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					                               HINDI KALOLSAVAM 2008
                                     GHSS KARAKUNNU
                                     The history of Hindi
a major language of India. Hindi started to emerge as Apabhramsha in the 7th century and by the 10
century became stable. Several dialects of Hindi have been used in literature. Braj was the popular
literary dialect until it was replaced by khari boli in the 19th century.

              Background: The period of Prakrits and Classical Sanskrit

      750 BCE: Gradual emergence of post-vedic Sanskrit
      500 BCE: Prakrit texts of Buddhists and Jains originate (Eastern India)
      400 BCE: Panini composes his formal Sanskrit grammar (Western "India" then --- now probably
       in modern Afghanistan or Pakistan), reflecting transition from Vedic to formal Paninian Sanskrit
      322 BCE: Brahmi script inscriptions by Mauryas in Prakrit (Pali)
      250 BCE: Classical Sanskrit emerges. [Vidhyanath Rao]
      100 BCE-100 CE: Sanskrit gradually replaces Prakrit in inscriptions
      320: The Gupta or Siddha-matrika script emerges.

                        Apabhramshas and emergence of old Hindi
      400: Apabhramsha in Kalidas's Vikramuurvashiiya
      550: Dharasena of Valabhi's inscription mentions Apabhramsha literature
      779: Regional languages mentioned by Udyotan Suri in "Kuvalayamala"
      769: Siddha Sarahpa composes Dohakosh, considered the first Hindi poet
      800: Bulk of the Sanskrit literature after this time is commentaries. [Vidhyanath Rao]
      933: Shravakachar of Devasena, considered the first Hindi book
      1100: Modern Devanagari script emerges
      1145-1229: Hemachandra writes on Apabhramsha grammar

              Decline of Apabhramsha and emergence of modern Hindi
      1283: Amir Khusro's pahelis and mukaris. Uses term "Hindavi"
      1398-1518: Kabir's works mark origin of "Nirguna-Bhakti" period
      1370-: Love-story period originated by "Hansavali" of Asahat
      1400-1479: Raighu: last of the great Apabhramsha poets
      1450: "Saguna Bhakti" period starts with Ramananda
      1580: Early Dakkhini work "Kalmitul-hakayat" of Burhanuddin Janam
      1585: "Bhaktamal" of Nabhadas: an account of Hindi Bhakta-poets
      1601: "Ardha-Kathanak" by Banarasidas, first autobiography in Hindi
      1604: "Adi Granth" a compilation of works of many poets by Guru Arjan Dev.
      1532-1623: Tulsidas, author of "Ramacharita Manasa".
      1623: "Gora-badal ki katha" of Jatmal, first book in Khari Boli dialect (now the standard dialect)
      1643: "Reeti" poetry tradition commences according to Ramchandra Shukla
      1645: Shahjahan builds Delhi fort, language in the locality starts to be termed Urdu.
      1667-1707: Vali's compositions become popular, Urdu starts replacing Persian among Delhi
       nobility. It is often called "Hindi" by Sauda, Meer etc.
      1600-1825: Poets (Bihari to Padmakar) supported by rulers of Orchha and other domains.
                            Modern Hindi literature emerges
   1796: Earliest type-based Devanagari printing (John Borthwick Gilchrist, Grammar of the
    Hindoostanee Language, Calcutta) [Dick Plukker]
   1805: Lalloo Lal's Premsagar [1] published for Fort William College, Calcutta [Daisy Rockwell]
   1813-46: Maharaja Swati Tirunal Rama Varma(Travancore) composed verses in Hindi along
    with South Indian languages.
   1826: "Udanta Martanda" Hindi weekly from Calcutta
   1837: Shardha Ram Phillauri, author of "Om Jai Jagdish Hare" born
   1839,1847: "History of Hindi Literature" by Garcin de Tassy in French [Daisy Rockwell]
   1833-86: Gujarati Poet Narmad proposed Hindi as India's national language
   1850: The term "Hindi" no longer used for what is now called "Urdu".
   1854: "Samachar Sudhavarshan" Hindi daily from Calcutta
   1873: Mahendra Bhattachary's "Padarth-vigyan" (Chemistry) in Hindi
   1877: Novel Bhagyavati by Shardha Ram Phillauri
   1886: "Bharatendu period" of modern Hindi literature starts
   1893 Founding of the Nagari Pracharni Sabha in Benares [Daisy Rockwell]
   1900: "Dvivedi period" starts. Nationalist writings
   1900: "Indumati" story by Kishorilal Goswami in "Sarasvati"
   1913: "Raja Harishchandra", first Hindi movie by Dadasaheb Phalke
   1918-1938: "Chhayavad period"
   1918: "Dakshin Bharat Hindi Prachara Sabha" founded by Mahatma Gandhi.
   1929: "History of Hindi Literature" by Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla
   1931: "Alam Ara" first Hindi talking movie
   1930's: Hindi typewriters ("Nagari lekhan Yantra")[Shailendra Mehta]
   1936: Kamayani, the most celebrated Hindi epic poem, written by Prasad

                                           Our age
   1949: Official Language Act makes the use of Hindi in Central Government Offices mandatory
   1949-50: Hindi accepted as the "official language of the Union" in the constitution. Debates a, b,
    c.
   1952: The Basic Principles Committee of the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan recommends that
    Urdu be the state language.
   1965: Opposition to "Blind Hindi-imposition by Congress" in Tamilnadu, where Tamil- the
    predominant Dravidian Language, lives brings DMK to power.Congress lost its base.
   1975: English medium private schools start asserting themselves socially, politically, financially
    [Peter Hook].
   1985-6: Devanagari word processor, Devyani DTP software, both from Dataflow (?).
   1987-88: Frans Velthuis creates Devanagari metafont. [Shailendra Mehta]
   1990: According to World Almanac and Book of Facts Hindi-Urdu has passed English (and
    Spanish) to become the second most widely spoken language in the world [Peter Hook].
   1991: ITRANS encoding scheme developed by Avinash Chopde allows Hindi documents in
    Roman and Devanagari on the Internet.
   1997: Prime Minister Deve Gowda emphasises promotion of Hindi and the regional languages,
    having himself learned Hindi recently.
   1997: Hindi Newspaper Nai Dunia on the web (January) (Or was Milap first?)
   1998: Thiru Karunanidhi, the DMK leader, recites a Hindi verse during a political campaign,
    indicating a change in views.


                                  Indian Poets Writing In Hindi
        Ajneya / Agyeya (1911–1987) Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan Ajneya is a pioneer of
modern trends in the realm of Indian poetry. In literature, Hindi moved from a phase of revivalist
cultural nationalism in the 1910s to mainstream Gandhian nationalism in the 1920s and the early
1930s. Over the following two decades Hindi, while firmly rooted in native ground, opened up and
responded to various international literary movements by going through phases of Romanticism
(Chhayavad, represented by the poets Nirala, Mahadevi Varma etc.), Modernism (Prayogvad,
represented by Ajneya and the Tar Saptak poets) and, later, Progressivism (Pragativad, represented by
Muktibodh and others). Through these greatly speeded up and therefore sometimes apparently
contrary stages of development, Hindi came abreast of contemporary literary trends and movements
sweeping the world. Ajneya bought experimentalism (prayogvaad) in the Hindi literature. Tar Saptak
was an influential literary publication-series, launched in 1943, associated with a spirit of
experimentalism in Hindi poetry, which, in turn, shaped the New Poetry or Nayi Kavita. In the 1950s,
Muktibodh was a significant poet, but not very well known. From 1950 to mid-1960s, it was Ajneya who
presided over Hindi poetry. The most prominent exponent of the 'Nayi kavita' (New Poetry) movement
in Hindi, he edited the 'Tar Saptaks'. Ajneya edited many literary journals and also launched his own
Hindi weekly, Dinaman, thus establishing new standards in the field of Hindi journalism. Ajneya has to
his credit sixteen volumes of poetry, three novels, travelogues and several volumes of short stories and
essays. Amongst the most well-known of his poetry anthologies are Aangan Ke Paar Dvaar,
Chakranta-Shila, Kitni Naavon Mein Kitni Baar, Hari Ghaas Par Kshan-bhar, Indradhanu Raunde Hue
ye etc. His major prose works include Shekhar : Ek Jeevani. Agyeya was an extensive traveller, and in
course of his travels held visiting positions at various institutions around the world. He received
numerous honours such as the Sahitya Akademi award, Jnanpith award, Bharatbharati award and the
international            Golden              Wreath              award            for             poetry.

Shamsher Bahadur Singh (1911-93) --- Shamsher Bahadur Singh was born in Dehradun. He was
associated with Kahani, Naya Sahitya, Maya, Naya Path and Manohar Kahaniyan, in editorial positions.
He edited the Urdu - Hindi Kosh for Delhi University (1965-77). He headed the Premchand Srijan-Pith,
Vikram University (1981-85). His poetry-collections include Kuchh Kavitayen, Kuchh Aur Kavitayen,
Chuka Bhi Nahin Hun Main, Itne Pas Apne and Bat Bolegi. He received the Madhya Pradesh Sahitya
Kala Parishad Tulsi Puraskar (1979) and the Sahitya Akademi award (1977) for his work Chuka Bhi
Hun                                            Nahin                                          Main.

Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh (1917-64) ---- Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh's first book was published in
1964, when he was on his death-bed : Chand Ka Muh Teda Hai ( The Face of the Moon is
Crooked). Bhuri Bhuri Khak Dhul is another work of poetry by Muktibodh. Kath Ka Sapna and Satah Se
Uthta Admi are collections of short stories and Vipatra is his novel. Muktibodh Granthavali ( Complete
Works) has been published in five volumes. Muktibodh was the forerunner as well as the culmination
of the whole progressive movement in Hindi poetry.

Kunwar Narayan (b. 1927) --- Kunwar Narayan was born in Faizabad, Uttar Pradesh. He received a
Master's degree in English literature from Lucknow University. He is a businessman by profession. He
has served as Vice-chairman of the Uttar Pradesh Sangeet Natak Academy in 1976-79 and as a
member of the editorial board of Naya Pratik ( The New Symbol), a monthly magazine edited by S. H.
Vatsyayan, during 1975-78. Among his important works are Chakravyooh (Poetry), Teesra Saptak
(Poetry), Parivesh Hum Tum (Poetry), Koi Doosra Naheen (Poetry), Atmajayee (Epic), Akaron Ke Aas-
Paas (Short Stories) and Aaj Aur Aaj Se Pehley (Criticism). Among the honours he has received are
Hindustani Academy Award, Prem Chand Award, Tulsi Award, Vyas Samman, Kumarn Asan Award
and Sahitya Akademi Award (1995). Address: S-371,Greater Kailash, New Delhi 110 048.

Raghuvir Sahay (1929–1990) --- Raghuvir Sahay was born in Lucknow. His was a versatile
personality in Hindi --- poet, translator, short-story writer and journalist. He was the editor of the weekly
Dinaman. His books of poems include Log Bhool Gaye Hain (They Have Forgotten, 1982), which
brought him the Sahitya Akademi Award (1984), Atmahatya Ke Viruddh, Hanso Hanso Jaldi Hanso and
Seedhiyon                              Par                             Dhoop                            Hein.
Shrikant Verma (1931-86) --- Shrikant Verma was born in Bilaspur, Madhya Pradesh. He received an
M.A. in Hindi from Nagpur University. He moved then to Delhi, where he worked in journalism and
politics. In 1976 he became an elected member of the Rajya Sabha, the upper house of the Indian
Parliament. During the late 1970s and early 1980s he was an official and spokesman of the Congress
(I) Party. He published nearly twenty books in Hindi. His important collections of poetry are Jalsaghar (
The Pleasure Dome; 1973) and Magadh ( 1984 ). His honours include visits to the Iowa International
Writing Program (1970-71 and 1978), and the Madhya Pradesh Government's Tulsi Puraskar in 1976.

Kedarnath Singh (b. 1934) --- Kedarnath Singh was born in Chakia in the Ballia District of Uttar
Pradesh. He studied at the Benaras Hindu University where he received his Master's degree in 1956
and doctorate in 1964. He taught at various colleges in Benaras, Gorakhpur and Pandrauna, before
moving to Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, as Professor of Hindi in 1978. He retired as the
Head of Department in 1999 and was appointed Professor Emeritus by the University. He has
published several books of poetry, works of prose, poetry translation and criticism. Among his works
are Abhi Bilkul Abhi (Poetry), Zamin Pak Rahi Hai (Poetry), Yahan Se Dekho (Poetry), Akal Mein
Saras (Poetry), Uttar Kabir aur Anya Kavitayen (Poetry), Kalpana Aur Chhayavaad (Critical Essays),
Mere Samay Ke Shabd (Critical Essays), Adhunik Hindi Kavita Mein Bimb Vidhan (Research) and
Pratinidhi Kavitaen ( Selected Poems). He has edited an anthology of Hindi poetry after 1960 for the
Sahitya Akademi and has translated into Hindi the poetry of Brecht, Baudelaire and Rilke. In the
cultural hub of Benaras, he was associated with the Progressive Writers’ Movement. The honours and
awards Kedarnath has received include Kumaran Asan Award (1980), Delhi Hindi Academy Samman,
Nirala Puraskar, Vyas Samman and Sahitya Akademi Award (1989). Address: A 88/3 SFS Flats
Saket, New Delhi - 110017.

Chandrakant Deotale (b. 1936) --- Chandrakant Deotale was born in Jaulkhera, Betul district, Uttar
Pradesh. He taught literature in Government colleges of Madhya Pradesh. Among his publications are
Haddiyon Men Chhipa Jvar, Deewaron Par Khoon Se, Roshni Ke Maidan Ki Taraf and Bhookhand Tap
Raha Hai. Among the awards and honours he has received are Muktibodh Fellowship, Makhanlal
Chaturvedi                Puraskar                and              Shikhar              Samman.

Dhumil (1936-75) --- Sudama Pandeya 'Dhumil' was born in a village of Varanasi district (Uttar
Pradesh). He obtained a Diploma in 'Electrical Engineering' from ITI, Varanasi and worked as an
Instructor in the same Institute. Sansad Se Sadak Tak and Kal Sunna Mujhe are two of his poetry
collections. Kal Sunana Mujhe was honoured with Sahitya Akademi Award (1979).

Vinodkumar Shukla (1937) --- Vinod Kumar Shukla has more than twenty publications to his credit,
including Laghbhag Jaihind (poetry), Vah Aadmi Naya Garam Coat Pahankar Chalagaya Vichar Ki
Tarah (poetry), Nauker Ki Kameej (novel) and Perh Par Kamra (short stories). Vinod Kumar is the
recipient of several awards including Shikhar Samman (1995), Muktibodh Fellowship, Raza Puraskar,
Raghuvir      Sahay    Smriti    Puraskar     and  the   Sahitya     Akademi     Award    (1999).

Ashok Vajpeyi (b. 1941) --- Ashok Vajpeyi was born in Durg. He acquired a Postgraduate degree
from Delhi University. He was a civil servant by profession. He edited journals like Poorvagraha, Kavita
Asia and Bahuvachan. He was the first Vice chancellor of Mahatma Gandhi International Hindi
University. Among his works are Shahar Ab Bhi Sambhavna Hai (Poetry), Ek Patang Anant Mein
(Poetry), Agar Itne Se (Poetry), Tatpurush (Poetry), Kahin Nahin Vahin (Poetry), Ghaas Mein Dubaka
Akash (Poetry), Tinka Tinka (Poetry), Bahuri Akela (Poetry), Philhal (Critical Essay), Samay Se Bahar
(critical essay) and Thodi Si Jagah (Selected Love Poems). The awards and honours received by him
include Dayawati Modi Kavi Shikhar Samman and Sahitya Akademi Award (1994) for Kahin Nahin
Wahin (Poetry). Address : A4,First Floor, New Friends Colony, Dr.C.V.Raman Marg, New Delhi
110065.

Leeladhar Jagoori (b. 1944) --- Leeladhar Jagoori was a teacher by profession. He has several
publications to his credit including Shankha Mukhi Shikharon Par, Natak Jari Hai, Is Yatra Men, Raat
Ab Bhi Maujud Hai, Bachi Hui Prithvi Par and Anubhav Ke Aakash Mein Chand. He received the
Sahitya Akademi Award (1997) for Anubhav Ke Aakash Mein Chand (Poetry).
Address:           Jagoori           Sadan,        Joshiyara,         Uttarkashi,          Uttaranchl.
Mangalesh Dabral (b. 1948) --- Mangalesh Dabral was born in Kafalpani, Tehri Garhwal. He is a poet,
a journalist and a translator. He works with Jansatta, the Hindi daily published by the Indian Express
Group. Mangalesh has published several collections of poems including Pahar Par Lalten (1981), Ghar
Ka Rasta (1988) and Ham Jo Dekhate Hain (1995). He has also published a travel Dairy, Ek Bar Iowa
(1996) and a collection of articles, Lekhak Ki Roti (1998). Awards and honours received by him include
Omprakash Smriti Samman (1982), Shrikant Verma Puraskar (1989), Shamsher Samman (1995),
Pahal Samman (1996) and Sahitya Akademi award (2000) for Hum Jo Dekhte Hain (Poetry).. He has
translated from English into Hindi works of Berlolt Brecht, Hans Magnus Enzensberger, Yannis Ritsos,
Ernesto Cardenal, Pablo Neruda, Dora Gaben, Stanca Pencheva, Zbigniew Herbert etc. Travelled and
gave poetry readings in Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Russia. Visited Iowa city as fellow of
International Writing Programme at the University of Iowa. Address: 337 Nirman Apartments, Mayur
Vihar                      I,                    Delhi                    110                     091.

Arun Kamal (b. 1954) --- Arun Kamal was born in Nasariganj, Rohtas (Bihar). He is a Professor in the
Department of English, Science College, Patna University. He has several publications to his credit,
including Apni Keval Dhar and Naye Ilake Mein. He is also the author of Kavita Aur Samay (Poetry and
Time) – a collection of literary essays. He is the recipient of Bharat Bhusan Agrawal award and Soviet
Land Nehru award. He received the Sahitya Akademi Award (1998) for his poetry collection, Naye
Ilake Mein. Address : 4, 'Maitry' - Shanti Bhavan, R. Das Road, Patna - 800004. E-mail:
arunkamal123@rediffmail.com

Teji Grover (b. 1955) --- Teji Grover has published several collections of poetry including Lo Kaha
Sanbari and one novel, Neela. Teji has translated a choice of Swedish poets into Hindi, working
together with the Swedish writer Lars Andersson;The collection has been published by Vani Prakashan
(2001) --- Barf ki Khusboo (The Fragrance of Snow). In 1989, she received the Bharat Bhushan
Aggrawal       Award    for      young    Hindi    poets.      She     lives    in    Hoshangabad.

Gagan Gill (b. 1959) --- Gagan Gill was born in New Delhi and received an M.A. in English from the
University of Delhi. She works as a journalist in Hindi and Punjabi, and has been the literary editor of
the Hindi Sunday Observer and the Hindi editor of the Telegraph. Her first work, Ek Din Lautegi Ladaki
(The Girl Will Return One Day), appeared in 1989. Other publications of Gagan include Andhere me
Buddha,     Yah     akanksha    samay     nahin     and    Thapak     thapak   dil   thapak     thapak.

Udayan Vajpeyi (b. 1960) ---Udayan Vajpeyi was born in Bhopal. He is a doctor by profession; teaches
physiology. He is the author of several books.

Anamika (b. 1961) --- Anamika, who holds a doctoral degree in Donne criticism through the ages and
did her post-doctoral research on the treatment of love and death in post-war American women poets,
is a Lecturer in English at Satyawati College, Delhi. She has authored several collections of poems,
novelettes and a collection of short stories. Her works include Samay Ke Shahar Mein,1989,
Beejakshar, 1992, Anushtup, 1998, Kavita Mein Aurat, 2000 and Khurduri Hatheliyan, 2005. She has
also done several translations, including works of Octavio Paz and Girish Karnad. The awards and
honours she has received include Bharat Bhushan Award for Poetry (1996), the Girija Mathur Samman
(1998), the Sahityakar Samman (1998), the Parampara Samman (2001) and the Sahityasetu Samman
(2004).


                                Jnanapeeta awards
1965   G Sankara Kurup                 Odakkuzhal (Flute)                          Malayalam
1966   Tarashankar Bandopadhyaya       Ganadevta                                   Bengali
1967   Kuppali Venkatappagowda PuttappaSri Ramayana Darshanam                      Kannada
1967   Umashankar Joshi                Nishitha                                    Gujarati
1968   Sumitranandan Pant              Chidambara                                  Hindi
1969   Firaq Gorakhpuri                Gul-e-Naghma                                Urdu
1970   Viswanatha Satyanarayana        Ramayana Kalpavrikshamu
                                          (A resourceful tree:Ramayana)          Telugu
1971   Bishnu Dey                         Smriti Satta Bhavishyat                Bengali
1972   Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar'            Urvashi                                Hindi
1973   Dattatreya Ramachandra Bendre      Nakutanti (Four Strings)               Kannada
1974   Vishnu Sakharam Khandekar          Yayati                                 Marathi
1975   P.V.Akilan                         Chitttrappavai                         Tamil
1976   Asha Purna Devi                    Pratham Pratisruti                     Bengali
1977   K.Shivaram Karanth                 Mookajjiya Kanasugalu (Mookajjis dreams) Kannada
1978   Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Ajneya'Kitni Navon Men Kitni Bar
                                          (How many times in many boats?)        Hindi
1979   Birendra Kumar Bhattacharya        Mrityunjay (Immortal)                  Assamese
1980   S. K. Pottekkatt                   Oru Desattinte Katha (Story of a land) Malayalam
1981   Amrita Pritam                      Kagaj te Canvas                        Punjabi
1982   Mahadevi Varma                     Yama                                   Hindi
1983   Maasti Venkatesh Ayengar           Chikkaveera Rajendra
       (Life and struggle of Kodava King Chikkaveera Rajendra)                   Kannada
1984   Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai                                               Malayalam
1985   Pannalal Patel                     Maanavi Ni Bhavaai                     Gujarati
1986   Sachidanand Rout Roy                                                      Oriya
1987   Vishnu Vaman Shirwadkar (Kusumagraj)                                      Natsamrat
       Marathi
1988   Dr.C. Narayana Reddy                                                      Telugu
1989   Qurratulain Hyder                                                         Urdu
1990   V. K. Gokak                        Bharatha Sindhu Rashmi                 Kannada
1991   Subhas Mukhopadhyay                                                       Bengali
1992   Naresh Mehta                                                              Hindi
1993   Sitakant Mahapatra                                                        Oriya
1994   U.R. Ananthamurthy                                                        Kannada
1995   M. T. Vasudevan Nair               nalukettu                              Malayalam
1996   Mahasweta Devi                                                            Bengali
1997   Ali Sardar Jafri                                                          Urdu
1998   Girish Karnad                      Tuglaq                                 Kannada
1999   Nirmal Verma                                                              Hindi
1999   Gurdial Singh                                                             Punjabi
2000   Indira Goswami                                                            Assamese
2001   Rajendra Keshavlal Shah                                                   Gujarati
2002   D. Jayakanthan                                                            Tamil
2003   Vinda Karandikar                                                          Marathi
2004   Rahman Rahi                                                               Kashmiri [5]

                          SAHITYA ACADEMY AWARDEES - HINDI
YEAR      WRITER                          BOOK
1955      Makhanlal Chaturvedi            Him-Tarangini (Poetry)
1956      Vasudevasaran Agrawala          Padmavat Sanjivini Vyakhya (Commentary)
1957      Acharya Nerendra Dev            Bauddha Dharama Darshan (Philosophy)
1958      Rahul Sankrityayan              Madhya Asia Ka Itihas (History)
1959      Ramdhari Sinha 'Dinkar'         Sanskrit Ke Char Adhyaya (A Survey of Indian Culture)
1960      Sumitranandan Pant              Kala aur Bhura Chand (Poetry)
1961      Bhagwaticharan Verma            Bhoole Bisre Chitra (Novel)
1963      Amrit Rai                       Premchand: Kalam Ka Sipahi (Biography)
1964      'Agyeya' (S.H. Vatsyayan)       Aangan Ke Par Dvar (Poetry)
1965      Nagendra                        Rasa Sidhanta (Treatise on poetics)
1966      Jainendra Kumar                 Muktibodh (Novelette)
1967      Amritlal Nagar                  Amrit aur Vish (Novel)
1968      Harivansh Rai Bachchan          Do Chattanen (Poetry)
1969      Shrilal Shukla                  Rag Darbari (Novel)
1970         Ram Vilas Sharma                 Nirala Ki Sahitya Sadhana (Biography)
1971         Namwar Singh                     Kavita Ke Naye Pratiman (Literary criticism)
1972         Bhawani Prasad Mishra            Buni Huyi Rassi (Poetry)
1973         Hazari Prasad Dwivedi            Alok Parva (Essays)
1974         Shiv Mangal Singh 'Suman         Mati Ki Baraat (Poetry)
1975         Bhisham Sahni                    Tamas (Novel)
1976         Yashpal                          Meri Teri Uski Baat (Poetry)
1977         Shamsher Bahadur Singh           Chuka Bhi Hun Nahin Main (Poetry)
1978         Bharat Bhushan Agarwal           Utna Vah Suraj Hai (Poetry)
1979         Dhoomil                          Kal Sunana Mujhe (Poetry)
1980         Krishna Sobti                    Zindaginama-Zinda Rukh (Novel)
1981         Trilochan                        Tap Ke Taye Hue Din (Poetry)
1982         Harishankar Parsai               Viklang Shraddha Ka Daur (Satire)
1983         Sarveshwar Dayal Saxena          Khutiyon Par Tange Log (Poetry)
1984         Raghuvir Sahai                   Log Bhool Gaye Hain (Poetry)
1985         Nirmal Varma                     Kavve aur Kala Pani (Short stories)
1986         Kedarnath Aggarwal               Apurva (Poetry)
1987         Shrikant Verma                   Magadh (Poems)
1988         Naresh Mehta                     Aranya (Poems)
1989         Kedarnath Singh                  Akaal Mein Saras (Poetry)
1990         Shiv Prasad Singh                Neela Chand (Novel)
1991         Girija Kumar Mathur              Main Vaqt Ke Hun Samne (Poetry)
1992         Giriraj Kishore                  Dhai Ghar (Novel)
1993         Vishnu Prabhakar                 Ardhanarishwar (Novel)
1994         Ashok Vajpeyi                    Kahin Nahi Wahin (Poetry)
1995         Kunwar Narain                    Koi Doosra Nahin (Poetry)
1996         Surendra Verma                   Mujhe Chand Chahiye (Novel)
1997         Leeladhar Jagoori                Anubhav Ke Aakash Mein Chand (Poetry)
1998         Arun Kamal                       Naye Ilake Mein (Poetry)
1999         Vinod Kumar Shukla               Deewar Main Ek Khirkee Rahathi Thi (Novel)
2000         Manglesh Dabral                  Hum Jo Dekhte Hain (Poetry)
2001         Alka Saraogi                     Kali-Katha : Via Bypass (Novel)
2002         Rajesh Joshi                     Do Panktiyon Ke Beech (Poems)
2003         Kamleshwar                       Kitne Pakistan (Novel)
2004         Viren Dangwal                    Dushchakra Mein Srashta(Poetry)
2005         Manohar Shyam Joshi              Kyap (Novel)
(No Award   in 1962)

Kabir (1398-1468 or 1440-1518)

was born to Julaha (Muslim weavers) parents. Kabir is known for his voluminous Kabir Granthavali
which contains various verse forms with love as the dominant motif. He employed the bhakti
(devotional) sensibility to resist the world-view which imposed the degradation on him and his fellow
low-born. His devotional couplets dohas have played a vital role in moulding the Indian ethos.

Goswami Tulasidas (1532-1623) is the finest poet that Hindi literature has produced to date. His
works, of which Ramcharitamanas (The Lake that is the Story of Rama) is unarguably the
greatest, are relevant at three levels-aesthetic, moral and social. His lofty idealism continues to
inspire his readers, even today.

Bihari (1595-1664) achieved immortal fame by writing just one book Satasai (Seven Hundred
Verses). His name finds mention in the Imperial Gazeteer alongwith Tulsidas and Surdas. He wrote
in Brijbhasha ( a dialect spoken in the Brij region of Uttar Pradesh) about love. To him God was
love, love God. His couplets have been compared to barbs, for they strike deep.

Munshi Premchand (1880-1936) was the foremost novelist in Hindi and Urdu. His last completed novel
in Hindi, also acclaimed as his finest, was Godan (The Gift of a Cow, 1936). The greatness of Godan
lies in its unparalleled and indepth depiction of the Indian rural milieu. It has been translated into almost
all the major Indian languages as well as many foreign languages. Premchand's other epic novels
include Rangabhumi (The Theatre or Arena, 1925) and Karmabhumi (Arena of Action,1932) where the
focus is on the nationalist struggle of the country.

Maithili Sharan Gupt (1886-1964) is considered as one of the pioneers of 'Khari Boli' (plain dialect)
poetry and the author of the first ever epic in modern Hindi literature. In his literary career
spanning 57 years, Gupt has written over sixty works, comprising forty nine collections and
seventeen translations of poetry and drama. He was perhaps, the only poet in Independent India
to be honoured with the title 'National Poet'. In Saket (Ayodhya, 1932), the poet draws on the
mythological tale of Rama, falling back heavily on Tulasidas's epic Ramcharitamanas. Also evident
are influences of Valmiki's Ramayana, Bhavabhuti's play Uttara Rama Charita, Kalidasa's
Raghuvamsa and the Mahabharata of Vyasa.

Jaishankar Prasad (1889-1937) is one of the pioneers of the Hindi literary movement called
Chayavada. Lehar (Wave), his last collection of poems was published before his great poem,
Kamayani (1936), and clearly demonstrates his lyrical and narrative mastery. Alongwith Ansu
(Tears), an earlier long poem and Kamana, an allegorical play, Lehar forms a prelude to
Kamayani, an allegorical epic poem. His unique sense of history and remarkable insight into the
spiritual malady that plagues modern civilisation, set Jaishankar Prasad apart from his poetic
peers.

Suryakant Tripathi (1899-1961) achieved fame through his pen-name 'Nirala' (the unique),
deriving inspiration from the best minds of the Indian Renaissance, then flourishing in Bengal.
Nirala was a born genius and sans formal education, studied Indian classics, philosophy and
culture. Deeply rooted in Indian culture, he stood against the Establishment, gaining recognition
as a poet of revolt. Besides twelve collections of poetry, which included Apara (The Earthly
Knowledge, 1947) Nirala also penned six novels, many short stories, essays and criticism, and also
translated from Sanskrit and Bengali. Renowned for his prose, Nirala is also associated with
bringing in free verse in the modern era.

Sumitranandan Pant (1900-77), author of twenty eight published works including poetry, verse
plays and essays, was honoured with the prestigious Padma Bhushan (1961), Jnanpith (1968),
Sahitya Akademi and Soviet Land-Nehru Awards for his immense contribution to the Hindi literary
scene. His poetry epitomised the Indian thought of Satyam, Shivam, Sundaram (the true, the
good, the beautiful). A prominent of the Chayavada movement, Pant's greatest poems were
penned during this period. When the movement was on the decline, Pant was the poet who
effortlessly made the transition from aesthetic mysticism to the temporal, doing so in terms of the
Marxist ideology. This phase later gave way to the larger humanism of Aurobindo. Thus in his later
writings, Pant the aesthete emerged as a thinker, philosopher and humanist. His finest work, by
far, is Pallav, a collection of thirty two poems written between 1918 and 1925.

Yashpal (1903-76) is renowned for Jhutha Sach (The False Truth, 1958-60), regarded as the finest
Hindi novel written on the chaotic Indian scenario which followed closely on the heels of the
Partition. A Marxist till the very end, Yashpal's ideology immensely influenced his writings. He has
forty two books to his credit, excluding translated works.

Hazariprasad Dwivedi (1907-79), a famous novelist, literary historian, essayist, critic and scholar,
penned numerous novels, collections of essays and a historical outline of Hindi literature. His
principal works include Kabir, and Banabhatta Ki Atmakatha (The Autobiography of Banabhatta,
1946), a literary depiction of the life and times of the classical poet. The latter is in the mode of a
fiction within fiction. The author pretends to have accidentally found the entire work, his own role
in creating it being 'minimal'.

Mahadevi Verma (1907-87) was educated in Allahabad, where she founded the 'Prayag Mahila
Vidyapitha', promoting the education of girls. An active freedom fighter, Mahadevi Verma is
regarded as one of the four pillars of the great Romantic movement in modern Hindi poetry,
Chayavada, the remaining three being Suryakant Tripathi 'Nirala', Jaishankar Prasad and
Sumitranandan Pant. She is renowned for her book of memoirs, Atita Ke Chalcitra (The Moving
Frames of the Past) and Smriti Ki Rekhayen (The Lines of Memory). Her poetic canvas boasts
Dipshikha (The Flame of an Earthen Lamp, 1942), a book comprising fifty one lyrics, all of which
carry the maturity of expression and intense mystical quality peculiar to this great artiste. Her
mysticism led to the birth of a movement called Rahasyavada. Mahadevi Verma has often been
compared with Mira Bai, the great 16th century devotional poetess, in her lyrical mysticism and
deep devotional offerings to the Almighty.



Ramdhari Singh 'Dinkar' (1908-74) emerged as rebellious poet with his nationalist poetry in pre-
Independence days. After the country's Independence , he was often referred to as the national
poet of India, though officially the title belonged to Maithili Sharan Gupt. He belongs to the
generation immediately following the Chayavadi (romantic) poets. Dinkar is renowned for his
personal lyrics, apart from a few historical and nationalist compositions. His verse play, Urvashi,
(1961)is a dramatic departure from his earlier poetry of social concern, as it deals with love and
passion, the earthy and the sublime, and man-woman relationship transcending the physical. A
Jnanpith Award winner (1972), the book is the culmination of a poet's spiritual journey. It is a
landmark document involving introspection and philosophical delving into the Kamadhyatma, The
Metaphysic of Desire.



Nagarjun (b. 1911), is amjor Hindi poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories,
literary biographies and travelogues. His Pratinidhi Kavitayen (A Collection of Representative
Poems, 1984)was written over four decades. It contains almost eighty Hindi poems as well as a
small section of poetry in Maithili, his mother-tongue, where he is better known as Baidyanath
Mishra 'Yatri'. Nagarjun creates poetry out of the most mundane things in life, employing the
language of everyday speech and thus bringing poetry as an art form closer to the common man.
The most popular practising Hindi poet in the last decades of the twentieth century, Nagarjun is
considered as the only poet, after Tulsidas, to have an audience ranging from the rural sections of
society to the elitist gatherings.



S. H. Vatsyayan (1911-87), (Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayana), popularly known by his pen-
name 'Ajneya' or Agyeya, was a pioneer of modern trends not only in the realm of poetry, but also
fiction, criticism and journalism in Hindi. An eminent freedm fighter, Ajneya has to his credit
sixteen volumes of poetry, three novels, travelogues and several volumes of short stories and
essays. He edited the Saptak series which triggered new trends in Hindi poetry, known a 'Nai
Kavita'. He edited many literary journals and also launched his own Hindi weekly, Dinaman, thus
establishing new standards in the field of Hindi journalism.Ajneya was honoured with the Sahitya
Akademi Award, Jnanpith Award, Bharatbharati Award and the internationally reputed Golden
Wreath Award for poetry.His famous works include Amgan Ke Par Dvara (The Door Beyond the
Courtyard) and a cycle of poems, Chakranta Shila.



Vishnu Prabhakar (b. 1912), with several short stories, novels, plays and travelogues to his credit,
won the Sahitya Akademi Award for his novel, Ardhanarishwara (The Androgynous God or Shiva).
His biography of the eminent Bengali novelist, Saratchandra Chatterjee, Awara Masiha (Vagabond
Prophet, 1974) is however considered not only, to be his magnum opus, but also one of the three
best Hindi biographies written so far. Awara Masiha, a subtle combination of fact and fiction, took
Prabhakar around fouteen years to finish.



Phanishwar Nath 'Renu' (1921-77), popularly known as Renu, is one of the great Hindi novelists of
the post-Premchand era. An active political activist, one of Renu's masterpieces is Maila Anchal
(The Soiled Border, 1954), a social novel that depicts the life of a region and its people, the
backward and the deprived. A trailblazer in the post-Premchand period, the novel radically
changed the structure and narrative style in Hindi novels. The distinct feature in the novel is that it
does not possess a structured plot or story in the conventional sense. After Premchand's Godan,
Maila Anchal is regarded as the most significant Hindi novel.



Shrilal Shukla (b.1925), an IAS officer, is renowned for his objective and purposive satire in
contemporary Hindi fiction. In 1957, he published his first novel, Sooni Ghat ka Sooraj (The Sun of
a Desolate Valley) followed by a series of satires Amgada Ka Pamva (Angada's Foot) in 1958. His
Raag Darbari (Melody of the Court, one of the ragas, 1968) is the first satirical novel of its kind in
Hindi spanning a wide spectrum of post-Independence rural India, specifically Avadh. It was Shrilal
Shukla who took wit, irony and sarcasm to great heights in Hindi literature. Raag Darbari is
generously peppered with folk witticisms of Avadhi, the powerful dialect in which Tulasidas, Malik
Mohammad Jayasi and many Sufi poets made their mark.

Mohan Rakesh (1925-72) was one of the pioneers of the Nai Kahani movement in Hindi in the
1950s. Rakesh made significant contribution to various genres, like nove, short story, travelogue,
criticism, memoirs and drama. His Ashadha Ka Ek Din (One Day in The Rainy Month of Ashadha,
1958) is a historical play suggestive of the personal dilemmas of a present day writer. Ashadha Ka
Ek Din is one of the first major original plays that revived the Hindi stage in the 1960s. Among his
other plays is, Adhe Adhure (The Incomplete Ones) is extremely popular with the modern middle-
class audiences, and Lehron Ke Rajhamsa (The Swans of the Waves), a close study of the
renunciation of the Buddha, and its effect on his own people.

Dharmavir Bharati (b. 1926) is a renowned poet, fictionist and editor. Essentially a romantic
humanist, Bharati is famous for his poignant treatment of first love, his lyricism and humanistic
vision. One of his famous works is Andha Yuga (The Blind Age or The Age of Darkness), one of the
most celebrated modern Hindi plays. Bharati has been honoured with some of the highest literary
and State awards, including the Padma Shri.

Raghuvir Sahay (1929-90) was a versatile Hindi poet, translator, short-story writer and journalist.
The editor of the weekly Dinaman, Sahay's five books of poems includes Log Bhool Gaye Hain
(They Have Forgotten, 1982) which won him the Sahitya Akademi Award. The poet of the common
man, Sahay dealt with topics hitherto unexplored by other Hindi male poets. His treatment of
women in his works is extraordinarily sensitive. His Atmahatya Ke Viruddha (Against Suicide,
1967) comprises 36 poems. A powerful democratic sensibility and great concern for the
dispossessed, especially women, is the hallmark of his works. The marginalisation of the average
person, hypocrisy of the powers that be, and the brutish violence that has crept into the system
are some of his principal themes. But perseverance and going on with life clearly emerge as his
mottos.

Nirmal Verma (b.1929) together with Mohan Rakesh, Bhisham Sahni, Kamleshwar, Amarkant and
others, is credited with introducing and establishing the Nai Kahani (the modernist new short
story) in Hindi literature. His technical wizardry and cosmopolitan sensibility render Nirmal Verma
a one-of-a-kind artiste. Although he has published four novels, six collections of essays and
cultural criticism, it is his short stories that beautifully bring out his ethereal sensitivity, lyricism
and profound compassion. Kavve aur Kala Paani (Crows and the Black Waters, 1983) translated as
The Crows of Deliverance, comprises seven of Verma's latest stories, which deal with the spiritual
ills that afflict his characters, mostly from the urban middle class.

Mir Amman (later 17th and early 18th century): Mir Amman is known for his tale Bagh-o-Bahar (The
Spring Garden). Bagh-o-Bahar is a qissa, a tale of fair length. Mir Amman, an employee of the College
of Fort William at Calcutta, wrote it at the request of John Gilchrist, the famous scholar. Mir Amman's
tale is rather a retelling - in simpler and more effective Urdu - of a linguistically more elaborate and
difficult Urdu translation of an 18th century Indo-Persian tale whose author is not known. In Persian it
is usually referred to as The Qissa of Four Dervishes. Bagh-o-Bahar was prepared in 1801.

Mir Taqi Mir (1723-1810): Mir Taqi Mir was the first of the top ranking poets of Urdu. His
fame and greatness is based on his bulky volume of collected verse, i.e. Kulliyat-e-Mir,
almost all of it on themes of love. His Muamlat-e-Ishq (The Stages of Love) is one of the greatest
known love poems in Urdu literature.

Mirza Ghalib (1797-1869): An aristocrat, courtier at the pre-1857 Mughal court, wit, poet and
prose-writer in both Persian and Urdu, Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib was the greatest of all the
classical Urdu poets, and his Persian verse is of the same high quality. His Divan-e-Ghalib has
become the touchstone of poetic taste. In 1828 he compiled a combined selection of his Urdu and
Persian verse Gul-e-Rana. His Urdu Diwan was published in 1847. Ghalib was a prolific writer of
letters too. Ghalib's poetry is very philosophical and rich in meaning. He was undoubtedly the
heavy-weight of Urdu poetry who ruled and continues to rule the hearts of connoiseurs of Urdu
literature. At times quite difficult to decipher, his poetry has a depth that remains a benchmark in
this beautiful language.

Mirza Mohd. Hadi Ruswa (1858-1931): One of the pioneers of Urdu novel in the modern sense of the
term, Ruswa was a versatile genius. He wrote fiction, poetry, plays, treatises on Religion, Philosophy
and Astronomy. In his celeberated Umrao Jan Ada (a novel about a courtesan) Ruswa achieved an
artistic success unequalled in his own time and for a long time afterwards.

Sir Mohammed Iqbal (1877-1938): Born in Sialkot, Iqbal obtained a Ph.D from Munich for his work
on the metaphysics of Persia. He developed his philosophy of Khudi (Selfhood) in which influences
of Rumi and German Vitalism were assimilated into Quaranic thought. His principal works are
Bang-e-Dara (Caravan's Call) 1924, Bal-e-Jibreel (Gabriel's Wing) 1935, Zarb-e-Kaleem (The Blow
of Moses) 1936 and Armughan-e-Hijaz (The Gift of Hijaz) 1938. Some of his best known poems
are Zauk-e-Shauk (The Longing), Masjid-e-Qartaba (The Mosque of Cordova) and Saqi Nama (Ode
to Saqi).

Premchand (1880-1936): Premchand was born on July 31, 1880 in a village called "Lamahi", about
four miles from the city of Benares, to an ordinary working family. He is one of the greatest
writers of the 20th century India who wrote both in Urdu and Hindi. A prolific writer, he wrote
some 12 novels and 300 short stories. He brought into the ambit of literature the life of ordinary
people of India - the masses in the villages among whom he lived. His best known works are
Godan, Maidan-e-Amal, Karmbhoomi, Nirmala, Gaban, Sevaasadan, Manorama, Premaashram,
Varadaan, Ranga Bhoomi, Prathijna, etc. Premchand's writings have been translated not only into
all Indian languages, but also Russian, Chinese, and many other foreign languages. He spent his
life as an ordinary school teacher, freedom fighter, social reformer and editor.

Abul Kalam Azad (1888-1958): Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, one of the prominent Indian National
leaders, was an eminent Urdu writer with a philosophical bend. His works include Tarjuman-ul-
Quran (Commentary on the Quran), Tazkirah (Autobiographical Account) Ghubar-e-Khatir (The
Dust of Memories). Universally acclaimed for its literary merit, Ghubar-e-Khatir represents Azad's
versatile genius and multifaceted personality. It has its own place in the genre of epistolary
literature.

Firaq Gorakhpuri (1896-1982): Raghupati Sahai Firaq is one of the major Indian poets of this
century, both in terms of contribution he made to the enrichment of Urdu poetry and the influence
he exercised upon his age. Sublimation of pain and celebration of human love are the
characteristic features of Firaq's ghazal. Firaq's first collection of verse is Gul-e-Nagma (The Music
Flower) won the Sahitya Academy Award in 1960.




Makhdoom Mohiuddin (1908-'69): Born in a village in Medak, a district of the former princely state
of Hyderabad, Makhdoom Mohiuddin grew up to become a poet of incredible versatility. He is best
known for his verse collection Bisat-e-Raqs (The Dance Floor). His published works include an
essay Tagore amd his Poetry, a play, Hosh ke Nakhun (Unravelling), an adaptation of Shaw's
Widowers' Houses, and a collection of prose essays. Bisat-e-Raqs is a complete collection of
Makhdoom's verse including his two earlier collections Surkh Savera (The Red Dawn) 1944, and
Gul-e-Tar (The Dewdrenched Rose) 1961

Faiz Ahmed Faiz (1911-84): The Urdu poet who became a legend during his lifetime, and who may
be ranked next only to Ghalib, Mir, Firaq and Iqbal is Faiz Ahmed Faiz. Poet, journalist and liberal
humanist Faiz was committed to the uplift of the downtrodden and the oppressed. Faiz published
seven collections of verse, Naqsh-e-Faryadi being the first and the greatest. His collected works,
Sare Sukhan Hamare appeared from London in1982 and Nuskha-hae-Wafa from Lahore and Delhi
in 1984.
Ismat Chughtai (1915-1991): A crusader for the rights of women and the downtrodden, Ismat
Chughtai was a leading fiction writer in Urdu. Her major short story collections are Kaliyan (The
Buds), Choten (Injuries), Chooi Mooi (Fragile), Ek Baat (A Point) and Do Haath (Two Hands). Her
novels are Tehri- Lakeer (The Crooked Line), Ziddi (The Obstinate), Ek Qatra-e-Khoon (A Drop of
Blood), Dil Ki Duniya (Heart's World) and Bahroop Nagar (The Deceptive Town)

Rajinder Singh Bedi (1915-'84): Born and educated near Sialkot (now in Pakistan) Bedi started his
writing career in Lahore where he worked for the All India Radio. Two of his collections of short
stories, Dana-o-Daam (The Catch) and Grehan (The Eclipse) were published before the Partition.
His novel Ek Chader Maili Si (A Sheet Soiled and Torn) first published in 1972 won the Sahitya
Academy Award.

Qurratulain Hyder (b.1927): A trendsetter in Urdu fiction. She began writing at a time when the
novel was yet to establish itself as a serious genre in the poetry-oriented world of Urdu literature.
She lifted it out of its stagnation, divested it of its obsession with fantasy, romance and facile
realism. She offered it extraordinary range and depth and brought to its ambit, hitherto
unexplored terrains of human thought and sensibility. A prolific writer, she has so far written some
12 novels and novellas, four collections of short stories and has done a significant amount of
translation of classics. She received the Jnanpith Award on her later novel, Aakhir-e-Shab ke
Hamsafar (Travellers Unto the Night). Aag ka Darya (River of Fire) is her greatest novel which is a
tour de force in Urdu and possibly in Indian fiction as a whole.

Saadat Hasan Manto (1912-55), one of the few Urdu writers who both shaped and flouted the
prevailing ideologies of his time, continues to speak in a fresh voice to contemporary readers. A
member of the Progressive Writers' Movement, which swept through Urdu literature from 1935 to
1960, Manto was a very controversial figure. Although he contributed to several literary genres, he
was at his best in his collections of short stories. These stories written before Independence,
reflect his genuine concern for progressive aims and portray the goodness of lower class
characters who dwell on the fringes of society. His stories boldly challenged the conventional
mores by unabashedly discussing male and female sexuality. A recurrent theme of these works is
the exploitation of women by supposedly respectable men, focussing on the decrepit lives of
prostitutes. Manto, like many of the Progressives, was deeply traumatised by the Partition. and
expressed his feelings in many of his stories. He learnt to pen short stories by studying the works
of the 19th century French and Russian realists. His stubborn upholding of his personal point of
view and choice of subject matter, in the face of public censure, continues to inspire budding
writers even today. Manto ke Numainda Afsane (Short stories of Manto), has been translated as
Kingdom's End and other stories. Toba Tek Singh, Khol Do, and Thanda Ghosht are some of his
stories known for the ambivalent depiction of man and his relationship with man, country and
woman.

Ali Sardar Jafri (1913): Winner of the 1997 Jnanpith award for his contribution to the enrichment
of Urdu literature, Jafri was born in Ballarpur town of Uttar Pradesh. He is the third Urdu poet to
have won the Jnanpith award, the other two being Firaq and Quarratulain Hyder. The books that
established him as a distinguished Indian writer are Parwaz, Nai Duniya Ko Salaam, Khoon Ki
Lakeer, Asia Jag Utha, Patthar Ki Deewar, Ek Khwaab Aur, Pairahan-e-Sharar, Lahu Pukarta Hai
and Manzil.

Phanishwar Nath 'Renu' (1921-77), popularly known as Renu, is one of the great Hindi novelists of
the post-Premchand era. An active political activist, one of Renu's masterpieces is Maila Anchal
(The Soiled Border, 1954), a social novel that depicts the life of a region and its people, the
backward and the deprived. A trailblazer in the post-Premchand period, the novel radically
changed the structure and narrative style in Hindi novels. The distinct feature in the novel is that it
does not possess a structured plot or story in the conventional sense. After Premchand's Godan,
Maila Anchal is regarded as the most significant Hindi novel.

Shrilal Shukla (b.1925), an IAS officer, is renowned for his objective and purposive satire in
contemporary Hindi fiction. In 1957, he published his first novel, Sooni Ghat ka Sooraj (The Sun of
a Desolate Valley) followed by a series of satires Amgada Ka Pamva (Angada's Foot) in 1958. His
Raag Darbari (Melody of the Court, one of the ragas, 1968) is the first satirical novel of its kind in
Hindi spanning a wide spectrum of post-Independence rural India, specifically Avadh. It was Shrilal
Shukla who took wit, irony and sarcasm to great heights in Hindi literature. Raag Darbari is
generously peppered with folk witticisms of Avadhi, the powerful dialect in which Tulasidas, Malik
Mohammad Jayasi and many Sufi poets made their mark.

Mohan Rakesh (1925-72) was one of the pioneers of the Nai Kahani movement in Hindi in the
1950s. Rakesh made significant contribution to various genres, like nove, short story, travelogue,
criticism, memoirs and drama. His Ashadha Ka Ek Din (One Day in The Rainy Month of Ashadha,
1958) is a historical play suggestive of the personal dilemmas of a present day writer. Ashadha Ka
Ek Din is one of the first major original plays that revived the Hindi stage in the 1960s. Among his
other plays is, Adhe Adhure (The Incomplete Ones) is extremely popular with the modern middle-
class audiences, and Lehron Ke Rajhamsa (The Swans of the Waves), a close study of the
renunciation of the Buddha, and its effect on his own people.

Dharmavir Bharati (b. 1926) is a renowned poet, fictionist and editor. Essentially a romantic
humanist, Bharati is famous for his poignant treatment of first love, his lyricism and humanistic
vision. One of his famous works is Andha Yuga (The Blind Age or The Age of Darkness), one of the
most celebrated modern Hindi plays. Bharati has been honoured with some of the highest literary
and State awards, including the Padma Shri.

Raghuvir Sahay (1929-90) was a versatile Hindi poet, translator, short-story writer and journalist.
The editor of the weekly Dinaman, Sahay's five books of poems includes Log Bhool Gaye Hain
(They Have Forgotten, 1982) which won him the Sahitya Akademi Award. The poet of the common
man, Sahay dealt with topics hitherto unexplored by other Hindi male poets. His treatment of
women in his works is extraordinarily sensitive. His Atmahatya Ke Viruddha (Against Suicide,
1967) comprises 36 poems. A powerful democratic sensibility and great concern for the
dispossessed, especially women, is the hallmark of his works. The marginalisation of the average
person, hypocrisy of the powers that be, and the brutish violence that has crept into the system
are some of his principal themes. But perseverance and going on with life clearly emerge as his
mottos.

Nirmal Verma (b.1929) together with Mohan Rakesh, Bhisham Sahni, Kamleshwar, Amarkant and
others, is credited with introducing and establishing the Nai Kahani (the modernist new short
story) in Hindi literature. His technical wizardry and cosmopolitan sensibility render Nirmal Verma
a one-of-a-kind artiste. Although he has published four novels, six collections of essays and
cultural criticism, it is his short stories that beautifully bring out his ethereal sensitivity, lyricism
and profound compassion. Kavve aur Kala Paani (Crows and the Black Waters, 1983) translated as
The Crows of Deliverance, comprises seven of Verma's latest stories, which deal with the spiritual
ills that afflict his characters, mostly from the urban middle class.

Thunchat Ezhuthachan (16th century) is one of the giants among Malayalam poets. Believed to
have been born in Trkkantiyur in Malappuram district, Ezhuthachan is considered as the father of
modern Malayalam poetry, who gave the language a power not known before. He has also made
significant contribution to the spiritual and cultural renaissance of the state. Mahabharatam is the
most important among Ezhuthachan's poetical works, the rest being, Adhyatmaramayanam,
Irupattinalu Vrttam, Harinamakirttanam, Cintaratnam, Devimahatmyam. His Mahabharatam, the
greatest epic poem in Malayalam, though a rendering from the Sanskrit epic by Vyasa, possesses
all the necessary attributes of an original work of art.

Kunchan Nambiar (18th century) is considered as the creator of Thullal, a popular performing art
of Kerala. Thullal avoids the high-brow rigidities of classical art forms like Kathakali and
Koodiyattam, and also steers clear of the pedestrian folk forms such as Padayani. It blends the
finer elements of both the genres, in formulating its strategies of performance and narration.
Nambiar's Kalyana Saughandikam, (the golden water-lily) is believed to be the first among the
forty odd Thullal songs he has composed for the stage. It was while enjoying the patronage of king
Devanarayana of Chempakasseri, as a courtier that he composed the aforementioned Thullal song.
His songs though dealing with puranic themes, abound in pungent and biting social criticism.
Armed with satire and humour, Nambiar ridiculed the failings of his contemporaries and insisted on
proper conduct and civilised behaviour from all sections of the society.
O. Chandu Menon (1847-1900), is considered one of the two pioneers of Malayalam fiction (the
other being C. V. Raman Pillai). A Munsiff and later Judge at Tellicherry of the erstwhile Malabar,
Menon has to his credit two novels Indulekha and Sarada, the latter remaining incomplete.
Indulekha occupies a unique niche among Malayalam movels, in that it marked the dawn of
modernity in the literature, highlighting the value of English education and the right of women to
assert themselves in issues like their marriage and education. Even as a work of art, the novel was
a trendsetter in its wonderful delineation of characters.

Kumaran Asan (1873-1924)

is a reputed Malayalam poet. All his major works including Chinthavishtayaya Sita, belong to a certain
class of poetic writing, casually mentioned in the texts on Sanskrit poetics as Khanda Kavya.
Chinthavishtayaya Sita (Sita in Meditation, 1919) is regarded by many as the masterpiece of Kumaran
Asan. It marks the zenith of poetic finesse in the career graph of Asan, wherein the authenticity of his
unique vision resulted in the creation of an almost new Sita who could confront Rama without
flinching. Veena Poovu (Fallen Flower), Nalini and Leela are some of his other great works.

Vallathol Narayana Menon (1878-1958) - In the early decades of the 20th century, Malayalam
poetry, fettered for a time by repetitive neo-classical works, was rejuvenated and liberated by the
trio of Kumaran Asan, Ulloor S. Parameswara Iyer and Vallathol Narayana Menon. Vallathol, the
youngest of the three, knew little English; yet by his intuitive capacity, he imbibed the spirit of
romanticism which infused new life in Malayalam literature. A classicist by discipline, Vallathol
started composing poems at the age of 13. His mature poems in Sanskrit and in Malayalam
appeared only after 1910, and he translated Rigveda into Malayalam at the age of 75. His major
works include Magdalana Mariam (1921)- an exquisite narrative poem based on an episode in the
life of Christ as depicted in the gospel according to St. Luke. A patron of Kathakali, Vallathol
founded the Kalamandalam institute at Cheruthuruthy. When India won freedom, he was made the
Poet Laureate of Malayalam Language and Literature.

Vaikom Muhammad Basheer (1908-94) is regarded as one of India's most outstanding writers, on
account of his superlative wit and originality. A freedom fighter, Basheer started writing short
stories in 1937. Balyakalasakhi (Childhood Friend, 1944), a simple tale of love, friendship and
tragedy,    earned    him   a   place   in   Malayalam    literature. This  was    followed   by
Ntuppuppakkoraanentarnnu (Me Grandad 'ad an Elephant, 1951), the English translation of which,
by R. E. Asher of Edinburgh University, won worldwide acclaim. Basheer's major works are peopled
with characters drawn from his own Muslim milieu, whom he depicts in a manner that creates a
strange combination of laughter and tears within the reader. Mathilukal (Walls, 1955) is another
great novella by Basheer which was made into a successful motion picture by the renowned film-
maker Adoor Gopalakrishnan.

Changampuzha Krishna Pillai (1911-48) is one of the most popular poets in Malayalam literature,
second only to Kunchan Nambiar in bringing poetry to the common man. If Nambiar is famous for
his fine sense of humour, Changampuzha is renowned for his exquisite strain of lyricism. Belonging
to the third generation of Romantics in Malayalam, he led pure romanticism to its very zenith. A
prolific writer, with a writing career spanning two decades, Changampuzha produced more than
40, 000 lines of verse collected in around 44 volumes; this in addition to more than a dozen works
in prose, including a novel, Kalittoli (Girlfriend, 1952) and an essay of literary criticism,
Sahityachinthakal (Thoughts on Literature). Immensely well-read in world literature, especially
poetry, Changampuzha translated many works into Malayalam.

Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai (b. 1912) started off as a small-town lawyer but took to full time
writing later and won himself the Sahitya Akademi Award (1957), Soviet Land-Nehru Award
(1975) and Jnanpith Award (1984). His Chemmeen (The Shrimps) is one of the few works of
fiction in an Indian language to gain worldwide recognition. The novel has been translated in all
the major Indian languages and also in quite a few foreign languages. The film version of
Chemmeen received the President's Gold Medal in 1966.

O. V. Vijayan (b. 1931) is undoubtedly the pioneer of modern fiction in Malayalam. A cartoonist,
novelist and short-story writer, Vijayan has to his credit five novels, including Khasakkinte
Itihasam (The Saga of Khasak, 1969), Dharmapuranam (The Saga of Dharmapuri, 1985) and
Pravachakante Vazhi (The Way of the Prophet, 1993) besides many collections of short stories and
articles and a book on his own masterpiece, Itihasathinte Itihasam (The Story of the Saga).
Vijayan who started his career as lecturer in Kerala, soon opted for full-time journalism and
making cartoons.

Madhavikutty (b. 1932) is the pen-name adopted by Kamala Das in her Malayalam writings.
Though internationally renowned for her spirited poems in English, Kamala Das nee Madhavikutty
has penned some brilliant short stories in her mother tongue. Her pseudonym represents the more
intense and confessional self of this feminist writer. Her stories first appeared on the Malayalam
literary scene in the 1950s, and later more frequently, in the sixties. She unleashed in them the
pent-up world of female urges, frustrations and wild sexual fantasies, thus exposing the raw side
of human identity. Madhavikutty's focus has always been on the tormented female self craving for
love, but doomed to be cheated, exploited and abandoned. She replaced the self-pity that was a
staple element of conventional women's stories with a subversive, vengeful imagination that
demythified love, sex and even death. Her principal works include Naricheerukal Parakkumbol
(When Bats Fly, 1960), Thanuppu (Cold, 1967), Madhavikuttiyude Kathakal (The Short Stories of
Madhavikutty, 1982), and Neypayasam (Rice Pudding, 1991) and Ente Katha (My Story).

T. Padmanabhan (b. 1931), a distinguished short-story writer in Malayalam, has been writing since
1948, except for a brief period between 1963 to 1969. He has been credited with bringing the
modern Malayalam short story nearer to the subjective intensity of the lyric. Many of his works
have been translated into various Indian and foreign languages. It was when the short story
reached a saturation point as a result of the repeated depiction of romantic idealism and social
commitment that T. Padmanabhan emerged on the scene with a unique and highly individualistic
idiom. Among his major works are Prakasam Parathunna Oru Penkutti (A Girl Who Spreads
Radiance, 1955), Oru Kathakrittu Kurishil (A Story writer on the Cross, 1956), Makhan Singhinte
Maranam (The Death of Makhan Singh, 1958) , Kala Bhairavan and Gouri (1993).

M. T. Vasudevan Nair (b. 1933), the famous Malayalam story-writer, novelist and editor has to his
credit a number of fine films as well: he has written the script for a number of outstanding films
besides having directed a few. Winner of several awards including the Jnanpith, Vasudevan nair,
popularly known as M. T., burst into the literary scene with his maiden work, Nalukettu (the
ancestral home of a Nair joint family), followed by Asuravithu (Asuravittu; Demon's seed: the son
born to undo the family). The latter novel, written in a prose with poetic quality, bears the stamp
of his genius, his mastery in subtle delineation of characters with great psychological insight.

				
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