a stroke by sanmelody

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									a-æ                                    OE                                 OHG
Achse         axle                     eax
Achsel        axle (obs. 'shoulder')
After         after
als           as                       alswa
Angel         angle (fishing-hook)
Anker         anchor                   < Latin
Apfel         apple                    æppel                              apful
Asche         ash                      æsce                               asca
Axt           ax                       æx
Backe         back                     bæc
Band          band                     not found
Bank          bank "bench, ridge"      not found
bannen        ban
Barsch        bass                     bærs
Blatter       bladder                  < blawan 'blow'
Brand         brand
Dach          thatch                   thæc
Damm          dam
Dampf         damp
danken        thank                    thancian                           danc
das, daß      that                     thæt                               daz
falb          fallow                   fealu 'pale yellow'
Faß           vat                      fæt                                faz
fast          fast                     fæst
Flachs        flax                     fleax
Galgen        gallows                  galga
Gang          gang                     gang
(er)gattern   gather                   gadrian, gædrian
glatt         glad                     glæd 'shining'
hacken        hack                     haccian
halb          half                     healf
Hammer        hammer                   hamer
Hand          hand                     hand
hangen        hang                     hangian
Havarie       average < Romance
Jammer        yammer                   geômor 'sorrowful'
Kalb          calf
Kamm          cam                      via Du
Kampf         camp
Kanne         can                              (> Latin or Teutonic?)
Katze         cat
klamm         clam(shell)              clamm 'fetter'
klappen       clap
krachen       crack
Kraft         craft
Krampf        cramp (not found in
              OE)
krank         crank                    (connection : bend, give way, be
                                       weak)
kratzen       scratch                                                     krazzôn
lachen        laugh                    hlæhhan
Lamm          lamb
Land          land
Lappen        lap                      læppa
                 - 2
Last          last
Latte         lath
(ge)mach      match (gemaca <
              make)
Malz          malt                      mealt (from 'melt')
Mann          man                       man
Mast          mast                      mæst (in two cases : ship and
                                        fodder)
Natter        adder                     næddre
Pfanne        pan
Pflanze       plant
Pflaster      plaster
Qualm         qualm                     cwealm?
raffen        rap
Ramme         ram
Rand          rand 'strip of leather'   rand                            rant 'boss of shield
rasch         rash                      ME
Rassel        rattle                    ME
Ratte         rat                       ræt                             ratta
Sack          sack from L saccus
Saft          sap                       sæp                             saf
Salbe         salve                     sealf                           salba
Sand          sand                      sand                            sant
satt          sad                       sæd 'sated'                     sat
Sattel        saddle                    sadol                           satul
Schaft        shaft                     sceaft                          scaft
Schatten      shadow                    sceadwe = oblique cases of      scato
                                        scead
Schlacke      slag                      MLG slagge                      slahan = schlagen
Schlappe      slap                      ME slappe                       MHG slappe 'blow in the
                                                                        face'
(Ge)schmack   smack                     smæc                            smac
Schmalz       enamel (via OF)
schnappen     snap                      MD snappen
schwabbeln,   swab (the deck)>n         D[MLG swabben 'splash'
schwapp!
Spange        spangle 'dress orna-      spange 'clasp'                  spanga
              ment'
Spanne        span                      spann                           spanna
stammeln      stammer                   stamerian                       stammalôn
stampfen      stamp                     stempan                         stampfôn
Strand        strand 'shore, run        strand                          MHG strant
              ashore'
Talg          tallow                    ME talgh < MD, MLG talch
tapfer        dapper                    OE?
Tracht        draught, draft

trampeln      trample                   ME trampen                        MHG trampeln
Wachs         wax                       weax                              wahs
wachsen       wax                       weaxan                            wahsan
Wacht         waft                      b/f from wafter 'convoy of ships'
                                        < MD wachter
wackeln       waggle                    < wag                             < (be)wegen
Wrack         wrack (and ruin)          wraec
Zacke         tack
                               - 3
zapfen                   tap                      tæppa                           zapho
a-ɛ
Alb                      elf
Bach                     beck                     < ON
Balg                     belly, bellow
Bank                     bench
baß                      better
dann                     then                     thanne, thænne, thonne          danne, denne
dannen                   thence                   thanon, thanan                  danân, danana
Gast                     guest
Hanf                     hemp
lassen                   let
manch                    many                     manig
Masche                   mesh                     masc
Nacken                   neck                     hnecca                          hnac
Rank, Ranke              wrench                   wrenc 'a twisting, deceit'
Rast                     rest                     rest                            rasta
Stamm                    stem                     stæfn                           stam
(Ge)stank                stench                   stenc                           MHG gestanc
Stapfe                   step                     stæpe, stepe                    stapfo
Statt, Stadt             stead                    stede 'place'                   stat
Trank                    drench
Waffe, Wappen            weapon                   wæpen                           waffan (Wappen <
wallen                   well                     weallan                         wallan
wann                     when
Wrack                    wreck                    wrec
zwanzig                  twenty                   twêntig, twentig                zweinzug 'two ten
a-e:
acht                     eight
Acker                    acre
Affe                     ape                      apa
backen                   bake
blaß (orig. 'shining')   blaze                    blæse "a torch, flame"
Blatt                    blade
Drache                   drake
(Nachti)gall             (nightin)gale            galan 'sing'
Gasse                    gate
Haß                      hate
ja                       yea                      gêa
Lache                    lake
machen                   make                     macian
mag                      may
Magd                     maid                     mægden
Nachbar                  neighbor                 nehgebur                        nahgibur
nackt                    naked                    nacod                           nackut
quabbeln                 quaver
Sache                    sake                     sacu 'strife, lawsuit'          sahha
samt, (zu)sammen         same                     same                            sama
schaffen                 shape                    sceap                           scaffên
Schatten                 shade                    scead                           scato
stallen                  stale '(of horse) uri-   ME stalen                       MHG stallen
                         nate'
wachen                   wait                     OF gaitier 'watch' < Frankish   wahhên
                                                  wâhtôn
                      - 4
wachen            wake                   wacan (vi), wæccan (vi)         wahhên
a - ai
Macht             might                  miht, meaht
Nacht             night                  niht, neaht                     naht
nah               nigh                   neah                            nah
age - e :
Hagel             hail                   hægel                           hagal
Lager             lair                   leger                           legar
Nagel             nail                   nægel
sagen             say                    secgan                          sagên
schlagen          slay                   slêan                           slahan
Wagen             wain                   wægen, wæn                      wagan
Zagel             tail                   tægel                           zagal
aiger - e : r
Steiger           stair                  stæger < stîgan                 stîgan
a-i
Brame             brim
flattern          flitter
Schnabel          nib                    nebb                            snabul
spalten           spill                  spillan                         spildan 'squander' < spal-
                                                                         tan 'split'
Strang            string                 streng                          strang
wanken            winch                  wince 'reel'                    wanchan 'waver'
a-i:
Matte ('Wiese')   mead                   mæd
Wald              weald                  weald
walten            wield                  wealdan, caus wieldan           waltan
a-ɔ
ab                off                    of                              aba
all               all                    all
also              also                   eallswa
an                on                     on                              ana
Balken            balk, baulk
Balle             ball
Drang             throng                 thrang                          dranc
fallen            fall
Galle             gall
Halfter           halter
Halle             hall
Halm              ha(u)lm
Kalk              chalk
krabbeln          crawl
lang              long
Malz              malt
Salz              salt                   salt                            salz
sanft             soft                   sôfte, sêfte                    senfti, sanfto
(Ge-)sang         song                   song                            sanc
schlabbern        slobber                var of slabber, < LG
Schlacht          slaughter, onslaught   sleaht                          slahta
schmal            small                  smæl                            smal
Schwalbe          swallow                swalewe                         swalowa
Schwamm           swamp                  swamm 'sponge, fungus'          schwamb 'sponge'
Stall             stall                  stall 'stand, station, place'   stal 'place'
wabbeln           wobble < LG wabbeln
                       - 5
wachen              watch                 wæccan, wacian, rel. to wacan   wahhên
walken              walk
Wall                wall
wandern             wander                wandrian
waschen             wash                  waescan                         wascan
Wasser              water                 waeter                          wazzar
watscheln           woddle                < wade                          < waten
wrang (< wringen)   wrong                 wrang
Zange               tong
a-o:
alt                 old                   ald                             alt
bald                bold
falten              fold
halten              hold
kalt                cold
Kamm                comb
laden               load
Mal                 mole                  mal
Nase                nose                  nosu                            nasa
Pfahl               pole
schal 'fade'        shoal                 sceald 'shallow'                MHG schal 'dull'
Wald                wold
a-u:
Amsel               ouzel                 osle                            amsala
Gans                goose
Wampe               womb                  wamb
a-ʌ
ab                  of                    of                              aba
ander               other                 other                           andar
flattern            flutter
-sam                -some
a-ʊ
Haken               hook                  hoc
age - ɔ :
Kragen              craw 'bird's crop'                                    krago
Magen               maw                   maga                            mago
nagen               gnaw                  gnagan                          gnagan
Sage                saw                   sagu, sage                      saga
tragen              draw                                                  tragan
a:-æ
Ameise              ant, emmet     Amoisn æmette                          ameiza

Bad                 bath                                                  bad
blasen              blast
Faden               fathom                fæthm 'embracing arms'
fahl                fallow                fælging 'fallow land'
Glas                glass                 glæs
Gras                grass                 græs
haben               have                  habban
kahl                callow                calu 'bald'
Mahd                (after)math           mæth
Pfad                path                  path, pæth                      pfad
schal 'fade'        shallow               sceald                          MHG schal 'dull'
Stab                staff                 stæf                            stap
                      - 6
takeln             tackle                 ME takel < MD takel           MHG takel
a:-ɛ
Draht              thread                 thræd < throw = twist!        drât
Schale             shell
a:-e:
graben             grave
Hafen              haven
Hase               hare
Hasel              hazel
Knabe              knave
Kran               crane
laden              lade
lahm               lame
Nabe               nave
Nabel              navel
Name               name                   nama                          namo
Rabe               raven                  hræfn                         hraban
schaben            shave                  scafan, sceafan               scaban
Schaden            scathe 'injury'        < ON slathi                   scado
Schale             scale 'balance'                                      scala
Scham              shame                  scamu, sceamu                 scama
Schnake            snake                  snaca                         MLG snake 'water-snake'
Spaten             spade                  spadu, spædu                  OS spado
Stag 'naut rope'   stay                   stæg                          MLG stach
Staken             stake                  staca                         MLG stake
Stapel             staple                 stapol 'post'                 MLG stapel 'post'
Tag                day
Tal                dale
Tran               train oil              MLG trân 'drop of oil'        trahan (>Träne)
wabern             waver                  prob. related to O.E. wæfre
                                          "restless, wavering"
Wahl               wale 'choice (dial)'   ON val                        wale
Wal                whale                  hwæl                          wal
waten              wade                   wadan                         watan
Zahl               tale                   talu                          zala
zahm               tame                   tam                           zam
a:-ɔ:
Ahle               awl                    æl
Hag                haw                    haga "enclosure, hedge"
Schwad             swath 'track'          swæð, swaðu "track, trace,
                                          band"
Schwann            swan                   swan                          swan
Vater              father                 fæder
a:-i:
Aal                eel                    æl
Abend              eve                    æfen                          aband
Bahre              bier
Bake               beacon
(Ge)fahr           fear
Jahr               year
Mahl               meal
Mal                meal
Masern             measles                maser
Nadel              needle                 nædel                         nadala
                  - 7
raten          read                     rædan, redan                       ratan
Saat           seed                     sæd                                sât
Schaf          sheep                    scêp, scêap                        scâf
Schlaf         sleep                    slæp                               slâf
Sprache        speech                   spræc, sprêc, spêc                 sprâhha
Stahl          steel                    stêli                              stahal
Straße         street < L strâta
Tat            deed
a:-u:
Brame          broom 'shrub'
Span           spoon                    spôn 'chip'                        spân 'chip'
Zahn           tooth                    tôth                               zand
ai - ai
bei            by
beißen         bite                                                          Û
Deich          dike
dein           thy, thine               thîn                               dîn
Eis            ice
Eisen          iron                     iren, isern                        isan, isarn
eitel          idle
Feile          file
gleich         like
gleiten        glide
greifen        gripe
Kneif          knife
Leib           life
leicht         light
Leim           lime             Loam    lîm                                lîm
Lein-          line (obs. for flax)
mein           mine                     mîn
Pfeife         pipe
Pfeil          pile (stake)
reif           ripe                     rîpe                               rîfi
Reif           rime 'white frost'       hrîm                               hrîfo
reisen         rise             roasn   rîsan                              rîsan
reißen         write                    wrîtan 'scratch'                      Û
reiten         ride                     rîdan                              rîtan
Scheibe        shive 'slice'            ME schîve                          scîba
scheinen       shine                    scînan                             scînan
Schleim        slime                    slîm                               MHG slîm
schleißen      slice                    OF esclice < Frk slizzan 'split'   slîzan
schmeißen      smite                    smîtan 'smear'                     smîzan 'rub, strike
schreiben      shrive                   scrîfan 'shrive'                   scrîban 'write'
Schrein        shrine                   scrîn < L scrînium 'case'
Schwein        swine                    swîn                               swîn
Seite          side                     sîde                               sîta
steigen        stile                    stigel 'step' < stîgan             stigila < stîgan
steigen        sty on eye               stîgend 'rising, swelling'         stîgan
streichen      strike                   strîcan 'rub'                      strîhhan 'rub'
Streifen       stripe                   MD stripe                          MHG strîfe
Teich          dike
treiben        drive
Weib           wife                     wîf                                wîb
Weide (Baum)   withe
                  - 8
Wein           wine                      wîn                              wîn
Weile          while                     hwîl                             hwîla
weise          wise                      wîs                              wîsi
Weise          wise, guise               wîse 'knowledge, way of doing'   wîsa
weisen         guide                     MF guide < Frankish *wîtan       wîsên
weiß           white                     hwît                             hwîz
Weissager      wiseacre                  MD wijssegger                    wîssago, f/e for wîzago
weit           wide                      wîd
Zeit           tide                      tîd 'time'                       zît
zeitig         tidy                      ME tidy 'opportune'              zîtec 'opportune'
Zeitung        tiding                    tîdung 'happening'               MHG zîdunge 'message'
ai - i
Beiwacht       bivouac                   F < Swiss G bîwacht
Leiche         litch
Lein           linen
Leiste         list
reich          rich                      rîce                             OS rîhhi
scheißen       shit                      scîtan                           scîzan
schleichen     slick         schloacha
schleißen      slit                      slîtan                           slîzan 'slit'
seit           since                     ME sithen-es, OE sith-than       sîd
steif          stiff                     stîf                             stif
streifen       strip (vb)      stroafa   -strypan                         MHG stroufen
Teich          ditch                     dîc
Weide (Baum)   withe                     withthe
Zweig          twig                      twîg, twigge                     zwîg orig 'divided in two'
ai - ɔ
heiß           hot             hoaß                                             Û
Kleid          cloth
ai - ɔ :
breit          broad           broat
weißt          wost, wast      woaßt                                            Û
ai - ɛ
Ei             egg             Oa
einig          any                       ænig
Fleisch        flesh
(be-)reit      ready                     ræde                             bireti
scheiden       shed                      scêadan 'separate'               sceidan
schweißen      sweat         schwoaße    swætan                           sweiz
                             n
spreizen       spread                    sprædan                          spreiten
ai- æ
Eimer          amber                           'pail; a measure'
ein            an                        an (with a long vowel)
feist          fat             foast
heischen       ask                       ascian                           eiscon
Leiter         ladder          Loater
leisten        last
Maisch(e)      mash                      masc-
Meister        master          Moast-
                               er
ai - ʌ
ein            one             oan       an                               ein
ai - au
                        - 9
Meise                (tit)mouse              mâse 'titmouse'                   meise Folk etym.!
ai - o :
(all)ein             (al)one        alloa      all ana
beide                both (> ON)
Bein                 bone           Boandl
Eiche                oak            Oachn                                      eih
Eid                  oath           Oad                                        eid
eigen                own[agen
feim                 foam           Foam
Geiß                 goat           Goaß                                             Û
Geist                ghost
greifen              grope
heil                 whole                   hâl
Heim                 home           Hoam
Laib                 loaf           Loab
leid                 loath          load
meist                most
Reif                 rope           Roaf     râp                               reif
                                    "Reifen"
Reihe                row                     râw                               rîga
Seife                soap           Soafa    sâpe                              seiffa
Speiche              spoke          Spoa-    spâca
                                    cha
Stein                stone          Stoa     stân                              stein
streichen            stroke         stroa-
                                    cha
Teig                 dough          Toag
Teil                 dole

Waid                 woad 'plant,            wâd                               weit
                     blue dye'
Zeichen              token          zoagn
ai - i :
bleich               bleak
bleichen             bleach
drei                 three                   thrî, thrîe, thrêo                drê, drîe, drio, dri
frei                 free
Heide, Heidelbeere   heath Hoawa = Hei-
                            delbeere
heilen               heal                    hælan
heizen               heat
klein                clean        kloa
leiten               lead         Loat(sei
                                  l)
(ge)mein             mean                    gemæne
meinen               mean         moa-
                                  nen
reichen              reach                   ræcan
Scheide              sheath                  scæth, scêath                      skeida
Scheit               ski    Schoat           ON skîth 'billet of wood', OE scîd scit
schreien             screa schroan
                     m
schweifen            sweep Schwoif           swâpan                            sweifan
                            "Schwanz"
Teil                 deal                          'part, share'
                         - 10
Urteil                ordeal                ordæl 'dealing-out, judgment'
weich                 weak          woach   wâc                                weih E < ME weik < ON
                                                                               veikr
Weizen                wheat         Woaz    hwæte
Zeichen               teach                 tæcan                              zeihhan
zeihen                teen 'vex'            têonian                            zîhan 'accuse'
ai - e :
beizen                bait         boazn            = cause to bite
bleich                blake
heil                  hale
Klei                  clay
Meier                 mayor Moar "der
                            Beste"
ai - u :
Eibe                  yew                   êow
schweifen             swoop                 ME swopen akin to swepen (see
                                            sweep)
speien                spew                  spîwan                             spîwan
zwei                  two           zwoa    twâ, twêgen, tû                    zwô, zwêne, zwei
au - au
aus                   out                   ut                                 uz
Bauer ('bird-cage')   bower
Braue                 brow
braun                 brown
Daune                 down                  OE?
faul                  foul
Haus                  house
lauern                lower
Laus                  louse
laut                  lout
Maus                  mouse                 mûs
Sau                   sow                   sû, sugu                           sû
sauer                 sour                  sûr                                sûr
Schauer               shower                scûr                               scûr
Schnauze              snout                 ME snute                           LG snûte
tausend               thousand              thûsend                            thûsunt, dûsunt, tûsund
Zaun                  town                  tûn 'enclosure'                    zûn
zausen                tousle                tæsan                              zi-zûsôn
au - ai
Kauz                  kite                  cyta
taufen                dive                  dyfan
au - ɔ
Raub                  rob                   OF rober < WGmc *rauba             roub
saufen                sob                   sêofian,sîofian 'wail'             sûfan 'sip, draw breath'
tauen                 thaw                  thâwian                            douwên
au - o :
Maul-                 mole
schauen               show                  scêawian 'look at'                 scouwôn
Schmauch              smoke                 smoca                              MHG smouch
stauen                stow                  stôw 'a place'                     MLG stouwen
trauen                trow                  trêowan 'have faith in, believe'   trûwên
au - u :
blau                  blue (< OF)
brauen                brew
hauen                 hew
                           - 11
kauen                   chew
lau                     lukewarm                hleow
Raum                    room                    rûm                              rûm
raunen                  rune                    runian
Schnauze                snoot                   MD snute (see snout)
Stauf 'Becher'          stoup                   stêap 'drinking cup', MD stoop   stouf
Tau                     dew
au - i
lauschen                listen                  hlysnan                          hlosen
au - i :
auch                    eke
Baum                    beam
berauben                bereave
Haufen                  heap
Kauf                    cheap

Laub                    leaf
(Ur)laub                leave
(g)lauben               (be)lieve
Lauch                   leek
laufen                  leap
Pfau                    pea
Rauch                   reek (n.)
Saum                    seam
Schaub 'Stroh-          sheaf
bündel'
Traum                   dream
traurig                 dreary
Zaum                    team

au - ɛ
Haupt                   head                    heafod
taub                    deaf                    deaf
au - ʌ
auf                     up
Daumen                  thumb
Gaumen                  gum
Pflaume                 plum
rauh                    rough
saufen                  sup                     supan, suppan, supian "to sip,   sufan
                                                swallow"
saugen                  suck                    sûcan                            sûgan
schaudern               shudder                 ME schuderen                     scutên 'shake'
Schaufel                shovel                  scofl                            scûval
Schaum                  scum                    MD schume                        scûm
Schlauch                slough 'snake's skin'   ME slouh                         MHG slûch 'skin'
schnaufen               snuff                   D snuffen                        MHG snûfen
Strauß 'fight'- strut   ME strût 'strife'       MHG strûz 'fight'
(n)
Taube                   dove
tauchen                 duck                    dûce
au - ai
Auge                    eye                     êage
Braut                   bride
Lauge                   lye
                       - 12
au - ʊ
brauchen            brook 'enjoy, use,      bruccan "use"
                    bear'
ɛ-ɛ
älter               elder
ätzen               etch                    D etsen
bellen              bell                    bellan                        deer
best                best
bergen              bury                    byrgan, akin to beorgan "to
                                            shelter"
Bett                bed
deck                decken (via LG)
denn                then                    see dann
Ecke                edge
Elch                elk
elf                 eleven                                                einlif, both 'one leave'
Ellbogen            elnow
Elle                ell
Ende                end
Felge               felly
Fell                fell
Fessel              fetter
gelb                yellow
gellen              yell                    giellan
gestern             yesterday               geostran
Hecke               hedge
helfen              help
Helm                helm
hemmen              hem
Hengst              hench(man)
Henne               hen
Kresse              cress
Lenz                lent
Nessel              nettle
Nest                nest
Netz                net                     net                           nezzi
Pfeffer             pepper
Pfennig             penny                   penig                         pfenning prob. from pan,
                                                                          Pfanne
Recke 'warrior, hero' wretch                wrecca 'fugitive'
renken                wrench                wrenc
Scheffel              skep 'basket, meas-   ON skeppa                     scefil 'bushel'
                      ure'
schmelzen             melt                  meltan
schwellen             swell                 swellan                       swellan
selb                  self                  self                          selb
selten                seldom                seldum                        seltan o.o.o.
senden                send                  sendan                        sentên
Sessel                settle                setl 'a seat'                 sezzal
setzen                set                   settan                        sezzên
Spelt, Spelz          spelt                 spelt                         spelta
spenden               spend < ML spendere
stemmen               stem                  ME stemmen                    MHG stemmen
strecken              stretch               streccan                      strecchên
Tenne 'thrashing-     den
                     - 13
floor'
tränken           drench
vergessen         get
wälzen            welt 'to roll (dial);   ON velta                          walzên
                  ridge'
Welpe             whelp                   hwelp                             hwelf
wenn              when
Weck              wedge                   wecg                              weggi, wecki 'wed
                                                                            shaped pastry'
Welle             well                    wella, weallan                    wella, wallan 'well
welsch            Welsh
wenden            wend                    wendan 'turn, go' > went!
Westen            west                    west                              westan
wetten            wed
Wetter            weather                 weder                             wetar
wetzen            whet                    hwettan                           hwezzên
zählen            tell                    tellan                            zellên
ɛ-æ
Bengel 'cudgel'   bang ?
denn              than
dreschen          thrash                  threscan                          dreskan
Enke              ankle                   oncleow
Esche             ash                     æsc
Espe              asp(en)                 æspe                              aspa
Ferkel            farrow                  fearh (Ferkel < farhili < farh)
fest              fast
fett              fat
Hechel            hatchel
hecken            hatch
letzt             last
Schenkel          shank                   scanca, scenca 'shin'             scinca 'thigh'
schmecken         smack                   smæccan                           smacchên
ɛ-i
denken            think                   thencan                           denchen, "i" < me
keck              quick                   cwic                              queck
lecken            lick
(Ge)lenk          link                    hlence
melken            milk
Mensch            minx                    LG minsk 'wench'
Pech              pitch                   pic
Quecke            quitch(grass)           cwice                             MNG kweken < *q
                                                                            'alive'
queck(silber)     quick                   cwic 'alive'                      queck
Rätsel            riddle                  rædels = ræd-else
schwelgen         swill                   swilian, swillan 'wash, gargle'
Schwelle          sill                    syl, syll                         swelli
Schwester         sister                  sweostor                          swestar
sechs             six                     six, siex, seox                   sehs
sengen            singe                   sengan                             (bi-)sengen
sprenkeln         sprinkle                ME sprenkelen                     MHG sprinkel 'spe
stechen           stick (vb), sting       stician, *stecan                  stehhan
Stecken           stick (n)               sticca                            steccho
Stelze            stilt                   ME stilte                         stelza
welch             which
welk              wilt                    ME welken
                       - 14
Zecke            tick                    ticia?                           MHG zecke
Zelt             tilt 'covering, tent'   teld                             zelt
ɛ-i:
Becher           beaker
essen            eat                     etan
Feld             field
Geck             geek
gelten           yield                   geldan 'pay, give'
kläffen          clepe 'call'
leck             leak                    ON
messen           mete                    metan
sprechen         speak                   spreccan, specan                 sprehhan
wähnen           ween 'hope, think'      wênan                            wânen 'hope'
ɛ-ɔ
Eller            alder
schwelgen        swallow                 swelgan                          swelahan, swelgan
(ver)schwenden   squander                swindan                          swintan
perh
streng           strong                  strong                           strengi
Wespe            wasp                    waesp < waeps                    wafsa. wefsa prob 'weaver
ɛ-e:
Eckern           acorn                   aecern
Schnecke         snail                   snaegl                           scnecco
(ge)streckt      straight                streht = pp streccan             pp strecchên?
ɛ:-e:
Mähne            mane                    manu
Käfer            chafer
ɛ : - ai
spähen           spy                     OF espier < Frankish spehôn      spehôn
ɛ:-ɔ:
gähnen           yawn                    gânian
Säge             saw                     sagu, sage                       saga
ɛ:-o:
blähen           blow
mäen             mow                     mâwan
säen             sow                     sâwan                            sâen
ɛ:-ʌ
zäh              tough                   tôh                              zâhi
e:-e:
brechen          break                                                    brehhan
Degen            thane                   ðegn                             thegan

Egel             ail                     eglian "to trouble, plague"

entgegen         again                   ongean "toward, against," on + -
                                         gegn
erlegen          allay                   alecgan "to put down, give up"   irleccan
Flegel           flail                   *flegel
je               ay, aye
legen            lay, causative of lie   lecgan                           lecken
Pegel perh       pail                    pægel, a wine measure            app. not found
pflegen perh     play                    plegian                          pflegan
Rechen           rake                    raca                             rehho
Regen            rain                    regn                             regan
                       - 15
Segel               sail                    segl                               segal
Weg                 way                     weg                                weg
e : - ai
brecht              bright
Efeu                ivy
Fecht               fight                   fe(o)htan
jeder               either                  ægther
Knecht              knight
Leben               life
recht               right                   riht                               reht
e:-o:
drehen              throw                   thrâwan 'twist, cause to turn'     drâen, drâjan
gehen               go
Klee                clover
Lehm                loam           Loam
Reh                 roe                     râ                                 rêh
Schlehe             sloe                    slâ                                slêha
Schnee              snow                    snaw                               sneo
Seele               soul                    sâl < sâwel                        sêla, sêula
weh                 woe                     wâ
Zehe                toe                     tâ                                 zêha
e:-ɛ
Feder               feather
Leder               leather
lehnen              lend
rechnen             reckon                  ge-recenian 'explain'              rechann 'count'
schwelen -swelter   sweltan 'die', swelan   MLG swelen
                    'melt away'
treten              tread                   tredan                             tretan
(Ge)webe            web                     webb                               weppi
zehn                ten                     tên, tyn < tîen                    zehan
e:-i
leben               live
Leber               liver
Mehltau             mildew                  mildêaw < 1st part 'honey', folk
                                            etym. > Mehl
Sehne               sinew                   sinu, seonu                        senawa
selig               silly                   sælîg 'good, happy'                sâlîg 'happy'
e:-i:
Besen               besom
(Ge)bet             bead                    (ge)bed
eben                even                    efen
heben               heave
jeglich             each                    ælc
kleben              cleave
kneten              knead
lehnen              lean           loana
Mehl                meal                    melu
Met                 mead
schweben            sweep                   bec. schweben akin to schwei-
                                            fen, q.v.
See                 sea                     sæ                                 sêo
sehen               see                     sêon                               sehan
stehlen             steal                   stelan                             stelan
                      - 16
Tee                tea
weben              weave                   wefan                              weban
e:-æ
Treber             draff
(be)wegen          wag                     wagian                             wegan
e:-ɔ
jen-               yon, yonder, beyond     geon
e : - au
Zwehle             towel[thwêal 'a wash-   < OF toaille                       dwahila
                   ing'
i-i
Biß                bit
bitten             bid                     biddan 'ask' + beodan 'proclaim'
bitter             bitter
bringen            bring
dick               thick                   thicce                             dicchi
Dickicht           thicket 'thick growth   thiccet                            17. Jh.
                   of trees'
Dill               dill
Ding               thing                   thing                              dinc
Distel             thistle                 thistel                            distil, distila
Drillich -drill    EE drilling < G['                                          drilîh < L trilix
                                                                              'three(thread)
Finger             finger
Fink               finch                   finc
Fisch              fish
Gift               gift
(be)ginnen         begin
grimm              grim
hindern            hinder
in                 in
Kinn               chin
klingen            clink
Krippe             crib
Linde              linden
Milch              milk                    milc
Milz               milt
missen             miss                    missan
Mist               mist                    mist
Mistel             mistle(toe)             mistel
Mitte              mid                     midd
Niß, Nisse         nit 'egg of louse'      hnitu                              hniz
quick-(lebendig,   quick- (see queck-)
sand, born)
Ring               ring
Rippe              rib                     rib                                rippa
Riß                writ
Rist               wrist                   wrist
Schiff             ship                    scip                               scif
Schilling          shilling                scilling                           scilling
schimmern          shimmer                 scimrian                           MD schemeren
schinden           skin                    ON skinn 'what is peeled off'      scintan 'flay'
schlimm            slim                    MD slim 'crooked, bad'             slimpî 'a slope'
schlingen          sling                   slingan 'twist'                    slingan
(ge-)schmissen     smitten (see
                    - 17
                 schmeißen)
schrill          shrill                  ME shrille                        NHG
schwimmen        swim                    swimman                           swimman
schwingen        swing                   swingan                           swingan
Schrift          shrift                  scrift 'shriving, confession'     scrift
Sichel           sickle                  sicel                             sihhila
Silber           silver                  seolfor, siolfor                  silabar
singen           sing                    singan                            singan
sinken           sink                    sincan                            sinchan
Sinter           cinder                  (has nothing to do with Fr cen-
                                         dre!)
Sippe            sib(ling)               sibb                              sippa
sitzen           sit                     sittan                            sizzan
spinnen          spin                    spinnan                           spinnan
spitz            spit (n.) (see Spieß)
springen         spring                  spring                            springan
Stich, sticken   stitch                  stice                             stih
Stichel          stickle                 sticel 'prickle'                  stihhil 'prickle'
still            still                   stille 'motionless, quiet'        stilli
stinken          stink                   stincan                           stinchan
Tisch            dish
Trift            drift
trinken          drink
trippeln         trip                    ME trippen < OF triper < Gmc      G seit 15 C
wickeln          wick
wildern          (be)wilder
Wildnis          wilderness              = wild-dêor-ness
Wille            will                    willa                             willo
Wimpel           wimple                  wimpel
Wind             wind                    wind
winken           wink                    wincian                           winchan
(ge)winnen       win                     winnan                            winnan
Winter           winter                  winter                            wintar
wippen           whip                    ME whippen, wippen                MHG wipfen, wipp
Wisch            whisk                   ME wisk                           wisc
wissen           to wit                  witan                             wizzan
wittern          wither                  ME wederen, wideren               MHG witeren < we
Witwe            widow                   widuwe
Witz             wit                     wit                               wizzê
wringen          wring                   wringan
Zimmer           timber                  timber ['wood, building'          zimbar 'timber,roo
Zinn             tin                     tin                               zin
Zipfel           tip                     ME tip                            MHG zipfel
zittern          titter                  ME titeren < ON titra 'tremble'   zitarôn
Zitze            tit                     tit, titt                         MHG zitze
zwicken          twitch                  twiccian                          MHG zwicken
Zwillich         twill                   twili                             zwilîh 'twofold' 'tw
                                                                           (thread)'
Zwilling         twin                    twinn                             zwinling
zwingen          twinge                  twengan 'squeeze'                 thwingan, dwingan
zwinkern         twinkle                 *twincan 'blink'                  MHG zwinken
zwischen         be-twixt

Zwist            twist                   -twist 'made of 2 strands'        MHG zwist
                - 18
zwitschern   twitter                 ME twiteren                zwizzirôn
i - ai
binden       bind
blind        blind
dicht        tight                   OE thîht                   MHG dîhte
finden       find
Grind-       grind
Hinde        hind
hinter       (be)hind
Kind         kind
klimmen      climb
lind         lithe
mild         mild                    milde
Rinde        rind                    rind                       rinta
schlicht     slight                  MD slicht 'plain'          sleht
wild         wild                    wilde
winden       wind                    windan
Zinne        tine                    tind                       zinna 'pinnacle'
Zinke        tine                    tind                       zinko 'spike'
i-æ
ist          am                      eom
Schinken     shank                   scanca, sceanca 'shin'     scinca 'thigh'
i-ɛ
Binse        bent(grass)
Filz         felt
Schild       shelter                 scild-truma (see shield)
Schlitten    sled                    MD sledde                  slito
Widder       wether                  wether                     widar
willkommen   welcome                 wilcuma                    willechomen = 'come acc.
                                                                to will'
i-e:
(Ge)wicht    weight                  gewiht, wiht               MHG gewiht
i-ʌ
Rind         runt 'undersized cow'   hrîther 'horned beast'     hrind
Schild       skull                   ON skalli (see shield)
i-i:
bin, bist    be
dich, dir    thee                    thê                        dih, dir
Gischt       yeast                   gist
glimmen      gleam
mich         me                      mê
Schild       shield                  sceld, scild, scyld        scilt
Strich       streak                  strica 'stroke of pen'     strih
i:-i:
Biber        beaver
Biene        bee
Dieb         thief                   thêof                      diob
Diele        deal 'board'            via MD
dies         these                   thês, thêos, thîos, this   deser, desiu, diz
fliehen      flee
fließen      fleet
frieren      freeze
klieben      cleave
Knie         knee
                   - 19
lieb           lief
Miete          meed 'due reward'        mêd
nieden         be-neath
niesen         sneeze                   fnêosan                              niosan
Ried           reed                     hrêod                                riot
sieden         seethe                   sêothan                              siodan
tief           deep
Vieh           fee
Wiesel         weasel                   wesole                               wisala
i:-i
bieten         bid                      biddan 'ask' + beodan 'proclaim'
Diele          thill 'shaft'            thille 'board'
Fiedel         fiddle
Grieß          grit
Kiel           quill
Schiefer       shiver 'fragment'        ME schivere                          scivaro, scivero
Schien(bein)   shin                     scinu                                scina
Schmied        smith                    smith                                smid
Sieb           sieve                    sife                                 sib
siech          sick                     sêoc                                 sioh
Spieß          spit                     spitu                                spiz
wider          with                     with(er), (horse's) withers = part
                                        resisting pull
Wieche         wick                     wêoce, wêoc 'wick'                   wichili 'thing woun
zielen         till (vb.)               tilian "tend, work at, get by        zilon "to strive"
                                        labor," originally "strive after"
i : - ai
fliegen        fly
ich            I                        ic
Licht          light                    leoht
liegen         lie
Pflicht        plight[pliht (not nor-
               mal plight but plight²
               'pledge')
Sicht          sight                    siht                                 siht
Wicht          wight                    wiht                                 wiht
Ziegel         tile
Zwielicht      twilight                 ME twi+light                         zwi-
i : - au
biegen         bow                      bugan                                biogan
sprießen       sprout                   sprûtan                              MHG spriezen
wie            how
i:-u:
kiesen         choose                   ceosan

schießen       shoot                    scêotan                              sciozzan, sciozan
i:-ʌ
Liebe          love
schieben       shove                    scûfan                              scioban
schießen       shut                     scyttan 'bolt (a door)' (see shoot)
i:-ɔ
nicht          naught, nought           nawiht = "no whit"
i:-ɛ
(ver)drießen   threaten                 thrêat 'crowd, oppression'
nieder         nether                   nither                               nidar
                       - 20
sieben              seven                     seofon                            sibun
(Bei)spiel          spell                     spell "story, speech"             spel
Stief-              step-                     stêop-                            stiof-, stiuf-
i:-e:
wiegen              weigh                     wegan 'move, carry, weigh'        wegan
i:-o:
ziehen              tow                       togian                            zogôn, ziohan (not direct)
ɔ-ɔ
Dotter              dodder 'yellow plant'     OE?
Drossel             throttle < throat         throte                            MHG druzzel < OHG droz-
                                                                                za
Frost               frost
Glocke              clock                     via Du or Fr
Gott                god
Klotz               clot, clod
Knopf               knob
Kropf               crop
Loch                lock
Locke               lock
Motte               moth                      moththe
Ochse               ox                        oxa                               ohso
oft                 often                     oft                               ofto
Otter               otter                     otor                              ottar
Pocke               pock                      pocc
Rock                rochet'Eccl vestment'     OF rochet < Frankish *rok         roc
(ver)rotten         rot          roat, rout
Schloß              slot 'bolt for door'      MD slot                           slôz
                    (not 'hole')
Schock 'heap of     shock 'heap of grain'     ME                                MHG schoc
grain'
Schock              shock                     MF choc < Gmc                     scoc 'swinging movement'
(Ge-)schoß          shot                      scot 'shooting'                   giscoz
Socke               sock
Stock               stock 'tree-stump'        stocc                             stock
stopfen             stop                      (for-)stoppian                    stopfôn 'stuff'

Topf                top (toy)                 top                               topf 'top, pot' ?
Tropf               drop
trotten             trot                      ME trotten < OF < Gmc             trottôn 'tread often'
Zopf                top                       topp 'summit'                     zopf 'pointed end')
ɔ-o:
glotzen             gloat
hoffen              hope
Joch                yoke
Knolle              knoll
offen               open                      open                              offan
pochen              poke                      MLG poken
Pfosten             post
Rost                roast                     OF rostir < Frankish *hraustjan   rôst
strollen, Strolch   stroll                    E prob < G
Tochter             daughter
Zoll                toll                      tol                               zol
ɔ-æ
Brom(beere)         bram(ble)
                    - 21


sollen        shall                  scal, inf. sculan                  scolan
ɔ-ɛ
Wolke         welkin 'sky'           wolcen 'cloud, sky'
ɔ - ai
Roggen        rye                    ryge                               roggo
trocken       dry
ɔ - au
Klotz         cloud 'mass of some-
              thing'
Sprosse       sprout                 sprota                             sprozzo
ɔ-i:
Osten         east
Woche         week                   wicu                               wehha, wohha (rou
                                                                        w) 'turn-about'
ɔ-i
Wonne         win(some)              wynn                               wunna, wünni
ɔ-ʌ
Bock          buck
Bollwerk      bulwark                first element unclear, > Fr bou-
                                     levard
Donner        thunder                thunor                             donar
Drossel       thrush                 thrysce                            drôscala
kommen        come
Montag        Monday
oben          above                  b(e)ufan
Pflock        plug                   MD plugge
Rost          rust                   rust, rûst                         rost
solch         such                   swelc, swilc, swylc                sulîh, solîh
Sommer        summer                 sumer, sumor                       sumar
sonder        a-sunder, sundry       sundor 'asunder'                   suntar
Sonne         sun                    sunne                              sunna
stottern      stutter                ME stutten                         MD stoteren < sto
strotzen      strut                  strûtian 'stand out'               MHG strotzen
toll          dull                   dol 'foolish'
Tonne         ton                    tunne 'large cask' (from ML or
                                     Celtic)
Trommel       drum                   MD trommel                         trumba
Zopf          tuft                   MF toffe                           zopf 'top of tree, t
ɔ-ʊ
Koch          cook
sollte        should
voll          full
Wolf          wolf                   wulf
Wolle         wool                   wull
wollte        would
ɔ-u:
Brom(beere)   broom
o:-o:
Bogen         bow
Bolzen        bolt
Boot          boat
Fohlen        foal
Gold          gold
hohl          hole
                 - 22
Holm          holm
Holz          holt
Knob(lauch)   clove (of garlic etc.)
Kohl          cole
Kohle         coal
Polster       bolster
Rogen         roe                      ME rowne                    rogan
so            so                       swâ 'thus'                  sô
Sohle         sole                     sole                        sola
Volk          folk
(ge)wohnt     wont                     ME woned pp of wonen < OE   wonên
                                       wunian
o:-ɔ
Boden         bottom
Dohle         daw (bird)
folgen        follow
Knoten        knot
Los           lot
Moos          moss                     mos
roh           raw                      hræw                        râo
Stroh         straw                    strêaw                      strô
Trog          trough                   trog                        troc
o:-ɛ
Brot          bread
los           less
Lot           lead
Ohm, Oheim    em
rot           red                      rêad                        rôt
Schrot        shred                    scrêade                     scrôt 'a cut'
tot           dead
wo            where
wohl          well                     wel                         wela, wola = 'acc. to one's
                                                                   will'
o : - ai
hoch          high
o:-i:
Bohne         bean
Floh          flea                     fleah
Kloß          cleat
Not           need                     nead                        not
Ohr           ear
Ostern        Easter
Schoß         sheet                    scête 'piece of cloth'      scôzza 'lap, coat-tail'
Schot(e)      sheet                    scêata 'corner of sail'
Schloße       sleet                    *slête                      MHG slôze
Strom         stream                   strêam                      struom, strom
o:-e:
groß          great           groaß
Kohl          kale
o:-ʌ
Honig         honey
Monat         month                    mônath
oben          (b)ove
Ofen          oven                     ofen                        ovan
                  - 23
schmoren       smother                 ME smorther, OE smorian   MLG smoren
Sohn           son                     sunu                      sunu
o:-u:
Mond           moon                    môna
Moor           moor                    môr
o : - au
Vogel          fowl
oi - oi
Beule          boil
Zeug           toy                     getêoh 'gadget'           geziuc E perh < M
                                                                 'gadget'
oi - ai
Feuer          fire
neun           nine                   nigon                      niun
scheu          shy            schiech scêoh                      MHG schiech 'shy,
seufzen        sigh                   sîcan                      sûfen 'draw breath
                                                                 siufzen 'sigh'
oi - ɔ
seufzen        sob
oi - au
Eule           owl                     ule                       hûwila
heulen         howl                                              hwilôn
scheuern       scour
oi - e :
Heu            hay
Spreu          spray                   MD sprayen                spriu
oi - ʌ
äußern         utter                   ME uttren<adv utter, OE   MHG ûzern
                                       ûtter,ûtor 'outside'
deutsch        Dutch
Euter          udder                   ûder                      ûtar, ûtiro
oi - ɛ
Freund         friend
Teufel         devil
oi - u :
Beute          booty (via MF butin)
meuch(lings)   mooch
Knäuel         clue 'ball of thread'   cleowen
reuen          rue                     hrêowan                   riuwan
scheuchen      eschew (via OF)
streuen        strew                   streâwian                 strewên
treu           true                    trêowe 'loyal'            gi-triuwi
oi - i :
steuern        steer                   stêoran                   stiuren
teuer          dear
oir - or
euer           your                    êower
œ-æ
können         can
ø-ɔ
Österreich     Austria                                           ostar
ø-e:
mögen          main, may               mægen 'strength'
ø-i:
                  - 24
hören          hear
Öhr, Öse       ear 'handle'

schön          sheen          schee   scêne, scyne, scîene 'splendid'   schoni
(ent)wöhnen    wean                   wenian                            wenen
œ-ɛ
Hölle          hell
zwölf          twelve                 twelf                             zwelif meaning 'two leave'
ø - ju
Möwe           mew                    mæw
ø-o:
zögern         tow
œ-u:
schöpfen       scoop                  MD schôpe                         scepfan 'draw water'
ʊ-ʌ
dumm           dumb
dumpf          dump (the dumps)       OE?
Dung           dung
Dunst          dust                   OE?
glucken        cluck
grunzen        grunt
Humpen         hump
hundert        hundred
Hunger         hunger
jung           young
Klumpen        clump
Lunge          lung
Lust           lust
Muschel        mussel
mute           must
Mutter         mother                 môdor
Nuß            nut                    hnutu                             nuz
Runge          rung                   hrung                             MHG runge
schlummern     slumber                slumerian                         MHG slummer
schmuck        smug                   LG smuk 'smartly dressed'
schmuggeln     smuggle                LG smuggeln
Schmutz        smut, smudge           LG smutt                          MHG smutz
Schnupfen      snuff                  MD snuffen                        MHG snupfe
schrubben      scrub                  MD schrobben
Stumpf         stump                  ME stumpe                         stumpf
Trumm          thrum 'warp thread'    thrum 'end-piece'                 trum 'end'
trunken        drunk
un-            un-                    un-                               un-
uns            us                     ûs                                uns
unter          under                  under                             untar
Wunder         wonder                 wundor
zucken         tuck                   tûcian 'harass'                   zucchên 'jerk, tug' < zie-
                                                                        hen
Zunge          tongue
ʊ-æ
Mulm (=dust)   malm ('limestone')     mealm
Prunk prob     prank
und            and                    and, ond                          enti
ʊ - ai
                         - 25
Bucht                 bight
Furcht                fright                   frytu, fyrhto
Flucht                flight
ʊ - au
Grund                 ground
Hund                  hound
Mund                  mouth                    mûth
(Vor)mund             mound
Pfund                 pound
(ge)sund              sound                    sund                          gisunt
Sund                  sound 'inlet'            sund                          LG
ʊ-i
duselig               dizzy                    dysig 'foolish'
jucken                itch
Runzel                wrinkle                  wrincle < wring
Trunk                 drink
tupfen                dip
Wunsch                wish                     wusc                          wunsc
Zunder                tinder                   tynder                        zuntra
ʊ-i:
Nutz                  neat 'oxen, useful       neat                          noz
                      property'
ʊ-ɔ
ducken -? dodge       OE? (ducken < tau-
                      chen)
Fuchs                 fox
Futter                fodder
Luft                  loft, aloft
Schmuck               smock                    smoc                          smocco 'smock'
Schuppen              shop                     sceoppa                       scopf, scof
Sumpf                 swamp
ʊ-o:
Schulter              shoulder                 sculdor                       scultarra
ʊ-ʊ
(das) Bruch 'marsh'   brook                    broc
Bulle                 bull
ʊ-ɛ
Brust                 breast
Kluft                 cleft
ʊ-u:
kund                  couth                    cuðe "known," pp. of cunnan
Wunde                 wound                    wund                          wunta
u:-u:
Blume                 bloom           Bloama
Brut                  brood
Bude                  booth                    not found in OE
Buße                  boot 'good'
durch                 through                  thurh
Huf                   hoof
Jugend                youth
Mut                   mood                     môd
Pfuhl                 pool                     pol                           pfuol
Rune                  rune
Rute                  rood                     rôd                           ruota
              - 26
Schuh      shoe                    scôh, scêoh                       scuoh
Schule     school < L schola
Spuk       spook                   D spook                           MLG spôk
Spule      spool                   MD spoele                         spuola
Stufe      stoop                   MD stoop 'small porch'            stuofa 'step'
Stuhl      stool                   stôl 'seat'                       stuol
tun        do
zu         to, too                 tô                                zô, zuo, zua
u:-ʊ
Buch       book
Busen      bosom
Fuß        foot
gut        good                    god (with a long "o")
Hut        hood
lugen      look
u:-ʌ
Blut       blood                   blod                              bluot
Bruder     brother                 broþor
Flut       flood                   flod

genug      enough                  genog
Krume      crumb
Ruder      rudder
Stute      stud                    stôd 'stud'                       stuot 'drove of horses'
Tuch       duck 'a linen' (via MD)
Zuber      tub                     MD tubbe                          zwibar, zubar ?
u : - au
Bug        bough, bow
du         thou                    thû, thu                          du, dû
Kuh        cow
nun        now                     nu                                nu
Pflug      plow                    ploh                              pfluog
u:-e:
Kuchen     cake                    not found in OE, not related to
                                   "cook")
u:-i:
bluten     bleed
Buche      beech
Glut       gleed
sputen     speed                   spêd 'prosperity'                 spuot 'success'
suchen     seek                    sêcan                             suohhan, suohhên
besuchen   beseech                 ME bisechen, -seken
Stute      steed                   stêda 'male horse'                stuot 'drove of horses'
u:-o:
Bube       boy                     not found in OE, unclear
Stube      stove                   stofa 'heatable room'             stuba 'bathroom'
y-i
Brücke     bridge
Bündel     bundle
dünken     think                   thyncan; think > methinks
dünn       thin                    thynne                            dunni
füllen     fill
Grütze     grit-s                  grytta
Hüfte      hip
                      - 27
Krüppel            cripple
Küken              chicken
küssen             kiss
Mücke              midge                    mycg
Mühle              mill
Münze              mint
Pfütze             pit
Rücken             ridge                    hrycg                           hrukki
schlüpfen          slip                     MD slippen                      slûpfên
spützen            spit                     spittan                         MHG spützen
Sülze              silt                     Scan sylt 'salt-water swamp'    sulza 'salt water'
Sünde              sin                      syn                             suntea
Tümpel -? dimple   OE?
wünschen           wish                     wyscan                          wunskan
y - ai
fünf               five
Lüge               lie                      lyge
y - au
tüchtig            doughty
Süd                south                    sûth, *sunth 'land in sun'      G < MD sûden not
                                                                            sund
y-o:
blühen             blow (diff. from other
                   blow!)
Büchse             box
glühen             glow
Tür                door
über               over                     ofer                            ubar, (adv) ubiri
y-ʌ
Glück              luck                     MD gluc
Krücke             crutch
Müll               mull 'dust; pulverize'   myl
pflücken           pluck
rümpfen perh       rumple                   ge-hrumpen                      rimpfan 'wrinkle'
schnüffeln         snuffle                  freq of snuff (see schnaufen)
Stück              stucco                   stycce                          stucchi
Stütze             stud                     studu 'a post'                  MHG stütze
würgen             worry                    wyrgan
y-i:
Büttel             beadle                   bydel "herald" < beodan "to
                                            proclaim"
y-ɔ
hüpfen             hop
rücken             to rock                  roccian                         rucchên
y:-e:
Bügel              bagle
fügen              fay
rügen              (be)wray                 wrêgan 'accuse'
sprühen            spray                    MD sprayen                      erst im 16. Jh. bez
                                                                            er alt
wüst               waste (adj)              wêste                           wuosti E < ONF wa
                                                                            guast < ML vastu
                                                                            to Gmc)
Wüste              waste (n)                wêsten                          wuostî E < ONF wa
y:-i:
                        - 28
brüten            breed
fühlen            feel
grün              green           grea
grüßen            greet
hüten             heed
kühn              keen
süß               sweet           swête                      swuozi, suozi
übel              evil            yfel
y:-u:
kühl              cool
ar - ar
Arche             ark

Arm               arm             earm
Arsch             arse            ærs
Garn              yarn            gearn
Garten            yard, garden    geard
Harfe             harp
Harm              harm
hart              hard
scharf            sharp           scearp                     scarf
Scharte           shard           sceard                     scart 'dented'
schnarren         snarl           MD snarren                 MHG snarren
Sparren           spar            ME sparre                  sparro
Star              starling        stær, stærlinc             stara
stark             stark           stearc                     starc
Warte, warten     guard, regard   OF g(u)arde                warta
Zarge             target          targe                      zarga
arbe, ark - aro
(Schaf)garbe      yarrow          gearwe
Mark              marrow          mearg
Narbe             narrow          nearu                      narwa 'narrow'
ar - e : r
bar               bare
fahren            fare
Haar              hair
kar               care
karg              chary
Mahr              (night)mare     mara
(Pflug-)Schar     share           scear                      -scar
Schar 'amount'    share           scaru, scearu              scara
sparen            spare           spær (adj.)                sparôn
(ge)wahr          (a)ware, wary   wær                        giwar < wara 'attention'
starren           stare           starian                    starên
Ware              ware            waru                       MHG ware
ar - o : r
schnarchen        snore, snort    ME snoren                  MHG snarchen
Schwarm           swarm           swearm                     swarm
Schwarte -sward   sweard 'skin'   MHG swarte 'hairy scalp'
'turf'
schwarz           swart(hy)       sweart 'black'             swarz
warm              warm            wearm                      warm
warnen            warn            wearnian                   warnôn
Warte, warten     ward, warden    weard                      warta
                   - 29
Warze        wart                    wearte                           MHG warze
ar - ûr
arg          irk
Farn         fern
waren        were                    wæron                            warûn
ar - i : r
arg          eerie                   earg 'timid'
Bart         beard
ar - ʌz
war          was                     wæs                              was
ɛr - ar
Berg         barrow
fern         far
Gerte        yard (measure)          gierd 'rod'
Herbst       harvest                 hærfest "autumn"

Herd         hearth
Herz         heart
kerben       carve
Lerche       lark
Pferch       parrock                 pearroc 'fence, enclosure'       pfarrih
schmerzen    smart                   smærtan                          smerzan
Sperling     sparrow                 sparwa                           sparo, MHG sper-
sperren      spar                    be-sparrian                      sperrên 'protect w
sterben      starve                  steorfan                         sterban
Stern        star                    steorra                          sterro, sterno
Sterz        start 'animal's tail'   steort                           sterz
zergen       tarry                   tergan 'vex'
e : r - ar
Heer         harry
Kehr-        char(woman)
                                     (uncertain)
Teer         tar                     teru, teora                      MLG ter
e:r-i:r
Meer         mere                   mere                              mari
quer         queer (relation uncer- from Scottish                     twerh "oblique"
             tain)
scheren      shear                  sceran, scieran                   sceran
Speer        spear                  spere                             sper
Wehr         weir 'dam'             wer "dam, fence, enclosure"       wari 'defense, dam
ɛ:r-i:r
Ähre         ear (of corn)           ear, æher
Zähre        tear in the eye         tear < teahor, tæhher            zahar
ɛr - ar
Bärme        barm 'beer froth'       beorma "yeast," "head of a       cf. barmy, balmy '
                                     beer"                            silly'
stärken      starch                  stercan                          sterchen
ɛr - ɛr
Bär          bear
(ge)bären    bear
Mähre        mare                    mere
Werwolf      werewolf                werewulf                         MHG werwolf
plärren      blare                   not found earlier than ME, MHG
zerren       tear                    teran                            zerrên, cf zehren
                - 30
ɛr - or
quer         thwart               thweorh                       dwerah
Schwert      sword                sweord                        swert
sehr         sorry                sârig 'sad'                   sêr 'painful' (cf. sore)
werfen       warp                 weorpan                       werpfan
Werft        wharf                hwerf 'turning, busy place'   hwerfan = werben
Zwerg        dwarf
e : r - ɛr
Beere        berry
eher         ere                  ær                            êr 'early'
zehren       tear                 teran                         fir-zeran 'destroy', cf zer-
                                                                ren
e : r - or
Gehre        gore
Gerste       gorse
hehr         hoar
Lehre        lore
mehr         more                 mâra
sehr         sore                 sâr 'painful'                 sêr; sêro 'painfully'
ɛr - ər
bersten      burst
Erde         earth
Ernst        earnest
Ern-te       earn
gern         yearn                georn 'eager'
Herde        herd
Kerl         churl
lernen       learn
-wärts       -ward                -weard                        -wert, -wart 'turning'
Werk         work
Wermut       wormwood             wermôd                        werimuota wer 'man' + mu
                                                                'courage'
werden       worth'become' (woe   weorthan                      werdan
             worth the day)
Werk         work                 worc
Wert         worth                weorth
ir - ar
Hirsch       hart
ir - ər
Birke        birch
Hirt         -herd
kirnen       churn
Quirl        twirl                thwiril 'stirrer'             dwiril 'whisk'
Schirm       skirmish             MF escarmuche < Gmc
                                  *skirmjan
schwirren    whir                 Scan                          MHG swirren
wirbeln      whirl                ME whirlen                    freq of werben, OHG hwer
                                                                ban 'turn'
wirken       work                 wyrcan
ir - or
Wirbel       warble               ONF werbler < Gmc             wirbil
Wirren       war                  ONF werre                     werra 'strife'
ir - ai
Zwirn        twine                twîn, lit. 'double thread'    MHG zwirn
ir - ɔ
                        - 31
(ge)wirkt          wrought                 worhte, wrohte
i:r-i:r
Bier               beer
hier               here
schier             sheer                   scîr
schmieren          smear                   smerian                smirwen
Stier              steer                   stêor                  stior
Tier               deer                                'beast'
schier             sheer                   scîr
Zier               tier 'rank, row' ?
i : r - or
vier               four
i:r-i:
wir                we                      wê                     wir
i:r-u:
Ihr                you                     gê
or - or
bohren             bore
Bord, Bort         board
Dorf               thorp                   thorp                  dorf
Dorn               thorn                   thorn                  dorn
fort               forth
Horn               horn
Hort               hoard
Korn               corn
Morgen             morn                    morgen                 morgan
Nord               north                   north                  nord
Schorn(stein)      shore ('prop')
Storch             stork                   storc                  storah
Tor                door
vor                fore
orge - ɔro
borgen             borrow                  borgian                borgên
Morgen             morrow                  ME morwen, OE morgen   morgan
Sorge              sorrow                  sorg                   soraga
or - ar
horchen            harken
knorren            knar
or - ər
Born (= Brunnen)   burn 'spring, stream'
Horst              hurst
Mord               murder                  morthor, morth         mord
Schorf             scurf, scurvy           sceorf                 scorf
Sporn              spur                    spura, spora           sporo
Torf               turf                    turf                   zurba
Wort               word                    word                   wort
or - ri
Borst              bristle                 byrst "bristles"

rɛ - ər
brennen            burn
ur - ar
furzen             fart
Schurke            shark 'cheater'         < G shork              (fir-)scurgo 'rogue
                     - 32
ur - or
Flur              floor
Furt              ford
Hure              whore
kurz              short                scort, sceort                      scurz
(Auf)ruhr         uproar               MD uproer or MLG uprôr             15 C
Sturm             storm                storm                              sturm
ur - ur
Spur              spoor                MD spoor                           spor
ur - ər
Durst             thirst               thurst                             durst
Schurke           shirk                1630, cf shark
Schurz, Schürze   shirt                scyrte 'short garment'             MHG schurz
Wurm              worm                 wyrm, wurm                         wurm
Wurz              wort                 wyrt                               wurz
ur - ʌrʌ
Burg              borough
durch             thorough             thurh                              duruh
Furche            furrow
ör - ɛr
schwören          swear                swerian                            swerian
ø : r - or
röhren            roar                 rârian                             rêren
ø : r - ər
Stör              sturgeon             MF esturgeon < Frankish            sturio
stören            stir                 styrian                            stôrên
störrisch         stern                stierne < stier-, styr-            storro 'tree-stump'
yr - ar
stürzen           start                styrtan 'jump up'                  sturzên
yr : ər
Fürst             first
Gürtel            girdle
Schürze           shirt (see Schurz)
metathesis
dritt-            third                thridda                            dritto
ɛl - ərl
Welt              world                worold                             weralt = wer-old 'man-ag
s-t
äußern            utter                ME uttren < adv utter, OE ûtter,
                                       ûtor 'outside'
baß               better
beißen            bite
das, daß          that                 thæt                               daz
(ver)drießen      threaten             thrêat 'crowd, oppression'
Drossel           throttle < throat    throte                             MHG druzzel < OHG droz-
                                                                          za
essen             eat
Faß               vat                  fæt                                faz
Fessel            fetter
fließen           fleet
Fuß               foot
Gasse             gate
Geiß              goat
(ver)gessen       get
                           - 33
Grieß                   grit
groß                    great
grüßen                  greet
Haß                     hate
heiß                    hot
Kloß                    cleat
lassen                  let
messen                  mete                         metan
Niß, Nisse              nit 'egg of louse'           hnitu                              hniz
Nessel                  nettle
Nuß                     nut                          hnutu                              nuz
reißen                  write                        wrîtan 'scratch'
Riß                     writ
scheißen                shit                         scîtan                              scîzan
schießen                shoot                        scêotan                             sciozzan, sciozan
schießen                shut                         scyttan 'bolt (a door)' (see shoot)
schleißen               slit                         slîtan                              slîzan 'slit'
Schloß                  slot 'bolt for door'         MD slot                             slôz
                        (not 'hole')
Schloße                 sleet                        *slête                             MHG slôze
schmeißen               smite                        smîtan 'smear'                     smîzan 'rub, strike
Schoß                   sheet                        scête 'piece of cloth'             scôzza 'lap, coat-t
(Ge)schoß               shot                         scot 'shooting'                    giscoz
Schweiß                 sweat        Schwoaß         swât                               sweiz
Sessel                  settle       setl 'a seat'   sezzal
Spieß                   spit                         spitu                              spiz
sprießen                sprout                       sprûtan                            MHG spriezen
Straße                  street < L strâta
Sprosse                 sprout                       sprota                             sprozzo
Strauß 'fight'- strut   ME strût 'strife'            MHG strûz 'fight'
(n)
süß                     sweet                        swête                              swuozi, suozi
Wasser                  water                        waeter                             wazzar
weiß                    white                        hwît                               hwîz
wissen                  to wit                       witan                              wizzan
s-s
küssen                  kiss
missen                  miss                         missan
-sam - -some                                         -sum
                        awesome
                        burdensome
biegsam                 buxom                        buhsum 'pliant'
                        fearsome
handsam                 handsome                     ME 'easy to handle'
heilsam                 wholesome                    ME holsum
                        loathsome
                        lonesome
                        quarrelsome
                        tiresome
wirksam                 irksome                      < ON yrkja 'work'
                        winsome
                        worrisome
-t, n, var of -th
drought                 drûgath < drugian
                        'dry'
                          - 34
height                 hîehthu
sleight < ON
-t - -th, n abstract
from adj or v
Geburt                 birth                   not found in OE
- health               hælth < hâl 'hale'
- truth                trêowth < trêowe
                       'faithful'
-t, n of action, de-
rived from v
- fight                feoht < feohtan
Flucht                 flight < flêon 'flee'
Furcht                 fright                  fryhto prob. < fyrhtan 'frighten'
Gift                   gift < gifan
- thrift < thrive
-d, -t, -te - -d, -
de, n of action, de-
rived from v
Blut                   blood                   blôd < blêdan
Brand                  brand
Brot                   bread                   brêad < brêowan 'brew'
Draht                  thread
Flut                   flood
- glede
Not                    need
Saat                   seed
Scharte                shard                   sceard < sceran 'cut, shear'
- speed                spêd
Tat                    deed
-e - -y 'place of
action'
Schmiede               smithy                  smiththe
-heit - -hood                                  hôd, hâd 'condition'
-ing - -ing            'belonging to'
Hering                 herring
Schilling              shilling                scilling
-isch - -ish                                   -isc 'belonging to, resembling'
englisch               English                 Englisc
-chen - -kin                                   < MD -kin
Lämmchen               lambkin
-ling - -ling                                  -ling 'person having the quality'
-lich - -ly                                    -lic < lîc 'body' 'resembling'
väterlich              fatherly
täglich                daily
-nis - -ness                                   -ness
Gleichnis              likeness
-s - -s -es genitive
                       besides
                       needs
tags                   days
                       unawares
(halb)wegs             (al)ways
-tum --dom 'office,
region'
-ung - -ing
                       - 35
ç-ʧ
Pech                pitch                 pic
χ-ʧ
bleichen            bleach      bloichn   blæcan
Bruch               breach                brice                                brecha
Bruch               breech(es)            brêc pl. of brôc 'breech'
Dach                thatch                thæc
Hechel              hatchel
Leiche              litch
(ge)mach            match (gemaca <
                    make)
meuch(lings)        mooch
reich               rich
reichen             reach
solch               such                  swelc, swilc, swylc                  sulîh, solîh
Sprache             speech                spræc, sprêc, spêc                   sprâhha
Stich, sticken      stitch                stice                                stih
(be)suchen          (be)seech             ME bisechen, -seken
Teich               ditch                 dîc
wachen              watch                 wæccan, wacian, rel. to wacan        wahhên
welch               which
g-ʧ
jeglich             each                  ælc
χ-k
brechen             break
(das) Bruch         brook
Buch                book
suchen              seek                  sêcan                                suohhan, suohhên
Zeichen             token                 tâcen                                zeihhan
k-ʧ
Birke               birch
hecken              hatch                 ME hacchen
jucken              itch                  giccan
karg                chary
kauen               chew
Kauf                cheap                 prob not > L caupo 'innkeeper,
                                          trademan', cf. Cheapside,
                                          Cheapstow
Kerl                churl                 ceorl "peasant, freeman, man
                                          without rank"
kiesen              choose
Kinn                chin
kirnen              churn
Krücke              crutch
Quecke              quitch(grass)         cwice                                MNG kweken < *q
                                                                               'alive'
Recke 'warrior, hero' wretch              wrecca 'fugitive'
stärken               starch              stercan                              sterchen
strecken              stretch             streccan                             strecchên
zwicken               twitch              twiccian                             MHG zwicken
nk - nʧ
Bank                  bench               benc
Fink                  finch               finc
Hengst                hench(man)          hengest 'horse'
fränkisch             French              frencisc, adj. of Franca 'a Frank'
                 - 36
Rank, Ranke   wrench    wrenc 'a twisting, deceit'
renken        wrench    wrenc
(Ge)stank     stench    stenc                        MHG gestanc
Trank         drench
wanken        winch     wince 'reel'
ʦ-ʧ
ätzen         etch      D etsen
kratzen       scratch                                krazzôn

								
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