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             By: Ossama Salem

               February 2007
Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

Section I. National Context of Governance

I.1. Overview
The overall context of governance in Egypt shapes, by and large, outcomes of
UNDP interventions. The years 2004, 2005 and 2006 of the cycle under issue
witnessed considerable political dynamics towards enlarging the action space
available for improving governance. The IMF (2006) observes that “from 2000 to
2003, real incomes in Egypt stagnated, unemployment was high and rising, and
the economy was in the doldrums). Cabinet changes in 2004 reflected the
concern of the regime over wide spread public dissatisfaction of public services,
which can spur political unrests. The new government was tasked to accelerate
the pace of economic reform, adopt more progressive policies to attract foreign
investment, and improve living conditions of the income poor. Economic
performance since 2004 has been impressive. Real GDP growth has accelerated
to 5.7% in late 2005 (see IMF, 2006). The Government has announced a real
GDP growth of 7.1% in last quarter of 2006. All macroeconomic figures reflect a
very positive and progressive picture during 2005 and 2006. UNDP devoted the
EHDR to the theme of decentralization for good governance, which came timely
to reflect the importance of effecting political reform in parallel to economic
reform. This echoed the focus of the AHDR (2004): Towards Freedom in the
Arab World. Political reform in Egypt has been fluctuating though.

Late February 2005, a decision was issued to postpone for two years local
council elections. Local councils are elected representatives of citizens and by
constitution (1971), they have the right to hold the executive branch of
government accountable (articles # 161, 162 and 163). Since mid 1970s, various
laws and amendments have resulted in stripping these elected councils from
their mandates. Postponing election sent a signal at a straight odd with the focus
and messages of the EHDR of 2004. Many analysts interpreted this move as a

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set back to political reform, and an indication that the regime is concerned about
possible domination of conservative religious groups of local popular councils.

Early 2005, the President called for changes in the article 76 of the constitution
thus allowing other political parties to nominate runners for the presidency and
having the first multi-candidate presidential election in Egypt‟s history. Election
resulted in sweeping victory of the President, and was followed by parliamentary
election in November and December 2005. The regime sent a very positive
message by activating the constitution (article # 88) and allowing parliamentarian
election to be performed under supervision of judges. The ruling National
Democratic Party (NPD) secured around 70% of the seats, well down on the 87%
it held in the outgoing parliament. Opposition figures won 20% of the seats (total
of 88 seats) in an unprecedented demonstration of presence in the domestic
politics. This came as a considerable setback to NPD and triggered fundamental
changes in the leading figures of the Party‟s secretariat. Legal supervision on the
parliamentary election process, despite some side issues related to limited cases
of alleged rigging, secured an image of free and democratic process.

Since these results, the Government has been tightening control over opposition
(EIU, 2006). On April 2006, the government extended for another two years the
country‟s emergency laws, which have been in place for the last 25 years. Late
2006 witnessed the second presidential call for deepening decentralization and
strengthening of local authorities in two years, an unprecedented attention at the
highest political level. This was followed by a presidential request to change 34
constitutional articles in December 2006. Many analysts indicated that the timing
of this proposal reflected concerns of the regime over the very slow pace of
political reform, and desire to sharpen the image of Egypt as a progressive and
democratic country vis-à-vis external and international parties. The geo-political
conditions and the pressures from different quarters to accelerate the pace of
democratization in the region was another factor depicted by analysts in this

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

The proposed changes, which have been endorsed by the Shura Council and the
General Committee in the People‟s Assembly, send mixed messages in relation
to improved governance and rule of law. On one hand, they focus on the value of
“citizenry” which indirectly deepens commitment to rule of law and respect to
citizens regardless of their religious or social status. They also augment the
power base of the People‟s Assembly vis-à-vis the government; strengthen the
election system to enable other political parties having more presence in the
People‟s Assembly; and open the door for revising and updating the local
administration system in support of decentralization (Mohamed, 2007). On the
other hand, the changes did not really introduce “checks and balances” in
political ruling, and reduce scope of judicial supervision over election. They
ignored articles pertaining more directly to civil freedom, quality of governance
and human rights (# 41, 47, 48) (Saeed, 2007).

Official records indicate that 25% of those eligible to vote participated; and
about 90% agreed to the amendments. Opposition parties called for embargo
of the referendum. They detest the extremely quick pace with which
amendments of 34 articles were endorsed by the people’s assembly (20
hours of deliberations, compared to months in many other cases of much
less critical legislations). They viewed the substance of the amendments
geared towards consolidating power in the hands of the ruling party and open
doors for abuse of human rights with the pretext of fighting terrorism.
Opposition parties              argued that the                 amendments abolished legislative
supervision on election, annulled three items related to protection of civil
liberties (#41, 44, and 45), closed doors for participation of politically
independent figures to run for election as MPs and paved the ground for
continuation of the ruling party in power for generations to come.

I.2. Requirements of the New Social Contract

The old social contract was developed during the Nasser‟s regime in the 1960s.
This implicit contract was based on a two-day give-and-take relationship: the

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state provides subsidized good and services to citizens and grants them jobs in
the public sector; and the citizens give up their associational life and civil
liberties. The new social contract depicted in the EHDR 2005 realizes that this
has been inefficient and costly and created hot bed for corruption. Logically, a
new social contract would revoke the “give-and-take” deal on both sides: the
state quits the role or a „provider‟ and becomes an “enabler” to civil society to
seek their own economic and political choices. The assumptions of the new
social contract are that citizens will graduate out of their dependency on the state
for good and services, and will become entrepreneurs that develop initiatives and
engage vibrantly into the economic, social and political lives. And that the state
will give them back their civil freedom and the space to practice their
associational lives and express ideas. It also entails that citizens will be
“empowered” to participate effectively in decision making about policies affecting
their livelihoods.

The draft CCF 2007-11 of UNDP states that “… the new social contract of EHDR
2005 entails strengthening democratic processes and institutions to secure
citizenship rights and to protect broader human rights… The new social contract
also entails an active citizenry that has a culture of initiatives, rights and freedom
and that is enabled to participate more actively in public life and to organize in
civil formations that can assume oversight roles to secure the outcomes of the
contract”. The previous overview of the political developments in Egypt over
2004-2006 suggest that there will be various challenges, in addition to these
mentioned by UNDP‟s CCF 2007-11, for the new social contract to take hold: the
institutional and regulatory foundations for civil liberties and respect of human
rights; devolution of funded mandates to lower tiers of government; reclaiming
power of the elected local councils to hold the executive branch accountable; and
creating incentives for civil servants to reclaim their sense of duty and work

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Coming closer or staying away from addressing these challenges shaped the
outcome of UNDP interventions in the Governance profile in 2002-2006, and will
continue to shape outcomes for the coming CCFs.

I.3. Capacity of the Civil Society to Influence Policies of Governance

Egypt has a long history of philanthropic and charity organizations. Cairo
University was built by an NGO. Many hospitals were established in the early 20th
century by community organizations.                       NGOs played a pivotal role in women
liberation movement in the 1930s and 1940s. However, the associational life in
Egypt was seriously hampered during the Nasser regime due to the tight grip on
power in accordance with the old social contract (see above). With the advent of
the open door policy of the 1970s, Egypt‟s associational life started to reclaim
some of its vibrancy. This trend has been growing since then. Presently, Egypt
has more than 15000 registered NGOs and non-for-profit foundations. They are
active in various sectors such as heath, education, environment, etc. A few of
these organizations have the capacity to manage meaningful development
interventions. A very limited number of NGOs participates in policy advocacy
(e.g., Arab Women Association, Egyptian Center for Economic Studies, Ibn
Khaldoun Center, El-Mishkah Centre,).                           Their strength is derived from being
chaired by strong political figures, branch of a regional organization, or financed
by strong business figures.                 They do not constitute pressure groups per se.
However, they represent opportunities for UNDP to consider extending support to
strengthen their capacity and expand their policy advocacy efforts.

The associational life in Egypt is marked by dispersed and un-organized
interests. Majority of the most effective minority come from organizations chaired
by strong political and business figures. Labor unions are not included in this
category. They have been have been part and parcel of the political
infrastructure supporting the ruling regime since Nasser’s time.. Professional
syndicates have a mixed profile. Many of them have been categorized as

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

activists. Examples include the Engineering Syndicate, Journalist Syndicate, and
the Judges Club. Internal politics and overheated interface with the state weaken
influence of these organizations on policy.

For about thirty years, NGOs were governed by a law established in the early
1960s. The law empowered the Ministry of Social Affairs (MOSA) to practice
considerable control over operation of the NGOs. In the mid 1990s, the
legislation was updated. The new law augmented control of the state over NGOs.
Currently, the Ministry of Social Solidarity (that replaced MOSA) is running
dialogue with NGOs to revise the law.

The middle class in Egypt are mostly pre-occupied with their struggle to make
ends meet. They have little time to be engaged in political participation. They
have deeply seated apathy towards the political process, which is reflected in the
very weak turnout of voters.

I.4. Policy Making Context

NPD stipulated that “the Cabinet works for the party.” Based on this principle,
NPD established a Policy Secretariat chaired by the son of the President for
policy making purposes. The Policy Secretariat has many committees and think
tanks in various sectors. They are made of selected representatives of
academicians and experts in various sectors. The Policy Secretariat manages
these committees and control quality of their policy development work. Each
year, NPD organizes a national conference to present new policy orientations
and review progress of the government in implementing set policies. The Policy
Secretariat reviews and endorses policy papers presented in the conference.
Respective ministries are normally involved in refining these papers. However,
the ultimate decision sits with the Policy Secretariat. Papers endorsed by the
Conference then become policy references to respective ministries and a source
for preparing their strategies and action plans. For example, the Education

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Committee of the Policy Secretariat of the NPD is considered to be the real
architect of the law on education quality assurance, the latest policy development
in the sector. They monitor progress and activities of the MOE and provide
feedback on various milestones.

I.5. Performance towards MDGs
Democratic governance is essential to achieving MDGs. The UNDP report of
2004 on Egypt‟s performance in MDGs indicated that “…realizing development
objectives require existence of a political environment that is conducive to full
exercise of people‟s rights and liberties.” Egypt is set to meet all MDGs by 2015
with the exception of these related to women empowerment and environmental
sustainability. Establishing the National Council for Human Rights is indeed a
step forward towards building the infrastructure for securing human rights. The
pace of economic reform has been much faster than institutional and political
reforms though.

Section II. UNDP Strategic Positioning

II.1. Partnership Strategy
UNDP partnership is predominantly cost sharing with the Government. Majority
of projects target government agencies. In most cases, this strategy has been
useful in many ways:
    1- Facilitating and enabling resource mobilization;
    2- Working closely with administrative competent authorities on relevant
    3- Enabling targeting government agencies with capacity building and policy
         development initiatives; and
    4- Creating a context that can be utilized for policy advocacy and
         demonstration of reform.

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The figures speak for the virtue of the UNDP partnership strategy. The evaluated
cycle witnessed the highest volume of programme delivery ever (US$177 m)
despite cuts in the core budget. Percentage of the core resources has decreased
from 52% in the cycle 1992-6 to 4% in 2002-6. Government cost sharing
accounts for 72% of all non-core funding. The draft document of the new CCF
states that “…this attests to the relevance of UNDP‟s policy impact and strategic

However, this limited approach to partnership has also its down sides. It makes
UNDP keen on finding a niche within the political and technical comfort zone of
the government, as opposed to be a catalyst for reform. Clearly, this weakens
UNDP‟s ability to advocate policies of democratic governance and human rights.

The key to a partnership strategy is the extent to which UNDP is successful in
creating synergies with other international partners involved in the same focus
area of governance; and degree of coordination between programs that may be
under different focus areas albeit have mutual support interfaces to achieve
common objectives.              In light of this, UNDP‟s bias towards cost sharing as a
predominant partnership strategy weakens opportunities of synergies and
coordination. Perhaps one example of synergies and coordinated programs is
UNDP with the Netherlands Embassy in partial funding of the MISR program.
UNDP also cooperates with the Italian Cooperation to mobilize support for the
slum upgrading project in Ismailia. Both examples are driven by cost sharing
though.         UNDP coordinated with UN-Habitat to design and implement the
Sustainable Ismailia Project during the previous CCF (1997-2001).

There are many other opportunities for building synergies with external support
agencies (ESAs) working on governance issues. The following table depicts a
sample of these.

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

Table 1: Sample initiatives on Governance by ESAs
ESA                 Initiative                                      Synergy with UNDP
USAID                Decentralized Governance and Management of     None
                     Education, with the Education Reform Program

                     EDI                                            Included    in    the
                                                                    forthcoming program
                                                                    on Decentralization
                    Takamol: decentralized health services          None
Ford                Democratization program                         None
Danida              Environment Sector Program – Decentralized      None
                    Environmental Management
UNFPA               An entire profile on empowerment of women –     None
                    stationed inside NCW
GTZ                 Participatory upgrading of slums                Under consideration

The Dutch Embassy leads an donors group on governance. This is an excellent
entry point for UNDP to diversify partnership strategy with other donors. There is
a dire need for UNDP to adopt a more balanced partnership strategy, especially
in case of the governance-related outcomes.

Relevance to National Needs and Priorities
This is the first cycle that UNDP has a theme area on governance, which is a
significant progress and an indicator of increasing tolerance margin within the
government to political reform. The novelty of the subject caused many projects
to be not directly related to improving governance per se, either by the nature of
their scope or due to the way they have been designed. There are certain areas
through which effort can be geared to achieve MDGs within the democratic
governance practices: i) parliamentary development; ii) electoral systems and
processes; iii) access to justice and human rights; iv) a access to information; v)
local governance and decentralization; and vi) public administration and civil
service reform. UNDP was able to establish collaborative efforts with government
agencies in a number of these areas, albeit the focus can receive substantial
improvement in the following cycle.

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Deepening decentralization and encouraging social participation through
transferring powers from ministries and institutes to governorates was included in
the Government Statement delivered by the Prime Minister to the People‟s
Assembly in December 2004.

UNDP Response to Significant Changes in the National Development Context
UNDP developed collaboration with the National Council for Human Rights since
its inception. Collaboration with NCW for women empowerment, and NCCA on
child rights and FGM issue continued and expanded. Other initiatives have been
recently signed on fighting corruption, with the Ministry of Investment. The overall
profile is diverse and covers many aspects that are well on target. Credibility and
prestige attached to UNDP, as well as wealth of knowledge and expertise about
the local context are factors that fostered collaboration opportunities with the
government. Due to the overall strategy of partnership and stress to compensate
for decreasing core budget, UNDP favored collaboration with government
organizations despite dynamics before the 2005 election that suggested needs of
civil society entities to have their organizational capacity strengthened.

II.2. Modality of Implementation (Nex v Dex)

Due to the partnership strategy adopted, majority of the projects are having
national execution (nex) as the main modality of implementation. This is logical
due to the dwindled core budget and the growing cost share of the government.
National execution can facilitate developing in-house capacity within government
agencies. Many daily contacts and interactions between project experts and civil
servants enables transfer of knowledge and expertise.

However, majority of UNDP projects inside national agencies depend on external
consultants and support staff who cannot accept working on civil servant pay
scale after project ends. Projects become vulnerable to changing leadership and
the fluctuating political attention. They develop parallel structures (e.g., project

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

management units, technical units, project coordination units, other units, etc.)
that are not sustainable by default. Nex also affects UNDP‟s accountability for
project results. Accountability sits primarily with the respective executing agency.
Given the nature of the political climate in Egypt and the very conservative
approach to political and institutional reform, projects in the governance track
become completely conditioned by the desires of senior officials happen to lead
the executing agencies. If their desires are geared towards event, training,
manuals, and other outputs, governance projects will follow suite.

In light of this evaluation, Nex has proven to be not the most appropriate modality
for all components of the governance profile of UNDP. The government steers
such projects into a very peripheral concerns away from root causes and
institutional foundations of issues. Training, manuals, events, outputs and parallal
structure units are all symptoms of this problem. National execution moves
UNDP to the comfort zone of the government, which dilutes focus and weakens
possibility of achieving real outcomes and sustainability. UNDP finds itself in a
weak position to influence design or modus-operandi of projects because of
dependence on national execution. Especially in the Governance-related
projects, this should not be the case. UNDP should have more action space to
function as a catalyst for institutional and political reform. Resorting to Nex will
continue to limit this space considerably.

UNDP can step up efforts to leverage more resources from other donors and
different UN agencies to shield governance initiatives from being compromised
by institutional inertia within the government.                 Partnership with international,
regional and local NGOs, as well as other civil society entities cans widen the
horizon of opportunities available for resource mobilization. Capable international
and regional NGOs, as well as strong local NGOs can be trusted to execute
UNDP projects on governance. Renowned research organizations should also
be tapped and utilized by UNDP in this context.

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

II.3. Strategic Positioning

UNDP has been able to work closely with a number of most relevant and
influential national agencies. In a number of cases, this strategic positioning of
UNDP has created considerable opportunities for effective lobbying and policy
change (e.g., cooperation with NCW).

Given the context of policy making in Egypt (see below), UNDP will need to build
bridges with the Policy Secretariat of the ruling party, collaborate with other
political parties to build their capacity in preparation for the coming cycle of
election in 2012, provide support to professional syndicates and women groups
to play a policy advocacy role, and strengthen organizational capacity of youth
organizations to have their voice heard in political development without falling
victims to fundamentalist ideas. Obviously, the current positioning strategy is
driven by resource mobilization ends and not the other way around.
Diversification of UNDP positioning strategy can heart the total size of the profile
in terms of resources, but will surely deepen impact of UNDP interventions
towards improved governance and democratization.

Section III. Development Results and Sustainability Issues

III.1. The Governance Profile: Five outcomes were included under this
theme area:
Outcome 4: National capacities strengthened to contribute to policy development;
Outcome 5: Increased awareness on participation of women in society;
Outcome 6: Access to Human Rights promoted and secured (including
vulnerable groups)
Outcome 7: Improved efficiency and equity in the delivery of public services
Outcome 8: Capacities and partnerships developed of local governance actors
for policy formulation, service delivery and resources management.

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A sample projects were selected under each outcome for this evaluation.

The Concept of Governance
Governance is a concept that does not have a straightforward and easy to
understand equivalent in Arabic. It is related to the quality of relationship between
those who govern and those who are governed. This quality of relationship is
shaped by the institutional environment, both formal and non-formal, as well as
tradition of public action. In the Arab World, progress has been lagging behond
the rest of the world on improving Governance (World Bank, 2003).             AHDR
(2004) made an excellent case for the freedom deficit that the region suffers
from. The term “governance” and any work to improve its quality has been
outside the tolerance margin of the government since mid 1990s. The fact that
UNDP has developed a whole track in the CCF of 2002-6 on governance, and
was approved by the government, is a significant and positive progress.

III.2. Development Results and Sustainability
UNDP‟s Governance profile is characterized by its large size and wide coverage.
This section is organized according to the five outcomes mentioned above. In
each outcome we assess progress made and anticipated and lessons learned.
We also analyze factors that influenced results including partnership forged,
positioning and sustainability of UNDP interventions. The section is concluded
with recommendations for continued UNDP assistance in the governance area.

Outcome 4: National capacities strengthened to contribute to policy
Progress made: UNDP provided important and broad based support to national
government agencies that contributed to capacity development. Notable success
is made through capacity building for the Ministry of Finance (MOF). During the
years of 2004 - 2006, the Ministry has introduced major policy reforms in

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customs and tax laws. The support of UNDP enabled, in part, the MOF to attract
and engage top expertise that helped accelerate the pace of reform. However,
this line of support would have been more appropriate for other external support
agencies concerned with fiscal and economic policies such as the World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund (IMF). In addition, UNDP did not introduce
an exit strategy of these initiatives. This argument is also applicable to UNDP
support to OUDA, the Ministry of Economy and the Ministry of Planning.
Availability of cost sharing resources from these entities seems to have
motivated UNDP to collaborate in these projects. However, they do not
necessarily belong to the governance profile per se and should not have been
included there. A similar example under this outcome is the project on Extension
of the Pediatric Hospitals. This project seems to have been more appropriate for
the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF to undertake. It can hardly be
included under the governance profile per se.

Anticipated progress: Continued economic reform is expected to attract more
foreign direct investment to Egypt over the coming years. Early February 2007,
the President has decreed further custom cuts of 25% on basic food and
production related items. The direct support of UNDP to national government
agencies provide them with needed flexibility to attract and retain critical
expertise to support economic reform. Availability of government resources as
cost sharing seems to strengthen an organizational habit within UNDP to
collaborate in projects that may be more appropriate for other external support

Factors Influenced Results: In the mentioned case of the MOF, there were
national factors that influenced results. Since 2004, the GOE has been so keen
on accelerating the pace of economic reform. This economic reform-conducive
climate is also supported by close political endorsement by the leadership. Other
projects included under this outcome do not exhibit discernable results, but
perhaps activities and outputs.

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Sustainability: UNDP support is not sustainable by default. However, contribution
of UNDP in enabling national agencies attracts and retain critical expertise to
support economic reform has shown to be yielding effective results. Policy
changes that have been partially supported by UNDP contribution are
sustainable outcomes. However, UNDP does not seem to have an exit strategy
in many projects titled “strengthening the capacity of…” which function in reality
as funds available to ministers to hire consultants. This is definitely not
sustainable or conducive to capacity building in the long term. On the contrary,
facilitating dependency on external consultants in ministries runs against
development and enabling young talents from within these organizations. Such
projects also expand the creation of parallel structure units. Existence of such
units is very much dependent on ministers who establish them. UNDP should
revise this outcome fundamentally and check the current interpretation of
capacity strengthening.

Outcome 5: Increased awareness on participation of women in society;
Progress made:
Women empowerment has been a UNDP priority. The latest AHDR (UNDP,
2005) is a flagship reference on the issue in the region. UNDP is working closely
with the NCW since its inception in 2000 to build capacity in policy development,
planning and monitoring in relation to women empowerment. The year 2002
witnessed conclusion of a UN-collaborative effort aimed at strengthening
capacity of NCW. Due to the success of this work, UNDP and NCW decided to
resume cooperation.

In 2003, UNDP and NCW continued collaboration with a focus on strengthening
capacity in policy development, planning, monitoring and advancing status of
women. This included sensitization result-based management (RBM), monitor
and report on CEDAW and the Beijing Platform for Action (BPA) and starting up

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the Center for Political Empowerment. This collaboration has proven successful
in developing capacity of NCW in creation a mind-set and culture of adopting
result-based approaches in planning and reporting. The latest annual conference
of NCW was a demonstration of this impact. Documentation and plans of the
Council were developed in a result-based approach. Positive results were also
recorded in the area of CEDAW monitoring and reporting. NCW realized the
need to involve civil society in reporting about Egypt‟s response to the CEDAW
treaty. The reporting process created a context for partnership between NCW
and civil society for women empowerment, and helped highlighting the need for
specific policy changes.

The Centre for Women Empowerment (CPEW) was another success story.
UNDP and NCW were able to leverage extra resources from the Dutch
Cooperation. The Centre trains women on how to prepare themselves to run for
representative councils‟ election. The Egyptian experience was viewed as a
model for replication by Bahrain and Saudi Arabia.

Despite UNDP efforts in supporting political participation of women through
collaboration with NCW, performance of women in the 2005 election was very
disappointing. The nature of the election system and its dependent on hefty
investments of candidates in campaigns was not enabling to women who could
not afford required resources. The ruling and opposition parties included very
limited number of women in their candidates. Those who received training in
political participation through UNDP collaboration with NCW did not have the
adequate experience and clout to find a niche in the political life.

The presidential request to change the constitution late December 2006 included
a change that would grant women a certain quota in the representative councils.
This institutional and policy change on affirmative action can also be attributed, in
part, to lobbying efforts of UNDP. It is fair to state that the intended outcome is
being progressively achieved.

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

However, there are projects included under this outcome that might not be
necessarily governance-related. Examples include the Integrated Women‟s
Health Project that renovates and refurbish two women‟s health centers in
Sharkia and Ismailia, and establishes health clubs. This input-based project is
clearly alien to the realm of governance per se, and is more appropriate for
WHO, which is more qualified than UNDP in this line of work.

Anticipated progress: UNDP collaboration with NCW is set to continue and to
contribute to further policy and capacity developments. In 2006, UNDP has
signed a new project document with NCW to strengthen knowledge and policy
analysis skills of female MPs to enhance their oversight and legislative functions.
With the advent of the constitutional change on affirmative action (see above),
there will be more action space available for extended collaboration with UNDP
on women empowerment fronts.

UNDP might need to consider expanding cooperation under this theme beyond
NCW to strengthen capacity of civil society organizations that are active
advocates of women issues. There might be a need to extend support to other
political parties, NGOs, and media.

Factors Influenced Results: Political support to women empowerment issue by
the First Lady, the Chairperson of NCW is the key factor. Her leadership and
influence granted NCW and all issues related to women empowerment
considerable political weight.

The steady commitment of UNDP in support of NCW for women empowerment
issues highlighted the need to have a policy on “affirmative action”, or to specify
a quota for women presence in representative councils, especially after the 2005
parliamentary election in which the ruling party did not support many women

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candidates. Collective efforts of journalists, other media figures, and the political
support of the First Lady have yielded policy results.

In this vein, the resident representative met with the First Lady, and the
concerned officer has published an article in El-Ahram highlighting the need for a
policy on affirmative action after the 2005 election.

Sustainability: Through UNDP collaboration, NCW has developed in-house
capacity in the areas of RBM, and monitoring of, and reporting on, the CEDAW
agreement. NCW developed a new institutional tradition of inviting NGOs and
elements of civil society to participate in debate and dialogue about CEDAW
monitoring and reporting. The constitutional changes related to securing quota
for women presence in representative councils qualify as sustainable institutional
changes. These are all aspects of sustainability and testify to effective
collaboration with demonstrable impact on policies and institutional traditions.

Sustainability of refurbished health centers is questionable. It is dependent on
availability of maintenance resources from the Ministry of Health. UNDP should
refrain from such interventions in the future.

Outcome 6: Access to Human Rights promoted and secured
Progress made: There are a number of UNDP projects grouped under the theme
of human rights. They cover various aspects such as awareness rising of officials
in the justice and law enforcement system, support to the National Council of
Human Rights, curtailing the phenomenon of the Female Genital Mutilation
(FGM) in selected villages, and social marketing to address child protection
issues. The project have invested in sensitizing their counterparts on the issues
they respectively address. A notably successful intervention was the Free Village
Model – FMG project, which addressed a societal behavioral norm through
knowledge dissemination and sensitization of the target group. The project
cleared intellectual space highlighting harmful effects of the FMG practice.

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Religious leaders and NGOs were deployed to mobilize collective well of the
targeted communities against the deeply seated norm. However, other UN
organizations are more qualified to undertake this project. Obviously, there is an
apparent need to revise what subjects that can be grouped under governance in
UNDP future cycles.

Other projects included in this category aimed at building capacity of a national
agency, e.g., the projects targeted support to the National Council of Human
Rights. The UNDP project provided training and advisory services, and helped
with preparing annual reports on human rights. These were well received as fair
and exceptionally blunt. However, the Council as an organization is still
developing capacity to implement its mandates. Recurring criticisms of the
Council for being ineffective in influencing most relevant policies have been
featured in the news papers and various fora. The board of the Council was
partially changed in late 2006. Representatives of NGOs in the board were

The projects adopted training and advocacy approach to achieve the stated
outcome. This approach seems to be an apolitical approach to a politically
sensitive issue. The outcome is not being achieved.

Anticipated progress: All projects under this category were active at the end of
the CCF under issue. They are set to continue. The currently adopted approach
in these projects should be revised to tighten their focus on policy and
institutional issues affecting the stated outcome.

Factors Influenced Results: Securing access to human rights is stated clearly in
the Egyptian constitution as a duty of the state since 1971. However, practices of
the law enforcement agencies since late 1950s have laid the foundation of a
tradition that not necessarily a reflective of the constitution. There are structural
issues providing an action space for the opposite of the stated outcome. Article #

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

41 of the constitution empowered the legislature to define time span of
precautionary detention, in which abusive practices have been systematically
adopted for decades. This precautionary detention has been the legal instrument
that created a culture of fear and curtailed a considerable dimension of regulatory
assurances for their civil liberties. The partial change introduced in this context
after calls from the National Council for Human Rights was hardly adequate. The
time span of precautionary detention is considerably longer than other countries.
Articles 47 and 48 of the constitution are related to civil liberties, freedom of
expression and preservation of human rights. However, the constitution
empowers the legislature of the state (Ministry of Justice for this matter) to
elaborate the detailed stipulations and legal instruments. The relevant laws in
these areas arrest these liberties and provide amble space for various
interpretations that shield abusive practices (Saeed, 2006). The overall context of
governance is geared towards control and reluctance of dissent. This might have
prompted UNDP to keep a distance from root causes of addressed issues.

By refraining from touching the structural causes of human rights issues, UNDP
is not yet in a position to have the stated outcome achieved.

Sustainability: Majority of the projects under this category did not aspire to
change policy or institutional foundations of issues they address. Examples
include projects on awareness building of human rights among police officers
and justice officials, and social marketing of child right issues. While training and
media can be effective tools to build awareness and change attitudes, behavioral
norms are also shaped by formal institutional constructs and policies that should
be duly addressed to achieve sustainable outcomes. The same projects could
have been designed to build awareness and also assist respective government
organizations define and address systemic root causes leading to the existing

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

Work on procedural, regulatory and institutional foundations of human rights
issues can hardly be discernable.                     The overall governance context does not
seem to be ripe yet for such a focus. UNDP interventions in this line of work are
not yielding sustainable results.

Outcome 7: Improved efficiency and equity in the delivery of public
Progress made: UNDP collaboration was mostly effective in majority of projects
under this outcome. Selected government services made available on line in a
number of governorates.                   Government e-portal was launched and tested.
Training for governmental middle managers in central ministries and local
government on IT and e-business was conducted. E-government activities were
expanded. A number of districts in selected governorates were fully automated to
enhance quality of service and curb rent seeking of civil servants. The above
mentioned projects did not include policy development in their designs. Their
approach to improve efficiency and equity of public service delivery is technical.
UNDP is collaborating with GOPP in a project aiming at promoting good
governance and induce institutional transformation by decentralizing decision
making and applying participatory planning methods. This explicit focus on
reform issues is not support by activities of the project that are dominated by
training and information technology to link regional offices of GOPP to the
Centre.       SIDA is also a contributor to the project implementation team and
budget. The project has been operating since 2003. It succeeded in establishing
electronic link between GOPP headquarters and regional centers and trained a
number of their staff. However, the project could not achieve its stated objectives
related to institutional transformation, decentralization, and good governance.

Anticipated progress:              All projects under this category are active. They are
expected to continue providing support to government agencies in facilitating
access to information and service improvements. Impact on policy is not included
in stated objectives of the projects. The DPE project that promises institutional

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

transformation towards decentralization and good governance is set to continue
providing training and undertake activities not directly leading to the stated

Factors Influenced Results: The technical approach to governance issue
espoused by the projects included under this outcome falls completely within the
comfort zone of the regime. There is a belief that technology can resolve political
and institutional issues without fiddling with policy or systemic aspects. This
belief is reflective in the way the projects are designed. The level of political
support for these projects is considerable, hence their capacity to deliver outputs.
The mind set of the government supports this line of thinking and buttress
orientations towards skill development, automation and IT-based solutions
without going into institutional roots of issues.
The UNDP collaboration with GOPP in the DP3 project is influenced by the same
mind-set: a technical approach to a political and structural issue. The only
difference was the explicit objectives related to institutional transformation and
good governance. Obviously, these objectives can hardly be achieved by
technocratic means alone. The way the project was designed did not allow
reform-related results to materialize.

Service automation and IT-based solutions to public service issues can bring
about results for a while. However, the “technical fix” approach is vulnerable to
“technical bugs”. Maintenance budgets for the technology can affect operation
and life expectancy of the project. Un-rectified incentives of civil servants can
prompt them to reclaim their control and rent seeking activities by impairing
pillars of the technical solutions. Training on its own can hardly result in changes
in organizational performance. Sustainability of the approach is a suspect.

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

Outcome 8: Capacities and partnerships developed of local governance
actors for policy formulations, service delivery and resource management.
Progress made: The outcome has been partially achieved. Projects contributing
towards this outcome exhibit diverse design approaches and paradigms.
Majority of these projects adopted participatory approaches to human
settlements planning, slum upgrading, local development and economic and
social planning.             A number of objectives are explicitly related to good
governance,          institutional      development             and   decentralization    (e.g.,   MISR,
Implementation Mechanisms and Participatory Slum Upgrading). However, none
of the project was able to achieve the gist of the very ambitious outcome:
capacities and partnerships development of local governance actors for policy

Some milestones towards this end were made though. The MISR Programe
facilitated a participatory planning process that engaged citizens, village councils,
and     representatives           of    government,             private   sectors   and   civil    society
organizations. The program provided grants of LE250,000 to each targeted
village to help implement local development plans. Villages mobilized additional
resources to implement priority projects. The program is a flagship initiative of
UNDP with a total budget of more than USD 11m. MISR injected considerable
dynamics in the targeted communities and generated positive energy in
participatory planning and mobilization of local resources for implementation of
28 micro-enterprises. The program also developed a model of decentralized
procurement and financial transaction templates for local administration units that
are yet to be formalized and integrated into the local development system.

However, there were inherent design problems in the program that caused it to
adopt an input-based community development approach, as opposed to
governance and policy reform. Disbursing funds in the targeted villages created a
fictitious context of empowerment and civil society participation that could not be
sustained. The policy component in the program was rather vaguely designed

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

without elaboration of specific tasks and activities. The expertise deployed had a
clear focus on participatory planning as an end on its own. Concerns over
institutional and policy issues frustrating sustainability surfaced after about two
years of operation when international experts reviewed the program in November
2006. UNDP realized then that there was a need for a more clear focus on policy
of decentralization.

The Implementation Mechanism project prepared a first draft of a revised urban
planning law in 2004. This draft was geared towards expanding the participatory
process and opening the planning process, at an early stage, to public debate
and contributions, as a pre-requisite to develop ownership and partnership for
implementation. The draft law was endorsed by the previous leadership of GOPP
and presented to the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities
(MHUUC) as a chapter of the “draft Comprehensive Building Law”. The core
ideas and principles drafted by the Implementation Mechanisms received various
enhancements and refinements by the MHUUC. However, the original gist of the
proposal remained tact until present. The implementation mechanism project was
able also to define structural and policy issues obstructing implementation of
urban plans inside GOPP, new communities and old communities. The project
prepared institutional and organizational development proposals for reform. It
suffered from extended delays to present these proposals to the decision making
level within the MHUUC due to fluctuating political attention during 2004 and
2005 away from reform. With the advent of leadership change of GOPP, the
project was brought to a close. More pressing priorities of preparing urban plans
of 400 villages in desert hinterlands prompted channeling project resources into a
revised project document (see below).

The slum upgrading strategy project extended UNDP collaboration with GOPP.
The project aims at supporting the government to plan 400 villages in desert
hinterlands using participatory approaches, and developing a strategy and
demonstration for participatory slum upgrading. Activities of the project however

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

translate these into training, manuals and guidelines. The project design adopts
an academic approach and does not touch policy and institutional aspects
related to participatory planning or slum upgrading. Given that it is at a very early
stage of operation, more time will be need to develop a more clear assessment
of its impact in relation to the outcome.

Anticipated progress: UNDP collaboration will enable the government to deepen
the practice of participatory planning for the 400 villages in the desert hinterland.
This will build a cadre of professionals in this line of work for years to come.
More training and manuals on participatory slum upgrading will be prepared.
Rudimentary start towards developing a strategy for slum upgrading might be
made. However, it is not clear whether this will come close to achieving this
The MISR program will be restructured to support a new program on
decentralization currently being formulated by UNDP and the Ministry of Local
Development. This is one of the most promising initiatives of UNDP. However,
there will be a need to strengthen the focus on fiscal issues in relation to
decentralization. The Ministry of Finance will need to be featured more strongly in
the conceptualization of the decentralization initiative. MISR will become a part of
the wider program, and will provide support to its planned results. This will
enhance utility of investments.
Other upgrading projects included under this outcome will continue to operate
and deliver outputs in their specified locations (e.g., the Hallous and El-Bahtini
project), albeit without an impact on policy. UNDP should look into strategic
coherence of these projects together with a view to extract lessons learned for
policy dialogue on policy and structural issues related to generation of slums in
Egypt. Related issues of public finance, tenure, land market, municipal finance,
and permit procedures should be addressed.
UNDP is set to achieve positive outcomes in the Luxor city project, given the high
political profile of the first phase, and the level of political attention associated
with its success.

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

Factors Influenced Results: Design of the projects, in addition to the level of
political support granted to them are key factors to the achieved results. The very
ambitious nature of the outcome made it incompatible with the overall political
climate and the governance context. Local governance actors do not come near
policy formulation in Egypt. This outcome is indeed beyond capacity of UNDP or
any other external support agency for that matter. Projects included fell way short
of achieving the outcome due to their design problems and fluctuating political
support.        They were given initial go-ahead by the government due to their
apolitical nature that came within the tolerance margin.

Sustainability: Most of the projects included in this outcome are output based
(400 plans of villages in desert hinterlands, upgrading of existing slums, manuals,
micro-enterprise projects, village development plans, training, etc.). These
outputs will exist for many years to come. Their utility can be considerable
especially that many of them are duties for this government. Sustainability of
outputs is conditioned by availability of funds for maintenance, demand for use,
and relevance. Given that the outcome was not achieved, there is very little that
can be said about sustainability of the outcome.

III.3. Implementation and Management Issues
The flow of information within UNDP between managers of different components
of the governance profile (decentralization, urban development, parliamentarian
support, access to justice, etc.) seems to leave a considerable improvement
space. Despite weekly program meetings and occasional meetings of project
managers, there is little evidence that lessons learned and challenges
encountered are being shared among project officers. There is a general
tendency to defend projects to avoid critique of superiors or weakened positions
within the office. These are not exactly characteristics of learning organizations.
The style of managing projects exhibits considerable diversity from considerable
professional distance to micro-management. Obviously, there is a need for a

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

clear organization-wide guidance on this score. Exchange and sharing of lessons
learned should be viewed as a professional strength and not a source of
frustration. The role of the leadership in this respect can highly be overstated.

III.4. Recommendations
    1. Tighten focus on policy changes and institutional reform. UNDP
         should tighten the focus of its interventions on policy development,
         changes and advocacy. A good example of successful UNDP projects has
         been the EHDR 2004 and 2005. These reports provided the knowledge
         base for informed policy debate and have potentials to highlight areas for
         reform. Projects should have an enhanced policy and institutional focus
         that are well coordinated across sectors and outcomes. The New CCF
         (2007-11) reflects a commendable focus on policy changes under two
         outcomes (# 4 and 5) with the goal of “fostering democratic governance”,
         especially in the theme related to FGM that defines a specific law that
         needs amendments on the issue. The focus is much sharper in the areas
         related to civil society observation and legal supervision of election,
         participatory law making, and preparation and adoption of an anti-
         corruption strategy.
    2. Revise the practice of converting capacity building objectives into
         training and manuals. UNDP should revise the current practice of
         converting capacity building objectives of projects into training and
         manuals. Capacity building embodies human resources development,
         organizational development and institutional development;
    3. Introduce mid-term review of all projects as a standard requirement.
         Many projects of UNDP have been on-going for many years without
         review. Others have benefited from review after two years of operation.
         UNDP should make mid-term review a standard requirement and feature
         in all projects. Mid term review should be result and outcome based.
    4. Mainstream result-based management in project design. UNDP
         should mainstream result-based management in project design. Policy

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

         outcomes should be supported by policy-related activities (e.g., reviews of
         regulatory frameworks and organizational structures, enable stakeholders
         to articulate reform proposals, mobilize political support through policy
         dialogues and seminars with decision makers, etc.). Project design should
         differentiate between inputs, activities, outputs, outcomes and impacts.
         Indicators should support outcomes.
    5. Build capacity of the staff in managing governance and human rights
         initiatives. To enhance outcomes of UNDP projects, staff should have
         their conceptual understanding of governance and human rights
         sharpened. There might be a need for a series of internal policy seminars
         where guest speakers come to share their experience about reform in
         various sectors with the staff. Members of the staff should be encouraged
         to run such internal seminars and prepare for them. This learning by doing
         process can provide a context for learning and cross fertilization of ideas.
    6. Consider establishing an advisory board on policy and institutional
         reform. UNDP can build an independent think tank of experts in policy
         reform and institutional development to provide advise and consultation to
         the staff, project designers and managers. Membership of the advisory
         board can be changes from one year to the other. Members can be
         selected to provide balanced and diversified perspectives from different
         backgrounds. All members should be local savvy, well versed about the
         policy context, reform minded, and independent.
    7. Strengthen links to the Policy Secretariat of the Ruling Party and
         Ministry of Finance. The NPD‟s Policy Secretariat and the Ministry of
         Finance are the two places where most policies are made in Egypt. The
         MOF is the leader of the Economic Group in the Cabinet, and is known to
         be a very strong ministry. Fiscal decentralization is a real challenge to
         reform in Egypt. The MOF is the main counterpart on this account. The
         NPD Policy Secretariat is known to be the real architect of many policies
         and selection of members of the cabinet. UNDP should strengthen their

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

         cooperation and continuous dialogue with both parties to sharpen policy
         relevance of the various initiatives.
    8. Strengthen policy oversight capacity of the Parliament in light of the
         new constitutional amendments. The recently proposed constitutional
         amendments by HE the President and endorsed by the Shoura Council
         and being debated in the People‟s Assembly presents a number of
         opportunities for UNDP efforts in support of good governance and
         democratization. The amendments augment the oversight and supervisory
         power of the Parliament over the government. These amendments also
         empower the Parliament to revise the proposed national budget over a
         longer time span than the current case. These new roles require
         enhancing in-house capacity of the related committees and MPs in
         general in policy analysis. UNDP has already signed a project document
         with the Parliament to strengthen capacity in legislation and oversight of
         World Trade Organizations and other trade agreement. This is a
         welcomed start. However, there is still a real need to strengthen policy
         analysis capacity of related committees and MPs in relation to new
         legislations in the areas of democratic governance and human rights,
         national budget review, economic and fiscal policies, and interactions with
         voters and constituencies on possible impacts of proposed policies.

III.5. Conclusion

UNDP has succeeded in bringing acknowledgement of decentralization as a
priority policy issue since the previous ADR (2002). There has been a focus on
the government as a prime partner for capacity strengthening. There is presently
a scope to reconsider this focus and diversify partners of UNDP to include
political parties, NGOs, syndicates, the policy secretariat of the ruling party, and
other civil society entities to widen and deepen debate on reform in the society.
There is a scope to reduce the focus on capacity building for central ministries
and pay more attention in the coming CCF on developing a clear national

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final

framework for decentralization and local governance, including all related policy
issues pertaining to municipal and public finance, fiscal decentralization, local
election, local popular councils, incentive structure of civil servants in local
administration, and accountability of the local officials to local people. UNDP
needs also to focus on Upper Egypt, where the poorest districts happen to exist.
They should be a prime beneficiary of UNDP collaborations for improved local
governance and decentralization. UNDP should also continue support to Human
Rights Council with a focus on organizational development and institutionalizing
linkages with executive ministries. There is also a scope to extend cooperation
with human rights NGOs and research organizations focusing on these issues to
inject more dynamism in debate about human rights in Egypt and encourage
policy development. The NHDR should continue to provide intellectual insights
and data guidance to the policy debate about reform, with clear linkages to
performance towards achieving MDGs. Collaboration with anti-corruption bodies
should be stepped up, capitalizing on the recent Prime Ministerial announcement
that there will be an anti-corruption group established. There is considerable
advancements in this line of work that Egypt can catch up with, with the support
of UNDP.

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Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final
    Appendix 1: MYFF Governance Outcomes and Projects: 2002-2006
 4- National capacities                  2.1    Policy Support for   2.1.2   Broad based national governance      00012338   PEO II                         Closing
 strengthened to contribute to                  democratic                   programmes reflecting capacity
 policy development                             governance                   building goals

                                                                                                                  00031368   OUDA Secretariat               Active

                                                                                                                  00031817   Development of projects        Active
                                                                                                                             services by OUDA

                                                                                                                  00012345   Capacity Building for the      Active
                                                                                                                             of Economy
                                                                                                                  00012349    Capacity Building for the     Active
                                                                                                                             of Finance

                                                                                                                  00012367   Creation of a Policy Advice    PA phase
                                                                                                                             Unit at MOP                    Closed

                                                                                                                             Strenthening the capacity of   Signed 2006
                                                                                                                             the Egyptian parmiament in
                                                                                                                             legislation & oversight of
                                                                                                                             WTO and other trade
                                                                                                                             agreements (NA)
                                                                                                                             Strengthening the Capacity     awaiting
                                                                                                                             of the Ministry of Social      signature

                                                                                                                  00033340   DSS                            Active

                                                                                                                  00012335   Extension of the Pediatric     Active

 5- Increased awareness on               2.3    Electoral systems    2.3.4   Women's participation in elections   00012340   Support the National           Active
 participation of women in society              and processes                as voters and candidates increased              Council for Women
                                                                             and sustained

February 2007                                                                                                                                                             32
Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final
                                                                                                       00012341   Integrated Women Health       Closing

                                                                                                       00031748   CPEW                          Closed

                                                                                                                  Strenthening the knowledge    Signed 2006
                                                                                                                  & policy analysis skills of
                                                                                                                  female MPs to strengthen
                                                                                                                  their oversight and
                                                                                                                  legialtive functions (NA)

                                                                                                       00040235   Gender TTF                    Closed

 6- Access to Human Rights               2.4    Justice and Human   2.4.2   Human right promoted and   00012329   Pilot Project for Capacity    Closed??
 promoted and secured (including                Rights                      protected                             Building in Human Rights
 vulnerable groups)                                                                                               (phase II)

                                                                                                       00037332   Support to the National       Active
                                                                                                                  Council for Human Rights

                                                                                                                  BENNAA                        Active

                                                                                                       00012361   FGM Free village model        Active

                                                                                                       00012364   Think Twice                   Active

February 2007                                                                                                                                                 33
Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final
                                                                                                                00037558   Support to ENNAA              Active

 7- Improved efficiency and equity       2.5    E-Governance and    2.5.2   Improved transparency, efficiency   00012324   Capacity Building of          Active
 in the delivery of public services             access to                   and accountability of government               EGSMA & NARSS
                                                information                 functions to civil society

                                                                                                                00012339   Support to the Ministry of    Active
                                                                                                                           International Cooperation,
                                                                                                                           Donor Coordination
                                                                                                                           Support & Technical
                                                                                                                           Assistance Unit
                                                                                                                00012355    Enhancing local              Active
                                                                                                                           development & governance
                                                                                                                           issues using IT Support
                                                                                                                00036228   Development Planning          Active
                                                                                                                           Support (DPS)
                                                                                                                00012379   Decentralization Plan,        Active
                                                                                                                           Participation & Partnership
                                                                                                                00040150   Supporting the E-             Active
                                                                                                                           government Initiative
                                                                                                                           (Ministry of Administrative
                                                                                                                           Anti corruption - Ministry    Signed in
                                                                                                                           of Investment                 2006

                                                                                                                00012352   MOAD capacity building        Active ???

 8- Capacities and partnerships          2.6    Decentralization,   2.6.2   Capacities and partnerships         00012357   Implementation                Active
 developed of local governance                  local governance            developed of local governance                  mechanisms of the Strategic
 actors for policy formulation,                 and urban/rural             actors for policy formulation,                 Development Plan of
 service delivery and resource                  development.                service delivery and resource                  Southern Egypt
 management.                                                                management.

February 2007                                                                                                                                                         34
Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final
                                                                00012360   Participatory Slum             Active
                                                                           Upgrading in El Hallous
                                                                           and El Bahtini
                                                                00012328   Economic and Social            Closed
                                                                           Planning for Spatial

                                                                00012323   Sustainable Development in     Closed
                                                                           Ismailia Governorate

                                                                00036732   MISR                           Active

                                                                           EGY98/005                      Closed

                                                                00012322   Comprehensive                  Closed
                                                                           Development of the City of
                                                                           Participatory & Integrated     Awaiting
                                                                           Health and Social Urban        signature
                                                                           Development (HSUD)
                                                                           Comprehensive                  Signed in
                                                                           Development of Luxor           2006
                                                                           Project Phase II
                                                                           Participatory and integrated
                                                                           slum upgrading enhanced in
                                                                                                          Signed 2006
                                                                           Egypt (including local
                                                                           economic development)

February 2007                                                                                                           35
Evaluation of the UNDP Governance Profile - revised and final


IMF (2006) Egypt on the Move, 2006 Article IV Consultation, IMF Country Report No.
06/253, Washington DC,
Mohamed M (2006) The General Committee of the People‟s Assembly Endorses
Unanimously the Presidential Request of Constitutional Amendments, in El-Masri El-
Youm – No 940, p. 4, 9th January, Cairo, (in Arabic)
Saeed M (2006) The Issue of Freedom in the Constitutional Amendments, in El-Ahram,
15th January, Cairo (in Arabic)
The Economist Intelligence Unit (2006) Country Report – Egypt, May 2006, Dartford,
Kent, UK
UNDP (2004) Choosing Decentralization for Good Governance, Egypt Human
Development Report (EHDR), Cairo,
UNDP (2005) Choosing our Future: Towards a New Social Contract, Egypt Human
Development Report (EHDR), Cairo,
UNDP (2004) Towards Freedom in the Arab World, Arab Human Development Report,
UNDP (2005) Towards the Rise of Women in the Arab World, Arab Human
Development Report, NY, USA
World Bank (2003) Better Governance for Development in the Middle East and North
Africa – Enhancing Inclusiveness and Accountability, MENA Development Report,
Washington DC

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