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Slums in Mumbai

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					SLUMS IN MUMBAI…..
AND ITS RELATION WITH CITY
  INTRODUCTION:
Definition of slum by UN Habitat:
A slum Is an area that combines to various
extents the following characteristics:-
 Inadequate access to safe water.
 Inadequate access to sanitation and other infrastructure.
 Poor structural quality of housing.
 Overcrowding.
 Insecure residential status.


      In the later part of the 20th century, slums exploded worldwide,
   becoming a cause for serious concern among humanitarian organizations,
   as an alarmingly high number of people live in regions which could be
   considered slums. In Mumbai, India, for example, an estimated about
   55% of the population lives in slums.
HOW DO SLUMS FORM UP?
Slums can form in several ways:
  Classically, slums have emerged in existing neighbourhoods which fall upon
   hard times. A slum forms as homes are slowly subdivided into cramped
   tenement apartments, and the population becomes highly concentrated. At the
   same time, access to services like healthcare, fresh food, and basic sanitation
   may start to become restricted, creating filth and squalor.
  A slum can also arise from nowhere, as is the case with many of the
   shantytowns found in developing nations. These slums sometimes seem to
   emerge overnight, compacting humanity into filthy, densely packed areas with
   poorly constructed and often dangerous homes. In campaigns against slums,
   many cities have forcibly evicted people from these shantytowns, creating a
   ripple effect as forcibly displaced people attempt to relocate to new regions.

Most of the people who live in slums are extremely poor, and many are treated as
  second class citizens by their society. Health problems tend to be very high, as
  a result of improper sanitation and lack of access to basic health care.
  Malnutrition is another serious problem in many slums, as is crime, which can
  make a slum very dangerous for its inhabitants.
GLOBAL SCENARIO OF SLUMS:




        Percentage of urban population living in slums (data from
        2005 - source: UN-HABITAT )
    SLUMS IN MUMBAI:
    Mumbai – is the home of Bollywood movies
     and India‟s city of gold, its financial capital.
     Like a magnet, it draws in people from all over
     the country. But behind the glitz, glamour and
     the hype lurks a different reality – a city
     landscape dominated by massive, sprawling
     slums – some of the biggest in the world.
     According to the city housing authority, Eight
     million out of the twelve million people in
     Mumbai live in the slums. And Mumbai is not
     alone. Slums are a global problem. They are
     home to one billion people – one in six of the
     world‟s population. UN-Habitat predicts that by
     2030, one in every three people in the world        LOCATION OF SLUM
     could be living in a slum.                         POCKETS IN MUMBAI.
    55% of the population of Mumbai live in
     slums, which cover only 6% of the city‟s land.
HISTORY OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI:
EARLY HISTORY-
   Late in the 17th century, Gerald Aungier, the then Governer tried to attract
    traders and artisans to Bombay. As a result, the population grew six-fold in
    the fourteen years between 1661 and 1675. Some of the more prosperous
    traders built houses inside the British fort. The rest lived in crowded "native-
    towns" around the walls. These were probably the first slums to grow in
    Bombay.
   The problem of overcrowding certainly remained through the 18th
    century. A count made in 1794 found 1000 houses inside the fort walls
    and 6500 immediately outside.
   The Cotton boom, followed by the rapid growth of mills and shipping
    drew a large population from the rest of the country into a city ill-
    equipped to deal with them. In the middle of the 19th century slums
    grew around the mills and other places of employment.
    ORIGIN OF SLUMS IN MUMBAI:
   Historically, slums have grown in Mumbai as a response to
    a growth of population far beyond the capacity of existing
    housing.
   Migrants are normally drawn to the city by the huge
    disparity between urban and rural income levels. Usually
    the residents of these densely populated enclaves live
    close to their place of work.
   Mumbai knows another reason for the formation of slums.
    As the city grew, it took over land that was traditionally
    used for other purposes. The Koli fishermen were displaced
    during the development of the harbour and port. Those
    driven out of the fishing villages improvised living space
    that was often far shabbier than before.
   On the other hand, some villages were encysted by the city
    growing around them Dharavi, originally a village with a
    small tanning industry, has become a slum in this fashion.
HOUSING OPTIONS FOR POOR IN MUMBAI:

1.   Chawls : Consisting mainly of semi-
     permanent structures, which can be
     both authorised and unauthorised.
2.   Pavement Dwellers: These are               Typical Chawls
     households, dominated by single male
     migrants living in hutments built on the
     footpaths of Mumbai’s roads close to
     places of employment.
3.   Zopadpattis: These are squatters in the            Payment dwellers
     local terminology. These are the most
     predominant low-income informal
     settlements falling under the category
     of slum.

                                                 Zopadpattis (Slums)
SLUM STATISTICS :
   The first official census of slums
    was carried out by the State
    Government in January 1976
    (Government of Maharashtra,
    1995) and 902,015 huts in 2,335
    pockets were identified.
   More than 50 percent of squatting
    was on private lands, followed by
    municipal lands. While 73.6 per
    cent of employment was
    concentrated in the island wards
    they contained only 21.1 per cent of
    slum population.
    PROFILE OF SLUMS IN 2001:
     For the first time, detailed data on slum areas in the country have been
     collected in the 2001 Census.
    In Greater Mumbai 1,959 slum settlements have been identified with a total
     population of 6.25 million, which forms 54 per cent of the total population of
     the city (Census of India, 2001).
    The Island City houses only 17 per cent of the slum population whereas the
     western suburbs have high concentrations of slums specially in the inner
     western suburbs, where there are large slums with hazy boundaries forming a
     continuous area containing 58 per cent of the slum population.
    Out of the total 47 per cent are located on private lands. These are located on
     state government, central government, railway and municipal land. 62 per cent
     of slums predominantly have dwellings made of permanent materials like brick
     walls and reinforced cement roofs. 27 per cent slums have predominantly
     semi-permanent structures (brick walls and tin or asbestos cement sheet roof).
    ACCESS TO SERVICES:
   About 49 per cent of slums have access to water supply
    from shared standpipes, while 38.3 per cent have a
    supply from more than one source. Remaining slums get
    their water from tube wells or community standpipes.
   Only 5 per cent of slums have individual taps whereas 17
    slums with approximately 0.1 million inhabitants have
    no water supply and have to depend on adjoining
    settlements.
   Sanitation in slums is very poor as 73 per cent of slums
    depend on community toilets provided by the
    government, 28 per cent defecate in the open, 0.7 per
    cent slums have pay to use toilets managed by NGOs and
    only 1 per cent of slums have individual toilets.
   There is no organised system of solid waste collection
    and slum residents generally dump garbage in any open
    place, including lanes and railway tracks. Only in 36
    slums is there an organised system of collection and
    clearance.
    SLUM – DWELLERS:
   LIFESTYLE:
   When People come to Mumbai they get squatted
    wherever they could on land owned by the
    government, Mumbai municipality, the railways and
    on private land.
   They are people who stay in two tiny rooms where a
    family of about 10-16 sleep in shifts. They have no
    electricity, an illegal supply of water and no toilet.
   Slumdwellers have not willingly chosen their shanty
    structures and unhygienic environment, but have
    been driven to this option due to compelling
    circumstances as they were thrown out of the
    formal housing sector, the latter being unaffordable
    and far beyond their income levels.
    SLUM - DWELLERS
    EDUCATION:
    The majority of the older generation over the age of 50 had no formal
     education.
    The middle aged slum dwellers had completed primary school education
     and the majority of slum dwellers‟ children attended the nearest Municipal
     Corporation school that offered free schooling.
    The overall literacy rate as found in base line surveys in slums is 60 per
     cent (MMRDA, 2002) which is lower than the city average.
    OCCUPATION:
    A significant number of formal workers are employed in the surrounding
     area as guards, mechanics, labourers, drivers, teachers, clerks and
     government employees.
    The base-line surveys of 16,000 households for (MMRDA, 2002) Mumbai
     Urban
    Transport Project showed that 33 per cent of the population is working,
     with an average of 1.46 workers per household.
HOW THEY FORM PART OF OUR SOCIETY?

The city simply wouldn’t function without
  the slum dwellers:
    Slum dwellers, are“60% of the population that
     provide all the services in the city.
    From the boy who brings in your milk, to your
     newspaper vendor.
    From the maid who works in your house to the
     dabbawala who delivers your lunch at work.
    From the Rickshawalla’s to the people working in
     the factories.
    From the clerk in the bank, to the municipal
     corporations, schools, colleges.

    All these people form the backbone of the
         city, If they say “Halt”, MUMBAI would
                   come to a grinding halt.
    SLUM REDEVELOPMENT…
 In the mid-1990s, the state government of Maharashtra introduced
     an innovative strategy of slum redevelopment in its capital city,
                                 Mumbai.
The basics of the scheme are:
   Every slum structure existing as on January 1, 1995 (presently changed to
    2001), or before is eligible for rehabilitation.
   70 per cent of the eligible slum dwellers in a slum can come together to form a
    society for implementation of the slum rehabilitation scheme.
   Rehab tenement allotted to a slum dweller cannot be sold for a period of 10
    years from the date of allotment. However, it can be transferred to a legal heir
    with prior permission of CEO (SRA).
   FSI permissible for a scheme depends upon the number of slum dwellers to be
    rehabilitated in it. It can even exceed 2.5.
   Plots where slum rehabilitation schemes can be taken up include plots that are
    notified and categorised as slum.
   If reserved for non-buildable reservation, the plot area should be more than 500
    sq. mt and minimum ground coverage of 25 per cent with the slum.
    PROBLEMS FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF
    SLUM REDEVELOPMENT SCHEME :
   Builders have been lukewarm in the absence of any government money; and
    the big developers have shown no interest.
   Developers are required to find temporary accommodation for slumdwellers.
   The Scheme is unacceptable to older slums. A large number contain small
    cottage industries. There would be no space for such activities in the new
    apartments. Moreover, many residents have built an upper storey, so their
    available space already far exceeds what they would be allotted under the
    Scheme.
   Maintenance costs are high. Most slum-dwellers have few costs. High-rise
    buildings, in contrast, require high repair and maintenance bills – anything
    up to 1000 - 2000 rupees, compared with a current outlay of only 100 to
    300 rupees a month.
   The Scheme has caused social conflict. In many slums the required 70-per-
    cent consent of the people has proved unattainable, and in some slums
    there have been disputes and feuds over who speaks with the majority
    voice.
SOME SRA PROJECTS COMPLETED:




  WHAT HAS HAPPENED WITH THESE REHABILATED BUILDINGS IS THE
   FORMATION OF “VERTICAL SLUMS” WHEREIN THERE IS STILL BASIC
  PROBLEMS OF HYGIENE & LIGHT VENTILATION FACED BY THE TENANTS.
    DHARAVI :
   Often dubbed “Asia’s largest slum,” Dharavi is in fact a heart-
    shaped agglomeration of primarily informal settlements, literally
    located in the heart of Mumbai, India‟s commercial capital.
   Spanning an area of about 223 hectares (535 acres), Dharavi is
    a transportation hub of the city.
   Dharavi is home to between half a million and one million
    people. A 1986 survey counted 530,225 people (106,045
    households) living in 80,518 structures; the numbers have surely
    grown since then.
   Dharavi is not only a residential space, but also a major
    economic hub representing the city‟s vast informal sector.
    Dharavi‟s commercial enterprises include recycling industries,
    leather tanneries, heavy metal work, woodwork, and
    manufactured goods such as garments, shoes, luggage,
    jewellery. One conservative estimate places the annual value of
    goods produced in Dharavi at USD 500 million (“Inside the
    Slums,” The Economist, 27/1/05).
DHARAVI DEVELOPMENT PROJECT:
    DHARAVI DEVELOPMENT PROJECT:
   The five year Dharavi Redevelopment Project worth Rs 8,600 crores was drawn up
    on February 4, 2004 in view of the dense combination of commercial and residential
    structures.
   The Slum Rehabilitation Authority (SRA) had come up with a Rs 6,380 crore plan for
    redeveloping Dharavi slums by 2010.
   The center, state and HUDCO are to jointly finance the plan. Global tenders to be
    floated and project to be implemented by private builders.
   Original slumdwellers living prior to January 1, 1995 to be relocated in newly built
    buildings with 225 sq ft free tenement.
   Plan envisages plush residential and commercial complexes, hospitals, schools and
    colleges.
   15 percent of the land is to be reserved for open green spaces and playgrounds.
   Private builders to get 4 FSI as incentive for commercial exploitation of remaining
    land.
   Spread over 174 hectares of land Dharavi billed as Asia's largest slum connects the
    Island city with suburban Mumbai.
   Houses about 5,000 small scale units producing intermediary goods, houses leather
    tanneries. SSI units here generate Rs 1,500 to Rs 2,000 crore turnover annually.
OPTIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT TO TAKE PLACE:

   Government should resume responsibility for upgrading existing slums.
   Those evicted by essential public works should receive alternative
    accommodation.
   Co-operative development should be encouraged, whereby the
    slumdwellers themselves develop their sites.
   Bona fide developers should not have to compete with the mafia and
    crooked operators.
   Officials should be compelled to do their job properly.
   The only way the life of the slums can be improved is to give land tenures
    to slum co-operatives to develop as they choose. „Land to the slumdweller‟
    must be the policy for humane and effective development; the
    governmental role must be limited to providing infrastructural facilities,
    cheap finance and a supply of building materials at controlled rates.
THANK YOU….