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The Nine Planets

VIEWS: 520 PAGES: 18

									The Nine Planets

      (13.14)
        The Inner Planets
The four planets closest to the Sun are
 Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
All four of these planets are made up of a
 rocky material and therefore are called
 the terrestrial planets.
These planets are also known as the inner
 planets.
               Mercury
Mercury is the closest planet to the Sun;
 therefore, it gets sunlight that is 10
 times brighter than the Earth’s.
Mercury does not have an atmosphere to
 help trap the heat it receives from the
 Sun, so it loses all of its heat at night
 dropping to -180 degrees Celsius (oC).
Mercury’s daytime temperature is a
 sweltering 400 (oC).
Mercury is rarely
 seen in our
 night sky
 because it is so
 close to the
 Sun.
When we do see
 Mercury, it is
 generally at
 sunset and at
 sunrise.
           Venus
After the Sun and the Moon,
  Venus is the brightest object
  that we can see in the sky
  because it is so close to our
  planet Earth.
Also, the atmosphere on Venus is
  very thick and the light it
  receives from the Sun is
  reflected to us.
Venus’s atmosphere is made up
  from mainly carbon dioxide.
This gas acts like the glass of a
  greenhouse and keeps the
  surface of the planet hot
  enough to melt lead.
                 Earth
Life has grown on Earth because the
  atmosphere on this planer is perfect for
  beings to have changed.
Earth’s atmosphere is mainly made up of
  nitrogen, oxygen, and water vapour.
There is a small amount of ozone in our
  atmosphere and this is what filters
  some of the damaging radiation from
  the Sun.
Water from lakes, oceans,
  and rivers covers
  approximately 70% of
  planet Earth.
The rest of the Earth’s
  surface is covered by
  soil, which allows for
  the growth of
  vegetations and habitat
  for land creatures.
Earth is changing every
  day because of several
  environmental factors
  such as volcanoes,
  earthquakes, and
  pollution.
                      Mars
Mars is one of the
 brightest planets in the
 sky and is sometimes
 referred to as the
 “RED Planet” because
 of the reddish tinge it
 casts. This reddish
 colour is caused by the
 rust-coloured soil.
Mars is very dry and
 barren, but there is
 evidence that Mars was
 once covered with
 volcanoes, glaciers and
 flood waters.
         The Outer Planets
The remaining 5 planets in our solar system
 are known as the outer planets: Jupiter,
 Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto.
The first 4 of these planets are also known
 as the Gas Giants. Their atmosphere
 consists mainly of hydrogen and helium.
These planets have soupy surfaces and gets
 denser as you sink to the middle. Not
 possible to land on.
The outermost planet, Pluto, is unique among
 the outer planets.
Jupiter
   Jupiter is the largest
     planet of all of the
     planets.
   Its diameter is 11
     times larger than
     Earth’s diameter.
   Its mass is greater
     than the masses of
     all the other planets
     combined.
Jupiter is also a very bright object in the
 night sky because of its size and the
 large amount of light reflected by its
 clouds.
Jupiter’s most interesting features are
 its coloured bands and the Great Red
 Spot.
Jupiter has approximately 16 moons, and
 sometimes you can see four of these
 moons by using binoculars.
                 Saturn
Saturn is the second-largest planet, but it is
 the least dense of all the planets, with a
 possibility of no core.
Saturn’s atmosphere is cloudy and windy.
Saturn’s average temperature is -180oC.
                   Uranus
Uranus’s diameter is 4
  times larger than
  Earth.
Its atmosphere is made
  up primarily of
  hydrogen, with some
  helium and methane.
This planet has winds
  that blow up to 500
  km/h. In our night sky,
  Uranus looks like an
  extremely faint star.
Neptune
   From Earth, Neptune is
     barely visible with the
     use of a telescope.
   Neptune has bright blue
     and white clouds and a
     dark region – the Great
     Dark Spot – that
     appears to be the
     centre of a storm.
   Neptune has at least 8
     moons and thin rings
     orbiting around it.
Pluto
    Pluto is now classified as a
       dwarf planet. It is unusual
       because it is not a gas
       giant and it does not seem
       to be terrestrial.
    The motion of Pluto’s orbit
       suggests that Pluto may
       have been one of
       Neptune’s moons at one
       time.
    Pluto also has a moon called
       Charon which is about the
       same size as Pluto.
       Planetary Summary

Closest to                 Brown crater                     59 days
the Sun      0.386    0    Chunks of rock
                                                 none
                                                            To orbit Sun
2nd from                   Hot enough to                    A 1.7 KM high
             0.72     0                       CO2, N2
the Sun                    melt lead                        Volcano
                                                            Volcanoes,
3rd from
               1      1    Soil and Water      N 2, O 2     hurricanes
the Sun
                           Reddish                          Volcanoes,
4th from     0.5326   2                       CO2, N2
the Sun                    coloured soil                    glaciers
5th from                   Coloured Bands,                  Winds,
the Sun
              11      63   Great Red Spot     H2, He, CH4   hurricanes
6th from                   Surface temp. is   H2, He, CH4   Windy,
the Sun
              10      33   About -180o                      cloudy
7th from                   Polar hood over                  500 km/h
the Sun
               4      29   South pole         H2, He, CH4   winds
8th from      3.8     13   It’s blue.         H2, He, CH4   Dark spot
the Sun
9th from     0.186    3    Cold and rocky        none       Rotates on
the Sun                                                     side
     Questions – p. 428: 1, 3, 9
1. Why are the four planets closest to the Sun
   called the “terrestrial planets”?
   The word terrestrial refers to Earth. Mercury,
   Mars, and Venus have several properties in
   common with Earth, so together the four
   planets are called the terrestrial planets
3. Why is Jupiter easy to see in the night sky?
   Jupiter is very large, and its atmosphere
   reflects a lot of light from the light.
9. List the steps that were followed in
   discovering Neptune. How do these steps
   relate to the process of scientific
   discovery?
   Scientists observed that Uranus was a
   plant; then they discovered that its motion
   was not smooth. They made a hypothesis
   that another object was tugging on Uranus.
   They predicted where the other object was;
   then they tested their hypothesis and
   discovered Neptune. This process resembles
   scientific discovery: observing brings more
   questions followed by hypothesis,
   predicting, and testing.

								
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