Marketing Proposal for Tactical Training by osz55288


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									    Marketing and Sales1
A marketer should:
      1. Increase or protect market share/profits.
      2. Identify growing markets                                            JPA Europe Limited

      3. Understand that market’s need.                                      32-36 Loman Street
                                                                             London SE1 0EE
      4. Meet market/customer needs better than competitors.
Responsibilities include:                                                    Tel: 0207 240 7788
          Identification of customer needs (and trends).                     Web:
          How well do you meet customer needs?
          Identification of market opportunities to develop new products.
          Monitoring competitor developments (opportunities, threats, partnership
          Market segmentation (who should we serve?)
          Product positioning (why do our customers buy from us?)
          Customer communications (both mass market and targeted).
          Customer service.
          In some cases (but not always), management of sales function. In all
          cases, close partner to sales department

In summary, the marketing department is customer centric. It identifies opportunities
to serve customers better (to drive product development), positions existing product
against competitors, sets price and promotion policies to communicate value, and
communicates this message to customers.

The following is a list of desirable skills for a marketer.
       Market research - understanding of how to obtain, manage, and interpret.
       Customer driven - ability to listen and match product with customer needs.
       Understanding of core benefits of product.
       Creative, able to take advantage of market opportunities. Is a risk-taker. A good
       problem-solver. Thinks quickly and responds immediately (with thought.)
       While being creative, does not view marketing as “art”. Balances intuition and
       analysis and evaluates performance based on financial cost/benefit.
       Likes competing and has successfully competed.
       Works well with change and ambiguities.
       Meets values of the organisation and the business.
       Enthusiastic and optimistic, but realistic. Sense of humour. Lots of energy.
       Resourceful - able to creatively maximise benefits from limited resources
       Listening skills – can recognize important information from customers and sales
       people. Not tied to the status quo.

Marketing is not advertising or public relations – they are only one step in the
process. Marketing should drive the creation of value. Advertising and public
relations are the communication of that value.

A marketing plan enables a marketer to:
          Review the organisation.

    For personal use only, not for publication or dissemination in any format.
              Review the product mix. 2
              Ensure that both are well placed to compete effectively and achieve a
              good market share.

The plan should consider the following.
    Marketing Plan Template
    Any plan should answer the following:
        1. Where are we now? (SWOT/PEST analysis/assessment)
        2. How did we get here? (analysis /assessment)
        3. Where are we going? (opportunities/vision)
        4. How are we going to get there/best means? (strategic alternatives/choice,
            tactics/tools/actions and resource requirements)
        5. How do we measure success? (process/outcome evaluation as per
            marketing/business plans)
    To survive and prosper, an organisation requires a ‘competitive edge’ or USP (unique
    selling point).

    The plan should consider the following.

    1. Define the organisational mission
           Why the organisation exists.
           What is the organisational purpose?
           How does the product mix fit with the mission and purpose?
    2. Consider the USP
       What does the customer ‘need’? If the offering most closely meets the
       customer’s need it has a USP.
    3. Consider Market Segmentation
           Locate the best customer opportunities by making a very large market
           manageable. Divide the total market into different types of customers
           (segments) and identify the segments that are most likely to purchase.
           To create segments – locate the similarities and shared characteristics
           between the customers in that segment for example, age, gender, religion,
           income, ambitions, address.
           To select which segments to service, consider:
               Size, location and dynamics.
               Fit with mission and resources.
               Entry and exit costs.
    4. Conduct a marketing audit
       Audit the market to assess what factors will impact on the organisation’s strategy
       for gaining support and to be aware of what issues are affecting market forces
       and dynamics. Review internal and external factors that affect the organisation’s
       marketing performance
       a. External Audit
           Review the spectrum of environmental issues that may affect the marketing
           strategy. Taking each external force listed, assess the impact, or potential
           impact, that it has on organisational and product strategy.
                   Social – age, lifestyle changes, values, attitudes, smoking habits,
                   eating habits, working hours.
                   Political – Laws, regulations, pressure groups, changes in public
                   Economic – Inflation trends, employment and income, interest rates.
                   Environmental – Buyer attitudes, pollution, energy.
                   Technological – Computerisation, information management,
                   centralised services, technological development.

 Contact for a template related to product development and evaluation entitled
Product Evaluation Criteria - Business Feasibility, Mini Business Plans and Business Planning
Questions A Guideline

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              Legal – laws, codes of practice, litigation, best practice requirements.
              Competitors – current, potential, direct and indirect.
              Channel – (route to supporters), changes created by the internet.
   b. Internal Audit
       Review internal factors that affect organisational and product positioning and
              Human – staff numbers, skill levels, experience, management
              Financial – current revenue, overheads, costs, other revenue sources
              Production – Space allocation, cost, flexibility and ability to adapt
              Politics – attitudes, organisational strategy, atmosphere, collaboration,
              willingness to change.
              Operating Objectives – desired sales, market share, cost and margins.
              Measurement – Assess systems for measuring the effectiveness of a
              marketing strategy, are they accurate, timely and comprehensive.
5. Portfolio Analysis
   An analysis of current products is an important part of the process. Each product
   has a contribution level, a return on investment, and each has a life cycle. In order
   to keep a portfolio of product vibrant a portfolio plan is necessary, the plan
   assessing the viability and contribution of each current product. The plan also
   should consider adding new products to the mix as older products are being
   phased out.

    One could use the Boston Matrix tool in a number of ways to achieve the above.
    For example:
        A. Measuring market share and market growth are important.

              High Growth/High Market        Low Market Share/High
              Share – rising stars,          Growth Potential – problem
              product is established and     children, start-up, high
              beginning to grow, has a       investment of effort and
              track record, needing          finances required, consider
              investment to support          the risk-return (need to
              growth, good return            have these to keep
              potential                      portfolio vibrant)

              High Market Share/Low          Low Market Share/Low
              growth – cash cows, fully      Growth – dead dogs, no
              established product            longer viable, phase out or
              generating profits, need       reinvent before they start
              little attention, milk them    to lose money (reinvention
              with little or no new          places them in another
              investment                     box)

6. The Marketing Mix
   Once the customer segments have been identified, analyse and review the
   strategy for:
       Product: Branding, design, colour schemes, functionality, packaging.
       Price: Discounts and reductions, promotions, long term price positioning,
       costs, funding and financing.
       Place: Method of selling, distribution/channel chosen (online, retail outlet, mail
       order etc), staff structure to support sales, customer accessibility, channel
       manager relationships (distributors, third party sales, retailers).
       Promotion: Advertising, mailings, public relations, sales promotions, leaflets,
       exhibitions, sales staff.
   Ensure that the following is considered in addition to the 4Ps – management and
   staff with the appropriate skills, knowledge and wisdom; and appropriate
   processes are in place to deliver the product
7. SWOT Analysis
   Conduct a thorough review of the organisation’s strengths, weaknesses,
   opportunities and threats. This must be relative to external activity, for example a

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    high quality, robust product is a strength but not if the competitor’s product is
    also high quality and robust. Also, all measurements must be considered to be
    applicable to the customer – if the product has been made since 1850, does the
    customer care? The SWOT analysis should enable marketers to analyse all
    aspects of the organisation’s ability to deliver and locate solutions, where
    required or highlight promotional opportunities where appropriate.
 8. Define Marketing Objectives
    The marketing mix, audit and SWOT analysis form the basis for creating
    marketing objectives. The decision, based on sound analysis developed during
    the preceding sections, should be to increase share by:
        Develop existing products in the same market (market penetration).
        Develop existing products in new markets (market development).
        Develop new products or redesign existing products for the same market
        (product development).
        Develop new products for new markets (diversification).
 9. Implementation Strategy
        Issues highlighted in the SWOT and the marketing audit must be addressed,
        this may mean reorganising personnel and shifting responsibilities.
        Work detailed in the plan must be delegated to the relevant personnel and
        timetables agreed for implementing the plan.
        Changes to the work environment must be monitored and issues arising from
        changed roles and responsibilities or organisational changes arising as a
        result of the plan must be addressed.
        Results must be measured so that the effectiveness of the plan can be
        monitored and action can be taken quickly if results are not meeting expected
        targets. Ultimately, these results will determine the long term effectiveness of
        the marketing planning process.

Once the business and marketing plans are agreed, a launch plan is developed and
implemented. It would include:
Launch Plan Template
1. Make a timing decision.
2. Market entry programme is completed.
3. Targeted efforts to ensure key events happen as planned.
4. Implement the following strategic and tactical aspects:
   • Strategic:
      • Project objectives/goals defined and agreed upon.
      • Top management support/clearly communicated.
      • Project schedule/plan (critical path).
   • Tactical/Executional:
      • Clearly define client needs in order to properly specify the people and tasks
           necessary to get the job done.
      • Select/train personnel for project teams.
      • Specify tasks and matching personnel with expertise to do tasks.
      • Constantly readjust to meet client needs.
   • Organisational processes:
      • Monitoring and feedback (information systems).
      • Good communications processes among teams etc.
      • Troubleshooting capacity built in and should be decentralised to allow team
           members to resolve local problems.
5. Track the launch/compare plans and forecasts against results and analyse and
   implement changes

The following is a competitive analysis template.
Name of org.      Organisation A                       B                          C D      E
(Include your
Organisational    e.g.                                 •   revenues
Profile           • corporate status                   •   history

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                   • ownership                          •   location
                   • age
                   • structure (3 branches)
Services           List services/products
Service            List geographic areas
Competitive        e.g.                                 •   excellent service
advantages         • long history/tradition             •   good quality
                   • coverage across a wide area        •   cost effective
                   • strong linkages with other             operations
                        organisations                   •   good brand
                   • high market share                  •   aggressive
                   • well resourced                         acquisition strategy
                   • strong leadership                  •   focused/effective
                   • high emphasis on employee              marketing/sales
                        training                            programme
                   • low price strategy

Competitors’       e.g.                                 •   lack of
competitive        • lack of consistent leadership          vision/strategic
hurtles that       • high staff turnover                    directions/plans
they must          • non-responsive governance          •   little new product
overcome                structure                           development
(weaknesses)       • high costs structure               •   low staff morale
                   • lack of innovation/resist          •   poor personnel
                        change                              management
                   • weak marketing                     •   centralized decision
                   • inadequate coverage                    making
                   • lack of resources to               •   lack of effective
                        invest/poor cash flow               technology
                   • poor quality                       •   poor community
                   • high overheads                         perception of brand
                                                        •   poor service
Solutions,                                              •
plans, actions,

Branding – Route to Loyalty

Brand is the proprietary visual, emotional, rational, and cultural image you associate
with a company/product. A brand in itself is easy to define – it is a name or logo that
users or potential users will identify as belonging to a product or service. For
example an apple with a bite out of it says computers and peripherals. Andrex says
toilet rolls. The brand name is the personalisation of this recognition.

What contributes to the customer recognition of brand is where it all becomes
complex with the introduction of corporate or brand identity.

In the main, purpose and belonging are the two main facets of identity.

Every organisation or product has an identity that springs from its roots, its
personality and its strengths. At this stage identity is not a slogan or name; it is
visible, tangible and all embracing.

To build a brand everything that the organisation does should reaffirm its identity:
       Products: should project standards and values
       Buildings: how they are located, maintained and furnished

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       Communication material: should be consistent in accurately and honestly
       reflecting the organisation
       Behaviour: how customers and staff are treated

Brand Building is not just about money (although it helps) – if the building blocks
described above are not in place money will achieve nothing.
Look no further than money wasted on developing BT as a brand when it is fairly
universally despised for poor customer service, misleading products and confused

Brand is ultimately consistency in attitude, action and style. If this is achieved then
the means of achieving consumer awareness and their success determine whether it
is a big brand or a small one.

The following are areas of concern and measuring where to improve an
organisation’s brand.
        The brand excels at delivering the benefits customers truly desire – system in
        place to assess customer needs; maximise customer’s product and service
        The brand stays relevant – invest in product improvements; remain in touch
        with customer tastes and trends
        The pricing strategy is based on consumers’ perceptions of value – optimise
        price, cost and quality to exceed customers’ expectations; monitor customers’
        perceptions of your brands value
        The brand is properly positioned – establish competitive parity and desirable
        The brand is consistent – marketing programmes should not send conflicting
        messages; keep current
        The brand portfolio and hierarchy make sense – create a seamless umbrella
        for all brands in the portfolio; each brand has an individual niche; avoid
        overlaps; maximise coverage re each brand; create a brand hierarchy
        The brand makes use of and coordinates a full repertoire of marketing
        activities to build equity – chose and design brand name, logo, symbol,
        slogan, packaging, signage to maximise brand awareness; market to target
        distributors and customers; communicate within organisation so all are aware
        of each activity; capitalise on the unique capability of each communication
        The brand’s managers understand what the brand means to consumers –
        know what customers like or dislike about the brand; be aware of the core
        associations people make with the brand (intentionally or by marketing);
        create detailed research-driven portraits of consumers; outline customer-
        driven boundaries for brand extensions and guidelines for marketing
        The brand is given proper support which is sustained over the long run – be
        aware of the successes and failures of a marketing programme; measure;
        give sufficient research and development support; don’t cutback on marketing
        support if market is in a slump
        The company monitors sources of brand equity – define brand equity; do
        brand audits to assess the health of the brand; evaluate market performance;
        assign proper responsibilities for tracking etc.

Also, the following should be constantly applied to keep the brand fresh and to
maintain a customer focus.
        Develop a system to assess customer needs; maximise customer’s product
        and service experiences.

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       Invest in service improvements; remain in touch with customer wishes and
       Create a pricing strategy; optimise price, cost and quality to exceed
       customers’ expectations; monitor customers’ perceptions of the organisation’s
       brand’s value.
       Position the brand to establish competitive parity and desirable differences.
       Be consistent, marketing programmes should not send conflicting messages;
       keep current.
       Create a seamless umbrella for all brands in the organisation’s portfolio; each
       brand has an individual niche; avoid overlaps; maximise coverage re each
       brand; create a brand hierarchy.
       Plan a variety of marketing activities to build equity e. g. chose and design
       brand name, logo, symbol, slogan, packaging, signage to maximize brand
       awareness; market to target distributors and customers; communicate within
       organisation so all are aware of each activity; capitalise on the unique
       capability of each communication option.
       Understand the meaning of the brand to customers; what do they like or
       dislike about the brand; what do they associate it with.
       Ensure there is consistent continuous support for the brand; assess on a
       ongoing basis successes and failures of a marketing programme; research;
       Perform brand audits to assess the health of the brand.

The following is an initial outline of sales approaches and components. It includes
sections on strategy, content and process, a tool, persuasion, presentation, and skill
set. Building on the marketing plan keep in mind the following elements of a sales
strategy and approach.

1. Sales Person Skill Set
   While marketing is distinct from sales, it is highly beneficial for a marketing
   manager to have sales skills and to understand the sales function. In some
   organisations, sales is a function of the marketing department.

   Responsibilities include:
   Identification of customer needs.
   Matching customer needs to company product set.
   When appropriate, providing referrals to partners or unrelated companies to
   complement company product set.
   Identification of potential customers, including cold-calling, seeking referrals,
   networking, responding to customer interest.
   Closing the sale.
   Cross-selling – deepening the relationship.
   In some cases, negotiating terms.
   Managing the customer experience.
   Potentially customer service and complaint resolution (although this is sometimes
   segmented into a separate function).
   Provide feedback to marketing on customer trends and needs.

   Desirable skills for consideration include:
    Personable                                   Ability to close a sale
    Customer centric                             Networking
    Listening                                    Likes competing and has successfully
    Proposes solutions that match                competed.
    customer needs                               Works well with change and

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     Confidence and credibility                  ambiguities
     Product knowledge, or capacity to           Ethical. Represents the company with
     learn about product                         integrity

2. Sales Plan

The pales plan builds on the Marketing Plan. A sales plan includes a customer SWOT
analysis for the key customers or primary target customers. It contains the following
elements: what needs to be sold, in what volumes, to which customers, at what price,
at what additional cost, and resources required. The key steps are as follows:
1. What needs to be sold
    Once the enterprise budget has been set, it is the principal function of sales to
    break down the budget in to the total number of units that is required to be sold
    against the single unit budgeted realisation price.
2. Volumes
    Once the total number of units has been determined. sales should budget to sell
    this volume by customer, both new and existing; taking into account current
    market dynamics, customer’s strategy, and relevant market shares of both the
    product and the customer.
3. Customers Budget
    Individual customer budgets should reflect the marketing strategy in terms of
    standard pricing, promotional mechanics and timings. It is critical that sales
    formally report at regular intervals on achievement versus budget. Information
    systems must be in place to allow sales to monitor and measure monthly
4. Price Realisation
    Is the net invoice price obtained in total across the entire customer base; less
    contributable cost of the sale i.e. actual direct cost of the product/service,
    contribution to fixed and variable business costs, long term discount, promotional
    pricing, distribution costs and average debtor days.
5. Differential Investment
    Individual customers present different opportunities in terms of potential total
    sales revenue. In order to maximise the individual key customer volumes, tailor
    made proposals may needed to be considered in supporting a successful sale of
    the product or service sold to them. As individual key customer budgets should be
    under pinned by objectives and tactics deployed to achieve it.
6. Assumptions
    All Key assumptions that could significantly impact performance results, should be
    detailed, significant uplifts with existing customers uplift for promotional activity
    versus core business levels and. N.P.D.
     All assumptions should be time bound and quantified

3. Sales Analysis Tool
   Use this as a guideline when preparing.
A. Describe product/service/solution.
B. Client/target markets.
C. Client need met by product.
D. Decision criteria used to purchase the product.
E. Value proposition - key points.
F. Centres of influence - to help with networking/introductions.
G. Promotional/marketing activities.
H. Target clients and decision maker.
I. Key open-ended questions to ask potential client about their current situation,
   desired situation, gap.
J. Potential objections and answers.

4. Develop a selling purpose
   Develop a selling purpose that answers the question - from the customer’s point
   of view, why am I here?

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         To make customers feel good because they will get the best possible
         The product will help them achieve their goals.
         It will help them solve their problems.
   The purpose is general and does not change very often.

5. Set selling goals
   Set selling goals that are achievable, measurable, and time limited. The goals
   change once they are reached.

6. Prospecting
   Prospecting includes:
         Market research – understand and get to know players and why they are
         successful; listen and observe.
         Assess competition
               i. Learn from their mistakes, build on their strengths.
              ii. Exploit their weaknesses.
             iii. Know their clients and their needs.
         Never knock the competition.

7. Reaching the market
         Develop a separate strategy for each customer.
         Plan appropriate selling time.
         Reach by direct marketing.
         Only advertise as a secondary approach because it is costly; if you do it
         target ads.

8. Cold calls
   Most people hate doing this but the worse that can happen is a no. If they turn
   you down and if you have established some rapport with them, ask them for the
   name of someone else to call who might be interested. Thank them for
   talking/meeting with you.

   Referred leads/warm cold calls are preferable – being able to say ‘so and so said
   to call because…,’ helps to create credibility. Get to know people who are
   centres of influence in your target market. Utilise networking approaches.

9. Sales Presentation
   You are building trust in you, the seller; the product and its quality; and in the
   service that will be received in support of the product. Be trustworthy and avoid

   You are creating value for the customer. To do so put yourself in the place of the

   Give customers something they value. Consider both felt and unfelt needs.
   Balance product quality, price and service, emphasising what is appropriate for
   your market.

   Ensure appropriate insight into the market (through networking, data gathering,
   research, and analysis) as it helps to identify high value prospects whilst
   providing information in support of taking action to create valuable customers.

   Follow the process outlined below.

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Some general thoughts/hints
    Prior planning prevents poor performance.
    Act enthusiastic, believe in your product.
    Ask questions to show interest and determine need.
    Ask one question at a time and after listen to the answer (pay attention, maintain
    eye contact, pick out clues to needs etc).
    Avoid grilling or cross examination type interrogation.
    Respond with a summary of the respondent’s answer to clarify meaning and
    respond accordingly to their comments.
    Never assume anything.
    Be alert, look around for pictures etc. to talk about.
    Create a situation where you both feel at ease.
    Control the situation.
    Listen, learn, be empathetic and apply information during the discussion.
    Be sincere, be yourself.
    Be flexible; just don’t follow your script.
    Keep in mind you have five to ten minutes to set the stage.
    Make sure you have sufficient time, if not, re-book the appointment.
    Isolate what makes a person buy because people are different.
    Talk in terms of prospect’s need at their level.
    Sell solutions to problems.
    Introduce your product features and benefits in a way that helps to meet their
    Practice the presentation ahead of time.
Build initial rapport
The initial impression gained at the beginning of your first conversation will leave a
lasting impression, either helping make the sale or hindering. To create a positive
impression, consider the following.
o Dress and mannerisms including non-verbal language (body language, tone of
    voice, being natural, tempo, match prospects way of speaking) may impact on
    confidence building.
o Establish rapport through common interests, complements, use of ‘we’ language,
    listen and respond.
o Demonstrate competence through sharing experiences and story telling.
o Show how you can help achieve their goals.
o Build agreement.
o See box below on persuasion.

 Persuasion Techniques - Apply the following techniques in combination and ethically
 Liking: People like those who like them.
         Uncover real similarities - Creates a bond, a presumption of goodwill and
         trustworthiness and shared values.
         Offer genuine praise - Charms and disarms as positive remarks about another
         person’s traits/attitude/performance generates liking in return and willing
 Reciprocity: People repay in kind. Give what you want to receive e.g.
         Send thank you notes; remember special events/difficult tasks they perform.
         Trust, cooperate, be pleasant, help by lending staff if need extra help re a
         deadline or by providing information.
 Social Proof: People follow the lead of similar others. Use peer power whenever
 possible. People rely on people around them for cues on how to think/feel/act;
 cold/warm calls; testimonials from people in the same position.
 Consistency: People align with their own commitments. Voluntarily make their
 commitments active/public/voluntary.
         Persuasion involves more making people feel warmly toward you/your
         Need also public commitment e.g. sign a petition, then donate; put
         commitment in writing and show it to others.
         Connect to something people value.

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Authority: People defer to experts. Expose your expertise, don’t assume it is self-
       Use quotes from experts.
       Establish your own expertise before attempting to influence.
       Use the social part of time together to establish expertise e.g. tell
       antidotes/stories about successes.
Scarcity: People want more of what they can have less of. Highlight unique benefits
and exclusive information.
       Use limited time offer/limited supply/one-of-a-kind.
       Frame it in terms of what you stand to loose if they don’t act now.
       Use exclusivity when sharing information.

      A. Identify the current situation
         By questioning and listening gather information and identify the
         prospective clients’:
                Current situation (felt and unfelt needs; what is happening).
                What they would like to happen or where they would like to be,
                what they value (wants and desires; asking open ended analytical
                questions; probing).
                What is missing, the gaps, the barriers, inhibitors, risks and their
                implications (build towards a solution).

      B. Develop the solution
         Develop a solution that achieves the desired ends identified by you and
         the prospective client; helps them to live their values; and that fill the gap.
         This would consist of:
                Clearly articulating and analysing the needs and gap between the
                existing and preferred way of meeting the needs.
                Selecting a way forward including products to achieve the desired
                Preparing a business case (see chart below) and presentation
                    o Fits with the prospective client’s needs, values and desired
                    o Outlines consequences of the various choices including the
                        recommended one.
                    o Described the business model, what it does and how the
                        product works.
                    o Shows benefits and outcomes.
                Anticipate objections and solutions.

      C. Present the solution
         In the meeting (or meetings as it may take more than one meeting to
         close the sale) remember that relationships and rapport may need to be
         re-established or reinforced. In presenting your business case:
                 Outline the process to date and summarise the needs, desired
                 situation and gaps.
                 Show how you can help them, the opportunity – build excitement.
                 Grab attention; make it relevant to the purchaser.
                 Present the solution and how it works.
                 Tie this into your experiences and successes; including as
                 appropriate the company’s origins, purpose, vision, values and
                 Build on the interest expressed by the prospective client leading
                 them to closure, discussing options, outcomes, and

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                   Respond to objections sincerely, listening and feeding back;
                   accepting their legitimacy whilst clarifying; and discuss alternatives
                   and solutions, sometimes using questions to lead them to the

     Selling Your Business Ideas – A Written Summary of Your Business Case

     A summary business case must be compelling, helping the potential purchaser
     see the unique value of what you are trying to do. A good business case shows
     how you are different, why you will succeed. It is another step in the sales

     A Suggested Layout - In 2 pages or less, succinctly structure your “ask”,
     including the following:
         1. To grab the reader’s attention, start with a quote from the press that is
             relevant to the potential purchaser and to the problem being resolved by
             your product.
         2. Briefly demonstrate the problem you address.
         3. A short and compelling description of how you would solve the problem
             (the product) and why you can solve the problem better than anyone else.
         4. The ask from the perspective of the purchaser.
         5. The social and financial return on investment – the benefits.
         6. Your organisation – everything is built around your organisation’s exciting
             vision for the future and its ability to deliver on that vision. Describe the
             role, effectiveness and desirability of your organisation as a partner with
             the purchaser.

       D. Closing
             Have a clear goal or outcome in mind.
             If your prospecting, preparation and presentation have been done
             properly closing is easy because the client agrees with the
             Don’t race to the end.
             Be confident and nothing you say should reflect doubt, hesitancy or
             In closing:
             o Summarise what appears to be the agreement and by looking at
                  ways to move forward.
             o Describe the benefits from the perspective of the client’s need.
             o Stress an agreement on the benefits has been reached.
             o Request a commitment and confirm in writing e.g. “we have
                  agreed that…”; “ I will send you a letter confirming our agreement”.

10. After Sales Activities
o   After sales activities include thank you notes.
o   Call clients to determine satisfaction with the product.
o   Always be available, keep in touch even after delivery is complete.
o   Document activities and timing for follow up.
o   Build a long term relationship by reinforcing on a regular basis common interests,
    assessing client satisfaction on a regular basis; achieve the desired and agreed
    upon results, ensure processes are smooth and satisfactory, provide ongoing
    service and support – in other words positively/actively manage the relationship.
o   Always remember: A complaint is not a problem. It represents an opportunity to
    show your customer why they bought from you.

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