GOVERNMENT OF MANITOBA by gjjur4356

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									                                                                                      Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                             Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)

Relevance of proposed action

Organic waste is a large source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Organic materials sent to
the landfill decompose without oxygen, releasing methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Fuel used
by vehicles during waste collection also emits GHGs. Further, landfills are costly to dig and
maintain, and space is finite. By diverting waste, municipalities can reduce GHG emissions and
lower their costs overall.

Although only about 5% of Manitoba’s GHG
emissions comes from waste, there are many
opportunities to reduce emissions from this
sector. Part One of this two-part fact sheet
on waste diversion focuses on emissions
reduction opportunities from waste collection.

This fact sheet provides:

•        information on the choice of vehicle used
         to collect waste;
•        four options for waste collection that
         minimise the amount of organics sent to
         the landfill, thus reducing the methane emitted; and,
•        two case studies.




SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                  1
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                                                                                                                                                                    Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                                                                                                           Government of Manitoba

                                                                                                                                                              Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
      PART 1: WASTE COLLECTION AND MANAGEMENT OPTIONS


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Cost to implement
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Estimated      GHG    / operate
Activity                                        Description                                                                                   Success factors              Benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Reduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (high/ med / low)

Organic waste (food                             Voluntary deposit of organic wastes                                                           Convenient / Clean sites;    Low capital and operating       LOW - MEDIUM          Implementation
and yard) drop off                              (food and garden) by residents into                                                                                        costs                                                 cost:
                                                                                                                                              Accessibility of the site;
                                                specially designed depots. Wastes                                                                                                                          CH4 reduction from
AND                                                                                                                                                                        Prevent noxious CH4                                   LOW
                                                are picked up regularly and sent to                                                           Education program;                                           landfill;
                                                                                                                                                                           emissions from landfill
Two way curbside                                a biological treatment facility                                                                                                                                                  Operating costs:
                                                                                                                                              Control of illegal
pickup of                                       (composting, anaerobic digestion).                                                                                         Produces compost that is        Carbon
                                                Recyclables are picked up weekly.                                                             dumping;                                                     sequestration in      LOW-MEDIUM
household waste                                                                                                                                                            an excellent biological
                                                                                                                                              Control of odours and        soil conditioner (fertilizer)   soil;                 Collecting costs:
                                                Other ultimate wastes are picked up
                                                                                                                                              nuisance;
                                                weekly by trucks.                                                                                                          Reduced waste                   Chemical fertilizer   LOW-MEDIUM
                                                                                                                                              Free of charge or low-       transportation and road         replacement.
                                                                                                                                              cost drop off;               damage
Two-way curbside                                Recyclable materials (paper,                                                                  Education program            Low capital and operating       LOW – MEDIUM          Implementation
pickup of                                       cardboard, glass, plastics and                                                                                             costs                                                 cost:
                                                                                                                                              Convenient bins provided
household and yard                              metals) and mixed organic wastes                                                                                                                           CH4 reduction from
                                                                                                                                              by the Municipality          Prevent noxious CH4                                   LOW
wastes                                          are separated by the residents in                                                                                                                          landfill;
                                                                                                                                                                           emissions from landfill
                                                two bins. Recyclables are sent to a                                                                                                                                              Operating and
                                                recycling center. Mixed wastes are                                                                                         Reduced usage of non                                  collecting costs:
                                                sent to a specialized waste-sorting                                                                                        renewable fossil fuels
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 From $ 75 - $ 100
                                                facility where unwanted items
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 per house
                                                (ultimate wastes) are removed and
                                                treated elsewhere. At this point,
                                                organic wastes can be safely
                                                conveyed to a biological treatment
                                                facility (composting, anaerobic
                                                digestion).




      SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                                                     2
      R:\PROJ\606543 - Govt of Manitoba -Climate Change\4.0 Réalisation\4.7 Versions de travail\0. Fact sheets\5. Waste\fact sheet waste diversion 1 v2.doc
                                                                                                                                                                  Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                                                                                                         Government of Manitoba

                                                                                                                                                              Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Cost to implement
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Estimated    GHG     / operate
Activity                                        Description                                                                                   Success factors           Benefits
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Reduction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           (high/ med / low)

Three-way curbside                              Recyclable materials (paper,
pickup of                                       cardboard, glass, plastics and
household wastes (                              metals), organic wastes (food and
food and yard                                   yard mixed) and ultimate wastes
together)                                       are separated by the residents in
                                                three bins. Recyclables are sent to
Waste collection
                                                a recycling center, ultimate wastes
can be effectuated
                                                to a landfill or incinerator and
by two or three
                                                organic wastes to a biological
trucks
                                                treatment facility (composting,
                                                anaerobic digestion).                                                                         Education program                                                            Implementation
                                                                                                                                                                        Recycling activities within                        cost:
                                                                                                                                              Convenient bins or bags   the municipality              MEDIUM
Three-way curbside                              See previous description, but food                                                                                                                                         LOW-MEDIUM
pickup of                                       and yard wastes are separated.                                                                provided by the
                                                                                                                                                                        Prevent noxious CH4
household wastes                                                                                                                              municipality                                            CH4 reduction from   Operating and
                                                Periodical pick-up or voluntary                                                                                         emissions from landfill
                                                                                                                                              Collection can be                                       landfill;            collecting costs:
AND                                             drop-off of household and municipal
                                                yard wastes that are kept separate                                                            adapted to the seasons    Reduced usage of non                               From $ 90 - $ 150
Curbside pick up of                                                                                                                                                     renewable fossil fuels                             per house
                                                from household food wastes for
yard wastes
                                                convenience (i.e. odour
Waste collection                                management, biological treatment
can be effectuated                              optimization downstream).
by two or three
trucks




      SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                                                 3
      R:\PROJ\606543 - Govt of Manitoba -Climate Change\4.0 Réalisation\4.7 Versions de travail\0. Fact sheets\5. Waste\fact sheet waste diversion 1 v2.doc
                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
GHG emission reduction potential

Going from generic two-way to more specialized three-way waste collection methods with trucks
containing different compartments, called co-collect trucks, can mitigate GHGs emissions.
Switching fuel types can also help reduce GHG emissions.

The GHG emission reduction potential for waste collection depends on the distance travelled,
the collection method, the type of truck, the truck capacity, etc. GHG emissions may go up as
specialized trucks are required for specific collection and the distances travelled are larger,
however the emissions from the transport are minimal compared to the reductions achieved by
diverting the waste from landfills.

GHG emission reductions can be achieved by switching to a more efficient fuel in waste
collection and transport trucks.

                                                       Emission factor                                                  Potential GHG
  Fuel type                                                                                                                                             Truck Costs
                                                       (gCO2e/L)                                                        reduction
                                                                                                                                                        High (about 20% more than
  Natural gas                                          2.08                                                             high
                                                                                                                                                        regular diesel)
                                                                                                                        medium
  Biodiesel                                            2 449                                                            (displacement of                Low (Same as regular diesel)
                                                                                                                        fossil diesel)
  Hybrid (bio)diesel-                                  Depends on diesel                                                                                High (20%-30% more than
                                                                                                                        very high
  electric                                             fraction                                                                                         regular diesel)

Refer to the fleet management fact sheet for the required input and different steps to calculate
GHG reductions from switching fuels.

Natural gas trucks

Natural gas is plentiful in Canada. It is one of the cleanest alternative fuels available today.
Using natural gas to fuel a truck may reduce GHG emissions by as much as 20-25 % compared
to diesel trucks. Natural gas trucks also are quieter than their diesel counterparts. Biomethane
which is similar to natural gas but made from renewable sources (i.e., biogas from landfills,
sewage treatment plants and other organic waste) is also a good alternative.

Hybrid Trucks

Hybrid garbage trucks have been tested in cities such as New York, Chicago, Denver, and
Houston. The stop-and-go nature of a garbage truck route makes hybrid trucks very suitable to
benefit from hybrid technologies. Manufacturers (Volvo, PVI, Renova) report that hybrid garbage
collection trucks could reduce fuel consumption by 20% to 35% and cut GHGs emissions by a
corresponding amount. While savings wouldn't be as great on long-haul routes where there is
less braking, even in those instances, manufacturers suggest hybrid technologies could allow as
much as 10 % savings. Therefore, hybrid trucks are better for areas of higher density, such as
towns and villages, than for rural municipalities.



SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                                                 4
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                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
Biodiesel

Biodiesel can be used in unmodified diesel engines. Although biodiesel is not rare, it’s not
available everywhere: most gas stations in Manitoba sell a biodiesel blend. Northland Petroleum
Ltd. In Winnipeg sells 100% biodiesel. Biodiesel cuts GHG emissions, air toxics (aromatics),
and particulates (soot), and does not contribute to sulphur dioxide emissions.

GPS

In addition to using garbage and recycling trucks, more efficient and environmentally-friendly
waste companies are nowadays employing global positioning systems (GPS) technologies and
software applications to optimize the efficiency of their routes. Waste companies are using these
systems to determine where customers are located, see the surrounding streets and roads, and
help determine the most efficient route. This technology is particularly useful for commercial and
institutional garbage pick up or for long distance routes, such as in rural municipalities with large
populations.

Implementation

According to the USEPA, these following steps are important to consider when implementing a
waste collection plan:

         ♦ Review existing laws or regulations on waste collection, transport, and disposal;
         ♦ Designate a municipal representative to oversee waste collection, transport, and
           disposal;
         ♦ Determine geographic scope of collection and transport services;
         ♦ Determine funding, equipment, and labour needs;
         ♦ Determine the type and amount of waste to be processed;
         ♦ Consider a transfer station and
         ♦ Involve the public.

To successfully implement a recycling and/or composting collection plan, municipalities will need
to consider social, financial, institutional, environmental and regulatory issues. Here are some
other important features to consider, since even though collecting is at the beginning of the
waste processing chain, downstream facilities and operations have an impact on the collection
management plan.

         ♦         Evaluate the waste stream;
         ♦         Determine possible markets or buyers for valorised waste;
         ♦         Identify and meet with informal recycling groups, NGOs, and homeowners in cities;
         ♦         Incorporate cooperatives and micro-enterprises;
         ♦         Create designated recycling and/or composting areas;
         ♦         Create operation standards;
         ♦         Determine who is responsible for recycling and composting material.



SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                  5
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                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
The composition of organic wastes indicates the optimal efficiency of waste collection versus
costs and GHG reductions. It is preferable to offer more services for valorisation (recycling and
composting) and minimize waste collection trips by co-collecting. It’s also important to coordinate
the sorting and treatment methods with the collection pattern. For example, if no composting site
exists in the municipality, there is not necessarily a need for separating the food waste.

Municipalities must adapt the collection system to the local particularities (building types, stores
etc). A pilot project can compare different waste collection methods and it allows understanding
the residents’ receptivity to the change. Many success stories from municipalities started with a
pilot project. Pilot programs take on average 6 -12 months to implement and get results.

Container types are another concern when implementing a waste collection management plan.
Bins and paper or biodegradable bags will be necessary. The bins can be bought or rented by
residents or the bins provided free-of-charge by the municipality. In all cases, the bins and bags
must be convenient and appropriate for the type of waste being collected(organic, recyclables,
etc).


Organic waste depots / pick up and curbside pickup of household waste


Residents voluntarily deposit food and garden organic wastes into specially designed drop-off
sites. Wastes are picked up regularly and sent to a biological treatment facility (composting,
anaerobic digestion). Timing of drop-off and residential pick-up could also vary according to
climate and budget restrictions. Other recycling and ultimate household wastes are picked up by
trucks.
Infrastructure and resources required
Drop-off sites for organic wastes with supervisor/manager of building.


Action most effective in the following situations
    ♦ Convenient, clean and safe drop-off sites
    ♦ Control of nuisance (birds, animals) and odours
Time to implement
Construction of drop-off sites: 1-6 months
Staff or volunteer time
   ♦ One security guard/helper/manager of the site
   ♦ Student help during high season (summer)

Implementers
Municipality, waste management companies, homeowners, public-private partnerships




SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                  6
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                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
Program considerations
   ♦ Education program
   ♦ Rewards or rebates with local stores based on the amount of waste voluntarily dropped-
      off


Two-way curbside pickup of household and yard wastes


Recyclable materials (paper, cardboard, glass, plastics and metals) and mixed wastes (ultimate
and organic) are separated by the residents in two bins. Recyclables are sent to a recycling
center. Mixed wastes are sent to a specialized waste-sorting facility where unwanted items
(ultimate wastes) are removed and treated elsewhere. At this point, organic wastes can be
safely conveyed to a biological treatment facility (composting, anaerobic digestion). The
collection of one and or the other can be done either on the same or a different day, with either
two distinct trucks or one multi-container truck.

Infrastructure and resources required
    ♦ Recycling sites
    ♦ Waste-sorting facility
    ♦ Convenient bins/bags
    ♦ Trucks (single or multiple containers)
    ♦ Truck operator
    ♦ Waste collection coordinator

Action most effective in the following situations
    ♦ Co-collector truck reduces the number of pick-ups.
    ♦ Educational programs for residents to improve source separation and management of
       hazardous waste and yard waste.
    ♦ Convenient bins provided by the municipality.

Cost range
Collection costs can be considerable however a good collection management plan will reduce
costs and GHG emissions. Costs are determined by various parameters:

         ♦         Truck purchase and maintenance
         ♦         Fuel prices
         ♦         Travelling distances to cover all territory
         ♦         Number of contractors able to collect
         ♦         Distances to sorting/treating/processing facilities
         ♦         Working condition of contractors and municipal agents
         ♦         Truck types (co-collector versus single collector)

The cost of collection per household ranges from 75$ to 100$. The cost of waste collection and
disposal is usually met through taxation.


SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                  7
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                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
Time to implement
From construction of sorting and treating facilities to waste collection: from 2 to 12 months.

Implementers
Partnerships and collaborations can be generated with local citizens, organizations, educational
institutions, the private sector and the provincial or territorial government. Working with various
groups ensures greater participation in waste diversion programs and can help create effective
solutions.

Program considerations
   ♦ Policy and legislation that support waste diversion efforts are essential. Municipal bylaws
      limiting waste disposal, charging for garbage collection or banning divertible materials
      from landfills can help enforce waste diversion practices. Broader policies, such as
      formal provincial or municipal waste diversion targets, can also motivate change.
   ♦ Education program
   ♦ Rewards or rebates with local stores based on the amount of waste voluntarily dropped
      off


Three-way curbside pickup of household and yard wastes


Recyclable materials (paper, cardboard, glass, plastics and metals), organic wastes (food,
garden) and ultimate wastes are separated by the residents in three bins. Recyclables are sent
to a recycling center, ultimate wastes to a landfill or incinerator and organic wastes to a
biological treatment facility (composting, anaerobic digestion). The collection can be done either
on the same or a different day, with either two distinct trucks or one multi-container truck.

Three-way pick up with three different trucks:

A truck is used for each of the different waste categories (recyclables, organic and ultimate).

Three-way pick up with multiple compartment truck - Co-collection:

Different options and scenarios are possible for trucks with separated compartments. Food
waste can be picked up weekly, whereas the recyclables and ultimate wastes can be collected
bi-weekly. Yard wastes can either be collected with food wastes or it can be dropped off at
community sites.

Infrastructure and resources required
    ♦ Recycling sites
    ♦ Composting facilities
    ♦ Waste-sorting facility
    ♦ Convenient bins/bags
    ♦ Trucks (multiple containers)
    ♦ Truck operator
    ♦ Waste collection coordinator

SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                  8
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                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)

Action most effective in the following situations
    ♦ Co-collector truck reduces the number of pick-ups.
    ♦ Educational programs for residents
    ♦ Convenient bins provided by the municipality
    ♦ Pilot project for waste collection has been tried
    ♦ Needs of the municipality are understood

Cost range
According to data from Ontario and Québec, collecting wastes with multi-compartments trucks
can reduce costs of about 20 to 30% compared to using three different trucks.

                                                                                                           Independent collection                       Co-collection
                   Recycled waste                                                                          26 $/ household                              104 $/household
                   Organic waste                                                                           55 $/ household                              Including      garden   waste
                                                                                                           45 $/ household                              distinct collection
                   Ultimate waste
                   Mix waste (organic, ultimate)                                                           64 $/ household                              N/A

Time to implement
The implementation and coordination of a waste co-collection plan takes 3-15 months.


Three-way curbside pickup of household waste and seasonal curbside pick of yard
wastes


Refer to the previous description of the three-way curbside pick-up. The same principles apply.

Benefits

The simultaneous collection of different residual matter in one single truck with multi-
compartments enables a high collection frequency without increasing the number of truck
passages in the streets. Therefore it limits excessive costs as well as the emission of additional
GHGs. As an example, one of the compartments of the truck can be used for weekly pick-up of
organic waste and the other one can be used, preferably in an alternating manner, every two
weeks for other household wastes or recyclables.

         ♦ Lower collection costs when the sorting and treatment facilities are at close distance.
         ♦ Waste valorization from organics and recyclables reduces GHG emissions.
         ♦ Lower cost per ton of GHG emitted with the co-collection method.

Tools to assist in implementing a project assessment

Waste Reduction Model (WARM) (EPA):
http://www.epa.gov/climatechange/wycd/waste/calculators/Warm_home.html


SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                                                  9
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                                                                                     Local climate change planning services project
                                                                                                            Government of Manitoba

                                                                       Fact Sheet - Waste diversion (Part 1: Waste collection)
Articles of interest

Waste diversion success stories in Canada:
http://gmf.fcm.ca/files/Capacity_Building_-_Waste/WasteDiversion-EN.pdf

Case study overview

City of Owen Sound, Ontario
Population: 21,800
Diversion rate: 51%

Owen Sound recycles over thirty items, including Tupperware, metal pots and pans, cutlery and
kitchen utensils and a wide range of plastic containers. The city runs a biweekly recycling
program, with corrugated cardboard collected weekly in the downtown core and monthly
throughout the rest of the city. Yard waste can be brought to the city-operated outdoor windrow
compost site loose or in paper bags. The transfer station has facilities for garbage and
recyclables including blue box and other curbside collected materials, polystyrene, electronic
waste, large appliances, tires and scrap metal. A charge of $10 per monitor applies to
commercial establishments that drop off waste electronics; all other electronic equipment or
hardware is accepted free of charge. The city provides free weekly recycling services for all
multi-family buildings, institutions and commercial establishments.

Contact information:
Chris Hughes, Environmental Superintendent
Public Works Division
Tel.: 519-376-4274 o

Regional Authority of Carlton Trail Waste Management District, Saskatchewan
Population: 25,047
Diversion rate: 55%

The regional authority of Carlton Trail provides curbside garbage collection to residents located
in villages and towns. Rural residential properties can subscribe to the dumpster collection
service or haul their waste to a transfer station or landfill. Commercial and agricultural
establishments can rent dumpsters and choose to have them collected weekly, biweekly or
monthly. The district has established 28 recycling centres in key locations. Trucks collect
material from the centres and deposit it at a small processing facility where it is sorted before
resale. The district uses the revenue to help fund the program, which is run free of charge. The
district operates leaf and yard waste depots at 17 transfer stations and 2 landfills. Residents can
bring kitchen, leaf and yard waste to the depot, where the material is composted on-site in small
windrow piles. Transfer stations include areas for construction materials.

Contact information:
Wendy Yaworski, CEO, REACT Waste Management
Tel.: 306-682-1955
react@sasktel.net


SNC-Lavalin Inc., Environment Division                                                                                                                  10
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