Case Study Groundwater Awareness Mvoti-Mzimkulu - Groundwater

Document Sample
Case Study Groundwater Awareness Mvoti-Mzimkulu - Groundwater Powered By Docstoc
					   DWAF – DANCED IWRM PROJECT

    Bridging Phase Activity Number 10:
Groundwater Awareness through monitoring.
               Final Report

                   BY

           SAKHILE MNDAWENI
           VBA GROUNDWATER
                MAY 2004
                        TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                PAGE

1. INTRODUCTION                                  1

2. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY AREA                 2
   2.1 Ncwadi Water Supply Project              2
   2.2 Erith Trust Water Supply Project         4
   2.3 Geology                                  5
   2.4 Hydrogeology and Groundwater Potential   5
   2.5 Pre-Project Situation                    6

3. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS                   7
   3.1 Water Services Authority                 7
   3.2 Umgeni Water                             7
   3.3 Ncwadi PSC                               8
   3.4 Erith Trust Water Committee              8

4. PUBLIC AWARENESS AND CAPACITY BUILDING        9
   4.1 Water Services Authority                  9
   4.2 Umgeni Water                             10
   4.3 Ncwadi PSC                               10
   4.4 Erith Trust Water Committee              12

5. MONITORING                                   13
   5.1 Local Monitoring Network                 13
   5.2 Ncwadi Water Supply Project              14
   5.3 Erith Trust Water Supply Project         19

6. ISSUES OUTSTANDING                           22
   6.1 Ncwadi Area                              22
   6.2 Erith Trust Area                         22

7. GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS       23
   7.1 Ncwadi Water Scheme                      23
   7.2 Erith Trust Water Scheme                 23

8. CONCLUSION                                   23




                                  Page i
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



1. INTRODUCTION


The DWAF/DANCED Integrated Water Resource Management Project for the
Mvoti –Mzimkhulu WMA has identified as critical the review of groundwater
monitoring at a local municipal level in the Mvoti-MzimkhuluWMA. Allied to this is
the implementation of a groundwater management and monitoring program
through awareness creation and capacity building.


Through liaisons with Umgeni Water, two areas that fall under the jurisdiction of
the Sisonke District Municipality in the Mvoti-Mzimkhulu Catchment area, have
been identified as a water resource management issues that will be tackled as
part of this. These areas are:
   •   Ncwadi area - Ncwadi Water Supply Project
   •   Erith Trust (Thathane) area - Erith Trust Water Supply Project


Fig 1 and Fig 2 shows the locality maps of each area.




                                        1
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



2. BACKGROUND AND AREA OF STUDY


2.1 Ncwadi Water Supply Project


The Ncwadi Water Supply Project, which falls on the boundary of the
Umgungundlovu and the Sisonke District Municipality area, 32 km west of the
town of Richmond, has been selected as the field area where groundwater
monitoring should occur.




          Picture 1: Ncwadi area located along the Nhlambane stream

Two existing production boreholes sharing the same aquifer supply a population
of 5000 people in a number of low-density households. A monitoring borehole
has been drilled in between the two production boreholes but has no pump
installed in it.


The resident Engineer (Partners in Development) and Umgeni Water have
legitimate concerns about the capacity of the borehole and have been trying
unsuccessfully due to lack of finance, to set up a monitoring scheme in the area.
The community appears to be highly motivated and the communities’ water
supply office is within 200m of the production boreholes.


                                        2
    BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




3
                                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



2.2 Erith Trust Water Supply Project
The Erith Trust Water Supply Project is located 20 km south of the town of
Highflats.


Three production boreholes supply a population of 3000 people, with only one of
the boreholes in the good working condition and other two non-functional. A
monitoring set-up had been prepared for these boreholes but as at the end of the
project it appears that there will be additonal work necessary to get the project up
and running.




                                         4
                                                       BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




2.3 Geology


Mudstones, shales and sandstones of the Ecca Group in the Karoo Sequence
underlie both areas, with younger Jurassic aged dolerite dykes and sills
extensively intruded into these sediments. Overlying the Ecca group are
alternating layers of mudstones, siltstones and sandstones of the Beaufort group.
Quaternary alluvium sporadically outcrops in the region comprising of layered
sediments.



                                       5
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



2.4 Hydrogeology and Groundwater Potential
Generally speaking, shallow depths of weathering, low permeability’s and low
porosities characterize the Karoo sedimentary sequences that are encountered
in both areas.    This is especially so for the fine grained and unlaminated
lithologies, such as the mudstones and fine-grained sandstones.


Consequently the principal targets for groundwater location and subsequent
exploitation are structural features such as extensional faults or the disturbed
contact zones associated with dolerite intrusion, particularly the boundary areas
of larger sills. Such features provide the disturbance and “bulking” required to
improve the groundwater storage and transmission character of otherwise
unfavorable lithologies.


The overlying re-deposited alluvium found in the valley lines and the underlying
weathered Karoo rocks act as primary aquifers in the area of Ncwadi.


Median borehole yields in the sediments and intruded dolerite formations usually
range between 0.1 and 3 l/s. Boreholes that intersect the contact zones of
dolerite intrusions or highly weathered zones below the regional water table often
produce yields ranging from 1 – 20 l/s.


2.5 Pre-Project Situation
Provision of water in these areas previously has been by means of handpump
boreholes and springs (protected and unprotected). Both water supply projects
have been recently constructed, with the ErithTrust Water Supply Project not yet
commissioned by the district municipality.


Umgeni Water has been an implementing agent for the construction of both
projects. Training of local people has been for operation and maintenance, with
emphasis put on the technical fixing of pipes and taps, etc.




                                          6
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



This has been an activity undertaken by the consultants responsible for the
construction of the schemes. Water Offices with employed technicians, located
in both areas monitor and repair the projects in both areas. These technicians
were targeted for field training for monitoring.


3. INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS


The institutional component of the IWRM project focuses attention on
cooperative governance between authorities and organizations involved in water
management within the Sisonke District Municipality area with more focus to both
identified areas. The groundwater component has been involved in activities that
promote cooperative governance.


The following institutions that are involved with water management, have been
identified:


3.1 Water Services Authority (WSA) – Sisonke District Municipality
      (Sisonke DM)
The WSA is responsible for access to water and sanitation services in the area.
The powers and duties of the WSA relate to water resources management in
general. A workshop on Introduction to Groundwater (Addendum I), training on
Aquimon Software and a field trip to explain the projects to the Sisonke DM was
undertaken. Sisonke was instrumental in prioritizing the Erith Trust Area requiring
training on groundwater monitoring at a local municipal level in the Mvoti-
Mzimkhulu WMA.


3.2 Umgeni Water
Umgeni Water has been an implementing agent for the two water supply projects
in the area. Initially Umgeni water through Graham Metcalfe helped identify the
areas with groundwater projects that could benefit the most from training. Due to
time constraints only training in Aquimon was undertaken with Umgeni Water.



                                           7
                                                       BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



3.3 Ncwadi Project Steering Committee (PSC)


The PSC has been engaged with the day-to-day monitoring of construction of the
project. It has been envisaged that the members of the PSC will be involved with
the operation and maintenance of the project, thus training should be directed to
them. Members of the PSC are listed in addendum I. The PSC has individuals
employed directly by Sisonke DM to maintain and run the water supply.


3.4 Erith Trust Water Committee


The water committee has the responsibility to protect the community water
supply within their community. Members of the water committee are listed in
addendum I. The Erith Trust Committee is a Water Service Provider (WSP) for
the Sisonke DM and are paid for running the water supply by the DM.




                                       8
                                                          BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



4. PUBLIC AWARENESS AND CAPACITY BUILDING


Provision of water supply must be accompanied by appropriate awareness
campaigns for a sustainable water supply.


The aim of this activity is to address issues ranging from, establishing awareness
within the community for the importance of water supply and sanitation, providing
community support personnel and other stakeholders with basic technical skills
through training, and ensuring that the WSA & WSP are equipped to responsibly
administer and perform their function as implementing, monitoring, operation and
maintenance agents.


Public Awareness and Capacity Building campaigns have been targeted to the
institutions listed above.


These campaigns were presented in two ways,
       •   Formal presentations (Addendum I)
       •   Informal interactions with parties involved. (Field Training Report -
           Addendum II)

The formal presentations included fields such as:

       Introduction to Groundwater
       Groundwater in the Hydrological Cycle
       Groundwater and the Water Act
       Protection of Groundwater Resources.
       Sustainable Abstraction Principles
       Aquimon Training

Informal interactions involved field visits and further training on standard
monitoring.




                                          9
                                                       BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



4.1 WSA – Sisonke District Municipality


Interaction with the WSA in terms of capacity building was good. Trainings in all
aspects of groundwater use, development, protection and monitoring were
conducted and also IWRM awareness. Field workshops as well as training in
groundwater implementation and monitoring have also taken place.




                 Figure 4.1.1: Field training with Sisonke DM




4.2 Umgeni Water


Umgeni Water was instrumental in prioritizing areas requiring training on
groundwater monitoring at a local municipal level in the Mvoti-MzimkhuluWMA.
They initially prioritized five areas of which one (Ncwadi) was identified for
monitoriring by VBA Groundwater.




                                       10
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



4.3 Ncwadi PSC


The PSC has been responsible for overseeing the construction of the water
supply scheme and further they will be responsible for operation and
maintenance of the scheme.


Trainings in all aspects of groundwater use, development, protection and
monitoring were conducted and also IWRM awareness, and further trainings
have been conducted with the Ncwadi PSC on standard monitoring techniques,
data collection, capture and interpretation.




Figure 4.3.1: Members of the Ncwadi PSC undergoing training on standard
                             monitoring techniques


Addendum III has list of activities that were undertaken during groundwater
monitoring training. Further the following equipment has been handed to the PSC
through the ward councilor in order to do monitoring:


   •   Dipmeter and Multimeter for water levels
   •   pH and EC meter, and Nitrate strips for water quality



                                         11
                                                     BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



   •   Bailer for sampling
   •   Graph board for data plotting


The monitoring board is installed at the water office in the Ncwadi area. The
water office is 200m away from the boreholes. Further to the field training, a
session was held on data interpretation and is where the PSC learnt basic
interpretation of graph using data collected from the other monitored borehole
outside the area (Addendum III).


4.4 Erith Trust Water Committee


The water committee has the responsibility to protect the community water
supply within their community.




            Figure 4.4.2: Groundwater awareness at Erith Trust

Groundwater and IWRM awareness campaigns have been conducted and were
presented in the vernacular language (Addendum I). Before the presentation a
Zulu groundwater questionnaire (Addendum III) was handed to the participants
who completed it with their existing knowledge.




                                       12
                                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



After the presentation the questionnaire was resubmitted to the participants in
order to gauge the effectiveness of the presentations.


Even though the boreholes in the Erith Trust area are not set up for monitoring,
training with respect to monitoring was conducted.




                                       13
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



5. MONITORING


Good management of all water resources depends on decisions being based on
facts rather than beliefs and assumptions. For this reason, monitoring and
information systems are critical for successful resource management.


5.1 Local Monitoring Network (Level 3)


This level of groundwater monitoring involves project-specific and site-specific
monitoring of potential human impacts on water sources (i.e. quantity and quality
monitoring at individual production borehole).


The following give reasons why groundwater will be monitored:


      To prevent aquifer from being over pumped,
      To optimize individual borehole pumping rates,
      To prevent poor groundwater quality from entering the aquifer, and
      To establish the sources of contamination of groundwater.


5.1.1 Groundwater Level Monitoring


The National Water Act (1998) allows for the inclusion of water resource
monitoring in the license conditions. The license conditions will include the
requirement of monitoring groundwater levels.


The frequency of measurements is determined based on the likelihood of
groundwater changes occurring (i.e. if it is suspected that there is a rapid water
level fluctuations as a result of a pumping rate exceeding the capacity of the
borehole) and thus optimal pumping rates are set. It should be noted that the
pump would operate on the automated pumping system.




                                        14
                                                          BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



5.1.2 Water Quality Monitoring


The license conditions include the requirement of monitoring water quality in
each borehole. Field tests are carried out each and every time the water levels
are read


5.1.3   Rainfall


Natural, seasonal water level fluctuations due to rainfall also need to be taken
into account during monitoring. All rainfall events need to be recorded. Therefore
a temporary rainfall gauge has been installed in the Ncwadi area and will be
replaced by a permanent rainfall gauge in the near future.


5.2 Ncwadi Water Supply Project


In order to define the basis for monitoring in the area, a hydrogeological report for
the water supply scheme was assessed and further samples were taken from the
borehole monitored and on other boreholes that exist in the area, and were
tested for their water quality.


From the report there are two boreholes that are used for the water supply
scheme and they are both sharing the same aquifer. The borehole pumps are set
not to pump water at the same time (i.e. only BH 2 is pumping water until the
reservoir has been filled, and if BH 2 pump is battling, then BH 1 resume
pumping). This has been the setting that was considered during the construction
of the scheme, and therefore monitoring of abstraction has to be considered for
these boreholes in order to prevent depletion of the aquifer in the near future.


The boreholes are ten meters apart with the monitoring borehole drilled in
between them and they are all hydraulically linked. The 36m deep monitoring
borehole is equipped with the following:



                                           15
                                                              BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



   •   0 – 18m ODEX casing
   •   18 – 36m Perforated casing
   •   0 – 36m 140mm uPVC casing
   •   Gravel pack of 2 – 4mm quartz-silica gravel


During development stages, the borehole had a blow yield of +/- 50kl/hr at 24m
and from the report it was indicated that the aquifer was partially de-watered
during the pumptest programme. Further, from pumptest data it was concluded
that the aquifer had transmissivity of >35m2/day, but had poor recovery and this
suggested that the storativity was limited.


The sustainable abstraction rate that has been recommended for each borehole
was considered at a yield of 300kl/day or 30kl/hour on a 10-hour cycle, and this
was result of analysis for a zero recharge for one year. With the reduction in
rainfall recharge, it is clear that this abstraction will have a negative impact on the
sustainability of the aquifer, since it has limited storativity.


Since the rainfall recharge was not considered during the analysis of the
pumptest data a temporary rainfall gauge has been installed at the site of the
boreholes in order to assess the recharge on boreholes and the Department of
Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) will be installing their rainfall gauge at the
higher elevation to the site of boreholes.


Table 5.2.1: Boreholes at Ncwadi
         BH                        Latitude                        Longitude
       Number                     dd,mm,ss                         dd,mm,ss
    Monitoriring                 29 46’ 44.6”                      30 00’ 19.1”
       Borehole


It should be noted that for augmentation, a weir on upper part of the Ncwadi area
has been built for back up purposes.


                                            16
                                                   BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



Table 5.2.2: Shows field data on monitoring borehole
    Date            EC             pH         Water Level        Rainfall
                 (mS/cm)                           (m)            (mm)
 11/03/2004        0.46            6.9            8.18             60
 17/03/2004        0.21            5.9            9.45             0.0
 29/03/2004        0.32            7.2            8.58             30


Table 5.2.3: Full water quality analyses for Ncwadi boreholes
           Roundabou Ncwadi Ncwadi        Ncwadi    Ncwadi Ncwadi
            t Ncwadi   Clinic   27/02/04  11/03/04 17/03/04 29/03/04
PH                7.96     7.60      6.65      6.80     7.36     7.03
EC (mg/l)        26.80   32.50      21.80     22.50    24.00    23.40
TDS (mg/l)      146.00 182.00      120.00    118.00   128.00      130
Ca (mg/l)        21.80   24.60      17.50     17.10    16.60       20
Mg (mg/l)        10.80     9.90     10.70     10.60    11.10     12.2
Na (mg/l)        14.00   26.00       8.80      8.90    10.00     9.20
K (mg/l)          1.00     1.10      0.50      1.90     1.80     0.70
Alkalinity
as CaCO3
(mg/l)             114      130       100        98      108      104
Cl (mg/l)         7.00   13.00       3.00      4.00     5.00     8.00
SO4 (mg/l)        3.10     6.60      6.50      2.20     2.10     1.70
NO3 (mg/l)        2.10     2.70      0.91      0.66     1.10     0.81
F (mg/l)          0.10     0.03      0.01      0.01     0.05     0.01
Fe (mg/l)         0.06     0.12      0.06      0.13     0.06     0.06
Mn (mg/l)         0.01     0.01      0.01      0.01     0.01     0.01




                                    17
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




 Figure 5.2.1: Ncwadi Clinic and Roundabout boreholes located at higher
       elevation to the WaterSupply boreholes at a distance of 300m


Fig 5.2.2 below show the Expanded Durov diagram of these water samples. The
chemistry of water indicates that this is Ca – Mg – HCO3 rich water, thus
reflecting recently recharged water.


It should be noted that all boreholes in the Ncwadi area are located along the
Nhlambane stream and therefore Fig 5.2.3 shows the Stiff diagrams showing
relationship in water in the area. Further there has been no surface water
monitoring done on the Nhlambane stream, therefore no conclusion can be
drawn on the effects of Ncwadi well field on the baseflow to the main river.




                                        18
                                                                                                 BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                                                       Mg




                                                                                                   Exp. Durov Diagram


                               Ca                                                Na+K
                       T.Alk                                                                                              out cwadi
                                                                                                                   Roundab N

                                                                                                                      adi
                                                                                                                   Nkw Clinic
                                                                                                                      adi
                                                                                                                   Ncw 29
                                                                                                                      adi
                                                                                                                   Ncw 17

                                                                                                                   Ncwadi
                                                                                                                   M     i
                                                                                                                    onitorng Nkwadi

SO4




                         Cl+N O3




             Figure 5.2.2: Expanded Durov diagram for Ncwadi boreholes


                                                       STIFF Diagra ms
               Monitor ing Nkw adi                             Nc w adi                              Nc w adi 17
                  20040308 - 00h00                          200403 12 - 00h00                       20040 317 - 00h00

      N a+ K                         C l +N   N a+ K                            C l +N   Na+ K                                   C l +N




      Ca                               Al k   Ca                                  Alk    Ca                                           Alk




      Mg                              SO4     Mg                                 SO4     Mg                                       SO4


      3. 0            m eq/l          3. 0    3. 0               m eq /l         3. 0    3. 0            m eq /l                  3. 0


                  Nc w ad i 29                              Nkw ad i Clinic
                  20040329 - 00h00                          200403 08 - 00h00

      N a+ K                         C l +N   N a+ K                            C l +N




      Ca                               Al k   Ca                                  Alk




      Mg                              SO4     Mg                                 SO4


      3. 0            m eq/l          3. 0    3. 0               m eq /l         3. 0




                     Figure 5.2.3: Stiff Diagrams for Ncwadi boreholes




                                                                 19
                                                          BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



There are agricultural activities in the area nearby the water supply scheme
boreholes and this can have influence in water quality when composting material
is used. This will elevate the nitrate level in the boreholes. Further water quality
analyses for the boreholes will determine if this is the case.




Figure 5.2.4: Picture showing agricultural activities around the production
                               boreholes at Ncwadi


5.3 Erith Trust Water Supply Project


There are three boreholes that are used for the water supply scheme and they
are pumped into a reservoir located at highest elevation in the area. There was
no data obtained by VBA on the status of boreholes during their developmental
stages (sustainability, transmitivity, etc.), therefore a local monitoring network
was not set for the area and this is an outstanding issue.




                                         20
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



Table 5.3.1: Erith Trust boreholes
     BH            Latitude        Longitude      Elevation         Status
   Number         dd,mm,ss         dd,mm,ss            m
    BH 01         30 20’ 56.5”     30 10’ 59.5”       905      Not working. The
                                                                 BH overflows.
    BH 02         30 21’ 24.3”     30 10’ 16”         947           Working
    BH 03         30 21’ 25.6”     30 10’ 14.2”       951         Not working


None of the boreholes are fitted with monitoring equipment and this is the issue
that needs to be addressed since the community has been trained on standard
monitoring techniques.


Fig 5.3.1, Fig 5.3.2 and Fig 5.3.3 show the actual photos of each borehole site at
Erith Trust, and in order to prevent the scheme collapsing, further attention
should be given to the boreholes in the area.




                         Figure 5.3.1: BH 01 - Overflows




                                       21
                                                          BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                         Figure 5.3.2: BH 02 - Working




                       Figure 5.3.3: BH 03 – Not Working


All three boreholes are located in different areas and these areas vary in their
elevation. At local scale, it is obvious that these boreholes have different aquifers
and therefore each borehole will require its own monitoring set-up.




                                         22
                                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



6. ISSUES OUTSTANDING


Due to the timeframes that were allowed for the project to run through, the
following have been identified as issues that are outstanding in both working
areas and therefore will need to attended to immediately:


6.1 Ncwadi Area
   •   Support for water committee monitoring from the district municipality and
       data flow to make sure that the data is stored on Aquimon.
   •   Installation of the permanent rainfall gauge.
   •   Full water quality monitoring (since the committee can only do field tests).
   •   Establishment of the effect of the Ncwadi well field on the baseflow to the
       main river.


6.2 Erith Trust Area
   •   Establishment of the baseline values and monitoring objectives
   •   Installation of groundwater monitoring equipment in each borehole.
   •   Installation of the rainfall gauge.
   •   Support for water committee monitoring from the district municipality and
       data flow to make sure that the data is stored on Aquimon.
   •   Full water quality monitoring.


Further, the following are outstanding issues that are linked to institutional
arrangements for a successful local groundwater-monitoring network:
   •   Presentations to Sisonke Exco on groundwater monitoring. This will go a
       long way in enabling the district municipality to delegate duties on
       groundwater monitoring.
   •   Groundwater training to Umgeni Water and confirming transfer of data to
       them and thus DWAF for analysis.
   •   Feedback to engineers and Sisonke on changes with regard to water
       quality and quantity.


                                             23
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



7. GROUNDWATER MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS


All the data collected by the community during groundwater monitoring should be
sent to hydrogeologist or implementing agent (Umgeni water) or DWAF through
the district municipality.


7.1 Ncwadi Water Scheme


   •   Static water levels should be checked weekly. The borehole pumps must
       be stopped running at least each night before water level measurement is
       taken the next morning.
   •   Daily abstraction volumes must be recorded for each borehole.
   •   Field water quality assessment should be carried out weekly and sample
       need to be sent to the lab for full analysis each month and if no changes
       are detected then once in three months.
   •   Monitoring data must be sent to the hydrogeologist or Umgeni water or
       DWAF regional office for analysis monthly and thus fed on aquimon.


7.2 Erith Trust Water Scheme


There are no management recommendations for this scheme, since there was
no data available to design the monitoring program. This is the activity that needs
to be undertaken by DWAF regional office since they will take over the project.


8. CONCLUSION


The bridging phase activity 10: Groundwater awareness through monitoring, had
a short-term objective of creating community awareness on groundwater related
issues and further establishment of local monitoring networks within the
communities in the Mvoti-Mzimkhulu Water Management Area.




                                        24
                                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



Capacity building and public awareness has been the most successful issue
throughout the project, with exceptions to the issues that are stated as
outstanding. Those are tasks that will need immediate attention from the
department in order to achieve the ultimate objective of this project.


Although the community of Ncwadi is currently engaged with groundwater
monitoring, the issue on institutional arrangements remains the main issue that
need to be given special attention, since this will ascertain that the data flow to
the respective DWAF office is achieved (i.e. will enable everyone involved to be
able to know their role in groundwater monitoring).




                                         25
                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




     ADDENDUM I

FORMAL PRESENTATIONS




         26
                                                     BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Name of Fora               Training – Ncwadi Water Committee
Venue                      Ncwadi Community Hall
Date                       10 February 2004
Time                       09H00

Attendance Register

D Ngongoma                              PSC
E Nzaba                                 PSC
P Magwaza                               PSC
M Dumakude                              PSC
J Ngcobo                                PSC
D Madlala                               PSC
V Ngcobo                                PSC
W Mncwabe                               PSC
BZ Khumalo                              PSC
IN Dlamini                              PSC
NC Shabalala                            PSC
MD Shangase                             PSC
DR Sithole                              PSC
B Mkhize                                PSC
C Magwaza                               PSC
BL Nzimande                             Ward Councilor
R Rose                                  DWAF
B van Blomestein                        VBA
Sakhile Mndaweni                        VBA

Proceedings

Agenda Item 1         An introduction to groundwater and pollution

Presentation          A thorough introduction to groundwater was conducted
                      including the water cycle and the Water Act, and further
                      its occurrence on the ground and how it is affected by
                      human activities on surface.

                      Acceptable groundwater standards were explained
                      thoroughly, including the basic ways on which standards
                      are derived.

                      A concept of IWRM was explained to the audience and
                      was related to the water cycle.




                                      27
                                                 BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



Comments        A questionnaire was handed to the group in order to
                assess the knowledge on groundwater issues. The
                average results on the group were about 50%, and it
                should be noted that the majority members of the group
                are still in their youth.

Agenda Item 2   Managing and Implementing Groundwater Programs

Presentation    The process of drilling a virtual borehole was explained to
                the audience with the following topics covered:
                Funding, Geophysical Borehole Siting, Borehole Drilling,
                Pump
                Testing, Borehole Protection Zones, Water Quality
                Analysis and Borehole Handpump Installation.

Comments        With an exception to the ward councilor, the knowledge of
                the subject is low. Most members have observed drilling
                of borehole but the steps that are undertaken are
                unknown.

Agenda Item 3   Groundwater Monitoring

Presentation    Groundwater monitoring is conducted in order to assess
                natural and unnatural changes that occur in water and
                monitoring different variables with respect to changes that
                occur in the environment does this.

                Rainfall plays a major impact with respect to quality and
                quantity changes that occur to groundwater.

Comments        Most emphasis was put on why do we do local
                groundwater monitoring and who is responsible for doing
                it.




                                 28
                                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Name of Fora                Training – Erith Trust WSP
Venue                       Erith Trust Tribal Court
Date                        25 March 2004
Time                        09H00

Attendance Register

N Mnguni                                 Erith Trust WSP
L Mahlaba                                Erith Trust WSP
BA Ngcobo                                Erith Trust WSP
ZE Ngcobo                                Erith Trust WSP
DN Dlamini                               Erith Trust WSP
SD Mngoma                                Erith Trust WSP
TM Mboma                                 Erith Trust WSP
A Radebe                                 Erith Trust WSP
E Nhlangulela                            Erith Trust WSP
Mhleli Dlamini                           Sisonke DM
Sakhile Mndaweni                         VBA

Proceedings

Agenda Item 1         An introduction to groundwater and pollution
Presentation          A thorough introduction to groundwater was conducted
                      including the water cycle and the Water Act, and further
                      its occurrence on the ground and how it is affected by
                      human activities on surface.

                      Acceptable groundwater standards were explained
                      thoroughly, including the basic ways on which standards
                      are derived.

                      A concept of IWRM was explained to the audience and
                      was related to the water cycle.

Comments              A questionnaire with ten questions was handed before the
                      start of presentation in order to assess the knowledge of
                      the group on groundwater issues.

                      The results of the questionnaire showed that there was a
                      20% knowledge of groundwater related issues.

Agenda Item 2         Managing and Implementing Groundwater Programs
Presentation          The process of drilling a virtual borehole was explained to
                      the audience with the following topics covered:


                                       29
                                                 BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



                Funding, Geophysical Borehole Siting, Borehole Drilling,
                Pump
                Testing, Borehole Protection Zones, Water Quality
                Analysis and Borehole Handpump Installation.
Comments        The presentation was conducted with the input from the
                audience on how the whole process is conducted.
                Seemingly there was less knowledge of the subject.

Agenda Item 3   Groundwater Monitoring
Presentation    Groundwater monitoring is conducted in order to assess
                natural and unnatural changes that occur in water and
                monitoring different variables with respect to changes that
                occur in the environment does this.

                Rainfall plays a major impact with respect to quality and
                quantity changes that occur to groundwater.

Comments        Most emphasis was put on why do we do local
                groundwater monitoring and who is responsible for doing
                it.




                                 30
                                                      BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Name of Fora               IWRM GROUNDWATER PROJECT WORKSHOPS
Venue                      SISONKE COUNCIL CHAMBERS
Date                       12 February 2004
Time                       09H00

Attendance Register

J Greeves                               Sisonke District Municipality
B Zulu                                  Sisonke District Municipality
N Zondi                                 Sisonke District Municipality
Clyde                                   Sisonke District Municipality
M Dlamini                               Sisonke District Municipality
CM Ngcobo                               Sisonke District Municipality
Z Madlala                               Sisonke District Municipality
B Murray                                Sisonke District Municipality
S Kheswa                                Sisonke District Municipality
L Lebello                               Sisonke District Municipality
M Mathe                                 Sisonke District Municipality
N Mnukwa                                Sisonke District Municipality
C Cawham                                Sisonke District Municipality
PZ Duma                                 Sisonke District Municipality
B van Blomestein                        VBA

Proceedings

Agenda Item 1         An Introduction to Groundwater
Presentation          B. van Blomestein did a presentation on Introduction to
                      Groundwater with the people present.

Comments              Generally the response was extremely good with a
                      number of concerns regarding contamination of
                      groundwater      supplies     raised   by  the relevant
                      Stakeholders. Two of the people present were councilors
                      for Sisonke DM and they specifically showed a great
                      interest and interaction with the speaker.

Agenda Item 2         Managing and Monitoring Groundwater Programs
Presentation          B. van Blomestein did a practical presentation on how
                      limited field tests could be done by the staff of the DM.
                      There was also a presentation on Managing and
                      Monitoring groundwater programs.




                                      31
                                                           BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



Comments                All participants enthusiastically tried the limited field tests
                        for themselves. A number expressed reservations about
                        the practicality of doing these tests out in the field and it
                        was agreed that a field visit was necessary to enable
                        them to understand the problems occurring in their area.
                        A field trip was set for Thursday 19 February.


                G R O U N D W A TE R (AM AN Z I
                              AT ER (A M A N
                AN G A PH A N S I KO M H LA BA ) –
                                            B A)
                U kuw anakekela ukuze angcineke
                esezingeni lokuphuzw a

           1) U lwazi ngam anzi angaphansi kom hlaba
           2) U lwazi ngokum biwa kom godi w epitsi




                                                                                  1
                VB A GR O UN D W AT ER                                    20/0 4/04




           GROUNDWATER –BEING
           DRAGGED KICKING AND SCREAMING INTO
           THE 21ST CENTURY




                                                                                 2
           VBA GROUNDWATER                                                20/04/04




                                          32
                                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




He who asks feels a fool for five
minutes, but he who does not
ask remains a fool forever." -
Chinese proverb



                                                      3
VBA GROUNDWATER                                20/04/04




Isingeniso
   Amanzi angaphansi komhlaba – kumele
   anakekelwe ngendlela efanayo kanti futhi
   anikwe nezinga elifanayo njengamanzi
   ageleza emifuleni




                                                      4
VBA GROUNDWATER                                20/04/04




                     33
                                                        BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Sizofunda ngalokhu okubalulekile:
   1) Kwenzeka kanjani ukuze kungcine
  kunamanzi angaphansi komhlaba?
  2) Singawangcina kanjani amanzi
  angaphansi komhlaba esezingeni
  elamulekile efana nalawo esiwathola
  emifuleni.


                                                                                    5
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                              20/04/04




Iqiniso
   Abantu abangu-13% eMzansi Africa
   basebenzisa amanzi ambiwa phansi, kanti
   abangu-11% babo bawasebenzisela
   ukuphuza. Lesisibalo siyaqhubeka
   nokwenyuka???
            * USA 20%, Holland 66%
            * EMzansi Africa imiphakathi engu-150 ithola amanzi okuphuza
              emanzini angaphansi komhlaba
            * Abalimi abaningi kulelizwe basebenzisa amanzi ambiwa
              phansi (ukuphuza nokunisela e.g. Hex Valley, Petrusburg etc)


                                                                                    6
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                              20/04/04




                                  34
                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Imvelaphi yamanzi angaphansi
komhlaba
   •Juvenile water
   •Metamorphic

   •Precipitation (Imvula)

   •Connate




                                                             7
VBA GROUNDWATER                                       20/04/04




The Water Cycle(Umjikelezo)



                           Text          Text
                                  Text

                        Text      Text Text

                           Text          Text
                                  Text
                                                             8
VBA GROUNDWATER                                       20/04/04




                      35
                                                                                                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




    AQUIFER – IDWALA
    ELIKWAZI UKUNGCINA
    AMANZI




                                                                                                                                   9
              VBA GROUNDWATER                                                                                               20/04/04




     Confined - Unconfined Aquifer
                     water level                                   water level                                      water level
CONFINED AQUIFER                               LEAKY AQUIFER                                   UNCONFINED AQUIFER


                                                 water table
                                                                                               water table
  aquiclude                                                                       aquitard




  aquifer                                                                         aquifer        aquifer




  aquiclude                                                                      aquiclude       aquiclude




Confined and Unconfined aquifers are the two end members of a transition from pressurised aquifers to ones
that are in equilibrium with the atmosphere. Semi-confined (leaky) and semi-unconfined (delayed yield)
aquifers resort in between.




                                                                                                                                 10
     VBA GROUNDWATER                                                                                                        20/04/04




                                                               36
                       BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                                         11
VBA GROUNDWATER                     20/04/04




                                         12
VBA GROUNDWATER                     20/04/04




                  37
                       BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Isithombe sendawo lapho
kuphuma amanzi phakathi
emgodini wepitsi




                                         13
VBA GROUNDWATER                     20/04/04




Amanzi ageleza esuka
endaweni ephakeme eya
enzansi




                                         14
VBA GROUNDWATER                     20/04/04




                  38
                                 BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Water Table




                                                   15
VBA GROUNDWATER                               20/04/04




Ukuvikelwa kokonakala
kwamanzi
   Iqiniso ukuthi kungeke kwenzeka ukuthi
   amanzi avikeleke ngendlela elinganayo
   Umthetho obhekelele ukusethenziswa
   kwamanzi awukwazi ukuwavikela
   kuzozonke izimo
   Izindlela ezehlukene zokuvikelwa
   kwamanzi ziyasetshenziswa, kubhekwa
   izimo ezithile ezihlangene nokwakhiwa
   kwezindawo kanye nama-aquifer
   alezozindawo.
                                                   16
VBA GROUNDWATER                               20/04/04




                     39
                            BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




National Water Act (Umthetho
obhekele amanzi)
Umthetho wezamanzi uchaza ngalokhu:
 Use (ukusentshenziswa)
 allocation (ukunikezelwa)
  protection (ukuvikelwa)
  and access (negunya)



                                              17
VBA GROUNDWATER                          20/04/04




Ukungcoliseka
Kwendalo Okuvela
Ezindaweni Ezingcolile



 Amathoyilethe emigodi-pitlatrines
   Abalelwa ku-2million e-SA
                                              18
VBA GROUNDWATER                          20/04/04




                  40
                                   BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                  Imininingwane
Angaphezu kuka 2 million amathoyilethe emigodi
eMzansi Africa
12 million wabantu eMzansi Africa basebenzisa
amanzi angaphansi kuka 25 liters ngosuku
10 million wabantu bahola ngaphansi kuka R192
ngenyanga

                                                      19
VBA GROUNDWATER                                  20/04/04




           Informal settlements




                                                      20
VBA GROUNDWATER                                  20/04/04




                        41
                                         BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




         Kwezolimo: Fertiliser
         (Nitrate)




                                                           21
VBA GROUNDWATER                                       20/04/04




        Municipal General Waste Dump
        Izindawo zokulahla udoti


            Diffuse pollutants
            Complex mixtures
            Reducing conditions
            Biological contaminants
            Increased TDS
            Often close to communities


                                                           22
VBA GROUNDWATER                                       20/04/04




                                 42
                                          BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                         Izimayini



    W aste piles                     A cid D rainage
    Stockpiles                       H igh Sulphates
    Processing P lants               H igh salt loads
    R efilling voids                 E levated M etals




                                                              23
VBA GROUNDWATER                                          20/04/04




Ukungcoliseka kwamanzi




                                                              24
VBA GROUNDWATER                                          20/04/04




                             43
                                 BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




     Water Quality Standards

    Amazinga ekhwalithi yamanzi




                                                    25
     VBA GROUNDWATER                          20/04/04




Amazinga ekhwalithi yamanzi
asetshenziselwani?
Amazinga ekhwalithi yamanzi achaza isikali
 senani lezinto ezincibikalayo emanzini
Isikali senani elamukelekayo sichazwa
  yilokhu:
   Indlela amanzi azosetshenziswa ngayo
   Ubungozi obukhona


                                                   26
VBA GROUNDWATER                               20/04/04




                       44
                                      BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




UKWAHLUKANA
KWAMAZINGA EKHWALITHI
    – Amazinga emukelekayo ahlukene kumazwe
      ngamazwe, ngenxa yokungefani kwamazwe,
    – Amazinga emukelekayo ayashintsha uma
      kutholakala ulwazi olusha kososayensi,
    – Amazinga asentshenziselwa ukusinika indlela
      okumele ilandelwe uma kuhlolwa amanzi.




                                                         27
VBA GROUNDWATER                                     20/04/04




AMALEVELI AMAZINGA
Amaleveli amazinga amanzi enziwa abe
 izinhlobo ezimbili noma ngaphezulu:
    • Guideline   level:   izinga     elamulekayo
      nokungamele leqiwe
    • Maximum acceptable level: izinga lapho
      kumele kwenziwe izaba zokuhlanzwa
      kwamanzi ukuze abe sezingeni elamulekileyo.


                                                         28
VBA GROUNDWATER                                     20/04/04




                        45
                                                                                               BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Amazinga abalulekile ukuze…
                       • Kubhekwe ukuthi amanzi angasetshenziswa
                         yini
                       • Kubhekwe ukuthi ikhwalithi yamanzi
                         asetshenziswayo ihlala isesimweni
                         esemukelekile
                       • Kuncwaningwe izinga lokungcoliseka
                         kwamanzi, kanye
                       • Nokubhekwa kokuthi ukungcoliseka
                         kuyaqhubeka noma cha.

                                                                                                                         29
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                                                                     20/04/04




Dose Response Curves
  Beneficial to life




                                                    M a x im u m
                                                     b e n e f it
                               I n c r e a s in g                        D e c r e a s in g
                                   b e n e f it                             b e n e f it

                                           I n c r e a s in g C o n c e n t r a t io n
Detremental to life




                                                                             N o t ic e a b le H a r m


                                                                                                         D e a th

                        D o s e -R e s p o n s e C u rve


                                                                                                                         30
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                                                                     20/04/04




                                                                46
                                                                           BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




 Water Bacteria-Amagciwane
 asemanzini
  Major disease         Organism name            Major reservoirs/primary        Monitoring
                                                           sources                frequency

  Typhoid fever         Salmonella typhi                Human feaces           Frequent surveys.

Paratyphoid fever     Salmonella paratyphi              Human feaces           Identified as high
                                                                                   priority.
  Salmonellosis         Other Salmonella             Human/animal feaces

Bacillary dysentery          Shigella                   Human feaces

     Cholera             Vibrio cholerae                Human feaces

 Gastro-enteritis        Escherichia coli               Human feaces

 Gastro-enteritis     Yersinia enterocolitica        Human/animal feaces

 Gastro-enteritis     Campylobacter jejuni           Human/animal feaces
                                                                                                    31
 VBA GROUNDWATER                                                                               20/04/04




 pH considerations
       T dependent (equilibrium reaction)
       Temp changes also cause gas escape which
       changed pH
       Always calibrate meters before use
       Determine pH in field




                                                                                                    32
 VBA GROUNDWATER                                                                               20/04/04




                                                47
                                              BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Nitrates-Effect on Humans and
Environment
  .Groundwater: Cyanosis                 due            to
  methaemoglobinemia, which is toxic to infants in the age
  group 0 – 6 months. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite in an
  acidic environment like the stomach. Nitrite combines
  with the oxygen-carrying red blood pigment, haemoglobin
  to form methaemoglobin. Methaemoglobin is incapable of
  carrying oxygen. “Blue baby syndrome”: 10 mg/l N
  Surface water:      Eutrophication. The excess nitrate is
  used by water plants as nutrient and a population boom is
  the result. The plants use all the oxygen in the water and
  over time the plants die and huge, stagnant waterbodies
  with rotten plant material are created.
                                                                    33
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                20/04/04




      TDS (Total Dissolved Solids)
      Can be estimated from EC
      Gives a first estimation of water quality
      Classification:
      CLASSIFICATION
      TOTAL DISSOLVED SOLIDS
      Fresh      0 - 1000
      Moderately Saline (Brackish)    1000 - 10000
      Saline Water (Sea Water) 10000 - 35000
      Brine      > 35000

                                                                    34
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                20/04/04




                            48
                                                      BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




In aquifers, boreholes should not be constructed
  within:
  50 m of an on-site sanitation system
  75 m of a high loading sanitation system (e.g. school, clinic etc.)
  50 m of an animal burial pit or cemetery50 m of an animal or fowl
  enclosure
  50 m of chemical, fertilizer or pesticide storage, mixing or loading
  facilities
  50 m of an above ground petroleum storage tank
  100 m of an underground storage tank
  50 m of a major road or high tension cable


                                                                              35
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                          20/04/04




       From the movies
       From the movies
          Cr(VI) contamination
           Cr(VI) contamination
          in movie “Erin
           in movie “Erin
          Brokovich” --$ 338
           Brokovich” $ 338
          million awarded in
           million awarded in
          damages to users
           damages to users
          of water
           of water
          DNAPL-”A Civil
           DNAPL-”A Civil
          Action”
           Action”
          Since 1992, Grace has pumped 25
           Since 1992, Grace has pumped 25
          million gallons of groundwater from the
           million gallons of groundwater from the
          most contaminated areas on its property
           most contaminated areas on its property
          and has extracted less than five gallons
           and has extracted less than five gallons
          of contaminants
           of contaminants



                                                                              36
VBA GROUNDWATER                                                          20/04/04




                                              49
                           BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Practical 1
1) What Is Wrong With this Picture?




                                             37
VBA GROUNDWATER                         20/04/04




Practical 1 Continued

Analyze 3 samples for nitrate
and TDS and PH



                                             38
VBA GROUNDWATER                         20/04/04




                  50
                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




 ADDENDUM II

FIELD TRAININGS




      51
                                                      BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Name of Fora               Field Training – Ncwadi Water Committee
Venue                      Ncwadi Abstraction Boreholes
Date                       17th & 18th March 2004
Time                       09H00

Attendance Register
 DA Cele                                PSC
 M Ngcobo                               PSC
 I Mkhize                               PSC
 D Ngongoma                             PSC
 E Nzaba                                PSC
 P Magwaza                              PSC
 M Dumakude                             PSC
 J Ngcobo                               PSC
 D Madlala                              PSC
 V Ngcobo                               PSC
 W Mncwabe                              PSC
 BZ Khumalo                             PSC
 IN Dlamini                             PSC
 NC Shabalala                           PSC
 MD Shangase                            PSC
 DR Sithole                             PSC
 C Magwaza                              PSC
 BL Nzimande                            Ward Councilor
 Sakhile Mndaweni                       VBA

Proceedings:
DAY 1
 Agenda Item 1                  Aim of Local Borehole Monitoring
 Presentation         Local borehole monitoring is aimed at assessing
                      groundwater impacts on a local, site-specific scale. The
                      frequency of measurements depends on the use of data
                      and local conditions. Boreholes used for public drinking
                      water supply are monitored weekly or daily if possible.

                      Type of data collected during monitoring is distinguished
                      into:
                          i)    Data related to quantity (water levels, flow
                                rates, etc.)
                          ii)   Data related to quality (EC, pH and Nitrates)
                      Rainfall data is also collected and used to compare
                      changes in quality and quantity of water with respect to
                      rainfall.



                                      52
                                                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



Comments
Agenda Item 2   Water Level Measurement
Presentation    Water level (static water level) measurements are always
                taken before the borehole is pumped or bailed. It is
                important to make sure that the borehole has not been
                pumped since the last night before the measurement is
                done.

                The appropriate device used to measure water levels
                consists of a twin-core dipmeter with a flexible tape fixed
                to the cable. Water level is measured by lowering
                weighted end of the dipmeter down the borehole until the
                multimeter indicates that the electrical circuit is competed.
                The depth of the water table is read off the tape measure
                at the datum point.

                The information on recharge of the aquifer can be
                obtained by observing behavior of groundwater levels and
                rainfall.

Comments        The individuals in the group had to each do the reading of
                measurements of water level in the borehole.

Agenda Item 3   Field Water Quality Measurements
Presentation    Physical and chemical variables on groundwater are
                measured on the field. Recommended field measurement
                include:
                    i)     pH (vary between 4.0 and 9.0)
                    ii)    Electrical conductivity (less than 3.7 mS/cm)
                    iii)   Nitrates (less than 20 mg/l)
                Field instruments are available.

Comments        Each individual in the group had to do a field test on the
                samples taken. Sampling was in a way of a bailer, since
                the monitoring borehole is separated from other
                boreholes.


DAY 2
Agenda Item 1   Plotting and Interpretation of Data
Presentation    The data related to quantity changes (water levels) is
                plotted against the rainfall accumulated. Plotting the
                column-line graph on 2 axes, with water levels and rainfall
                plotted as column and line respectively, does this and plot
                it against months.



                                 53
                                                 BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



                The graph is interpreted by observing the changes that
                occurs in different months and thus further borehole
                management recommendations can be attained.

Comments        The data of the other borehole monitored was used to plot
                these parameters on the graph paper and further on the
                board that will be used for borehole monitoring in the area.

Agenda Item 2   Practical – Plotting graphs
Presentation    Monthly data of water levels and rainfall collected from
                another monitored borehole is plotted on the graph paper.
                This gives a real example on what can be expected from
                monitoring.

Comments        Plotting of data on the graph paper was handled with ease,
                especially from the younger members of the group.




                                 54
                                                      BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




Name of Fora               Field Training – Erith Trust WSP
Venue                      Ncwadi Abstraction Boreholes
Date                       29 March 2004
Time                       09H00

Attendance Register
DN Dlamini                              Erith Trust WSP
BV Memela                               Erith Trust WSP
TM Mbona                                Erith Trust WSP
E Nhlangulela                           Erith Trust WSP
E Mbona                                 Erith Trust WSP
ZE Ngcobo                               Erith Trust WSP
AN Radebe                               Erith Trust WSP
BA Ngcobo                               Erith Trust WSP
SD Mngoma                               Erith Trust WSP
TB Khanyile                             Erith Trust WSP
Mhleli Dlamini                          Sisonke DM
Sakhile Mndaweni                        VBA

Proceedings
Agenda Item 1                   Aim of Local Borehole Monitoring
Presentation          Local borehole monitoring is aimed at assessing
                      groundwater impacts on a local, site-specific scale. The
                      frequency of measurements depends on the use of data
                      and local conditions. Boreholes used for public drinking
                      water supply are monitored weekly or daily if possible.

                      Type of data collected during monitoring is distinguished
                      into:
                          iii)  Data related to quantity (water levels, flow
                                rates, etc.)
                          iv)   Data related to quality (EC, pH and Nitrates)
                      Rainfall data is also collected and used to compare
                      changes in quality and quantity of water with respect to
                      rainfall.

Comments              The community members showed enthusiasm with
                      respect to doing the monitoring.
Agenda Item 2         Water Level Measurement
Presentation          Water level (static water level) measurements are always
                      taken before the borehole is pumped or bailed. It is
                      important to make sure that the borehole has not been
                      pumped since the last night before the measurement is
                      done.


                                      55
                                                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                The appropriate device used to measure water levels
                consists of a twin-core dipmeter with a flexible tape fixed
                to the cable. Water level is measured by lowering
                weighted end of the dipmeter down the borehole until the
                multimeter indicates that the electrical circuit is competed.
                The depth of the water table is read off the tape measure
                at the datum point.

                The information on recharge of the aquifer can be
                obtained by observing behavior of groundwater levels and
                rainfall.

Comments        The individuals in the group had to each do the reading of
                measurements of water level in the borehole.

Agenda Item 3   Field Water Quality Measurements
Presentation    Physical and chemical variables on groundwater are
                measured on the field. Recommended field measurement
                include:
                    iv)    pH (vary between 4.0 and 9.0)
                    v)     Electrical conductivity (less than 3.7 mS/cm)
                    vi)    Nitrates (less than 20 mg/l)
                Field instruments are available.

Comments        Each individual in the group had to do a field test on the
                samples taken. Sampling was in a way of a bailer, since
                the monitoring borehole is separated from other
                boreholes.

Agenda Item 4   Plotting and Interpretation of Data
Presentation    The data related to quantity changes (water levels) is
                plotted against the rainfall accumulated. Plotting the
                column-line graph on 2 axes, with water levels and rainfall
                plotted as column and line respectively, does this and plot
                it against months.

                The graph is interpreted by observing the changes that
                occurs in different months and thus further borehole
                management recommendations can be attained.

Comments        The data of the other borehole monitored was used to plot
                these parameters on the graph paper and further on the
                board that will be used for borehole monitoring in the
                area.



                                 56
                   BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




  ADDENDUM III

LIST OF HANDOUTS




       57
                                                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10




                        IWRM GROUNDWATER


1. Amanzi angaphansi komhlaba ngamanzi atholakala:

      a.   Emifuleni neziziba ezingaphansi komhlaba
      b.   Ematsheni noma emihlabathini ekwaziyo ukubamba amanzi
      c.   Emifuleni namadamu
      d.   Anginalwazi

2. Amanzi angaphansi komhlaba aqhamuka:

      a.   Emanzini emvula angena emhlabathini
      b.   Ezinyokeni ezinkulu ezikhipha amanzi
      c.   Kompompi nasemapayipini
      d.   Olwandle

3. Amanzi angaphansi komhlaba aphuma ngaphezu komhlaba ngalokhu:

      a.   Ngezikhukhula
      b.   Imifula emikhulu
      c.   Ngamapitsi neziphethu
      d.   Anginalwazi

4. Ingabe imigodi yangasese iyawangcolisa amanzi angaphansi komhlaba?

      a. Yebo
      b. Cha
      c. Anginalwazi

5. Ingabe imfuyo eduzane namapitsi neziphethu iyawangcolisa amanzi
   angaphansi komhlaba?

      a. Yebo
      b. Cha
      c. Anginalwazi

6. Ingabe amathuna aseduzane nepitsi noma isiphethu enze amanzi angabi
   sezingeni lokuphuzwa na?

      a. Yebo
      b. Cha
      c. Anginalwazi




                                   58
                                                  BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



7. Ingabe ukugeza izimoto noma amafutha avuzayo emoto eduzane nepitsi,
   kungawangcolisa amanzi angaphansi komhlaba?

      a. Yebo
      b. Cha
      c. Anginalwazi

8. Ingabe ukwenza indawo yokuchitha udoti eduzane nepitsi noma isiphethu
   kungenza amanzi angabi sezingeni lokuphuzwa na?

      a. Yebo
      b. Cha
      c. Anginalwazi

9. Ukungcoliseka kwamanzi angaphansi komhlaba yizindlu zasese
   kungavikeleka ngalokhu:

      a.   Ukugujwa komgodi ojulile wepitsi eduzane nendlu yangasese
      b.   Ukwakhiwa kwezindlu zangasese ezinamapayipi okukhipha umoya
      c.   Ukugujwa komgodi wepitsi buqamama nezindlu zangasese
      d.   Ukugeza izandla emuva kokuya endlini yangasese

10. Indawo eseduzane nepitsi noma isiphethu kufanele ibe njani?

      a. Ihlale ihlanzekile ngasosonke isikhathi
      b. Ihlale inexhaphozi ngoma uma yomile ingenza amanzi aphele
         epitsini
      c. Ibe nehlaphozi elinodaka ukuze imfuyo ikwazi ukuphuza khona
      d. Anginalwazi




                                  59
                                                          BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



                     LOCAL BOREHOLE MONITORING
Inhloso: Ukuqaphela utshintsho emanzini esiwaphuzayo. Lokhu kwenziwa
emigodini yamapitsi.
Ubani okumele akwenze: Ikomidi lamanzi (WSP) endaweni.

Uzinsuku okwenziwa ngazo:
Kubhekwa ukuthi amanzi asetshenziselwani kanye nesimo sendawo.
Ama-water levels akalwa uma injini edonsa amanzi ingasebenzi. Kubhekwa izikhathi
   lapho injini ingasebenzi ngazo.
Ama-boreholes asetshenziselwa ukuphuza, kubalulekile ukuthi ahlolwe masonto onke.
Uhlobo lwe-Data ehlolwayo
Uhlobo lwe-data ehlolwayo luhlukaniswa ngalendlela:
I-Data ehlangene nobungako bamanzi
       Water levels, flow rates, pumping rates and abstraction volumes
I-Data ehlangene nekhwalithi yamanzi
       Physical measurements (e.g. TDS/electrical conductivity EC)
       Chemical measurement (e.g. pH, Nitrates)
Ukuhlolwa kwama-Water level
I-waterlevel ihlolwa kuqala uma injini yepitsi ingakasebenzi. Kubalulekile ukuba
ama-water levels ahlolwe ekuseni uma izinjini zingakadumi. Uma kuhlolwa ama-
water levels, kuvame ukuba kusetshenziswe I-Dipmeter eyenziwe ngentambo
kagesi ihlanganiswe ne-tape (twin-core cable dipmeter, mounted on a hand-
winch, with a flexible, non-metallic tape measure fixed to the cable).
Ama-water levels akalwa ngokuthi wehlise intambo kagesi ihlangene netape
emgodini wepitsi bese ubheka ukuthi uthi lwe-multimeter lunyakaza nini.
Ukunyakaza kothi kwi-multimeter lusuka ku-zero luya enambeni thizeni, kuchaza
ukuthi intambo kagesi isithintene namanzi. Kube sekufundwa I-tape ukuze
kubhekwe ukuthi I-water level yalelo pitsi ishona phansi kangakanani
ngamamitha.
Ukuze kube nesiqiniseko sokuthi I-water level ayinaphutha, kubalulekile ukuba
ngobusuku ngaphambi kokuba kuhlolwe, injini yamanzi icinywe noma imiswe
ukusebenza kuze kuhlolwe amanzi ekuseni bese iyadunyiswa futhi.
Ama-water level amanzi angaphansi komhlaba abalulekile ukuba akalwe
ukuze kwenziwe ucwaningo ngoshintho olwenzekayo uma kuqhathaniswa
nokunakwemvula.

Ukuhlolwa kwekhwalithi yamanzi
Kubalulekile ukuba kuhlolwe ikhwalithi yamanzi njalo uma kuhlolwa ama-water
level. Ikhwalithi iye ihlolwe khona lapho endaweni yepitsi ukuze kusheshe
kubonakale uma kukhona ushintsho olukhona emanzini bese kuthathwa
izinyathelo ezifanele ukuze amanzi acwaningwe ngonjiniyela ukuthi
asesesimweni sokuphuzwa noma cha. Izinto ezihlolwayo lapha yilezi:
pH (okuvumeleke ukuba ibe ngaphezulu kuka-4 noma ngaphansi kuka-9)
EC (okuvumeleke ukuba ibe ngaphansi kuka-3.70)
Nitrate (okuvumeleke ukuba ibe ngaphansi kuka-20)
Imishini yokuhlolwa kwalezinto iyatholakala.


                                         60
                                                                   BRIDGING PHASE ACTIVITY 10



                        EXAMPLE OF MONITORED BOREHOLE

                                    Office Borehole Monitoring

Data
     Months             Water levels           Rainfall
       30-May                26.58                0
        27-Jun               26.76                10
         29-Jul              26.96                0
       29-Aug                27.34                6
       29-Sep                27.69                7
        27-Oct                28                  12
       22-Nov                28.22                76
          8-Dec              28.23                27
        22-Jan                28                  52
       23-Feb                28.12                76
          1-Mar              28.1                 60



Graph

                                         Water level vs Rainfall

                28.5                                                                       80

                                                                                           70
                 28
                                                                                           60
                27.5
                                                                                           50
  Water level




                                                                                                Rainfall


                 27                                                                        40

                                                                                           30
                26.5
                                                                                           20
                 26
                                                                                           10

                25.5                                                                       0
                       30-    27- 29-Jul 29-    29-    27-   22- 8-Dec 22-     23- 1-Mar
                       May    Jun        Aug    Sep    Oct   Nov       Jan     Feb
                                                                                      Water levels
                                                 Months
                                                                                       Rainfall




                                                61