University Projects by mnmgroup

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									Project Work




               1
            Industry Profile
 Industry overview
 Trends, growth rate
 Major players at global, national and
  regional levels
 Market share
 Contribution to economy
 Business environment


                                          2
          Company Profile
 Background and inception of the company
 Nature of business
 Ownership pattern
 Areas of operations
 Product and service profile
 Customer profile
 Competitor's profile
 SWOT analysis

                                            3
                  Contents
 Executive Summary
 General Introduction
    – Literature Survey
    – Statement of the problem
    – Objectives of the study
    – Scope of the study
    – Methodology
    – Limitations

                                 4
                Contents
 Analysis/Design, Interpretation of results,
  Findings, Suggestions, and observations
  which may be divided into chapters
 Conclusions
 Annexure relevant to the project, such as
  figures, graphs, photographs etc.
 Bibliography



                                                5
             Executive Summery
   This is an overview of the project, which is
    intended to convince others that the
    content is significant. It sells your work,
    so, weave the keywords of your text into a
    summary of about 200 words.

First thing to be read, last thing to be
                 written.
                                              6
                  Introduction
 The introduction to your report is very important – don‟t
  be tempted to leave it to last.
 If you make this the first writing item, you immediately
  begin to focus on what you need to say and how you
  need to say it.
 The introduction should shape the remainder of the
  report – not vice versa
 A good introduction sets the tone and direction of the
  report.
 It informs the reader what the research is about,
  presents the overall research objective and specific
  research questions – and why these have been selected
  and pursued.


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               Introduction
 You need to make it clear what specific business
  related problem or issue is being addressed.
  What does your project contribute to address
  this particular problem or issue? What
  contribution do you hope to make to help
  business with the problem or issue you have
  identified and addressed?
 The introduction may also present and
  summarise the contents of the remaining
  sections to the reader.
                                                     8
       Introduction-Checklist
 What was the overall subject of your
  research?
 What was the main aim of your research?
 What specific business related questions
  or issues did you address in your
  research?
 Why did you pursue these questions or
  issues in your research?

                                             9
        Introduction-Checklist
 Did you have any expectations of what you
  might find out at the start of your research? If
  so, what and why, and have these changed, and
  why?
 How is your report organised? What are the
  main features of each section of your report?
 What should the reader especially look out for in
  your report (i.e. key points)?
 What makes your research different to previous
  research?

                                                  10
            Literature Survey
 A main aim of the literature review is to inform
  the reader what previous research has been
  done on the topic and how it has guided or
  informed your own research.
 For example, you may want to test or challenge
  findings from previous research, or approach
  your study from a different perspective.
 Or you may want to explore how relevant today
  are the conclusions reached from earlier studies
  both generally and for your own research?

                                                     11
                Literature Survey
   Literature related to selected topic
   Around 15-20 pages
   Must include information about the contemporary
    research work
   Information must be from authentic sources and the
    sources must be mentioned in bibliography
   It must highlight latest work carried out in related areas
    apart from giving basic theoretical concepts about the
    issue selected
    – Introduction
    – Body
    – Conclusion


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                          Symptoms
                Environmental Stimuli




Alternatives
Investigation
Measurement
                                  13
       Statement of the Problem
   The problem statement contains the need for the
    research problem
   It may be represented by a management problem
   A clear definition of the research problem
   Problem means issue or question to be examined
   Problem must be in the areas chosen by the student
    specialization and must be related current areas of
    research, any issues faced by organizations or of related
    specific issue of a specific organization




                                                            14
      Statement of the Problem
   Not Feasible
    – “The importance of the WTO rules governing
      exports for the future of Indian exports” (Too
      vague and over-ambitious)
   Feasible
    – “The impact of WTO rules governing the
      export of Indian textiles to Europe” (The
      focus is on a particular commodity in a
      particular location, and the information will be
      readily available)

                                                     15
    Sources of problem identification
 Research papers
 Organizational issues or problems
 Journals/ seminar proceedings




                                        16
        Objectives of the study
   What is the main aim of your research?
    Write just one or two sentences that
    summarise the overall objective of your
    project.




                                              17
      Objectives of the study
 Research objectives address the purpose
  of the project
 These objectives may be research
  questions and associated investigation
  questions
 They can be also statements
 Hypothesis statements can also be
  included

                                            18
                    Illustration
 Problem Statement: An enquiry into the
  declining trend in the profitability of a
  commercial bank
 Objectives:
    – To identify major factors affecting the bank‟s
      profitability
    – To determine the major causes of the declining trend
      in its profitability
    – To develop a strategy for improving the bank‟s
      profitability

                                                         19
                     Illustration
 Problem Statement: An enquiry into the
  effectiveness of performance appraisal system
  used in ABB Limited
 Objectives:
    – To study the performance appraisal system of ABB
      limited
    – To determine the major factors influencing the
      effectiveness of performance appraisal system
    – To investigate the effectiveness current performance
      appraisal by analyzing each factor contributing to its
      effectiveness

                                                               20
          Scope of the study
 A complete study of any phenomenon is highly
  un-manageable
 It requires large amount of data and time and
  resources
 Scope defines the selected problem within
  manageable limits
 It may include limitation in number of
  objectives, geographical area, reference time
  period, magnitude of study, type of
  organizations, etc

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        22
                  Methodology
 The methodology section informs the reader what
  overall research methodology you adopted – and why -
  and what research tools (or methods) you adopted to
  gain and analyse your result.
 It also describes the participants involved (how
  many/how they were selected/their characteristics etc).
 It is also an opportunity for you to present an objective
  reflection on the limitations of the methodology and
  methods used.
 This is important, as all research has its limitations and
  there is no shame in admitting this; indeed, it will be
  expected of you.

                                                           23
               Methodology
 What methods do you intend to adopt to gather
  information in pursuit of answers to your
  research questions? Note down brief answers to
  the following questions:
 Where and how will you gather secondary
  data? Is it easily available?
 Where, how, and when will you gather primary
  data, if applicable?
 Remember, it may be difficult to gather primary
  data alone, and you may have to use secondary
  data , and more easily available data for
  analysis.
                                                24
        Methodology-Checklist
 What philosophical approach did you take to
  your research, e.g. Qualitative/Quantitative?
  Why did you adopt this approach?
 What methods (to gather primary/secondary
  data) did you decide to use and why?
 What criteria did you adopt for collecting this
  data (e.g. target number, age, gender,
  occupational etc) and why?
 If relevant, who are the main people involved in
  the research and their roles and responsibilities?

                                                   25
         Methodology-Checklist
   What was the target sample number? What type
    of sample was it, e.g. a random sample?
   What was the actual number you achieved? Why
    was there a shortfall?
   Where did you collect the data? When did you
    collect it? How did you collect it?
   Who was involved in the collection?
   How did you analyse it? What analytical
    method(s) did you apply to draw your results?
   What logistical or other problems did you
    encounter in collecting or analysing it?

                                                26
            Methodology
 Research design
 Sampling design
 Data collection
 Data analysis
 Limitations




                          27
               Research Design
 It is blueprint for fulfilling objectives
 Type of research
    – Exploratory-Preliminary study of an unfamiliar
      problem
    – Descriptive-Fact-finding investigation with adequate
      interpretation
    – Diagnostic study-Discovering what is happening and
      why
    – Evaluation study
    – Causal research
    – Historical research

                                                             28
              Exploratory
 Exploratory research is undertaken when
  few or no previous studies exist.
 The aim is to look for patterns,
  hypotheses or ideas that can be tested
  and will form the basis for further
  research.
 Typical research techniques would include
  case studies, observation and reviews of
  previous related studies and data.

                                          29
               Descriptive
 Descriptive research can be used to
  identify and classify the elements or
  characteristics of the subject, e.g. number
  of days lost because of industrial action.
 Quantitative techniques are often used to
  collect, analyse and summarise data.




                                            30
                Analytical
 Analytical research often extends the
  Descriptive approach to suggest or
  explain why or how something is
  happening, e.g. underlying causes of
  industrial action.
 An important feature of this type of
  research is in locating and identifying the
  different factors (or variables) involved.

                                                31
                  Predictive
   The aim of Predictive research is to
    speculate intelligently on future
    possibilities, based on close analysis of
    available evidence of cause and effect,
    e.g. predicting when and where future
    industrial action might take place




                                                32
              Quantitative
 The emphasis of Quantitative research is
  on collecting and analysing numerical
  data; it concentrates on measuring the
  scale, range, frequency etc. of
  phenomena.
 This type of research, although harder to
  design initially, is usually highly detailed
  and structured and results can be easily
  collated and presented statistically.

                                             33
                 Qualitative
 Qualitative research is more subjective in
  nature than Quantitative research and involves
  examining and reflecting on the less tangible
  aspects of a research subject, e.g. values,
  attitudes, perceptions.
 Although this type of research can be easier to
  start, it can be often difficult to interpret and
  present the findings; the findings can also be
  challenged more easily.


                                                      34
 Population: Total number of individuals to
  whom the results of the research are
  intended to apply constitute the research
  population.
 Sample: representative of population




                                               35
             Sampling Design
 Define the target population being studied
 Define sampling method employed
    – Simple random sampling
    – Stratified random sampling
    – Cluster sampling
    – Any other




                                           36
               Data Collection
   Primary Sources
    – Original works of research or raw data
    – First hand information collected through
      various sources like observation, interviewing,
      mailing, Experimentation etc
   Secondary sources
    – Sources containing data collected and
      compiled for other purposes
    – Annual reports, memos, letters, census data,
      inventory records, personnel records etc
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                        38
            Questionnaire
 Disguised questions
 Structured- Set of choices and close ended
 Un structured- Open ended
 Rating questions
 Ranking Questions




                                           39
             Data analysis
 Tabulation
 Frequency tables
 Graphs/charts
 Statistical analysis-Regression, hypothesis
  testing




                                                40
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                41
                 Results
 The results section presents a summary of
  the data or other information you
  gathered.
 This section presents the data information
  without discussion of the implications of
  your findings - this goes into the next
  „Discussion‟ section.


                                           42
                Discussions
 This section presents analysis and discussions
  of the result, including implications,
  consequences and issues raised.
 It will also compare and contrast results with
  previous research findings, identified and
  discussed earlier in the Literature Review.
 It may also include recommendations, although
  these could go into a separate
  „Recommendations‟ section if there are a
  significant number to be made.

                                                   43
                Findings
 Significant findings of the research work
  carried out
 Be objective and avoid subjectivity
 Ensure that findings are relevant to the
  problem statement and objectives of the
  research work
 Provide justification for each finding



                                              44
              Evaluation
 Think EARLY about how you will evaluate
  your project. It may alter what you do.
 Compare your outcomes with your aims
 Have you achieved what you set out to
  do?
 How, exactly, do you know? How can you
  demonstrate this?



                                        45
                  Conclusion
 The conclusion is a judgement on the study-
  what you have found, inferred and concluded,
  just as a judge pronounces his judgement in a
  case based on evidences
 You are also likely to point out the limitations of
  your research findings and how future
  researchers might take your work a stage
  further.
 Finish well – leave the reader with something
  significant to think about.

                                                        46
    Conclusion and recommendations
 Summary of brief statement of findings
 Ideas for possible corrective actions
 Alternatives if any
 Further research initiatives if required




                                             47
             Bibliography
 Books-Name of author, Name of book,
  Edition, publishers, year, page no
 Journals-Name of author, Paper title,
  name of journal, volume, month, year,
  page no
 Compete website address




                                          48
     Some more Do‟s and Don‟ts
 Do lots of referencing
 Avoid use of personal pronouns I, you
        "In a few moments I will explain"
   Do some self critique
        Indicate how the research can be improved.




                                                      49
     Some more Do‟s and Don‟ts
   Be concise and to the point. Only include relevant
    information.
   Use appendices for extra information that will be useful to
    the reader but has no direct impact on the project (but
    don't overdo it either).
   Get a number of people to proof read you manual. When
    it‟s your work and you proof-read it yourself, you only see
    what you THINK you wrote.
 Structure, structure, structure.
 Don't have gaps of whitespace.



                                                            50
      Some more Do‟s and Don‟ts
   Readers should be able to get a clear idea of what your
    project is about by comparing the Abstract and Conclusion

   As you are writing, have one word in the back of your
    head; 'Why'. Why did you choose one thing over another,
    why do you have to write what you're writing, why is this
    bit of information important for my reader.

 Do not use the first person. 'I did this and then I did that
  and I think because I found....'. Instead write „It was
  thought, it was found , etc.
 Do read research papers (which you should be doing
  anyway) to get a feel of what your writing should 'sound'
  like.
                                                             51
                 Guidelines
 Project has to be carried out in an organization
 Topics must be finalized with internal and
  external guides before starting any work
 Students must report about the progress every
  week to respective guides
 Students doing project in organizations must get
  permission letters from organizations and copy
  of the same must be submitted to the respective
  guides –latest by 18th Aug 2010

                                                 52
               Some HR issues
   Analysis of parameters influencing Employer‟s
    brand
   Work life balance in IT industries-Issues and
    problems
   A study of “Retention strategies in IT industries”
   Intranet as an information communication media
   Paradigm shifts in Industrial relations
   A study of “Compensation management
    practices in IT industries”

                                                     53
          Some HR issues
 A study on “Talent management practices”
 A study on “Performance management
  practices”
 A study on “Cross cultural issues” in IT
  industries
 Paradigm shifts in employee expectations
 Evaluation of HR service delivery


                                         54
           Some HR issues
 A study of “Best HR practices”
 Analysis of factors affecting compensation
 A study of “HR practices in call centers”
 Work stress and strategies for stress
  management
 Development of HRD metrics
 A study of “Competency management
  practices”
                                           55
               Some HR issues
   Competency mapping
   A study of recruitment strategies in IT industries
   Evaluation of training effectiveness
   Training need analysis
   A study of “Work life balance-Issues and
    challenges”
   A study on “ Team work and its effectiveness”
   Study of HR policies
   Job satisfaction survey

                                                     56
             Some HR issues
   Performance linked pay
   A study of management development programs
   Human capital-measurement and evaluation
   A study on Quality circles
   Quality of work life
   Employee motivation techniques
   A study on “ Expatriate training”
   Employee participation
   A study of HR issues in multinational
    corporations

                                                 57
               Marketing
 Study of effectiveness of personal selling
  in insurance sector with special reference
  to life insurance products
 Advertising agencies a vital link between
  business firms and consumers
 Study of E-Marketing in promotion of
  industrial products
 Study of Customer profile in real estate
  markets

                                           58
              Marketing
 Comparative study of promotional
  strategies by Maruthi Udyog and Santro
  Ltd
 A study of product development and
  launch
 Pricing strategy and response of
  consumers to price increase at KMF
 Modern method of promotion with special
  reference to SMS mktg
                                            59
               Marketing
 A study on customer satisfaction
 Customer perception
 Brand awareness studies
 A study on retail business
 Study for ideal location for retail shops
 Branding of commodity- A study at Jindal
  steel

                                              60
                Finance
 Performance of mutual funds
 Portfolio management
 Working capital management
 A study of methods for reducing non
  performance assets
 Marketing of financial products
 A study on credit rating techniques


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