the vegetation of Barbados: 1627 to 1800. University of Hull Publications,
Hull.

Welch, W.H. and Crum, H.A. 1969. Recent cryptogamic collections in Barbados. Journal of the Barbados Museum
and Historical Society 33, 85-87.


Agricultural Biodiversity

CARDI. 1996. Annual Technical Report 1994/95, Barbados Unit, Cave Hill. CARDI.

Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries. 1992. Barbados 1989 agricultural census. Government of Barbados.

Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs. 1996. Medium term macro-economic strategy 1996- 1999. Government
of Barbados.

Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. 1996. Agriview 1995. Government of Barbados.

Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs. 1997. Economic report 1996. Government of Barbados.




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Rao, P. Seshagiri and Gardiner, John. 1997? Varietal change and diversity in the sugar association of the Caribbean
member countries. Typescript.

Skeete, Stevenson. 1995. The phenological behaviour of fruit crops in Barbados. Typescript.

Watts, David. 1966. Man‟s influence on the vegetation of Barbados. University of Hull.

Wickham, Orville. 1995. Barbados report on plant genetic resources. Typescript.


Terrestrial Fauna Biodiversity

Adamson, A.M. 1948. Notes on the termite fauna of the Lesser Antilles. Tropical Agriculture 25: 53-55.

Allen, G.M. 1911. Mammals of the West Indies. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool.Harvard Coll.
54:175-263.

Ballou, H.A. 1937. Notes on the insects mentioned in Schomburgk‟s history. J. Bar. Mus. Hist. Soc.

Barbour, T. 1930. Some faunistic changes in the Lesser Antilles. Proc. New Eng. Zool. Club 11: 73-85.

Baulu, J. 1992. The Barbados Primate Research Centre and Wildlife Reserve. Paper presented at Eco „92, Earth
Summit, United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, Rio, Brazil.

Bennett, F.D. and Alam, M.M. 1985. An annotated checklist of the insects and allied terrestrial arthropods of
Barbados. Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Barbados

Boulton, A. M., Horrocks, J.A. and Baulu, J. 1996. The Barbados vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus):
changes in population size and crop damage, 1980-1994. Int. J. Primatol. 17: 831-844.

Burgess, B. 1993. The status of Oreochromis sp. (Tilapia) in the surface waters of Barbados. Undergraduate
Research Project Report, Dept. Biology, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill.

Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute. 1981. Monkey Crop Damage Control in Barbados .
Report to the Caribbean Development Bank, Bridgetown, Barbados.

Censky, E.J. 1988. Geochelone carbonaria (Reptilia:Testudines) in the West Indies. Biological Sciences 2: 108-114.

Chace, F.A. and Hobbs, H.H. 1969. The freshwater and terrestrial decapod crustaceans of the West Indies, with
special reference to Dominica. Bull. Smithsonian Inst. No. 292. US National Museum, Washington, DC.

Christens, E. And Blokpoel, H. 1991. Operational spraying of white mineral oil to prevent hatching of gull eggs.
Wild. Soc. Bull. 19: 423-430.
Corke, D. 1992. The status and conservation needs of the terrestrial herpetofauna of the Windward Islands (West
Indies). Biological Conservation 62: 47-58.




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Corn, J.L. 1992. The role of wildlife in the population dynamics of the tropical Bont tick in Guadeloupe, French
West Indies. Final Report to Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, Washington,
D.C. 20p.

Emsley, M.G. 1963. The rediscovery of Cope‟s Liophis perfuscus in Barbados. Copeia 3:577-579.

Feilden, H.W. 1889. Notes on the reptiles of Barbados. The Zoologist 13: 295-298.

Feilden, H.W. 1890. Notes on the terrestrial mammals of Barbados. Zoologist 14: 52-55.

Gibbs, I.H. 1993. Investigations of cabbage production in Barbados and insecticide resistance in diamondback moth
[Plutella xylostella (L.)(Lepidoptera:Plutellidae)] and a larval parasitoid [Cotesia plutellae (Kurdj.) (Hymenoptera:
Braconidae). M.Phil. Thesis. University of the West Indies, Cave Hill, Barbados. 215p.

Gowdy, John M 1997. The Value of Biodiversity: Markets, Society and Ecosystems Land Economics. 73(1):25-
41.
Govindarajulu, P, Hunte, W., Vermeer, L. and Horrocks, J. 1993. The ontogeny of social play in a feral troop of
vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus): the function of early play. International Journal of Primatology
14:701-719.

Horrocks, J.A. 1985. Aspects of the behavioural ecology of Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus in Barbados, West
Indies. Ph.D. thesis. Department of Biology, University of the West Indies. 283pp.

Horrocks, J.A. 1986. Life history characteristics of a feral population of vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) in
Barbados. International Journal of Primatology 7: 31-47.

Horrocks, J.A. 1992. WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Barbados. (K.L. Eckert, Editor). CEP
Technical Report 12. UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston, Jamaica. 61 pp.

Horrocks, J.A. 1993. An investigation of the role of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) in the intra-island transmission of
tropical Bont ticks (Amblyomma variegatum) and in the consumption of agriculturally beneficial/detrimental fauna.
Unpubl. Report to Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Fisheries.

Horrocks, J. 1997a. Terrestrial ecology - Fauna. Barbados Coastal Conservation Programme- Phase 1. Sir William
Halcrow and Partners Ltd, London/Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of Barbados. 45pp.

Horrocks, J. 1997b. The wildlife of Barbados: Distribution, abundance and conservation status of selected faunal
components. Environmental Management and Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development Project. Bird and
Hale Ltd., Toronto/Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of Barbados. 51pp.

Horrocks, J.A. and Baulu, J. 1988. Effects of trapping on the vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus) population in
Barbados. American Journal of Primatology 15:223-234.

Horrocks, J. A. and Baulu, J. 1994. Food competition between vervets Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus and farmers
in Barbados: implications for management. Revue D'Ecologie 49: 281-294.




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Horrocks, J.A. and Hunte, W. 1983a. Maternal rank and offspring rank in vervets: an appraisal of the mechanisms of
rank acquisition. Animal Behaviour 31:772-782.

Horrocks, J.A. and Hunte, W. 1983b. Rank reversal in vervet sisters: a critique of the role of reproductive value.
American Naturalist 122:417-421.

Horrocks, J. A. and Hunte, W. 1986. Sentinel behaviour in vervet monkeys: who sees whom first? Animal
Behaviour 34:1566-1568.

Horrocks, J.A. and Hunte, W. 1992. Interactions between juvenile and adult male vervets: implications for adult
male turnover. In: Juvenile Primates (Ed. by M. Pereira and L. Fairbanks), Oxford University Press, pp.228-239.

Horrocks, J.A. and Scott, N.M. 1991. Nest site location and nest success in the hawksbill turtle Eretmochelys
imbricata in Barbados, West Indies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 69:1-8.

Hunte, W. and Horrocks, J.A. 1987. Kin and non-kin interventions in the aggressive disputes of vervet monkeys.
Behavioural Ecology & Sociobiology 20: 257-263.

Hughes, G. 1750. The natural history of Barbados. London.

Hutt, M.B. 1978. Save the hare-rabbit from extinction. Barbados Advocate (issue unknown).
IUCN 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland.

James, C. 1991. Report on wildlife and national parks. Tropical Forestry Action Plan for Barbados.
CARICOM/ODA/FAO, Bridgetown, Barbados. 42p.

Jones, J.E. 1985. Aspects of the population interaction of Plutella xylostella (L.) Lepidoptera: Plutellidae and
Apanteles plutellae (Kurdj.) Hymenoptera:Braconidae. Ph.D. thesis, University of the West Indies, Cave Hill. 268p.

Jones, J.K. Jr. and C.J. Phillips. 1970. Comments on systematics and zoogeography of bats in the Lesser Antilles.
Stud. Fauna Curacao & Carib. Islands XXXII: 131-145.

Krebs, E.A., Riven-Ramsey, D. and Hunte, W. 1994. The colonisation of Barbados by cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis)
1956-1990. Colonial Waterbirds 17: 86-90.

Lazell, J.D. 1972. Raccoon relatives. Man and Nature 11-15.

Ligon, R. 1657. A true and exact history of the island of Barbados. London.

Marsh, R.E. 1981. Comments on the current status of the European hare in Barbados.         Lagomorph Newsletter 2:
5-6.

Marsh, R.E. 1983. Unquestionable evidence that the whistling frog of Barbados is indigenous. J. Bar. Mus. Hist.
Soc. XXXVII: 68-71.

Nellis, D.W. and C.O.R. Everard. 1983. The biology of the mongoose in the Caribbean. Stud. Fauna Curacao &
Carib. Islands LXIV: 1-162 .


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Ovaska, K. 1991. Reproductive phenology, population structure, and habitat use of the frog Eleutherodactylus
johnstonei in Barbados, West Indies. J. Herpetology 25: 424-430.

Ovaska, K. and Hunte, W. 1992. Male mating behaviour in the tree frog, Eleutherodactylus johnstonei, in Barbados,
West Indies. Herpetologica 48: 40-49.

Pearce, E.J. Rev. 1969. An attempted reappraisal of the butterflies of Barbados, with reference to certain weather
phenomena. J. Bar. Mus. Hist. Soc.33: 76-84.

Peck, S.B. 1981. Community composition and zoogeography of the invertebrate cave fauna of Barbados. Fla.
Entomologist 64: 519-527.

Poponi, A., Vermeer, L. Horrocks, J.A. and McConney. 1998.The Barbados Sea Turtle Project. In Proc. Eighteenth
Ann. Symp. on Sea Turtle Biology and Conservation.

Ray, C.E. 1964. A small assemblage of fossils from Spring Bay, Barbados. J. Bar. Mus. Hist. Soc. 31: 11-22.

Richardson, K.S. 1988. Space use by vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) and its consequences for the genetic
structure of the Barbados population. M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University, Canada.

Schwartz, A. 1967. Frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in the Lesser Antilles. Stud. Fauna Curacao & Carib.
Islands XXIV: 1-62.

Schomburgk, R.H. 1848. The history of Barbados. London.

Snyder, T.E. 1956. Termites of the West Indies, the Bahamas, and Bermuda. J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 14:189-202.

Tucker, R.W.E. 1952. The insects of Barbados. J. Agr. Univ. Puerto Rico 30: 330-363.

Underwood, G., Horrocks, J.A. and Daltry, J. 1999. A new snake from Barbados. J.BMHS. XLV: 67-75.

Vermeer, L.A. 1993. The stability of matrilineal dominance hierarchies in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops
sabaeus). M.Sc. Thesis, McGill University, Canada. 123p.

Vermeer, L.A. 1994. Seasonal, lunal and tidal variation in reproduction of the endangered hawksbill turtle
(Eretmochelys imbricata) in Barbados. M.Sc. Thesis. University of the West Indies, Barbados.

Watson, K. 1993. The resident birds of Barbados: a historian‟s perspective. J. Bar. Mus. & Hist. Soc. XLI 165-174.

Watson, K. 1996. The birds of Barbados. Unpublished presentation to Barbados Museum Summer Programme,
August 28, 1996

Watts, D. 1987. The West Indies. Patterns of development, culture and environmental change since 1492. Cambridge
University Press, UK. 609 pp.

Wood, C.A. 1923. The glossy cowbird (Molothrus atronitens) in Barbados. The Auk XL: 128-129.


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Marine and Freshwater Diversity

Acker,K.L. 1987. The carbonate-siliclastic facies transition in the modem sediments off the northeast coast of
Barbados, W.I. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

 Allard P. 1993. Changes in the Coral Community Structure in Barbados: effects of eutrophication and reduced
grazing pressure. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Bellairs Research Institute 1984. Marine studies component of the south and west coast sewage project. Technical
Report 13, Barbados, West Indies

Bellairs Research Institute 1988. Monitoring the environmental impact of the Bridgetown sewage plant outfall:
1983-1987. A Technical Report for the Coastal Conservation Project Unit, Ministry of Employment Labour
Relations and Community Development, Barbados, West Indies

Bellairs Research Institute 1989. Community descriptors 1987 for nearshore and offshore reefs on the south and
west coasts of Barbados. A Technical Report for the Coastal Conservation Project Unit, Ministry of Employment
Labour Relations and Community Development, Barbados, West Indies

Cattaneo, A. Kramer, D. Kramer, V. and Peters, R. 1988. A Limnological and Ichthyological Reconnaissance of
Graeme Hall Swamp. A report for the Ministry of Employment, Labour Relations and Community, Development
Government of Barbados.

Caribbean Conservation Association.(CCA) 1995. Graeme Hall Swamp Management Study Part 1. Synthesis of
Resources and Potentials (mimeo).

Cotter, P.J. 1984. A comparative study of three reef fish populations and their relationship to fringing reef structures
on the west coast of Barbados, West Indies. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Delcan International Corp. Ltd. 1994a. Terrestrial Water Quality Report. Report for the Government of Barbados
and American Development Bank..

Delcan International Corp. Ltd. 1994b. Nearshore Benthic Communities of the West and Southwest Coasts of
Barbados: Importance, Impacts, Present Status and Management Status. Report for the Government of Barbados and
American Development Bank.

Duarte, C. M. 1992. Submerged Aquatic vegetation in Relation to Different Nutrient Regimes. Ophelia 41:87 - 112.

Fisheries Division 1997. Barbados Fisheries Management Plan: schemes for the management and development of
fisheries in the waters of Barbados. A report for the Government of Barbados, Ministry of Finance and Economic
Affairs, Barbados, West Indies.

Felix, C. 1991 Freshwater shrimps of Barbados: some aspects of their biology, ecology and culture. PhD. thesis
University of the West Indies, Barbados, West Indies.




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Famum, P.A.L. 1979. A preliminary study of the present conditions of the beaches, the coral reef structures, and the
inshore fisheries and the general marine life around the south and east coasts of Barbados and of the effects of oil
and other pollutants on the same. Unpubi. MS. Barbados, West Indies.

Fortes, M.D. 1988. Seagrass-Mangrove Ecosystems Management: a key to marine coastal conservation in the Asean
region. Marine Pollution Bulletin 23:93-103.

Frydl, P. 1977. The geological effects of grazing by parrotfish (Scaddae) on a Barbados coral reef. M.Sc. thesis,
McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Halcrow, W. and Partners. 1998. Barbados Coastal Conservation Programme - Phase 1: Marine Ecology - Draft
Report.

Hunte, W. Allard, P. 1997. Temporal Changes in the Coral Reef Communities on the West and South Coasts of
Barbados; 1982-1992. A Technical Report prepared on behalf of the Bellairs Research Institute for the Coastal
Conservation Project Unit of the Government of Barbados.

James, N.P., Steam, C.W. and Harrison, R.S. 1977. Field guide book to modem and Pleistocene reef carbonates,
Barbados, W.I. Proc. 3d Int. Coral Reef Symposium., Miami, Florida.

James, N.P. and Whittaker, S. 1990. Field guide book to modern and Pleistocene reef carbonates, Barbados, W.I.
(updated and modified version). The Atlantic Reef Committee, University of Miami, Florida.

Johannes, R.E 1975. Pollution and degradation of Coral Reef Communities. In: Ferguson Wood, E.J and Johannes,
R.E (eds) Tropical Marine Pollution. Elsevier, Amsterdam pp. 13-51.

Lewis, J.B. 1960. The fauna of rocky shores of Barbados, West Indies. Canadian Journal of Zoology,. Vol. 38, 391-
435.

Lewis, J.B. 1965. A preliminary description of some marine benthic communities from Barbados, West Indies.
Canadian Journal of Zoology,. Vol. 43, 1049-1074.

Lewis, J. Oxenford, H. 1996. Field Guide to the Coral Reef of Barbados. Biology Department of McGill University,
Montreal, Canada.

Liddell, W.D. 1979. Shallow-water comatulid cdnoids (Echinoderrnata) from Barbados, West Indies. Canadian
Journal of Zoology, Vol. 57, 2413-2420.

Luckhurst, B. 1978. Reef fish populations on small coral heads with special reference to the territoriality of
Eupomacentrus fuscus. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

MacGeachy, J.K. 1975. Boring by macro-organisms in the coral Montastrea annulalis on Barbados reefs. M.Sc.
thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

MacGeachy, J.K. 1978. Geological significance of boring sponges on Barbados reefs. Ph.D. thesis, McGill
University, Montreal, Canada.



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Maclntyre, I.G. 1967a. Recent sediments off the west coast of Barbados, W.I. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University,
Montreal, Canada.

MacIntyre, I.G. 1967b. Submerged coral reefs, west coast of Barbados, West Indies. Canadian Journal of. Earth
Science, Vol. 4, 461-474.

Mahon, R. and Mahon S. 1994. Structure and Resilience of a Tidepool Fish Assemblage at Barbados,
Environmental Biology of Fishes.
Mahon, R. and Mahon S. 1997. Overnight Die-Off of Fish in Graeme Hall Swamp. Unpublished.

Martindale, W. 1976. Calcareous encrusting organisms of the recent and Pleistocene reefs of Barbados, West Indies.
Ph.D. thesis, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland.

Miller, J. I975. The fish fauna of an inshore reef flat at Barbados, with special reference to the grazing activity of
Acanthuhdae and Pomacentdae. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Parker C. and Oxenford H. 1994. Characterisation of the Barbados CARICOMP site. Unpublished

Patriquin, D.G. 1971. The origin of nitrogen and phosphorous for growth of the marine angiosperm Thalassia
testudinum Konig. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Proctor & Redfem Int. Ltd., David Lashley & Partners, Hunter & Assoc. 1984a. Nearshore ecological zonation and
reef degradation. Coastal Conservation Project Unit, Diagnostic Survey ,Technical Report Vol. 4 (12), Government
of Barbados, Ministry of Housing and Lands and Inter-American Development Bank.

Pulich, W. M. and White, W.A. 1991. Decline of Submerged Vegetation in the Galveston bay System: Chronology
and Relationships to Physical Processes. Journal of Coastal Resources, Vol. 7: 1125-1138.

Ott, B.S. 1975a. Quantitative analysis of community pattern and structure on a coral reef bank in Barbados, West
Indies. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. .

Reed. J. 1989. Cruise Report: Eastern Caribbean Expedition R/V Seward Johnson and Johnson-Sea-Link II
Submersible. Harbor Branch, Oceanographic Institute Inc.

Riven-Ramsey D. 1988. Foraging and breeding behaviour of the cattle Egret (Bulbulcus ibis) in Barbados. M Phil.
Thesis, University of the West Indies, Barbados.

Riven Ramsey D. 1993. Terms of Reference and supporting material for the feasibility study of the Development of
Graeme Hall Swamp as a nature reserve. A Report to Government of Barbados and Inter-American Development
Bank.

Rakitin, A. 1994. The Effect of a Marine Reserve of the Abundance and Size of Coral Reef Fishes in Barbados,
West Indies

Seakem Oceanography Ltd. 1989. Marine studies. Barbados south and west coast sewerage project. A Technical
Report for Reid Crowther Inc., Barbados, West Indies



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Snelgrove, P.V.R. 1986. Pollution detection models and habitat preference of the cryptofauna associated with the
coral Madracis mirabilis. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Steam, C.W., Scoffin, T.P. and Marfindale, W. (1 977). Calcium carbonate budget of a fringing reef on the west
coast of Barbados. Part 1: Zonation and productivity. Bulletin of Marine Science, 27, 479-510.

Tomascik, T. (1986). The effects of eutrophication on the growth rates, reproductive potential and community
structure of the inshore reef-building corals in Barbados, West Indies. Ph.D. thesis, McGill University, Montreal,
Canada.

Taylor, J. L. and Saloman, C.H. (1968). Some Effects of Hydraulic Dredging and Coastal Development in Boca
Ciega Bay, Florida. Fisheries Bulletin 67:213-241.

Thorhaug, A. and Marcus, J. H. 1987a. Oil Spill Clean-up: The effects of three dispersants on three
tropical/subtropical seagrasses. Marine Pollution Bulletin 18:124-126.

Tomascik, T. and Sander, F. 1987. Effects of eutrophication on reef-building corals. Structure of scieractinian coral
communities on fringing reefs, Barbados, West Indies. Marine Biology 94, 53-75.

Turnbull, D. 1979. The water quality characteristics and distribution of benthic invertebrates in a polluted harbour,
Barbados, West Indies. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada.

Vermeer, L.A 1997. Present Status and Tropical Trends in Seagrass Communities Near Graeme Hall Swamp. A
report prepared for ARA Consulting Group Inc., Ottawa, Canada

Wilson 1983. A Report of the Trap Fishing Industry of Barbados, prepared for the Ministry of Agriculture , Food
and Consumer Affairs, Government of Barbados.

Land Resources

Felix, C.1991 Freshwater shrimps of Barbados: some aspects of their biology, ecology and culture. PHD. Thesis
University of the West Indies, Barbados.

Town and Country Planning Office (Barbados), 1988. Barbados Physical Development Plan.

Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development Project; National Physical Development Plan Draft, 1998.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. Environmental
Impact Assessment Guidelines & Procedures for Barbados, Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of
Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. Environmental
and Natural Resources Management Plan, Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of Barbados.

Environmental Management & Land Use Planning for Sustainable Development (EMLUP), 1998. The National
Park Development Plan (Draft), Ministry of Health and the Environment, Government of Barbados.



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Assessment of Socio-cultural Conditions

United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development 1997. Barbados Country Profile. Implementation of
Agenda 21: Review of Progress Made since the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.

Barbados Statistical Service 1990. Population and Housing Census.

Bayley, I., 1949. The Bush Teas of Barbados, Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical Society. Volume 16,
No. 3, pp. 103-112.

Commonwealth Yearbook, 1998. The Commonwealth Member Countries Part IV - Barbados. Hanson Cooke Ltd.

Drewitt, P. 1991. Settlement Pattern and Morphology, Prehistoric Barbados. Institute of Archeology, University
College of London. Barbados Museum and Historical Society.

Handler, J. and Jacoby, J. 1994. Slave Medicine and Plant Use, Journal of the Barbados Museum and Historical
Society, Vol. XLI 1993, pp. 74-98.

Dr. Elizabeth Ferdinand, Acting Chief Medical Officer, speech delivered November, 1997. Health Situation in
Barbados - Overview of Health Policies and Strategies.

Ministry of Education, Youth Affairs and Culture, 1997. Curriculum Modules on Citizenship Education for the 12
to 14 Age Group in Secondary School in Barbados - Module: The Environment.

Ministry of Finance and Economic Affairs. September 1997. Barbados Economic Report. 1996, Central Bank of
Barbados

Travers Morgan International, Islands Engineering Group and Environmental Planning Group. 1996
National Transport Plan Study

The World Bank, Environment Department. .September 1994. Environmental Assessment Sourcebook Update. Vol
8.




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APPENDIX 1

ECONOMIC VALUATION OF BIODIVERSITY IN BARBADOS

1.      Introduction

In the process of economic growth and development, trade-offs invariably will have to be made
between environmental preservation and development activities as well as among different types
of environmental goods and services. Economics attempts to facilitate such decision-making by
providing a common yardstick to compare different types of environmental costs and benefits.
This yardstick is the dollar value of costs and benefits.

The concept of “value” of resource and environmental goods and services is relatively new and is
based on the neoclassical concept of utility. Application of a utility based valuation system,
which is exclusively anthropocentric, to value a complex commodity like biodiversity, has
attracted criticism from some environmental groups. Their protests are often based on the
argument that the intrinsic value of life on earth and the right of species to exist on their own is
not captured in this valuation system. Also, more technical issues such as cognition, the
incongruity problem, indivisibilities and complementarities of ecosystem functions and pure time
preference are identified as potential problems (Gowdy, 1997).

Despite these caveats, economic values provide a powerful tool in guiding public policy
decisions as well as in allocation of public funds to various sectors of the economy. For a long
time, environmental causes have generally been under-emphasised because of the difficulty in
quantifying the qualitatively identifiable benefits and costs. When economic values are given to
environmental attributes, environmental concerns can be more easily weighed against traditional
sectors of the economy such as health, education, transportation, agriculture and industry. In
addition, it now becomes possible to include the value of natural capital in national accounts
systems. This is known as “greening of national accounts.” Several developed and developing
countries have valued important resources, such as forestry, fisheries, mines, for national
accounting purposes. Valuation of biodiversity is obviously the next step in this process, where
values are placed on the physical inventory of different categories of biodiversity.

In this section, valuations are presented for agricultural biodiversity, natural flora and fauna and
marine resources in Barbados. Valuations presented herein use only available data and
information.




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2.      Agriculture and Livestock Biodiversity

According to the United Nations Guidelines for Country Studies on Biological Diversity, an
indicator of the socio-economic benefits of agricultural biodiversity is the value of production.
The suggested method of valuation is the market price of output. For outputs to be valued at
market prices, the demand for the product should be perfectly elastic. That is, the market price
(supply) should be equal to the marginal revenue and the marginal cost of production (and also
average cost of production) for all levels of output. In general, this criterion is satisfied for
agricultural commodities because, even though as a group the demand for agricultural products
may be inelastic, the demand for an individual agricultural commodity is perfectly elastic due to
the substitutability. Further, in the context of Barbados, agricultural production comes from
many farmers (especially for vegetables, root crops and fruits) and sold to many consumers.
Therefore, each producer and consumer is a price taker and satisfy conditions of a perfectly
competitive market.

Commercial Crops

Most of the value of agricultural biodiversity in Barbados is from commercial crops. The two
major commercial crops in the island are sugar cane and cotton. Sugarcane is by far the more
important crop. However, the area under cotton increased by nearly 87% in 1995 over 1994.
Both, cotton seed and cotton lint yields also showed significant increases.

Due to agreements and a guaranteed pricing system, sugar prices still remain attractive.
However, inefficient production technology, unfavourable weather conditions and other factors
have resulted in the cost of production exceeding the export price during the last four years. In
1997, total export earnings were 73 million dollars from 57.8 thousand tonnes. In comparison,
the cost of production of this amount of sugar was nearly 81 million dollars.

Although in terms of production cotton has fared better than sugar, marketing of the crop has
been a problem. In 1996, the area under cotton decreased by nearly 77% due to the uncertainty in
market conditions. Without any clear prospects for marketing, it is highly unlikely that any
agricultural land will be reverted to cotton in the future. Therefore the value of cotton as a
component of agricultural biodiversity will probably remain insignificant.

Several vegetable crops have shown significant upward trends. Notable are beans, cabbage,
cucumber, okra, hot pepper, sweet pepper, sweet potato, pumpkin and tomato. The increase in
acreage of these crops can be attributed to the fact that these items have become important
components in Barbadian diet as well as being in high demand from hotels and restaurants. This
trend is likely to continue unless significant changes occur in the international markets of
commercial crops. Besides the main crops, varieties of other vegetables are grown in Barbados.
Some notable ones are lettuce, eggplant, butternut squash, christophene and cauliflower.

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Although, the total value of these vegetables is relatively insignificant, individual vegetables,
particularly cauliflower, are highly priced.

Although a variety of fruits are available in the island, bananas, figs and plantains are the major
fruits produced. Yet compared to vegetables and root crops, the land area under fruit cultivation
remains relatively minor. Production and price data are scant for fruits in general. Production of
bananas, plantains and figs was 1797, 800 and 72 tonnes, respectively in 1995. Estimated at retail
prices, value of these three items is about 6.48 million dollars.
No production data exists on local cut-flower and foliage production. Cut-flowers an foliage are
primarily sold to hotels and florists. From import data available, cut-flowers and foliage appear
to be highly priced items. In 1995, 29,490 kg of cut-flowers were imported which had a total
value of $440,792, which is nearly $15/kg. Foliage import was 25,454 kg. with the average value
of 3.60/kg.

Livestock

The major livestock products in Barbados are pork, beef, chicken, fresh milk, eggs and mutton.
Local livestock, especially cattle and goats have been cross-bred and no major pedigree can be
determined. Most of the commercial breeds are imported. Therefore, besides the value of
products, it is unlikely that livestock biodiversity in Barbados are valuable in a intellectual
property rights capacity. The total value of livestock products in their primary form amounts to
nearly 138 million dollars. Most livestock products are also used to produce secondary products
with significant value added. For example, chicken is used extensively in the fast food industry
while beef is used to make hamburgers, sausages and such products. Ham and bacon are two
popular secondary products of pork. Milk is also used for yoghurt and cheese production.
Therefore, the value presented here should be only considered as a lower bound.

Other Values of Agricultural Biodiversity

Besides commercial consumption value, agricultural biodiversity could generate other values,
such as germplasm; soil erosion prevention and landscape value. These values are relatively
difficult to quantify as these are not products traded in the market. Nevertheless, under certain
circumstances, the value generated due to these uses could be quite substantial.

Germplasm conservation allows for the production of disease resistant, high yielding varieties
through cross-breeding. The ultimate value of germplasm conservation is commercial value.
Whether a high yielding variety or a disease resistant variety, the ultimate benefits would be
higher value from the same area of land. The most organized germplasm conservation program
in Barbados is for sugar cane. The Sugar Cane Breeding Station, Agronomy Research and
Variety Testing Unit works to breed and field test better varieties of sugar cane. Out of this
research and testing about 12 varieties have been commercially introduced in Barbados over the


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past decade. This is evidence that agricultural biodiversity could produce indirect value through
the conservation of germplasm conservation.

Some agricultural crops are known to prevent soil erosion as well as produce other benefits such
as nitrogen fixation and weed control. Sugar cane cultivation, for example, is known to produce
soil erosion control and weed control. Considering that sugar cane still remains the primary
agricultural crop in the country, it is likely that the benefits of soil erosion control and weed
control through sugar cane cultivation could be substantial.

The scenic value generated by cultivated agricultural land could be an important external
economy of agricultural biodiversity in Barbados. However, landscape value generated by
agricultural biodiversity is a public good. Therefore, traditional market based methods cannot be
applied to obtain landscape value of agricultural diversity in the island. To estimate the landscape
value therefore, survey based methods such as the contingent valuation method could be used.

Costs of Agricultural Biodiversity

The costs of agricultural biodiversity can be categorized as direct or indirect. Direct costs are (a)
costs involved in the production of crops and livestock; and (b) costs of maintaining the
institutional capacity to implement and administer the programs specifically intended for
agriculture. Input costs in the production of crops and livestock, such as labour, fertilizer,
pesticides, land preparation, harvesting, loan payments are all part of the market price of
products. However, the opportunity cost of land, that is, the value of land for best alternative uses
to agriculture, is not taken into account. Indirect costs of agricultural biodiversity are generated
through the production process as external dis-economies. Probably the two most important
externalities of agricultural production in any country is soil erosion and contamination of
groundwater and coastal waters through agro-chemicals.

There is no comprehensive database to adequately evaluate the cost of externalities of
agricultural production. It is expected that costing of externalities of agricultural production will
be considered as part of the implementation of the government‟s Sustainable Development
Action. It would be imperative that proper evaluation of externalities of agricultural production is
done not only to determine the cost of agricultural biodiversity in Barbados, but also to determine
the efficient use of resources in the agriculture sector.


3. Vegetation and Forestry Biodiversity

Forestry in Barbados is not a major land use component. Much of the original forests were
cleared for agriculture, primarily, sugar cane so that only a fraction of the virgin forest which
covered the island over 350 years ago remains intact today. However, with the gradual
abandonment of sugar cultivation in recent years, some land has reverted to secondary forests.

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There are also isolated patches of other natural plant communities. Typical economic values of
vegetation and forestry diversity are identified in the following sections.

Logging and Timber Value

There is no commercial scale logging industry in Barbados primarily due to the paucity of natural
forest cover. There is only limited use of local timber for furniture production, handicrafts and
utility goods. The value of products, which are produced using local timber, is therefore not
expected to be significant.

Recreational Value

Although forest based recreation may not be as significant in Barbados as in other countries with
abundant forest cover, the remaining forested areas are important for the tourist industry. The
Welchman Hall Gully and the Granade Hall Forest Reserve are two popular locations with
visitors to the island. There are other forested locations, which have become popular tourist sites.
These include Jack-in-the-Box gully and Joe‟s River Forest, which are also popular tourist sites.

Market Value of Forest Products

The local population does not depend heavily on forest products for sustenance or income
generation. If anything is collected from natural forests or vegetation for edible purposes it is
mostly informal and insignificant. It is highly unlikely that these products generate a significant
income for sellers.

Value of Ecological Functions

Most of the value of ecological functions for forests and natural vegetation is accrued through
watershed protection, soil erosion prevention and carbon sequestration. Before any attempts can
be made at quantification of the benefits of these ecological functions, the connection between
forests and natural vegetation and the benefits they generate should be established.

Although the importance of forested gullies to recharge groundwater aquifers is well known, no
research has been done to quantify this relationship. If it could be done, then the amount of water
recharged into the aquifers could be valued at the social cost of water, that is, the market value
and the scarcity value of water.

Value of Plants for Medicinal and other Purposes

Some wild plants are used by locals to treat minor illnesses. However, no data is available to
determine to what extent they are being used. Also, the effectiveness of these indigenous
treatments is not documented. Some wild plants are also used to produce handicrafts such as

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baskets, fresh and dry flower arrangements. Although done at a limited scale, it is likely that
these uses generate a very high value added as they are sold primarily to tourists. Market value of
these products could be used to approximate the value for these purposes.

Nonuse Values

Nonuse values are values of forest and vegetation diversity irrespective of their present
anthropogenic uses. Economic theory suggests that as the availability of a good or a service
become progressively less, the value of a marginal unit increases. Since the remaining forest area
and land under natural vegetation is severely limited in Barbados, the potential value for these
uses could be quite substantial.

Research and Educational Value

The existing forests and natural vegetation in the island are extensively studied by the staff and
students of the University of the West Indies (UWI) as well as staff and students of foreign
universities. However, it is not easy to determine the contribution that forests and natural
vegetation make in this aspect. One way to determine the minimum value for research and
educational purposes is to estimate the cost necessary to replicate the benefits derived by local
plant diversity by other means. This would be similar to the replacement cost method which
estimates the cost of replacing or replicating the service of an environmental good for a particular
use.

Grazing and Fodder Value

Small farmers and backyard livestock enterprises would be the primary beneficiaries from the
use of natural vegetation. However, there is no data to determine the amount of milk and meat
produced from animals which are fed exclusively on natural vegetation. The replacement cost
method can be used to value natural vegetation for this use. By estimating the cost of animal feed
which is necessary to provide the same nutrition, a value can be placed on the contribution of
natural vegetation for livestock production.

Cost of Forestry and Vegetation Diversity

The only significant cost is the opportunity cost of land which is under forest and natural
vegetation cover. However, except for the biological diverse areas such as gullies, other natural
vegetation sites exist primarily on land which is unsuitable for residential or other development
or on land that is marginal for agriculture. Therefore, it is highly unlikely that existence of
natural vegetation in Barbados imparts a significant social cost. In the case of protected areas
which could be used for other productive uses, it would be quite straightforward to determine the
opportunity cost of best possible alternative use.


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It is clear that the most important values of forestry and natural vegetation in the island will be
indirect use values such as ecological functions and nonuse values. There appears to be no major
use values of natural vegetation, except probably for grazing of livestock. Therefore, it is
important that nonuse values are properly quantified. Before such an exercise can be undertaken,
it is imperative that research is done on the ecological functions of natural areas. Also, to place
meaningful nonuse values, it is important that the individuals in the society have complete
knowledge of the importance of functions of the natural environment.

There is no existing program dedicated to the estimation of indirect use and nonuse values of
forests and natural vegetation in the island. The internationally funded Global Environmental
Facility (GEF) project has initiated a program known as Caribbean Planning for Adaptation to
Global Climatic Change (CPACC). One aspect of this program is to take a physical inventory of
all natural resources in the island and use economic tools to elicit their value. This is obviously
an important baseline study. As a component of a biodiversity strategy action plan it would be
necessary to repeat this exercise periodically to understand the depreciation/appreciation of the
total economic value of the forestry and natural vegetation diversity.


4.              Marine and Freshwater Diversity

4.1        Benefits of Wetlands and Water Catchments

The most important wetland area in the island is the Graeme Hall Swamp. The Swamp has a
number of important ecological and biological functions.

Fish Sanctuary Benefits

The Graeme Hall Swamp provides a sanctuary for juvenile marine fish. Although fish sanctuary
and fish nursery functions are identified for the Graeme Hall Swamp, the biological link between
the wetland area and fish production is not easily established. Due to the complications of
association of wetland areas to fish production, several methods have been used to estimate the
fishery benefits of wetlands (Barton, 1994). These are the Biological Growth Model, the impact
of fishing effort on carrying capacity and catch, the relationship between area and stock carrying
capacity, and the Wetland Production Function.

Recreational Value

Since the Graeme Hall Swamp is a well known bird sanctuary in the island, there would be a
significant recreational value for bird watching. This could be particularly important for tourism
as bird watching could provide a type of recreational experience that is different to the traditional
sun, sea and sand tourism, which has made the island popular as a tourist destination.


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Research and Educational Value

The Graeme Hall Swamp is an extensively studied area in Barbados. The Marine Resource and
Environmental Management Programme (MAREMP) of the University of the West Indies
routinely uses this location for educational purposes for graduate students. Also, staff and
students from foreign universities also study the swamp. Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity
Programme (CARICOMP) has a monitoring site along the eastern shore of the lake. As stated
earlier, research and educational uses have very high private and social values.


4.2        Benefits of Seagrass Beds

Sea grass beds are highly productive marine ecosystems. Some of the major functions of sea
grass beds are:
          Primary producers in the food chain of the reef community
          Nitrogen fixation
          Feeding grounds for juveniles and adult reef fish
          Removal of sediments from the water column

It is clear that the primary importance of sea grass beds is their contribution to the reef fish yield.
However, as in the case of wetlands, the link between fish catch and sea grass bed area should be
first established to value their economic contribution. Currently there is no quantitative time
series data for sea grass communities in Barbadian coastal waters. Once solid data is available
and the link between sea grass bed areas and the fish production (catch) can be established,
methods described for wetland production functions could be used to put economic value on
these important marine ecosystems.


4.3        Benefits of Coral Reefs

Beach Protection and Nourishment

It is generally accepted that without coral reefs most of the beaches on the west and south coast
of the island would disappear. However, the quantitative relationship between beach protection
and coral reef area cannot be determined. Therefore, the value generated by beaches could be
directly attributed to the coral reefs. Value of beaches is primarily for recreational purposes of
tourists and local residents. Methods that could be used to value beaches for recreational
purposes include net monetary benefits of tourism; consumer surplus to visitors; consumer
surplus for local beach users; and the Travel Cost Method.




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Recreational Diving

Recreational diving among coral reefs is a popular activity among tourists and locals alike. Yet,
no studies have been conducted to estimate the economic value of recreational diving. Some
potential methods, which could be used to quantify the economic value of recreational diving
activities, include the Total Expenditure Method and willingness to pay for diving.

4.4        Benefits of Fishery Resources

The most valued components of marine biodiversity are fishery resources. Although the
contribution of fisheries to the national income remains insignificant, fisheries still is considered
as a basic industry and important in providing subsistence employment. Besides fishermen,
fisheries resources provide employment for fish vendors and persons skilled in boat
manufacturing and repair.

Other than commercial fisheries, recreational fishing could be an important use which could
impart a very high value on fisheries resources without having a major detrimental impact on fish
stocks. Although, there is an active recreational fishing sector in Barbados, no studies have been
done to determine the value of recreational fishing. Several methods such as the total expenditure
method, travel cost method could be used to value recreational fishing activities. More
sophisticated models, such as random utility model, probit and logit models have been used to
determine site selection and valuation of recreational fishing, particularly in the USA.


4.5        Cost of Marine and Freshwater Biodiversity

There is no significant direct value of freshwater diversity as freshwater catchment areas are
natural locations which could not be used for other purposes without incurring significant
expenditure. However, some catchment areas, particularly the Graeme Hall Swamp are known to
breed mosquitos which have recently become a major health threat with the spread of dengue
fever. Mosquito breeding areas of the swamp are regularly fogged to control the mosquito
population and growth. Assuming that fogging is 100% effective, then the cost of fogging (both
the chemicals and labour) should be considered as an indirect cost. There are no indirect costs of
marine diversity. Cost of fishing is captured in market prices of fish. The other direct costs are
the budget of the Fisheries Division and other related local institutions dedicated totally of
partially to the management of fisheries resources.


5.              Terrestrial Fauna

Economic valuation of fauna is a somewhat controversial issue as economic valuation is
exclusively conducted in an anthropocentric framework. Intrinsic value may be captured to

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some extent in the existence value which is defined as the value individuals place on
environmental goods and services irrespective of use. Yet, existence value is exclusively defined
for endangered species when individuals feel that a species may cease to exist. Since a major
objective of valuation of the environment (including animal species) is to make decisions on
efficient resource use, for human welfare, it is highly unlikely that economic valuation would
ever capture the intrinsic value or the “right to live” value of species of animals.


5.1        Benefits of Mammalian Diversity

The Green monkey was introduced to the island in 1627 and is probably the only mammal that
has shown a considerable economic value. The current uses of green monkey are described
below.

Biomedical Research

Currently 75% of the world‟s polio vaccine is produced from the kidneys of green monkeys.
Annually approximately 800 monkeys are sold at an average price of about US$500 each.
Therefore, the direct economic value is close to 1 million Barbados dollars. However, this
represents only a lower bound as the benefits from prevention of polio could be much higher
worldwide. Therefore, the maximum willingness to pay for a monkey could be significantly
higher.

Recreational Value

The major non-consumptive use of monkey is the viewing value for tourists. The Barbados
Wildlife Reserve, which is primarily a monkey reserve, is estimated to collect Bds$750,000 to $1
million annually from visitors. Again, this amount should be considered only as a minimum
value as the consumer surplus visitors derive from viewing monkeys would not be captured in
the current entrance fee. The willingness to pay by visitors to view the monkey could be
estimated by the Contingent Valuation Method. Alternatively, the Travel Cost Method could be
used to estimate the total surplus of a visit and it would be possible to determine the value of
monkeys by including viewing the monkeys as a quality variable in the model.

Hunting

It is reported that some hunting of monkeys is done for meat. There is no data on the scale at
which this is done. It is unlikely that monkey meat is substituted for other types of meat
purchased at the market.

To minimize agricultural loss and damage caused by monkeys invading local farms, the MAR
has implemented a system where monkey tail tips can be exchanged for monetary rewards. This

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activity, which encourages hunting, was initiated to control the size of the monkey population
and therefore reduce loss to farmers.


5.2        Cost of Mammalian Diversity

The major cost identified due to the existence of green monkey is the cost of crop damage. If the
loss is at the harvesting stage of the crop, then most of the production costs are already incurred,
and the loss to the society can be valued by multiplying the estimated quantity lost by the
prevailing market prices, provided that the loss is “small” and hence would not induce a non-
marginal change in market prices. The costs associated with invasive mammalian species
introduced to Barbados, like the green monkey, should be a definite concern and one of the foci
of future valuation research.


5.3        Benefits of Avian Diversity

Apart from the viewing value, no significant uses are identified for resident bird species. Even
the viewing value is not formalized as bird watching does not constitute a significant recreational
activity in Barbados. Further, no local species are endangered and therefore may not have a
significant existence value. Migratory birds have the same potential as local species for bird
watching. Besides the potential recreational use, the other major current use is hunting. The
benefits to hunters would be the consumer surplus they derive from hunting. This surplus can be
estimated by modelling the number of hunting days as a function of cost of hunting, including the
time cost. Due to easy access and relatively low expenditure, consumer surplus per hunter could
be quite large. However, since only a small number of hunters are involved, the aggregate
benefits may not be large.


5.4        Cost of Avian Diversity

No significant cost has been identified except for the suspected threat of tropical bont tick (from
migratory birds).


5.5        Benefits of Reptilian Diversity

The two major marine reptiles in Barbados are the critically endangered hawksbill turtle and the
endangered leatherback turtle. Endangered species may have tremendous non-consumptive use
values (viewing value), option and nonuse (particularly, existence ) values. There is already
evidence that viewing value could be quite significant as some hotels near the turtle nesting
beaches have cooperated with the Barbados Sea Turtle Project, and have their visitors also

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involved in project activities. In addition, hand-feeding of turtles, glass bottom boat tours,
viewing turtles out in the sea and swimming among them, have also become popular activities.

There has been no research done to quantify whether these activities are significant factors to
visit Barbados, or whether the length of stay of some visitors is increased due to these activities.
Suggested methods for estimating the value of turtles for tourism are effect on repeat visits,
effect on the length of stay, the willingness to pay by visitors to engage in turtle related activities.

Nonuse Values

Since turtles are endangered, it is expected that they would have highly significant nonuse
values. Especially the existence value and the user‟s nonuse value could be significant
components. The CVM methods could be used to estimate these nonuse values.

Direct Revenue

The net income of divers, glass-bottom boat operators and other individuals who are engaged in
turtle viewing related activities for visitors can also be considered as a financial benefit of turtles.


5.6        Cost of Reptilian Diversity

No significant direct or indirect costs have been identified for any of the reptiles in Barbados.
However, due to the endangered status of sea turtles, it is necessary that measures be taken to
ensure that their population does not experience a further decline. The economic term for
maintaining such a standard is known as the Safe Minimum Standard.


5.7        Benefits of Amphibian and Insect Diversity

Apart from conventional uses such as pollination of plants and as predators /parasites of insect
pests, insect diversity in Barbados is not identified for any other specific uses. Insects could be
used effectively in an integrated pest management programme. Integrated pest management
programmes worldwide has shown to reap substantial benefits through savings in insecticide
expenditure. Also, the social cost of externalities such as ground water pollution and coastal
pollution (due to agricultural runoff) could be greatly reduced. The extent to which insects are
being used in this capacity in the agricultural sector in Barbados is not evident.




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5.8        Cost of Amphibian and Insect Diversity

No significant direct or indirect costs can be identified due to amphibian diversity. However,
there are substantial costs due to insect diversity. One of the major costs can be attributed to
mosquitos. The recent outbreak of dengue fever shows that this cost is much more than just the
inconvenience of being stung by mosquitos. Since dengue fever can cause both morbidity and
mortality, the private and social cost could be substantial. It is possible to use the methods
described earlier, such as the loss of value of statistical life and cost treatment (both doctor visits
and medicine) to estimate the cost due to mosquitos. Further, the Ministry of Health has a
mosquito eradication program which involves fogging of infested areas. The cost of this
program; labour costs, cost of insecticides, and other variable costs should be also considered as
a cost component of the insect diversity.

Besides these costs, general public incur expenditure on insecticides and insect repellents.
Expenditure on these items reflects the willingness to pay by individuals to eliminate or reduce
inconveniences and perceived threats to their health due to insects (primarily mosquitos and
cockroaches). This expenditure is also a component of the total cost of insect diversity in
Barbados.


6.              Conclusion

Marine biodiversity is probably the most important source in terms of value to the local economy
and social welfare. Although, fisheries resources account for only about 1% of the Gross
Domestic Product (GDP), its potential contribution could be much higher. Despite the high level
of research on the biological aspects of the management of marine resources, research on the
economic aspects of management has not kept pace.

Access to marine resources is for the most part free. This will invariably erode any economic
rent and lower the net benefits to the society. Further, alternative uses of marine resources, other
than commercial exploitation is virtually absent. For example, the sports fishing industry could
be vastly expanded. Sports fishing is a low consumptive but a high valued use of fisheries
resources. Barbados is ideally suited for expansion of this industry because of its proximity to the
United States. The island is also served by an excellent air travel system from other developed
countries such as the UK. Demand for sports fishing could be a priority area in valuation of
marine biodiversity. Other non-consumptive uses of marine resources such as diving,
snorkelling and viewing endangered sea turtles could be important values and income generators
as well. Currently, these activities are done on an informal basis, primarily through private
enterprise. However, since these resources are held in public trust, resource rent should be
collected as part of public revenue. The demand for non-consumptive and recreational uses of
marine can also be identified as a priority area of research on marine biodiversity.


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Agricultural biodiversity appears to be the next most important category of resources in terms of
value to the economy and society. Despite the declining area of agricultural production, the total
value of agricultural production has shown an increasing trend. However, the importance of
traditional commercial crops, primarily sugar, has declined over the years and has been replaced
by vegetable crops. This trend is likely to continue unless major changes are made in the sugar
industry to improve productivity and profitability. It should be noted though that the high value
of agricultural biodiversity is due to the level of protection agricultural sector enjoys from current
economic policies. If agricultural trade were to be made more liberal, the value of agricultural
diversity is bound to be much lower.

In terms of natural flora, there appears to be no significant value using the available data
information available. However, ecological functions such as watershed protection, wind
protection, soil erosion control, carbon dioxide consumption, nitrogen fixation, are all potential
benefits of natural vegetation. All these “standard” benefits need to be first accurately and
comprehensively quantified in physical terms before economic values can be placed on them.
Such ecological research is still in a state of infancy in Barbados. The medicinal value of some
indigenous plants could also be important.

The most prominent aspect of natural fauna in Barbados is the green monkey. Although an
introduced species, green monkeys have had a significant impact on the local economy in terms
of costs and benefits. Costs of the green monkey population arise mainly from damage to
agricultural crops, whereas benefits are accrued through sale of monkeys for biomedical research
as well as a tourist attraction at the Barbados Wildlife Reserve. A recent study by Horrocks et.al
revealed that the benefits of maintaining a stable population at the current level would exceed the
costs.

Besides monkeys, diversity of bird and fish population at some wetlands could be important
sources of economic value. Barbados still depends mainly on traditional sea, sand and sun
tourism. With the global trend tending towards ecotourism, the need for diversification of the
tourism product has been given a high priority by the government. Within this context, wetlands
could be developed as locations for bird watching, freshwater fishing and nature tours. Demand
for these activities by tourists is pivotal to obtain maximum benefits to the economy and
significantly enhance the value of faunal diversity.

To manage the biodiversity of Barbados, economic tools could provide valuable assistance.
Although preferences of the society could be expressed through the political process,
transforming those preferences to actions requires adequate funding. Economic values could be
used to guide allocation of limited public resources among competing needs. Calculation of
economic values could also be used as a basis for recovery of biodiversity conservation benefits
from the beneficiaries. Such funds could be crucial in the cost recovery of public sector
investment projects in the island.


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7.         Summary

DIRECT EXTRACTIVE USES OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN BARBADOS



 List of Direct Extractive Uses                  Indicators of Socio-   Potential Valuation
                                                 economic Benefits      Methods
 COMMERCIAL

 a) Agricultural Production

 Export crops: sugar, cotton                     Value of production    Market price of output

 Vegetables and root crops: beans,               Value of production    Market price of output
 cabbage, cucumber, okra, hot pepper,
 sweet pepper, sweet potato, pumpkin,
 tomato
                                                 Value of production    Market price of output
 Other field crops: lettuce, eggplant,
 butternut,   squash,     christophene,
 cauliflower                                     Value of production    Market price of output

 Fruits: bananas, figs, plantains, paw
 paw, mango, citrus                              Value of production    Market price of output

 Livestock: pork, beef, chicken, mutton,
 eggs, milk

                                                 Value of products      Market price
 b) Forest/ Natural Vegetation
                                                 Value of products      Total value minus cost
 Timber: local mahogany used for                                        of collection
 furniture
                                                 Value of livestock     Replacement        cost
 Edible products: cherries, golden apple,        products               method - amount of
 guava, ackees, etc.                                                    animal feed required to
                                                                        provide    the    same
 Grazing and fodder                                                     nutrition

                                                 Value of total fish    Market price
                                                 landings

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List of Direct Extractive Uses                   Indicators of Socio-       Potential Valuation
                                                 economic Benefits          Methods

c) Fisheries Resources
BIO-MEDICAL RESEARCH

a) Kidneys of green monkeys used to                                         Benefits           from
make polio vaccine                                                          prevention of polio


SCIENTIFIC

a) Germplasm conservation                        Commercial value of        Requires information
                                                 high yielding or disease   on success of field
                                                 resistant varieties        trials; adoption of
                                                                            varieties           for
                                                                            commercial
                                                                            production; increase in
                                                                            yield over existing
                                                                            varieties.
RECREATIONAL

a) Sport fishing                                 Total willingness to pay   Total expenditure;
                                                 based on sportsmen‟s       Travel cost method
                                                 expenditure
SUBSISTENCE

a) Handicrafts (e.g. baskets, flower             Value of products          Price
arrangements) made from forest
products and sold on a small scale




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DIRECT NON-EXTRACTIVE USES OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN BARBADOS
List    of   Direct         Non- Indicators   of               Socio- Potential           Valuation
extractive Uses                  economic Benefits                    Methods
RECREATIONAL

Bird watching in Graeme              Total willingness to pay         (i) Contingent valuation
Hall Swamp                                                            method; (ii)Hedonic method

Exploration/viewing        in Total willingness to pay for            Access value based on user
forested      areas,     e.g. use of the area based on                fees for entering locations
Welchman Hall gully, Jack- expenditure;          consumer             with established entrance
in-the-box gully, Joe‟s River surplus                                 fees; Contingent valuation
Forest                                                                method to elicit value for
                                                                      locations with free access


Diving among coral reefs             Total willingness to pay Total expenditure method
                                     based on gross revenue of
                                     those involved in providing
                                     goods and services to divers


Landscape/scenic value, e.g.         Total willingness to pay         Contingent valuation method
rural areas


Hawksbill turtles: viewing,          Expenditure of tourists          Effect on repeat visits, effect
hand feeding                                                          on length of stay, willingness
                                                                      to pay
RESEARCH/EDUCATION

Existing forested areas and          Value of the services            Cost of replicating the
natural vegetation                                                    benefits derived from local
                                                                      plant diversity by other
                                                                      methods




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INDIRECT USES OF BIOLOGICAL RESOURCES IN BARBADOS
 List of Indirect Uses               Indicators of Socio-         Potential Valuation
                                     economic Benefits            Methods
 Agricultural crops, e.g. sugar Proxy value for the services      Change   in    productivity
 cane: soil erosion prevention, provided                          method; Universal soil loss
 nitrogen     fixation,   weed                                    equation
 control
 Forested gullies: recharge of       Proxy value for services     Market value and scarcity
 groundwater aquifers                provided                     value of water
 Wetlands: Fish sanctuary and        Proxy value for services     Biological Growth Model;
 nursery function                    provided                     Impact of Fishing Effort on
                                                                  Carrying Capacity and Catch
                                                                  ; Relationship between Area
                                                                  and Stock Carrying Capacity;
                                                                  Wetland Production Function
 Seagrass     Beds:   Primary Proxy value for service             Requires data to establish the
 producers in food chain of provided                              link between seagrass bed
 reef community; nitrogen                                         areas and fish catch.
 fixation; feeding grounds for
 juvenile and adult reef fish;
 removal of sediments from
 the water column
 Coral     reefs:       beach        Value generated by beaches   Net monetary benefits of
 nourishment and protection                                       tourism; replacement cost;
                                                                  consumer surplus to visitors;
                                                                  consumer surplus for local
                                                                  beach users




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APPENDIX 2a

A BIODIVERSITY DATABASE FOR BARBADOS

1.         Introduction

In keeping with the UNEP Guidelines, the issues related to the creation of a Biodiversity
Database were identified and evaluated. The role of a Biodiversity Database is to manage and
maintain the biodiversity-related data that exists presently or may exist in the future; in a digital
database with the attendant data usage and update procedures defined; responsibilities assigned
for data collection and update; all encompassed within a coordinated technical and institutional
environment; where the maximum value may be made of the data through structured professional
analyses.

The main parameter guiding the creation of a Biodiversity Database - the digital data
environment - was however, largely absent from the study due primarily to institutional
restrictions on access to information on the status of the digital Biodiversity data - the datatypes,
extents of coverage, data formats, accuracies and currency - were also largely unavailable. In
light of this situation, it was agreed that the remainder of the UNEP Guidelines should be
fulfilled as closely as possible and that the conceptual outline for the future creation of a
Biodiversity Data Management System be developed.

One of the major objectives of the study as identified by the client and arising from the UNEP
Guidelines, states that the data that exists should be identified and evaluated and that gaps in the
data should be identified but not filled. This was seen to be an appropriate starting point for the
exercise and guides for the creation of the Biodiversity Database were formulated around this
objective.

Arising from an evaluation of the suggested data requirements within the UNEP Guidelines, the
Potentials and Design Considerations for a Biodiversity Database were identified.


2.         Biodiversity Data for Barbados

From the information made available, it is apparent that substantial biodiversity-related data
exists for Barbados in digital and non-digital form for many different datatypes for Barbados.
However, the value of the data collected is severely diminished due to deficiencies in scope and
completeness of data coverage, the difficulty in relating the data spatially as well as institutional
restrictions on access to the data.




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2.1        Deficiencies in Scope and Completeness of Data Coverage

Due to the fact that data collection efforts of a biological/ecological nature have been largely
disjointed, organizational priorities have determined the nature and scope of the data collection
activities. Thus, for example, fairly extensive data exists on identification of marine species in
the national waters and fish-catch statistics whereas data on terrestrial fauna species and location
is sporadic and lacking.

A national initiative to determine the critical biodiversity-related data collection activities is
necessary.


2.2        Difficulties in Spatially Relating Data

In order for active analyses to be undertaken using multiple biodiversity datatypes, some
relationship must exist that at least provides a spatial comparison of the area for which the data is
collected. If data is collected at a national level then it may only be accurately compared or
analysed against other data collected at a national level. If any other disaggregation of spatial
areas is desired, assumptions and estimations must be made and the inherent error needs to be
identified. It is most ideal to maintain data collection at the smallest available spatial entity,
aggregating to larger spatial entities as required or desired. Cost and management (both data and
organisational management) considerations, of course, play a much larger part in such an ideal
scenario.

Biodiversity data exists presently in two types, Tabular or Statistical and Mapped or Spatial.


2.3        Tabular and Statistical

A large number of studies in all fields related to the natural environment have been undertaken.
From these studies, a substantial amount of data is available in a descriptive format by lists and
tables. Primarily, this entails an identification of the presence or absence of particular species.
This is evidenced in the other component sub-reports of this Technical Report.

While such data holds value for knowledge of species existence and statistics related to the same,
much of the existing data cannot be accurately spatially referenced. The majority of data on the
natural environment that is collected is not locationally referenced to great detail. On the most
part, data is referenced to the island on the whole, a particular Parish or to a specific area - either
known by a common community name or identified by a particular physical, topographical
and/or natural feature




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2.4        Mapped or Spatial

A more limited selection of Biodiversity data is actually mapped. Most mapping of this nature is
of a species identification nature - identifying the approximate location and extent of species
sightings, for fauna, or species sites existing, for flora. More extensive and wider-ranging
mapping actually exists for the marine environment (through the CZMU projects) than for the
terrestrial environment, evidence of Barbados‟ environmental emphasis.

The author is unsure whether any one base mapping may be common throughout the mapping of
all of these datatypes. It is unlikely as they originated from different sources over a period of
time. Even though common base mapping should be a definite requirement, the vague and
broken boundaries of flora and fauna (including marine) sites and ranges allows some flexibility
for cross-relating biodiversity data based on different base mapping. This exercise should,
however, be overseen by the professionals engaged in the original collection of the data.


3.         GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR A BIODIVERSITY DATABASE

Some general guidelines can be defined for consideration in the creation of the national
Biodiversity Database.

3.1        Technical Design Considerations

Some important Technical Design considerations that must form part of the design of a
Biodiversity Database include:

          Distributive database structure.
          Considerations given to the physical data transfer (telecommunications) networks that
           exist to evaluate their adequacy.
          Use of Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS) with Structured Query
           Language (SQL) capabilities.
          Use of Geographic Information System (GIS) software to input, manage and analyze
           spatial and attribute data.
          Compliance with Open Systems and Open Database Connectivity (ODBC) to foster
           easy data formats compatibility and transfer.
          Attention should be given to the Interoperability of GIS and RDBMS systems
           proposed. Interoperability between themselves and competing systems and also across
           operating systems and platforms.
          As far as possible, attempts should be made to allocate spatial values at the most
           localized level to data.
          Security and access restrictions designed into the system.
          Knowledgeable systems management and database management personnel for

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           maintenance of the system.


3.2        Institutional Design Considerations

Some important Institutional Design considerations that must form part of the design of a
Biodiversity Database include:

          Organizational agreements on data transfer.
          Data costing and copyright issues.
          Allocation of responsibilities to organizations, for data collection, maintenance and
           update. Leave responsibilities to those most knowledgeable of the particular data.
          Distributive database structure rather than centralized database allows greater
           opportunity for timely data update.
          Some degree of agreement to abide by coordinated frameworks for data management
           and acquisition of appropriate hardware, software and trained personnel. Agreement
           on Activity Timing to fulfill national biodiversity objectives.
          Agreements on security and access limitations for various datatypes and users.


4.         CONCLUSIONS

The establishment of a national biodiversity database is essential to enhancing our understanding
and our appreciation of the biological diversity of Barbados. There are substantial gaps in the
current knowledge of biodiversity with respect to flora and fauna species classification, location
and extent, pattern of distribution, and quantity. The appropriately trained biologists and
ecologists working in these fields must fill these gaps. Data collection must be undertaken by
these respective experts, in order for the information output of the compilation process to be of
relevance to the various stake holders. In addition a more liberated policy environment for data
transfer is required for the true value of the information to be realized.

The utilization of mapping sciences such as Remote Sensing and Photogammetry employs
techniques such as satellite imagery and air photo interpretation, which can be used to assess
vegetation cover. These techniques can be used in conjunction with baseline data collected from
studies done on species identification and habitat delineation. These discreet data-types can then
be examined with respect to encroaching development over a particular time series, and the likely
impacts on wildlife and their respective habitats.

A national Natural Resources Geographical Information System has been established under
EMLUP (GIS Data Custody and Implementation Strategy, November 1998). The EMLUP
consultants recommended that a GIS unit be established within the Ministry responsible for


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environmental matters. This GIS unit would serve as a repository of environmental data to all
other units and agencies.

The articulation of a National Policy on Biodiversity will be dependent upon our ability to
effectively quantify and valuate the stock of biological diversity in Barbados. The compilation of
a comprehensive database management system exclusively for biodiversity resources will no
doubt contribute immensely towards our accomplishment of this goal.




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APPENDIX 2b

    INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR THE BIOLOGICAL ENVIRONMENT

 Categories        Required             Explanation          Status of        Maintenance         Responsible
                   Data                 & Standards          Existing Data    Require-            Agencies &
                   Collection                                                 ments               Assigned
                                                                                                  Priority

 Vegetation/       Structure,           Vegetation           Requires work.   Every 5-10          NHU: Priority 1
 Communities       location, extent,    cover classified                      years and after     Policy
                   configuration,       according       to                    major natural       coordinating
                   arrangement,         type          e.g.                    disasters (fire,    Unit: Priority 4
                   proximity and        grasslands,                           hurricane,
                   fragmentation        vegetation,                           slippage, etc.)
                   with respect to      wetlands,
                   other units of       woodlands,
                   the         same     regenerating
                   community,           areas, pioneer
                   type         with    areas,
                   respect to other     information
                   types, dominant      collected      on
                   species       and    each type and
                   diversity,    use    relationship
                   history       and    among       types
                   level           of   and        across
                   disturbance,         island assessed.
                   fragility/sensitiv
                   ity,
                   significance.

 Vegetation        Inventory,           Requires             Requires work.   Periodically in     NHU: Priority 3
 Species           distribution,        systematic                            specific areas of   Policy
                   habitat              inventory of the                      interest.           coordinating
                   requirements,        islands species                                           Unit: Priority 4
                   origin               communities,
                   (endemic,            and      location
                   indigenous,          within        the
                   exotic),             natural
                   frequency            communities.
                   (common,             Requires      the
                   vulnerable,          establishment of
                   threatened,          a            data
                   endangered).         management
                                        system       and
                                        conventions for
                                        categorization
                                        of communities,
                                        existing     data


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 Categories        Required             Explanation       Status of       Maintenance   Responsible
                   Data                 & Standards       Existing Data   Require-      Agencies &
                   Collection                                             ments         Assigned
                                                                                        Priority
                                        needs to be
                                        consolidated
                                        systematically.

 Wildlife          Location,            NA                Freshwater:     Periodical    NHU, CZMU,
 Habitat, Marine   distribution,                          None existing   update        MARD,
 Aquatic,          users e.g. (birds,                     Marine: need                  Fisheries Unit:
 Terrestrial       coral, benthos                         work                          Priority 1
                   for        aquatic                     Terrestrial:
                   birds),                                None existing
                   mammals,
                   hierarchy       of
                   biomass, water
                   quality, and/or
                   physical
                   characteristics,
                   categorization
                   by            use
                   (spawning,
                   nesting/breedin
                   g/nursery/rearin
                   g, food source,
                   loafing areas,
                   travel     routes,
                   use history and
                   level           of
                   disturbance,
                   fragility/sensitiv
                   ity,
                   significance.

 Species -         Location,            NA                Freshwater:     Periodical    NHU, CZMU,
 marine and        distribution,                          none existing   update        MARD,
 terrestrial       users e.g. (birds,                     Marine: need                  Fisheries Unit,
                   coral, benthos                         work                          Policy
                   for       aquatic                      Terrestrial:                  coordinating
                   birds),                                none existing                 Unit:
                   mammals,                                                             Priority 1
                   hierarchy       of
                   biomass, water
                   quality, and/or
                   physical
                   characteristics
                   categorization
                   by            use
                   (spawning,

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 Categories         Required             Explanation      Status of         Maintenance        Responsible
                    Data                 & Standards      Existing Data     Require-           Agencies &
                    Collection                                              ments              Assigned
                                                                                               Priority
                    nesting/breedin
                    g/nursery/rearin
                    g, food source,
                    loafing areas,
                    travel     routes,
                    use history and
                    level           of
                    disturbance,
                    fragility/sensitiv
                    ity,
                    significance.

Source: The Natural Database, Biophysical, Cultural and other Planning-Related Information (Feb. 1998)




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APPENDIX 2c
    INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS FOR HABITATS AND ECOSYSTEMS
 Categories         Required Data       Explanations         Status of       Maintenance       Responsible
                    Collection          & Standards          Existing Data   Requirements      Agencies &
                                                                                               Assigned
                                                                                               Priority

 Landscape          Systematic          Based          on    None existing   Periodical        NHU, TCPO:
 Analysis           classification      principals      of                   update            Priority 2.
                    and assessment      biogeography,
                    of     landscape    considering
                    units.              function,
                                        sensitivity/fragil
                                        ity           and
                                        significance.

 Natural            Identify types      Example: Gully       None existing   Periodical        NHU: Priority
 Corridors and      and locations of    systems                              update            2.
 Linkages           corridors.          escarpments,
                    Functions      of   coastline, non-
                    specific            arable     lands,
                    corridors    and    contiguous
                    corridor types      vegetation
                                        units. Consider
                                        non contiguous
                                        functions (e.g.
                                        visual
                                        connections for
                                        arian species,
                                        aquatic, and non
                                        aquatic)

 Species            Establish and     Required       for None existing       Ongoing            Policy &
 Categorization     maintain a        each class of                                             coordinating
                    sightings         plant         and                                         Unit, NHU:
                    recording         animal species,                                           Priority 2
                    system (data      existing     data
                    management        needs to be
                    system),          consolidated
                    establish         systematically.
                    conventions for
                    categoriza -tion
                    of communities
                    (vulnerable,
                    threatened
                    endangered
                    etc.)
Source: The Natural Database, Biophysical, Cultural and other Planning-Related Information (Feb. 1998)




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APPENDIX 3

RECOMMENDATIONS FOR INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING

INTRODUCTION

A number of institutions have been mandated by the GOB to manage the environmental and
natural resources of Barbados, which include the island‟s biological resources.              The
responsibility for environmental management is generally fragmented between these various
institutions whose responsibilities has been described in section 4 of this document. There is
evident duplication and, in many instances, a lack of clear jurisdiction in terms of biodiversity
management concerns. The sharing and integration of information, as well as the reduction of
duplication of effort, in the acquisition of biodiversity and other related environmental
information among the various agencies should be a fundamental goal of the GOB.

The overall aim of this section is to provide recommendations which would improve the overall
efficiency in the biodiversity management and conservation efforts of the GOB, thereby ensuring
the successful implementation of the Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan.              These
recommendations are based on identified needs for biodiversity management and conservation as
well as the assessment of the current institutional capacity

Institutional strengthening for biodiversity management can be achieved through:

        ·       establishment of a unit or committee responsible for coordinating biodiversity
                management and protection efforts;

        ·       a concerted effort to define distinct mandates for the relevant institutions with
                respect to the conservation of biodiversity;

        ·       a logical appropriation of suitably trained human resources among these
                institutions;

        ·       improvement of communication between the various institutions involved on
                biodiversity conservation issues and activities;

        ·       more efficient dissemination of biodiversity related information by relevant
                government agencies to increase the level of awareness of the general public of
                biodiversity conservation, and also to strengthen the political will of the GOB to
                protect biodiversity.




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PRIORITY AREAS FOR IMPROVED BIODIVERSITY MANAGEMENT

The NBSAP Country Study and the Public Consultation process identified the following areas,
which would greatly enhance the GOB‟s capacity to undertake effective conservation and
management of the island‟s biodiversity:

   1. Improved Protected Area Management and Conservation;

   2. Revision and updating of legislation and regulations for the protection of habitats and
      species;

   3. On-going research and compilation of biodiversity information into a central repository,
      including the collation and maintenance of a comprehensive GIS database;

   4. Expansion of the capacity to provide biodiversity and related environmental education
      and public awareness to the citizens of Barbados;

   5. Enhancement of the capacity to effectively prosecute violators of existing regulations put
      in place to ensure the protection of biodiversity.


TARGET AGENCIES FOR INSTITUTIONAL STRENGTHENING

Ministry of Physical Development and Environment

The Environmental Unit (EU) of the MPE needs to expand its role and function as a “lead
agency” in biodiversity management. Sub-committees should be further established under the EU
which coordinate National Park and Protected Areas Management, and seek to involve all
required organizations and stakeholders into the process of biodiversity conservation.

Recommendations coming out of EMLUP include the setting up of an expanded Education and
Information Unit with library functions. This proposed unit would greatly enhance the capacity
of the MPE to effectively document and disseminate biodiversity resource information that is
currently not readily accessible to all relevant organizations and agencies.

The capability to assess the potential impacts of human activity on the island‟s biodiversity to
allow for prudent planning and decision-making is highly dependent upon complete, accurate and
current available data on the status and location of existing biodiversity at a national level. The
effective dissemination of this type of spatially related information to all developers, relevant
organizations and decision makers is also essential for facilitating the decision making process.


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The EMLUP project document General Specifications: Future Data Collection, Data
Custody & Implementation Strategy (1998), addresses and outlines the mechanisms and
steps necessary to facilitate the integration of environmentally related GIS data. This
document also outlines some of the gaps in existing biodiversity data, and the priority
assigned to various types of data collection among the various agencies. It is strongly
recommended that these proposed steps, in conjunction with the gaps in knowledge and
data identified in the NBSAP Country Study Technical reports, be utilized as a guide for
directing all future biodiversity research and data acquisition for Barbados. A summary
of the spatial data requirements and guidelines for data collection and management for
Barbados are presented in Appendix 3.

The EMLUP study also recommended the appointment of an environmental legal officer
within the MPE. The rational for maintaining in-house legal services in the
Environmental Unit would be enhanced to supplement the limited services currently
provided by the Attorney General and the Director Public Prosecutions (DPP) office,
thereby clearing up the backlog of environmental legislation, and so enabling the
Ministry to effectively enforce environmental standards imposed by legislation.

The in-house legal services would include, among other things:

        ·       consult with environmental specialists to identify measures necessary to
                regularize their operations and make them more effective;
        ·       assist the Attorney Generals Office in preparing legislation on identified
                environmental issues;
        ·       prepare and process draft legislation for submission to parliament;
        ·       advise other environmental enforcement agencies as required;
        ·       assist in enforcement prosecutions on environmental matters as required.
                (EMLUP, 1998)

Other benefits which could be realized from this in-house legal capacity would include,
the avoidance of inordinate delays in securing legal responses and opinions on
biodiversity protection issues, as well as assistance in assuring that Barbados ratifies, and
adheres to, or complies with obligations contained in international conventions of which
Barbados is a signatory.

The Town & Country Development Planning Office

The lack of a legally binding National Physical Development Plan (NPDP) was found by
the EMLUP study to reduce the capacity of the GOB to achieve effective habitat and
species protection. This deficiency also curtails the GOB‟s ability to address other wider
environmental degradation concerns through the planning process. As a result of these
findings, two recommendations were made with respect to enhancing the legal status of
the development plan:

   1. establishing the NPDP as Development Control Regulations, or



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   2. implementing the NPDP as a first Screen for Development Applications.
      Barbados would derive many advantages from enhancing the legal status of the
      NPDP, including:

        ·       enhancement of the credibility of the TCDPO and the Minister in their
                dealing with development applications;

        ·       official recognition of the status of the NPDP as standing policy of the
                GOB;

        ·       provision through the planning process of a mechanism for the protection
                of species, habitats, and landscape features;

        ·       enabling of the Chief Town Planner (CTP) to negotiate with developers
                from a “strong and principled position” where biodiversity protection
                issues are a concern;

        ·       ensuring that applications for development that do not conform to the
                NPDP requirements will automatically undergo an EIA that adheres to
                guidelines and procedures which adequately incorporate all biodiversity
                and habitat conservation concerns;

The EMLUP Reports made a number of recommendations aimed at improving the level
of transparency and public participation in the planning process. These recommendations
in the NPDP address the issue of the granting of development permits and are currently
pending the approval of the cabinet.

The current Town and Country Development Planning Advisory Committee consists of
nine appointed members including a chairman. This Committee represents a mixture of
public servants and private sector interests, which act to advise the Minister. It is
recommended that the role of this committee be formally revised so that it would act in
an advisory capacity to the Chief Town Planner who would in turn advise the Minister.
This panel should comprise technical experts from various agencies such as the National
Conservation Commission (NCC), Coastal Zone Management Unit (CZMU), Ministry of
Housing and Lands, MAR, and other public and private sector organizations with
appropriate expertise with regard to biodiversity and habitat conservation, among other
wider environmental management concerns.

Coastal Zone Management Unit

The CZMU is responsible for the management and development of the coastal areas of
Barbados in the specialized areas of Coastal Engineering, Coastal Planning, and Marine
Biology. This division is involved in environmental monitoring and the development of
environmental standards on an ad-hoc basis. The CZMU currently lacks the resources to
implement systematic monitoring and impact assessment projects. The division employs
21 field officers and six office/clerical staff.

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The capacity for the CZMU to conduct systematical monitoring on all coastal
development activities in order to assess potential impacts on marine ecosystems needs to
be upgraded, since it is the principal organization charged with this responsibility. The
capacity for this unit to collect coastal resource data should be enhanced where possible
due to their expertise in this area.

National Conservation Commission

The National Conservation Commission (NCC) can potentially play a major role in the
monitoring and maintaining of biological resource habitats. According to the EMLUP
report on Institutional Strengthening of the Environmental Unit and other Institutions
(1998), many of the functions previously assigned to the NCC by the Marine Reserves
legislation have been allocated to or assumed by other agencies, some of which were
created to perform other specific functions. These agencies include the CZMU, the
Barbados National Trust, the TCDPO, the Soil Conservation Unit, and the Ministry of
Tourism and International Transport.

Though the NCC is responsible for maintaining public parks, public gardens, beaches and
caves and other areas such as the Harrison‟s Cave, and the Folkestone Marine Reserve,
the role and powers of this organization in policing human recreational and other
activities within ecologically sensitive areas needs to be greatly enhanced.

The feasibility of establishing a National Park Administrative Sub-Committee should be
examined to address biodiversity conservation within National Park areas and other
protected areas. The establishment of such a committee under the NCC may enhance the
GOB capacity to effectively monitor and manage biodiversity habitats throughout the
island. The functions and role of this proposed joint agency sub-committee would have to
be further defined.

The NCC technical staff will need to be expanded in order to provide national park
management expertise once the proposed National Park designations are officially
approved and established by the GOB. Previous studies which looked into the
designation and establishment of a National Park in Barbados include: N. C. Pennington,
Barbados National Park, (1983), and EMLUP National Park Plan (1998).

Close cooperation is required between governmental and non-governmental organizations
which have relevant technical expertise, with regard to the national park and protected
area administration activities.

Organizations, which should be represented on the national parks administrative sub-
committee, include the following:

        ·       Environmental Unit (lead agency for biodiversity conservation);
        ·       National Conservation Commission (technical administration);
        ·       Environmental Special Projects Unit;

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        ·       Town & Country Development Planning Office;
        ·       Coastal Zone Management Unit;
        ·       Soil Conservation Unit;
        ·       Barbados National Trust;
        ·       Caribbean Conservation Association;
        ·       Bellairs Research Institute;
        ·       The University of the West Indies; and
        ·       The Ministry of Tourism and International Transport.

The full integration of the Environmental Unit‟s biodiversity management programme
initiatives, and the National Park and other protected habitat management concerns, will
be highly advantageous to the Government and people of Barbados in the long run. The
NCC is perhaps the most logical agency for the provision of technical administration to
these significant biodiversity habitats.


The Ministry of Agriculture & Rural Development

The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MAR) can be described as having
no explicitly stated involvement in environmental management. MAR‟s capacity as an
observer and advisor on agricultural practices can, however, greatly enhance the GOB
efforts in the regulation of practices in the agricultural sector, which have the potential to
degrade the environment. Due to the prominence of agricultural activity throughout the
island, this function of MAR can potentially be a significant contributor to the
conservation and management of biodiversity.

One such activity with the potential for harmful environmental effects is the use of
fertilizers and pesticides. MAR does not currently have a legal mandate to regulate
fertilizer or pesticide application and does not conduct research into the impacts of these
chemicals on the environment. The Pesticide and Control Board (PCB) is however,
responsible for the regulation of pesticides. The EMLUP study however, noted that the
PCB does not have the resources or a clear mandate to monitor or regulate the
environmental effects of pesticide application. Under the coordination of the MPE, the
PCB, if fully staffed and equipped, could become a key agency in carrying out research
testing on non-point sources of agricultural pollution and its impacts on the marine and
terrestrial biological resources.

MAR could also play an instrumental role in facilitating and coordinating biodiversity
related research with input and coordination from the MPE, along with agencies such as
BAMC, CARDI, Bellairs Research Institute, CZMU, the Fisheries Unit and UWI.
Research areas, which need to be addressed in this respect, include:

        ·       germplasm and biological pest control;

        ·       the implications of introduced agricultural species;



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        ·       the environmental impact of pesticides; and

        ·       the implications of aquaculture, among other issues facing agricultural
                sector.

The Fisheries Division

The Fisheries Division of MAR develops plans for the management and development of
fisheries in Barbadian waters. Environmental concerns are not explicitly mentioned in the
Fisheries Act legislation. However, the Minister is charged with protecting endangered
species of marine organisms. The Fisheries Division was initially established as a
technical and scientific unit in 1944, but has since evolved into a service provider and
safety organization for the industry. The Division is now in the process of rehabilitating
its scientific and technical functions and also increasing its participation in environmental
management. It is also actively seeking to improve its communications with the CZMU
and the other units under the MPE. However, the involvement of the Fisheries Division in
environmental management activities, results in a severe stretch of the resources of the
agency.

Some specific environmental issues of concern to the protection of marine biodiversity
are:

        ·       pesticide impacts on the marine environment - the agency does not
                maintain frequent communication with the PCB in this regard.

        ·       the impacts of sewage pollution - the agency relies on research conducted
                by the CZMU and Bellairs Institute.

        ·       ecological changes, e.g. Diadema die off and changes in reef ecology in
                addition to information from Bellairs and CZMU. (EMLUP, 1998)

The Fisheries Division provides scientific information and statistics on catches,
biological, social and economic information, in addition to fisheries management
measures. The Division presently relies heavily on anecdotal observations made by
fishermen. The compilation of more comprehensive catch per effort statistics needs to be
undertaken by the Division to provide more accurate estimates of species population size,
and thus provide more accurate inferences on the impacts of the fishing activities on
marine species.

There is an expressed concern by the Fisheries Division about the potential for conflict
between its interests, and the creation of marine protected areas or reserves. Further
evaluation of how this division can best provide assistance in the regulation and
protection of the islands marine biodiversity needs to be undertaken in light of this fact.




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CONCLUSION

The conservation of biodiversity in Barbados relies heavily on the effectiveness of the
GOB to streamline the operations of the various Ministries and agencies, which are
involved in environmental management. The formulation and delegation of clear
biodiversity protection mandates among these institutions, enhanced levels of
communication and documentation of biodiversity related information, in addition to the
optimal utilization of resources at hand is essential if they are to effectively carry out
their functions. The Environmental Unit of the MPE needs to fully embrace its role as the
lead agency for biodiversity, and protected area management and also seek to establish
committees in order to effectively administer National Park and other protected habitats
which impact upon the livelihood of the nations biodiversity. With the implementation of
these initiatives the GOB can no doubt vastly improve upon its goals of sustainable
environmental management and biodiversity conservation.




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