Figurative Language Vocabulary POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET SPEAKER The poet is the The speaker of author of the the poem is the poem. “narrator” of the poem. POETRY FORM FORM - the appearance of the words on the A word is dead page When it is said, Some say. LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem I say it just Begins to live STANZA - a group of That day. lines arranged together KINDS OF STANZAS Couplet = a two line stanza Triplet (Tercet) = a three line stanza Quatrain = a four line stanza Quintet = a five line stanza Sestet (Sextet) = a six line stanza Septet = a seven line stanza Octave = an eight line stanza Alliteration The repetition of consonants at the beginning of words. Often used in commercials, poetry, or music. Example: Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Example: The sneaky snake had one more snack. Allusion A reference to something from history of literature. Often references to the Bible or Greek myths. Example: He was as strong as Hercules. Example: The ball game was a David and Goliath struggle. Metaphor A comparison between two different things without using like or as. The comparison is clear and definite Direct Example: My mother IS a Bear Subtle Example: The criminal cried a waterfall of tears for his mama. Repetition Repeated words or phrases, duh. Often used in commercials, poetry, or music. Example: Head On, apply it directly to the forehead. Head On, apply it directly to the forehead. Head On, apply it directly to the forehead. Head On, apply it directly to the forehead. Simile A comparison between two different things using like or as. Example: Her hair was as golden as the sun. Example: His attitude, like sour milk, made me sick. Symbol One thing that stands for itself and some other idea. Example: The flag symbolizes our country and the brave men and women who fight for it. Example: The Mechanical Hound symbolizes death. Tone The emotional attitude toward the reader or toward the subject implied by a literary work. Different tones include angry, playful, sarcastic, serious, and sincere. Also includes tone of voice Personification Giving human characteristics to inhuman objects or animals. Example 1: The sky cried, giving joy to the new born flowers. Example 2: The dog seemed to laugh as I chased it around the yard. Imagery Creating pictures for the senses Sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell Visual imagery is the most common kind of imagery in poetry. Example 1: The smoke rose sweet and thick from the Bar-B- Que. (smell) Example 2: The deafening crash outside woke the baby. (auditory) END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring. INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe NEAR RHYME a.k.a imperfect ROSE rhyme, close rhyme LOSE Different vowel The words share sounds (long “o” EITHER the and “oo” sound) same vowel or Share the same consonant sound consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH RHYME SCHEME A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.) SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, a Though smaller than the pachyderm. a His customary dwelling place b Is deep within the human race. b His childish pride he often pleases c By giving people strange diseases. c Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? a You probably contain a germ. a SOME TYPES OF POETRY WE WILL BE STUDYING LYRIC A short poem Usually written in first person point of view Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene Do not tell a story and are often musical (Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.) A longer version is called an Ode NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that Examples of tells a story. Narrative Generally Poems longer than the lyric styles of “The Raven” poetry b/c the “The poet needs to Highwayman” establish characters and “Casey at the Bat” a plot. “The Walrus and the Carpenter” FREE VERSE POETRY Unlike metered Free verse poetry, free verse poetry is very poetry does NOT conversational - have any repeating sounds like patterns of stressed someone talking and unstressed with you. syllables. Does NOT have A more modern rhyme. type of poetry. BLANK VERSE POETRY Written in lines of iambic pentameter, but does NOT use end rhyme. from Julius Caesar Cowards die many times before their deaths; The valiant never taste of death but once. Of all the wonders that I yet have heard, It seems to me most strange that men should fear; Seeing that death, a necessary end, Will come when it will come.