Lifelong by qihao0824

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									                      LIFELONG TRAINING
Success in the marketplace increasingly depends on learning, and yet most people don’t know
how to learn
                      Strategy, Change and Defensive Routines (Argyris, 1985)

To cope with rapid change of the information and communication age, we must
ensure that people can return to learning throughout their lives.

The new challenge - Lifelong training – WHY?
Learning can make a difference to you.
Learning can make a difference to your organisation.
Learning can make a difference to society as a whole.
Learning is continuous process – we all learn all the time.

Barriers
that could reduces the chances of achieving your goals

              Personal                                             Practical

                                         Barriers

           Social                                              Organisational

Personal – negative experience of learning
           negative attitude towards learning
           anxiety about the results of learning
           lack of learning skills
           problems in maintaining commitment and keeping going

Practical – lack of money and the cost of formal learning programmes
           lack of time
           lack of facilities: for example access to Internet
           lack of space: for example, somewhere to read quitly

Organisational – the value given to learning
                the way the organisation is structured
                the way work is carried out

Social – people receive for learning from their family and friends
One of the major barriers to learning is our own – views about how much we can
learn.
Any barriers to learning won’t just go away. It is important to clarify which barriers
you face, and to take steps to tackle them.

There are many ways in which the organisational climate will influence learning
People are valued – at the heart of a positive learning climate is a clear commitment
to people
Learning has priority – the organisation needs to commit resources to learning so that
people can take charge of their development
Atmosphere of team and support – if people are to learn from work, they need a
helpful atmosphere
Learn from mistakes - if mistakes are accepted and every valued, people will be open
about then and prepared to learn from them
Try out new approaches – if people are not punished unduly for mistakes, they are
more likely to try out new ways of doing things.
Questions are welcomed and encouraged
Everyone learns all the time – throughout the organisation people are aware that thay
can learn continually

Learning style – deep and surface learning.
Deep approach – the learner looks for understanding and meaning
Surface approach – learner memorises and reproduces what they learn

Is one style better than another?
The research consistently underlines, that success is more likely if learner use a deep
approach.
But research underlines too, that higher level learning requires a style which combines
both deep and surface learning.

The changing role of teachers
The role of teachers and trainers has changed or is changing. Above all, they are
increasingly being expected to “tutor” rather then to “teacher” or “train”. There are
likely to spend more time with individuals and small groups than with “class” groups,
and are most extensively involved in individual negotiation and action planning.

Why learn to learn?
You need to know about the skills and techniques of learning

The ability to learn about learning and become masters of the learning process is the critical
issue for the next century
                                        Learning Declaration Group (1998)
Learning skills – specific techniques and behaviours which an individual may apply to
task – for example, note taking, memorising
Learning strategy – the choice to make use of one or more learning skills as
appropriate to task
Organising the learning
The three key requirements are:
Getting organised – so you know what you have got to do and how you will fit into
your busy life.
Getting down to it – so that when you have time available you get down to business
rather than watching TV making a cup of coffee, reading a newspaper and so on
Sticking at it – so that one you have got started you do not feel “Oh well, I’ve done 15
minutes - perhaps”.

The reflective learner
Reflection is crucial to learning from experience.
Research into learning from experience suggests that it is reflection that enables the
effective learner to recognise opportunities when they happen, and learn from them.
Concrete
                                Concrete experience


Test implications of concepts                          Observations and reflections
 in new situations

                     Formation of abstract concepts and generalisation

The Kolb Learning cycle – the cycle may be entered by the learner at any point, but
its stages must be followed in sequence
The reflective observation and active experimentation stages of the cycle are crucial.
In reality, reflection overlaps the abstract conceptualization stage of the cycle where
new ideas and knowledge help the learner to have insights and to understand situation
in a different way. This learning must then be tested out in new situations. The active
experimentation stage of cycle is that this point where the learner plans how to make
the link between theory and action. Reflective observation is the process of reflecting
on an experience and making sense of it.
Reflection can help to bridge the gap between theory a practice

The creative learner
Creativity is indeed possible in all areas of human activity be it work, play, leisure or
any aspect of daily life.
As well as being creative in your learning, you can also learn creative.

The questioning learner
In many ways critical questions are the lifeblood of any quality system.

The collaborative learner
Collaborative learning is becoming more important.
Groups in general, and teams in particular, have become important in successful
organisations. The groups provide a positive learning environment within which
people can share ideas and support each other.
Teams are central to managing quality. The teams are crucial to world organisation.
Teams are seen as crucial to breaking down barriers between departments or sections.
Even within departments or sections, there has been a move towards more
collaborative working. The days when manager could stand aloof his or her team are
long alone. Team working and leadership skills are now crucial to all managers.

The independent learner
The pace of life and demands placed on managers and professionals often means that
many cannot afford the time to attend a full-time course.
Open learning, distance learning, independent study or flexible learning – the sort
of courses where the emphasis is on independent, self managed learning as opposed to
teacher or trainer-directed study.

Open learning
What is open learning?
… a term used to describe courses flexibility designed to meet individual requirements. It is
often applied to provision which tries to remove barriers that prevent attendance at more
traditional courses, but it also suggests a learner-centred philosophy.
                                         What is Open Learning (Lewis and Spencer, 1985)

An term, which covers quite a wide range of different types of provision including
distance learning, flexible learning, correspondence courses, home study, resource-
based learning and supported self-study.
The basic idea behind all these programmes has always been to make learning “more
open” by removing some of the unnecessary barriers which can limit access to taught
courses.

Changing in the learning environment
The increased importance of distance learning has not arisen in isolation, nor simply
as a result of technical advances, but in the changing context of society, and the place
of learning within it.

Distance learning
The distance learning is delineated by five main points:
The separation – for the most part of the teacher and the learner throughout the
learning process, though this does not preclude occasional meetings.
The separation - for the most part of learners from eachother throughout the learning
process, so they largely learn as individuals not in groups, though this does not
preclude occasional meetings.
The activity of an educational system or organisation in the planning of learning, the
preparation of materials, and the support of learners.
The use of appropriate technical media, and allow contact between teacher and
learner.
The provision of two-way communication between teacher and learner
The three components of distance learning
For an distance learning system to be successful it must have three key components.
These are an effective management system, learning materials and learner support.



                         Management              Materials



                                   The learner




                                      Support




A clear management system
Is needed for activities such as supporting staff, keeping records, managing budgets,
resources and facilities and evaluating and monitoring provision.

Learning materials
A major component of most open learning provision is the use of specially prepared
or adapted learning materials:
workbooks, audio tapes, videos, CDs, on-line resources, textbooks/readers.
Open and distance learning materials should be:
… put together in such a way that users can learn from them satisfactorily with less help than usual
from the teacher.
                       Preparing Materials for Open, Distance and Flexible Learning (Rowntree, 1994)
Be clear about what you want to say, say it clearly and simply in appropriate style and test what you
have written to see if people can understand.
                              Materials for Learning – How to teach adults at a distance (Jenkins, 1981)

Materials need to be “reader friendly” – materials are a vital component of any open
learning programme; they need to be of the highest quality to be effective.
It is clearly crucial that media are used in appropriate ways, and not just to provide
unnecessary glitz. The appropriate choice and use of technologies will depend on the
particular context in which they are used. The current fashion for using computers and
the Internet in open learning must be considered critically. If presenting materials on
computer increase both the cost and the inconvenience to the learner, it is time to
rethink.
The importance of logical structure and sequencing:
Followed the learning cycle.
Well structured.
They’d obviously though about the order and the relationship between things.
Bite-sized chunks.
It was in block.
Good signposting and referencing.
Easy to find things when referring back.
Who are supporters?
Open learning supporters often come from two backgrounds:
From education – teachers and lecturers with experience of teaching and who are used
to dealing with learners
From industry – managers and work-based coaches who may have little previous
experience of training others in formal sense but may have greater experience of
individual coaching.
Success in open learning depends on the quality of the relationship build between
learners and coach or tutor. This relationship must be built with trust a care.
These criteria imply that the nature of learning in distance environment must be very different from
“traditional” college-based education and training. Without the immediate support of a student group,
and the face-to-face presence of teacher, distance learners must take responsibility for setting their
own goals, and using the learning resources available to them to attain them. Distance learning must,
by its nature, be self-directed, independent and autonomous
                                                                                       Moore, 1980

The distance education provision should make it possible, in some way, for learners to
reflect the material they are studying, and to relate it to their own situation and
experiences. While it is clear how this is applicable to social and ethical issues of
study, it is less obvious how this will help thinking about how distance learning can
contribute to the development of technical knowledge and skills.
A lot of what we do is helping people to understand what their learning has been about.
                                                                 Bill Davies – Careers

One thought
It is also worth remembering that people have different styles of learning. Some prefer
to think carefully and logically about an issue, some to undertake practical activities,
others debate and discussion. Similarly, some people can learn best by learning, others
by watching a demonstration, others by talking and listening, still others by doing.

Finally
Learning is key to prosperity – for each of us as individuals, as well as for nation as
whole. Investment in human capital will be the foundation of success in the
knowledge-based economy of the twenty-first century. The information and
knowledge-based revolution of twenty –first century will be built on a very different
foundation – investment in the intellect and creativity of people.
Our single greatest challenge is to equip ourselves for this new age with new and
better skills, with knowledge and with understanding

And
The role of libraries and information services in the information chain
 Library are now the learning places of choice for many people, offering
an accessible, neutral learning space where people feel secure within a share value
system and socially inclusive cultural and creative environment, providing catalyst for
learning.
Library and information services have a central role to play in managing information
for teaching and learning and research
                                                Learn for your life (2001)
Distance learning and libraries
Macro issues and trends such as these are shaping the future of distance learning.
Other issues delineated by various authors include increasing enrolments in academic
programmes, more older students with a wider range of qualifications and academic
backgrounds, more part-time students, and a shift toward a more flexible educational
system. Miller(1997) indicates that the new learning environment is more responsive
to student needs, and will be lifelong, learner-centred and collaborative. This new
learning environment will also emphasize individual inquiry using original data and
sources rather than lectures and prepared texts. It will be structured so that learners get
experience in problem solving, decision-making and value exploration. Libraries are
currently in transition period in responding to developments in distance learning and
many are questioning their role in this emerging environment.
By the year 2005 the largest percentage of professional degrees will be delivered at
the workplace. Educational marketplace is becoming much more competitive, which
is creating challenges for those institutions, that have historically used revenue from
high-demand programmes to subsidize those programmes in lower demand.

The role academic libraries in distance learning
The librarians need to view the library as a learning place and not warehouse, and
library services needs to be seen as more than pointing to resources. The librarians
must demonstrate the added value of library to the educational process and that
libraries must become active, political and effective builders of learning knowledge
structures for their survival.
One primary contribution would be for librarians to form partnerships with educators
to design environments where information technologies can be integrated into the
learning experience.
The literature on library instruction for distance learners originates in developed
countries (USA, UK, Australia, South Africa). Much of the literature on library
instruction in d.l. from development countries is practice-based. 3 Categories:
General works, information literacy issues and web-based instruction.

General works
Methods reported in the past – on-site presentations, educational television, print
materials, videos audiotapes and audioconferencing, computerassisted instruction, and
multimedia packages. Many of these methods are still in practice today.

Information literacy issues
Success of any library instruction programme focusing on information literacy hinges
on the support and cooperation on faculty and course developers. Self-directed
learning and information literacy are strongly connected, and teaching staff, librarians
and instructional designers have a major role in promoting these skills.
Librarians need to redefine their roles in the educational process by collaborating with
teaching faculty to help students think critically and to evaluate Internet information
sources. Educator and librarians need to work together to ensure that learners know
why they need information, how to find and evaluate that information, and how to
transform the information into knowledge for future use.

Web-based instruction
Web pages are used to publish information, train users and guide access to Internet
resources. Web pages instruction requires different competencies from those used to
providing library instruction in a face to face setting or through print materials.
Librarians need to develop a new set of skills in order to develop effective
instructional material for an online environment. Librarians must develop instr.
Through self-directed learning or by partnering with instructional designer.




                   That which many of us adapt to overnight, takes others decades to
                   accept.




References:
Eddy Knasel, John Meed, Anna Rossetti (2000), Learn for your life, FINANCIAL TIMES, Prentice
Hall
Lyn Robinson, David Bawden, Distance learning and LIS professional development, Departement of
Information Science, City University, London (2001)
Martin,William, The Global Information Society, Aslib Gower, 1995
Elkin Judith, Law, Derek, Managing Information, Open University Press (2000)
Pugh, Lyndon, Change Management in Information Services, Gower, 2000
Library without walls 3
Library gave us power.
Then work came and made us free

That which many of us adapt to overnight, takes others decades to accept. With eLib,
many of the resultant ripples of cultural change may have no effect for years and
decades, and may never become explicitely apparent.

While it is clear that the application of ICTs to the practice of open and distance
learning is growing rapidly, the study team
determined that the concept of truly virtual education is still more rhetorical than real.

The report provides a detailed look at the differences in this development around the
world through a series of
regionally-based papers and concludes with a number of suggestions for policy
makers and education leaders regarding the
development of models for virtual learning.
http://www.col.org/virtualed/
The most important factors driving virtual learning are
           increasingly affordable ICTs, such as personal computers and
           Internet access, and their ability to provide flexible, niche
           learning to a lifelong learners’ market hungry for educational
           opportunities. However, the development of ICT infrastructure
           needs to be more closely linked with educational considerations;
           a critical "haves" and "have nots" access to learning is
           developing in some parts of the world.


The best teacher in the world cannot make you learn – you have an active part to play
and are largely responsible for the progress that you make

The primary task of the teacher is to permit the student to learn, to feed his or her own
curiosity
              Freedom to Learn for the 80’s (Rogers, 1983)

Library gave us power.
Then work came and made us free



                    Library without walls 3

								
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