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Agricultural Productions

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					 Agricultural
Productions I
    Ag Mechanics
           Tools
General Rules
   Hand tools used for cutting should be sharp
    to improve safety and efficiency
   Using the proper tool for the job can reduce
    or eliminate injuries
   Fine or small teeth on a saw blade make a
    smoother cut, but coarse large teeth cut
    faster
   Adjustable wrench
       Used to turn various sizes nuts and bolts
   Brick trowel
       Used to place and spread mortar
   Cold chisel
       Used to cut metal
   Combination wrench
       Used to turn both hex and square nuts
   Concrete float
       Used to level concrete
   Countersink
       Used to flare the top of a hole to recess the head
        for a flathead screw or bolt
   Long nose pliers
       Used to reach into recessed areas
Hammers
   Hold handle near the end away from hammer head
    to improve accuracy and leverage
   Large nails require use of a heavier hammer than
    small nails
   Using nails to fasten wood is fast, but is the weakest
    method
   May types of nails are available. The correct type
    should be used for the job. Common nails are used
    most in construction, but finishing nails should be
    used when the head needs to be set below the
    surface of the wood.
   Nail hammer
       Used to drive nails to fasten one board to another
   Ball peen hammer
       Used to hammer metal objects such as punches,
        chisels, or parts of small engines
   Ripping hammer
       Used to remove wood and to drive nails
   Nail gun
       Used to drive nails
   Slip joint pliers
       Used to hold various sizes of materials
   T bevel
       Used to fine and transfer various angles
Squares
   Handles should be held firmly against edge of
    board
   The combination square can be used as a
    miter square, plumb bob, level, depth gauge,
    marking gauge, and inside and outside T
    square
   A framing square has rafter tables
   T square
       Used to mark 900 angles
   Combination square
       Used to mark 450 and 900 angles
   Vise grip pliers
       Used for extra firm holding or gripping
   Wire strippers
       Used to remove insulation from electrical wires, to
        gauge wire sizes, and to crimp terminals
   Wrecking bar
       Used to rip and pry wood
Drill
   A center punch should be used to dent the
    metal before starting to drill the hole in metal
   The bit should tight in chuck, and the chuck
    key removed before using a drill
   Drill
       Makes round holes through wood or metal using a
        bit
   Drill press
       A stationary tool used to make round holes in
        wood or metal using a bit
Portable Grinder
   Operator should use both hands with a
    circular saw
   It is unsafe to use a grinding wheel after ½ of
    its original diameter is worn away
   Grinder
       Share and smoothes metal, sharpens tools, or
        removes rust
   Hammer drill
       Used to drill holes in masonry
Jointer
   The depth of cut should be about 1/16” each
    pass
   The depth of cut is determined by adjusting
    the front-in-feed table
   The last pass on each edge of the board
    should be with the grain for a smooth cut
   Jointer
       Used to straighten and smooth edges of board or
        to cut bevels
Planer
   About 1/16” of wood should be removed ob
    each pass
   Nails, dirt and loose knots should be removed
    before the board is planed
   The THIN end of a rough-cut board should be
    put in the planer first
   The final pass on each side of the board
    should be with the grain to get a smooth
    finish
   Planer
       Smoothes and cuts lumber to exact thickness
Saws
   DO NOT saw out the marked line because board will
    be too small is it was measured and marked
    accurately. Saw on waste side of mark
   Hand crosscut saw is used to cut off ends of boards
    across the grain
   Hand ripsaw is used to rip a board
   Coping saw has a very narrow, thin blade that can
    be removed and inserted in a hole to saw out a hole
    in the middle of a board. It can be used to cope
    molding and saw curves.
Portable Saws
   Operator should use both hands with a
    circular saw
   Circular saw is used to make straight
    crosscuts or rip cuts in wood
   Saw teeth should point toward front of saw
   Other types of saws include sabre, job,
    scrolle, and reciprocating
Radial Arm Saw
   The wood remains stationary on the saw
    table and the saw is bulled to the wood
   The saw should secured after each use
   Radial arm saw
       Moves to cut a stationary piece of wood
   Crosscut saw blade
       Used to cut across the grain of wood
   Hacksaw
       A stationary power tool that uses a blade with
        back and forth motions to cut metal
       Used to cut metal
       There should be at least three teeth in contact
        with the metal
   Miter saw
       Used to cut angles
   Abrasive cutoff saw
       Uses a circular blade to cut metal
   Coping saw
       Used to cut curves in wood
   Band saw
       Uses a thin, continuous, flexible blade to cut
        either curved or straight lines
   Circular saw
       Makes straight cuts in wood
   Compound miter saw
       Is a cutoff type saw used to cut angles and
        square cuts
   Sabre saw
       Cuts curves in wood or other materials
   Rip saw blade
       Used to cut with the grain of wood
   Router
       Used to make molding or designs in wood
        surfaces, dado cuts, and rabbet cut
Sanders
   Belt sanders require operator to use both hands
   Belt should be turning before it is gently tough to the
    wood and it should continue to run and be moved
    with the wood grain until it is lifted from the wood
    when finished
   After use a belt sander should be laid on its side
   A finishing sander should be used to said with the
    grain to get a smooth finish
   Sanding
       Sand with the grain and use fine or very fine
        sandpaper to prevent scratches
       Coarse sandpaper is used to remove large
        amount of wood when sanding, but it leaves
        scratches in the wood
   Sander
       Smooth wood surfaces
   Reciprocating saw
       Used in tight or close situations in remodeling
        work
Band Saw
   Short or sharp curves in wood require a
    narrow blade (1/4” or less)
   To help prevent the wood from binding, the
    miter gauge AND rip fence should NOT both
    be used at the same time
   A band saw used to cut metal must have a
    speed control that will slow the blade speed,
    and metal cutting blade must be used.
Table Saw
   If a board is ripped less than 3” wide a push
    stick should be used
   To get the correct board width, measure the
    side of fence nearest saw blade to the saw
    blade tooth nearest the fence
   Install the correct blade for the job with the
    teeth pointing toward the direction of rotation
    of the saw motor.
   Table saw
       Used to crosscut, rip, dado, or miter
Measuring and Marking Tools
   “Measure twice, cut once” is a good rule to follow
   Most wood measuring tools are divided into 1/16”
    marks
   The string of a chalk line should be stretched tight
    and snapped in the middle to mark and accurate
    long straight line
   A scratch awl, file, or scriber can be used to mark a
    scratch on metal
   Soapstone is used to mark metal without leaving a
    permanent scratch
   Measuring tools for wood
       Usually divided into 16 parts per inch or 1/16ths
Metal Cutting Tools
   Files
       Since files one cut on the forward stroke, pressure
        should be reduced on the backstroke
   Hacksaws
       Teeth should point away from the handle because
        most cutting is done on forward strokes
   Taps and dies
       When used to cut threads in metal, oil should be
        used for lubircation
Screwdrivers
   Used the correct size and type for the job
   A heavy duty screwdriver has a square shank
    so that a wrench can be used to help remove
    large screws
General Rules
   Care should be taken to use guards and to
    keep hands and clothing away from cutting
    parts of tools and equipment
   All safety procedures should be followed
Skills Needed for Cold Metal
Tasks
   Identify metal so that its characteristics will be
    known before trying to do other cold metal
    and welding tasks
   Cutting cold metal is done to make it the
    correct size-length or width. Cutting cold
    metal is done by using snips, shears, or a
    cold chisel. Cutting thick cold metal is done
    with a hacksaw or a metal cutting saw bland
    in band saws, jigsaws, or reciprocating saws.
   Bending cold metal no more than 3/8” thick
    can be dine with a ball peen hammer and
    machinists vise. Metal thicker than 3/8”
    should be heated before bending.
   Shaping cold metal can be done be cutting
    filing, grinding, or being or combining any of
    these
   The main reason to file metal is to smooth
    rough places, but filing is also used to
    sharpen some tools
   Grinding is the procedure used to sharpen
    points or edges of cutting tools made of high
    carbon steel.
Cold Metal Procedures
   Identifying Metals
       Ferrous contain iron
           Will rust and have to be painted or oiled to protect
       Non ferrous do not have iron
   Metals can be identified by
       Color
       Weight
       Texture
       Use
       Shape
       Forge or cast marks
       Spark test
   Color shape, quantity, length, and position of
    sparks are used to identify metals using
    spark test
       Cast iron has red line
       High carbon steel has yellow lines with several
        star burst
       Wrought iron has long straw colored lines without
        bursts
   Galvanized steel should be identified
    because it gives off a poisonous gas when
    heated for cutting or welding
   If the metal is too thick, snips or shears will
    not cut.
   Thick metal should be cut with a metal cutting
    saw such as a hacksaw, a band saw, or
    abrasive cut-off (chop saw)
   Drilling metal is done by securing metal in a
    machinist’s vise using a center punch and
    ball peen hammer to dent the metal to
    prevent the drill bit from wandering from the
    desired location.
   A drill and bit are used to drill the hole.
   The inside of a drilled hole should be
    smoothed with a round file.
   Flat files can be used to smooth the cut
    edges of cold metal.
   A grinder is used to shape and sharpen the
    hollow-ground cutting edge of tools such as
    wood chisels.

				
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