Agricultural Productions I Ag Mechanics Tools General Rules Hand tools used for cutting should be sharp to improve safety and efficiency Using the proper tool for the job can reduce or eliminate injuries Fine or small teeth on a saw blade make a smoother cut, but coarse large teeth cut faster Adjustable wrench Used to turn various sizes nuts and bolts Brick trowel Used to place and spread mortar Cold chisel Used to cut metal Combination wrench Used to turn both hex and square nuts Concrete float Used to level concrete Countersink Used to flare the top of a hole to recess the head for a flathead screw or bolt Long nose pliers Used to reach into recessed areas Hammers Hold handle near the end away from hammer head to improve accuracy and leverage Large nails require use of a heavier hammer than small nails Using nails to fasten wood is fast, but is the weakest method May types of nails are available. The correct type should be used for the job. Common nails are used most in construction, but finishing nails should be used when the head needs to be set below the surface of the wood. Nail hammer Used to drive nails to fasten one board to another Ball peen hammer Used to hammer metal objects such as punches, chisels, or parts of small engines Ripping hammer Used to remove wood and to drive nails Nail gun Used to drive nails Slip joint pliers Used to hold various sizes of materials T bevel Used to fine and transfer various angles Squares Handles should be held firmly against edge of board The combination square can be used as a miter square, plumb bob, level, depth gauge, marking gauge, and inside and outside T square A framing square has rafter tables T square Used to mark 900 angles Combination square Used to mark 450 and 900 angles Vise grip pliers Used for extra firm holding or gripping Wire strippers Used to remove insulation from electrical wires, to gauge wire sizes, and to crimp terminals Wrecking bar Used to rip and pry wood Drill A center punch should be used to dent the metal before starting to drill the hole in metal The bit should tight in chuck, and the chuck key removed before using a drill Drill Makes round holes through wood or metal using a bit Drill press A stationary tool used to make round holes in wood or metal using a bit Portable Grinder Operator should use both hands with a circular saw It is unsafe to use a grinding wheel after ½ of its original diameter is worn away Grinder Share and smoothes metal, sharpens tools, or removes rust Hammer drill Used to drill holes in masonry Jointer The depth of cut should be about 1/16” each pass The depth of cut is determined by adjusting the front-in-feed table The last pass on each edge of the board should be with the grain for a smooth cut Jointer Used to straighten and smooth edges of board or to cut bevels Planer About 1/16” of wood should be removed ob each pass Nails, dirt and loose knots should be removed before the board is planed The THIN end of a rough-cut board should be put in the planer first The final pass on each side of the board should be with the grain to get a smooth finish Planer Smoothes and cuts lumber to exact thickness Saws DO NOT saw out the marked line because board will be too small is it was measured and marked accurately. Saw on waste side of mark Hand crosscut saw is used to cut off ends of boards across the grain Hand ripsaw is used to rip a board Coping saw has a very narrow, thin blade that can be removed and inserted in a hole to saw out a hole in the middle of a board. It can be used to cope molding and saw curves. Portable Saws Operator should use both hands with a circular saw Circular saw is used to make straight crosscuts or rip cuts in wood Saw teeth should point toward front of saw Other types of saws include sabre, job, scrolle, and reciprocating Radial Arm Saw The wood remains stationary on the saw table and the saw is bulled to the wood The saw should secured after each use Radial arm saw Moves to cut a stationary piece of wood Crosscut saw blade Used to cut across the grain of wood Hacksaw A stationary power tool that uses a blade with back and forth motions to cut metal Used to cut metal There should be at least three teeth in contact with the metal Miter saw Used to cut angles Abrasive cutoff saw Uses a circular blade to cut metal Coping saw Used to cut curves in wood Band saw Uses a thin, continuous, flexible blade to cut either curved or straight lines Circular saw Makes straight cuts in wood Compound miter saw Is a cutoff type saw used to cut angles and square cuts Sabre saw Cuts curves in wood or other materials Rip saw blade Used to cut with the grain of wood Router Used to make molding or designs in wood surfaces, dado cuts, and rabbet cut Sanders Belt sanders require operator to use both hands Belt should be turning before it is gently tough to the wood and it should continue to run and be moved with the wood grain until it is lifted from the wood when finished After use a belt sander should be laid on its side A finishing sander should be used to said with the grain to get a smooth finish Sanding Sand with the grain and use fine or very fine sandpaper to prevent scratches Coarse sandpaper is used to remove large amount of wood when sanding, but it leaves scratches in the wood Sander Smooth wood surfaces Reciprocating saw Used in tight or close situations in remodeling work Band Saw Short or sharp curves in wood require a narrow blade (1/4” or less) To help prevent the wood from binding, the miter gauge AND rip fence should NOT both be used at the same time A band saw used to cut metal must have a speed control that will slow the blade speed, and metal cutting blade must be used. Table Saw If a board is ripped less than 3” wide a push stick should be used To get the correct board width, measure the side of fence nearest saw blade to the saw blade tooth nearest the fence Install the correct blade for the job with the teeth pointing toward the direction of rotation of the saw motor. Table saw Used to crosscut, rip, dado, or miter Measuring and Marking Tools “Measure twice, cut once” is a good rule to follow Most wood measuring tools are divided into 1/16” marks The string of a chalk line should be stretched tight and snapped in the middle to mark and accurate long straight line A scratch awl, file, or scriber can be used to mark a scratch on metal Soapstone is used to mark metal without leaving a permanent scratch Measuring tools for wood Usually divided into 16 parts per inch or 1/16ths Metal Cutting Tools Files Since files one cut on the forward stroke, pressure should be reduced on the backstroke Hacksaws Teeth should point away from the handle because most cutting is done on forward strokes Taps and dies When used to cut threads in metal, oil should be used for lubircation Screwdrivers Used the correct size and type for the job A heavy duty screwdriver has a square shank so that a wrench can be used to help remove large screws General Rules Care should be taken to use guards and to keep hands and clothing away from cutting parts of tools and equipment All safety procedures should be followed Skills Needed for Cold Metal Tasks Identify metal so that its characteristics will be known before trying to do other cold metal and welding tasks Cutting cold metal is done to make it the correct size-length or width. Cutting cold metal is done by using snips, shears, or a cold chisel. Cutting thick cold metal is done with a hacksaw or a metal cutting saw bland in band saws, jigsaws, or reciprocating saws. Bending cold metal no more than 3/8” thick can be dine with a ball peen hammer and machinists vise. Metal thicker than 3/8” should be heated before bending. Shaping cold metal can be done be cutting filing, grinding, or being or combining any of these The main reason to file metal is to smooth rough places, but filing is also used to sharpen some tools Grinding is the procedure used to sharpen points or edges of cutting tools made of high carbon steel. Cold Metal Procedures Identifying Metals Ferrous contain iron Will rust and have to be painted or oiled to protect Non ferrous do not have iron Metals can be identified by Color Weight Texture Use Shape Forge or cast marks Spark test Color shape, quantity, length, and position of sparks are used to identify metals using spark test Cast iron has red line High carbon steel has yellow lines with several star burst Wrought iron has long straw colored lines without bursts Galvanized steel should be identified because it gives off a poisonous gas when heated for cutting or welding If the metal is too thick, snips or shears will not cut. Thick metal should be cut with a metal cutting saw such as a hacksaw, a band saw, or abrasive cut-off (chop saw) Drilling metal is done by securing metal in a machinist’s vise using a center punch and ball peen hammer to dent the metal to prevent the drill bit from wandering from the desired location. A drill and bit are used to drill the hole. The inside of a drilled hole should be smoothed with a round file. Flat files can be used to smooth the cut edges of cold metal. A grinder is used to shape and sharpen the hollow-ground cutting edge of tools such as wood chisels.