Docstoc

Powerpoint Format - University of Toronto

Document Sample
Powerpoint Format - University of Toronto Powered By Docstoc
					    Barry Wellman               (Director, NetLab)

              Kristen Berg,Jeffrey Boase,
         Juan-Antonio Carrasco, Rochelle Coté,
  Bernie Hogan, Jennifer Kayahara,Tracy L.M. Kennedy,
 Centre for Urban & Community Studies University of Toronto
                  Toronto, Canada M5S 1A1
wellman@chass.utoronto.ca     www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                            The Team
                              www.connectedlives.ca



                                                     Bernie
           Rochelle Jeff      Tracy Phouc Barry               Juan
Kristen                                                                    Inna




               www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
     Special Thanks to Jeff Boase, Bernie Hogan, Tracy Kennedy & Kristen Berg
                      For Contributing to Today’s Presentation
              Outline: Connected Lives
      • Study of networks and communication patterns
        in a wired (& wireless) world
      • Transformation towards Networked Individualism
      • Social Networks Meet Communication Networks
      • Research Questions
      • East York
      • Data Collection
           – Survey
           – Interviews
           – Observations
      • Preliminary Findings
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
             Research Themes
• Social Structure:
   – Shift from Solidary Groups, Densely-Knit Networks to
     Multiple, Diverse, Sparsely-Knit Networks
• Social Practices – “Networked Individualism”
   – Shift to Person-to-Person Community
   – Multiple, Partial Allegiances
• Multiple Communication Media – “Glocalization”
   – Incorporation of Computer Media Communication
   – Wireless & Personalized: Less Dependence on Space & Group
• Multiple Social Rhythms:
   – Managing Complex Lives
   – Work; Domestically; Community
• Domestic Life:
   – Negotiated Schedules, Practices; Networked Households
• Personal Knowledge Management:
   – Finding Stuff in a World with More Information, Less Certainty
                        Basic Principles
• ICT Use Embedded in Everyday Life
• Door-to-Door > Place-to-Place >
     Person-to-Person
• Mobile-ization
• Super-Connectors



www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                                 Key Foci
• Networking of households
• Composition and management of
     personal networks
• Finding cultural information online and offline




www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Icarian “Cyber-Angel”
Wired magazine cover
December 1999

www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
       Three Ages of Net Studies

     Prehistoric: Communities as Social Networks
    First Age: Anticipatory Hype, Isolated Analyses
    Second Age: Documentation
          For Gov‟t, Academe, Commerce, Public Interest
          – Ethnographies
          – Surveys – Access, Users and Uses
          – Applications: CHI, etc
    • Third Age: Computerized Media in Everyday Life
          – Longer Range Changes Towards a Network Society
          – Focused, In-Depth Real-World Studies

www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
    Social Affordances of
Computer-Mediated Connectivity
     Technological Characteristics That Affect How
       People & Institutions Behave & Connect
     • Bandwidth
     • Ubiquity – Anywhere, Anytime
     • Convergence – Any Media Accesses All
     • Portability – Especially Wireless
     • Globalized Connectivity
     • Personalization
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Laptop Users in a Café, 2005   (courtesy Valdis Krebs)
                    Groups > Networks
     • Change from People Participating in Solidary,
       Often-Local, Densely-Knit Groups
     • To People Participating in Partial,
       Often Dispersed, Sparsely-Knit Networks
     • Not Bowling Alone, but Bowling in Networks
     • Change Started Before ICTs
          – Trains, Planes, Cars, Wired Phones
     • We Believe that CMC has Affected –
       and Accelerated – the Change to
       Networked Individualism
     • A Goal of Connected Lives is to
       Assess the Evidence
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                  Groups to Networks




www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                                 Data
   • Survey N= 350; Response rate: 56%
   • 1-2 Hour drop-off
   • computers, jobs, networks, civic involvement,
     attitudes
   • SPSS & UCINet / NetDraw
   • Interviews N =87; Response rate: 85%
   • 2-4 Hour Full Evening
   • NVivo Qualitative Analysis
   • Household/gender, internet use, networks -
     name generator, search: culture, health
   • Observations of computerized search behavior
   • Photographs
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                                 The Survey
        •   Drop Off / Pick Up Survey
        •   30 page instrument
        •   Developed over 8 months: Nov 03  June 04
        •   Random sample of 700 adults
        •   Drop off/Pick up
        •   Surveying done: July 04  March 05
        •   50% response rate: N=350
        •   Data entry in SPSS


www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Survey Respondent Characteristics
        •   57% women
        •   Median age = 45
        •   62% married/partnered
        •   40% with university degree or more
             – 27% high school or less
        • Median HH income = $50-75K/yr
             – Median personal income = $30-40K/yr
        • 80% have computers at home
             – 75% use internet at home
             – Median 21 emails sent per week (mean = 5)
             – 10 hours online per week
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
     Interviews and Observations
        •   25% sub-sample of the survey: N = 87
        •   Interview protocol developed Sept 04  Jan 05
        •   In-home semi-structured interviews
        •   Conducted by grad students, Feb 05  April 05
        •   Each interview lasted 2 to 4 hours
        •   Used voice recorder – not tape recorder
        •   Ease of working with computer audio files


www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Toronto in North America




          Source: Dan Heap Parliamentary Campaign 1992 (NDP)
                  East York in Toronto




www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Houses and Apartment Buildings in East York
  Learning new things                                                           1.67

               (N=274)
Connecting with friends                                                      1.58
               (N=270)
       Connecting with
                                                                      1.46
               relatives
               (N=252)
Getting health care info                                        1.38

               (N=216)
     The way you work                                          1.35
               (N=235)
      Managing money                                           1.34
               (N=183)
       Connecting with
                                                        1.20
             household
               (N=177)
              Shopping                           1.04

               (N=184)
  Meeting new people                             1.03
               (N=100)


                            0         0.5       1.0                   1.5               2.0
                           Has not          Somewhat                                   Much
                           affected           easier                                   easier


   Perceived ease of using the internet (mean)
N= Number of people engaged in that activity online
  Networked Households: Overview
                       with Tracy L.M. Kennedy


• The Place of Computers in Households
• ICT Use in Households
   – Negotiation and Conflicts
• Gendered Power over Household Computers
   – Roles & Responsibilities



www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
The Place of Computers in Households

• Nearly half (46%) of those with a home
  computer have at least one in a home office
   – Half of these have broadband

• People reorganize household spaces
  to accommodate computer use


www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Computer integrated into a family room
              Location of Home Computers
                          % of all
                         computer    % of total sample
Location
                          owners          (N=328)
                          (N=265)
Office / study              46              38
Living room                 24              20
Rec room / family room      23              19
Child(ren)'s bedroom        18              14
Master bedroom              12              10
Other                        7               6
Kitchen                      2               2
Time of Day when Home Internet Used

Time of Day      N                  %
5-8am            47                 18

8am-12pm         89                 34

12pm-5pm         89                 34

5pm-11pm        217                 83

11pm-5am         78                 30

                 Percentage of Internet Users
                  ICT Use in Households

•    60% of home users never argue computer use
•    Most disagreements happen “some of the time”
•    Different users at different times of day
•    Multiple computers is often the solution
•    Evening is the bottleneck
•    Little reported stress and conflict
•    People do Not feel that their time online
     interferes with household life
    www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Number of Home Computers   N     %

           0               69    21

           1               164   50

           2               64    20

           3               22     7

           4                7     2

           5                1    <1

           7                1    <1
                   Reorganizing Spaces




www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                                 3 children – 3 computers
      Gendered Use of Computers
• Time Use Analysis
• Women spend more time in gendered tasks:
  – chores and cleaning, childcare, cooking and baking
• Men spend more time on yard work, maintenance
• Men spend 23% more time on the internet:
  11.9 hours as compared to 9.7
• Women tend to communicate
• Men tend to seek information
Communicating with                                                                   3.5
            others                                                            3.1


                                  0.8
 Health information
                                   0.9


Product information                      1.1
         / shopping                                     1.9


                                                                  2.4
General information
                                                                                           3.7


     Work / school                                       2.0
           related                                               2.3


                      0.0   0.5   1.0          1.5      2.0      2.5    3.0         3.5      4.0

                                                 Male         Female

            Mean number of hours per week spent
         on home internet (for those with the internet)
          Strength of Ties and ICTs
                                 with Jeffrey Boase
• Has Internet Affected Network Size?
• Has Internet Affected In-Person,
    Phone Contact?
• Has Internet Affected Role Composition?
• Has Internet Affected Where People Interact?



www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
 The Physical Reality of “Virtual” Space

• Most “virtual” socializing is with people
     who are known offline
• Are those with many ties more likely
     to use the Internet to keep in touch?
   – Email affords contact with many ties
      • Asynchronous –
          can make contact at convenient times
      • Control - over time spent on each email
      • Broadcast - email many people at once

www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
    Measuring Personal Networks
• Need to measure network size
• Problem
  – People rarely quantify their network size
        in everyday life
• Solution
  – Prompt by relation categories (McCarty et al 2001)
     immediate kin, neighbors, etc
  – Don‟t ask about acquaintances – too many

www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Please think about the people currently in your life who do not live with
   you. We would like you to consider those who you are
   VERY close to, and those who you are SOMEWHAT close
   to
VERY CLOSE:
• Those that you discuss important matters with
• Those that you regularly keep in touch with, or
• Those who are there for you if you need help

SOMEWHAT CLOSE:
• More than just casual acquaintances, but not „very close‟

    – Members of your immediate family who don‟t live with you
         (such as parents, siblings, children)
    – Other relatives
    – Neighbours
    – People you currently work with, or go to school with
    – People you know only online
    – People from organizations
         (such as church, sports leagues, business associations)
    – Friends not included above
    – Other people not included above
          Ve ry clo s e




  So m e wh a t clo s e




 All t ie s co m b in e d




                            0   20          40         60        80        1 00       120   140

                                     Nu m b e r o f n e t wo r k m e m b e rs (t ie s )




Network Size for Very Close, Somewhat Close, All Close Ties
                            Role Variety
Mean number of somewhat and very close ties by role
                           Mean number      % of        Mean number of       % of
                           of very close   very close   somewhat close   somewhat close
                           ties              ties       ties                  ties


Immediate kin                    3.7        37.9              1.6             10.0

Extended kin                     2.8        14.4              4.3             18.8

Neighbours                       0.9         5.6              2.4             10.2

Work / school associates         1.3         8.4              3.9             16.5

People known only online         0.3         1.3              0.3              2.0

From voluntary                   1.1         5.1              3.6             13.8
associations

Other friends                    3.3        25.4              5.2             25.3

Others                           0.1         1.5              0.4              2.5
    Mean number of somewhat and very close ties -- by role
                          Mean               % of   Mean
                          number            very    number           % of
                          of                close   of somewhat   somewhat
                          very close ties    ties   close ties    close ties
Immediate kin
                                3.7         37.9       1.6           10.0

Extended kin                    2.8         14.4       4.3           18.8


Neighbors                       0.9          5.6       2.4           10.2


Workmates/schoolmates           1.3          8.4       3.9           16.5


People only
known online                    0.3          1.3       0.3            2.0


From voluntary
organizations                   1.1          5.1      3.6            13.8

Friends
   (not included above)         3.3         25.4      5.2            25.3


Others                          0.1          1.5      0.4             2.5
Mean frequency of contact with network members -- by media


                                 See in person
   Medium / social context



                             Regular telephone

                                         Email

                                 Mobile phone

                                  Visit or host

                              Instant message

  Meet at bar / restaurant

                                                  0.0     5.0    10.0    15.0      20.0
                                                        Number of ties contacted

                              At least weekly      Between weekly and monthly
Number of ties contacted monthly by media & network size
                                     30.0
  Number of ties contacted monthly


                                                                                 See in person
                                     25.0
                                                                                 Regular
                                                                                 telephone
                                     20.0                                        Email

                                                                                 Cell phone
                                     15.0

                                                                                 Instant
                                     10.0                                        Message
                                                                                 See at bar or
                                                                                 restaurant
                                      5.0                                        Visit or host


                                      0.0
                                            Small        Medium      Large
                                            (0 - 16     (17 to 35    (36 or
                                             ties)        ties)     more ties)
                                                      Network size
Mean days per month of social activity by overall network size

                       14

                       12

                       10
 Days per month




                                                                           Small
                                                                            (0 - 16 ties)
                          8
                                                                           Medium
                                                                            (17 to 35 ties)
                          6
                                                                           Large
                                                                            (36 or more ties)
                          4

                          2

                          0
                              g




                                                  in



                                                          ng
                                          t




                                                                       e
                                        ou




                                                                    lin
                              n




                                                         ri
                                                 p
                            ti




                                                                   n
                                               ro
                          ee




                                                          u
                                      g




                                                                  O
                                                        bo
                                   an



                                              D
                      M




                                                               at
                                                      gh
                                  H
                      .




                                                              h
                  eg



                                  .




                                                  ei



                                                              C
                              eg
                  R




                                                  N
                              R




                                              Social Activ ity
     Managing Social Networks
                             with Bernie Hogan
• Multiple media used for
  coordinating in-person interactions
   – Mobile phones, regular telephone, email, IM, blog,
     personal address
• For every medium, there is contact info
      (telephone number, etc.)
• How much of networking is maintaining this
  information?
• How much is context-specific/habitual knowledge
  (such as friends at work)

www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                   Managing Contacts?

      • By telephone (telephone numbers)
      • In person (place and time)
      • By email (email addresses)




www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
Methods/tools to remember personal information: days per month


  Phone Numbers     Days   Occasions          Days   Email Addresses    Days

 Phone book          5.4   Memory             24.4   Existing msg.      18.5
                           Wall calendar             Comp. program
 Memory (N=299)     22.3   (N=290)            16.2   (N=211)            17.3
                           Reminders                 Auto-complete
 Rolodex (N=253)    12.9   (N=219)             8.2   (N=206)            21.1
 Ask someone
 (N=246)             3.9   Post-its (N=190)   11.9   Memory (N=201)     15.6
 Stored on phone                                     Ask someone
 (N=219)            20.7   Agenda (N=175)     18.7   (N=183)             4.2
                           Comp. program             The internet
 Post-its (N=202)    7.4   (N=113)            15.1   (N=161)             5.5
 The internet              Pocket calendar
 (N=194)             6.4   (N=106)            11.9   Post-its (N=141)    4.4
 Comp. program
 (N=151)            10.2   PDA (N=49)         20.0   Rolodex (N=127)     8.5

 PDA (N= 49)        18.4   Assistant (N=27)   15.4   PDA (N=45)         15.3
        How are these contact
       managers used? Planning!
Making plans with those who are very close
                                                % who use Median
Very   close:   In person                          100% Weekly
Very   close:   Landline phone                      98% Weekly
Very   close:   Email                                68% Less than weekly
Very   close:   Mobile phone (voice)                54% Weekly
Very   close:   Instant messaging                    20% Less than weekly
Very   close:   Mobile phone (text)                  19% Monthly or less

Making plans with those who are somewhat close
Somewhat        close:   In person                  100%    Weekly
Somewhat        close:   Landline phone              98%    Less than weekly
Somewhat        close:   Email                        67%   Monthly
Somewhat        close:   Mobile phone (voice)         54%   Monthly
Somewhat        close:   Mobile phone (text)          18%   Monthly
Somewhat        close:   Instant messaging            17%   Monthly
                           Sources of cultural information
                            People in Network                                                    70.9

                                      Internet                                                 68.4

                     People Outside of Network                             35.4
Information source




                                  Newspapers                        27.8

                         Location-Specific Info                    25.3

                           Existing Knowledge                19.0

                                    Magazines               16.5

                                    Television             13.9

                                         Radio        10.1

                         Print Ads & Brochures       8.9

                                        Other       6.3

                                              0.0   10.0   20.0 30.0       40.0   50.0   60.0 70.0    80.0
                                                             Percent who use source
Towards Networked Individualism
• Specialized ties.
• Different network members supply:
  emotional support, information, material aid, social identity,
  sense of belonging
• Connections with multiple social milieus,
     with limited involvement in each milieu
• Increased choice of milieus in which to get involved.
• Each milieu has limited control over behavior
• Each has limited commitment to individual well-being
• Low sense of group memberships
• Low pressure to belong to groups
• ICTs lubricate, gap-fill & maintain relationships
 www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
  Networked Individualism (cont’d)
• Active networking more than group participation
• Cross-cutting ties link & integrate social milieus
• Maneuvering: opportunity, contingency, uncertainty
• Ties to other networks resources in themselves
• From 2-step flow to spiral of communication
    – Dialectic between web and social networks
• Must actively maintain sparsely-knit ties, nets
• Latent ties rekindled
• Ascriptive > Achieved
 www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
                The Bigger Picture
             Groups              Networks
** Each in its Place             Mobility of People and Goods **
•   United Family                Serial Marriage, Mixed Custody
•   Shared Community             Multiple & Partial Personal Nets
•   Neighborhoods                Dispersed Communities
•   Group Surveillance           Privacy / State Surveillance
•   Control                      Autonomy
•   Voluntary Organizations      Informal Leisure
•   Face-to-Face                 Computer-Mediated
•   Public Spaces                Private Spaces
•   Visibility                   Anonymity
•   Focused Work Unit            Networked Organization
•   Job in a Company             Career in a Profession
•   Autarky                      Outsourcing
•   Office, Factory              Airplane, Internet, Cellphone
•   Ascription                   Achievement
•   Hierarchies                  Multiple Reporting Relationships
•   Conglomerates                Virtual Organizations/Alliances
•   Cold War Blocs               Fluid, Transitory Alliances
Thank You – Barry Wellman for NetLab

        wellman@chass.utoronto.ca
      www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman
www.chass.utoronto.ca/~wellman/netlab/ABOUT/index.html

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:4
posted:3/22/2011
language:English
pages:49