“COMMODITY MARKET &FUTURES”
Modern Commodity Market have their roots in the trading of
Wheat and corn, cattle and pigs, were widely traded using standard
instruments in the 19th century in the United States.
Historically, in ancient times Sumerian use of sheep or goats, or
other peoples using pigs, rare seashells, or other items as commodity
money, have traded contracts in the delivery of such items, to render
trade itself more smooth and predictable.
Chicago Board of Trade established in 1848 by 82 merchants who
were frustrated over unstable prices and neglected forward contracts.
Commodity futures contracts started being traded in 1865.
Chicago Mercantile Exchange was established in 1919.
WHAT IS COMMODITY MARKET?
Commodity market organized traders' exchange in which
standardized, graded products are bought and sold.
Market in which goods or services are bought and sold.
Commodities are raw materials such as tea, rubber, tin or copper,
which generally need processing to reach their final state. The actual
commodities are seldom present, and what is traded is their
The largest commodity exchange in the world is in Chicago.
DEFINITION OF A "COMMODITY"
Any product that can be used for commerce or an article of commerce
which is traded on an authorized commodity exchange is known as
commodity includes all kinds of goods. Forward Contracts (Regulation)
Act (FCRA), 1952 defines “goods” as “every kind of movable property
other than actionable claims, money and securities”.
The national commodity exchanges, recognized by the Central
Government, permits commodities which include precious (gold and
silver) and non-ferrous metals; cereals and pulses; ginned and un-ginned
cotton; oilseeds, oils and oilcakes; raw jute and jute goods; sugar and
gur; potatoes and onions; coffee and tea; rubber and spices. Etc.
SIZE OF THE MARKET
The trading of commodities includes physical trading of food items,
Energy and Metals, etc. and trading of derivatives.
In the five years up to 2007, the value of global physical exports of
commodities increased by 17% while the notional value outstanding
of commodity OTC derivatives increased more than 500% and
commodity derivative trading on exchanges more than 200%.
Agricultural contracts trading grew by 32% in 2007, energy 29%
and industrial metals by 30%.
Precious metals trading grew by 3%, with higher volume in New
York being partially offset by declining volume in Tokyo.
OTC trading accounts for the majority of trading in gold and silver.
LIST OF TRADED COMMODITY
Agricultural (Grains, and Food and Fiber)
Livestock & Meat
Agricultural Products:- Corn, Oats, Rough Rice, Soybeans,
Rapeseed, Soybean Meal, Soybean Oil, Wheat, Cocoa, Coffee C,
Cotton No.2, Sugar No.11, Sugar No.14.
Livestock and Meat:- Lean Hogs, Frozen Pork Bellies, Live Cattle,
Energy:- WTI Crude Oil, Brent Crude, Ethanol, Natural Gas,
Heating Oil, Gulf Coast Gasoline, RBOB Gasoline, Propane,
Precious Metal:- Gold, Platinum, Palladium, Silver.
Industrial Metals:- Copper, Lead, Zinc, Tin, Aluminium, Aluminum
alloy, Nickel, Recycled steel.
Abuja Securities and Commodities Exchange
Bhatinda Om & Oil Exchange Bathinda
Brazilian Mercantile and Futures Exchange
Chicago Board of Trade
Chicago Mercantile Exchange
Commodity Exchange Bratislava, JSC
Dalian Commodity Exchange
Dubai Mercantile Exchange
Minneapolis Grain Exchange
Multi Commodity Exchange
National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange
National Multi-Commodity Exchange of India Ltd
National Food Exchange
New York Mercantile Exchange
New York Board of Trade
Rosario Board of Trade
Kansas City Board of Trade
London Metal Exchange
Winnipeg Commodity Exchange
National Spot Exchange
RECENT TRENDS IN COMMODITY
The 2008 global boom in commodity prices - for everything from
coal to corn – was fueled by heated demand from the likes of China
Speculation in forward markets.
Farmers are expected to face a sharp drop in crop prices as a result
of bad rainfall.
Other commodities, such as steel, are also expected to fall due to
WHAT COMMODITY FUTURES MARKETS
A well-developed and effective commodity futures market, unlike
physical market, facilitates offsetting the transactions without
impacting on physical goods until the expiry of a contract.
Futures market attract hedgers who minimize their risks, and
encourages competition from other traders who possess market
information and price judgment.
While hedgers have long-term perspective of the market, the traders,
or arbitragers as they are often called, hold an immediate view of the
A large number of different market players participate in buying and
selling activities in the market based on diverse domestic and global
information, such as price, demand and supply, climatic conditions
and other market related information.
All these factors put together result in efficient price discovery as a
result of large number of buyers and seller transacting in the futures
A central market place with established rules and regulations where
buyers and sellers meet to trade futures contracts.
CASH VS FUTURES MARKET TRADING
o In cash market, a physical commodity is exchanged in a buy and
a sell agreement.
o In futures market, you are paper trading and don’t take physical
possession of the commodity in most cases.
o The difference between the cash market price and the futures
market price of a commodity.
TWO TYPES OF FUTURES TRADERS
o An individual or company who offsets a cash market position by
shifting some of the risk of adverse fluctuations in price, by
buying or selling a futures contract.
o Example: a farmer plants his corn crop in March and
immediately sells a September futures corn contract. In the fall
he harvests the corn and sells it on the cash market. He then buys
back his September futures contract. He locks in his price and
avoids market fluctuations
o A market participant who tries to make a profit on buying or
selling commodity futures contracts and assumes the majority of
the risk from the hedger.
o Example: a person expects cotton to rally because of heavy rains
in the Mississippi delta will damage the crop and cause harvest
delays. He buys a Dec contract of cotton and prays.
Commodity and Futures contracts are similar as "Forward"
Early days "future" contracts (agreements to buy now, pay and
deliver later) were used as a way of getting products from producer
to the consumer.
These typically were only for food and agricultural Products.
Now it is used for every metal.
Future contract for commodity trading and for share trading is all
different from one another.
Futures are traded in certain contract months
Contracts are at specified and pre-determined amounts
Owner doesn’t take physical possession of commodity
OPTION FUTURES CONTRACT
o A futures contract in which you have the right but not an obligation
to exercise your option at a future date.
o Two types of option contracts:
o Put - an option contract that gains value when the
market price falls.
o Call - an option contract that gains value when the
market price rises.
o Strike price - price you would like to receive for your commodity
minus the premium.