New Horizon College English Test Band Four I. Word Dictation Directions: Listen and write down the words you hear. You are going to listen to the recording twice. During the first time, you should write the word that you hear and, during the second time, you can just check your answers. (35 points) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. II. Compound Dictation Directions: In this section you will hear a passage three times. For the first time, you should listen carefully for its general idea. For the second time, you are required to fill in the blanks numbered from 1 to 7 with the exact words you have just heard. For the blanks numbered from 8 to 10, you are required to fill in the missing information. You can either use the exact words you have just heard or write down the main points in your own words. The third time is for you to check what you have written. (30 points) Text 1 Until the late 1940s, when television began finding its way into American homes, companies relied mainly on(36) and radio to promote their products and services. The arrival of television brought about a (37) in product and service. Between 1949 and 1951, advertising on television grew 960 percent. Today the Internet is once again (38) promotion. By going online, companies can communicate (39) and directly with (40) customers. Promotion on the World Wide Web includes advertising, sponsorship, and sales promotions. In 1996 World Wide Web advertising (41) topped $300 million. Effective online marketers don't merely(42) hard-copy ads to cyberspace (网络空 间). Successful sites blend promotional and non-promotional information indirectly when delivering the advertising messages. To encourage visits to their sites and to cultivate customer loyalty, (43) . One example of excellent online promotion is the Ragu Web site. Here visitors can take Italian lessons, and view an Italian film festival, but they will find no traditional ads. So subtle is the mix of product and promotion,(44) . SEGA of America, maker of computer games and hardware, uses its Web site for a variety of different promotions, such as introducing new game characters to the public and supplying Web surfers (浏览器) the opportunity to download games. SEGA's home page averages 250,000 visits a day. To heighten (提高) interest in the site, SEGA bought an advertising banner on Netscape, thereby increasing site visits by 15 percent. Online participants in Quaker Oats Gatorade promotion received a free T- shirt in exchange for answering a few questions. Quaker Oats reports that the online promotion (45) . Text 2 If you work in the business world, email is undoubtedly a big part of your life. Yet few of us who rely on email as a(46) of communication ever took a course in its proper use. Here are some(47) for you to improve your digital messages and ensure that your electronic correspondence (48) (促进) good relations rather than hard feelings. 1. In an email message, never say something about someone else that you would not want that person to see. Keep in mind that email messages can be "(49) " to anyone by the recipient (接受 者). Therefore, never say something in an email that you would be (50) to have read back to you. 2. Get the most out of your "subject" line. Remember that aside from your name, the subject line of your email message is the first thing that a recipient will read. So it pays to take some time to think about your subject line. 3. When attaching files to your email messages, keep in mind the type of Internet(51) that your recipient has. If you attach a three-megabyte (3 兆 大 的 ) document to a message to be sent to a business(52) across town who connects to the Internet using a slow modem, that three- megabyte file attachment can bring his or her system to a halt. 4. Do use commonly accepted standards of courtesy (礼节) in all email messages that you send. Avoid using all capital letters in your messages. Typing something in all capital letters(53) . In addition, be careful about any use of sarcasm (讽刺) or humour in your email messages. In writing, both sarcasm and humour can easily be misinterpreted. 5. Before sending an email message, consider whether(54) . In business settings, email is best used(55) , or to contact a decision maker directly. Text 3 Nobody actually wants to cause offence but, as business becomes ever more international, it is easy to get it wrong. There may be a single European market but it does not mean that managers behave the same in Greece as they do in Denmark. In many European countries handshaking is an automatic(56) . In France good manners require that on arriving at a business meeting a manager (57) hands with everyone present. Handshaking is almost as popular as in other countries — including Germany, Belgium and Italy. But Northern Europeans, such as the British and Scandinavians, are not quite so fond of physical(58) of friendliness. In Europe the most common(59) is not the content of the food, but the way you behave as you eat. Some things are just not done. In France it is not good manners to raise (60) questions of business over the main course. Business has its place: after the (61) course. Unless you are prepared to eat in silence you have to talk about something — something, that is, other than the business deal which you are (62) chewing over in your head. Italians(63) . In fact, in Italy the biggest fear, as course after course appears, is that you entirely forget you are there on business. If you have the energy, you can always do the polite thing when the meal finally ends, and offer to pay. Then, after a lively discussion, you must remember the next polite thing to do — let your host pick up the bill. In Germany, as you walk sadly back to your hotel room, you may wonder why your apparently(64) . Don't worry; it is probably nothing personal. (65) as some of their European counterparts (与对方地位相当的人). III. Fill in the Blanks with the Right Word Directions: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the help of the first letter(s). Use only ONE word to fill in each blank. (64 points) 66. If they would be of by an offer of money, the occasional money-saving gift to them might be very welcome. 67. He seems to take pleasure in of against the codes accepted by most people. 68. The entire plan vio every principle upon which the foundation had been founded, yet Stirling agreed to go along with it. 69. The actress vio the terms of her contract and was sued by the producer. 70. Everybody was ass in the lecture theatre at the appointed time, but no lecturer had arrived. 71. The data thus gained can be ass under separate headings for each product as follows. 72. The Soviet Union swiftly condemned the US inv of Panama, saying it was a blow to growing warmth in US-Soviet relations. 73. People are complaining of inv of privacy, with unreasonable entry into the offices or even into individual rooms, on a variety of pretexts (借口，托词). 74. It is universally ack that he has played a major role in this sales campaign. 75. All ack him to have been very good-humored and of a kind disposition (性情，性 格). 76. However, when the unions proved reluctant to make con , the employers would have to contemplate the possibility of a lockout (停工). 77. Three months after he threw away his lighter, Mr. Teller made con to his desire for cigarettes again. 78. If the recent burst of consumer demand is sus in the next two or three months, it should ultimately be translated into increases in production, employment and income. 79. Elderly parents may begin to feel unsure of their previous social skills and ability to sus long conversations with visitors and they may get tired very quickly. 80. In the event, the compilation (编纂) of the book proved to be a far more difficult undertaking than I had ant — and took far longer than it should have done. 81. Equally the morale ( 士 气 ) of the staff in the company has climbed and each week's profits are ant with a strong degree of satisfaction. 82. Before you start recording the talk I'd like to make some pre remarks. 83. It is by no means uncommon for pre results to differ from those achieved finally, almost a complete reversal of the situation identified at first. 84. That ads became common then is a striking ill of the rapid growth in the economy in our period. 85. Each of these reinforced the other and each depended on the other for either ill , evidence, or knowledge. 86. Police were twice granted a further ext to the time allowed for questioning. 87. The type of practice is simply an ext of the question-answer exercises described above. 88. Some people attributed the declining cinema att to the popularity of video games. 89. From the responses made, only two participants stated that their att on the course had not been worthwhile and none said that the course should be discontinued. 90. He dec , however, to specify what type of vehicle production was being considered and said the discussions were still at a preliminary stage. 91. I quickly dec his offer by shaking my head and putting my hands above my head in mock (假装的) surrender. 92. What I find is that far too often the facts suggest a rev of the expected relation of cause to effect: the cart comes too often before the horse. 93. This is a rev of a long-standing policy in public education in which disabled learners were automatically excluded from educational activities available to other children. 94. As we became caught up in the thrill of our hunting, a strange feeling of exp mixed with fear came over us. 95. The exp of older people, their families, and people who work with them, may significantly affect the way that they cope with illness or disability. 96. The obj of the new organization was to provide free legal aid to the poor. 97. These figures give a reliable and obj indicator of changing trends in people's lifestyles. 98. Sleep can be divided into a number of different ph which recur at regular intervals throughout the night. 99. It is worth repeating here that although discussed in four ph — assessing, planning, implementing and evaluating — individualised nursing assumes a built-in responsiveness to feedback at any of the phases. 100. Compared with the ela mechanisms for consultation on economic policy matters that have evolved within Europe, those in the Pacific are as yet quite simple and basic. 101. Buckingham Palace refused to ela on the holiday arrangements, saying they were 'totally private'. 102. He went on a trip to the nearest seaside res during his five-day holiday. 103. Strike action should be regarded as a last res , when all attempts to negotiate have failed. 104. Depressive drug-users are thus of concern, because they appear to be putting off the inevitable day of reckoning when they have to con themselves. 105. In much of the West where productivity has been high and population increases relatively small — in some countries zero — the problem con agriculture has been how to control expensive surpluses. 106. The other big issues con the workers are the question of the wages and the improvement of the working conditions. 107. And the the is obviously of high consequence for the portrayal of any society where race is a problem and where one race has oppressed (压迫) another. 108. The provincial hospital lacked the most elementary fac like X-ray machines, operating rooms and delivery rooms. 109. It was worth every mile, and somehow the traveling was particularly app , for he is himself a traveling man, at home everywhere and nowhere. 110. There is sharp com between British and American banks, in particular, in the provision of these specialized services. 111. These policies even cont the nationalization of industry, in rather more detail than had ever been considered by the Labour Party. 112. Rather than finishing school and entering work, young people were likely to enter part time and tem employment, odd jobs of all kinds. 113. I took the lib of borrowing your lawn mower (割草器) while you were away on holiday. 114. The company's top-down man style made decision-making slow and inflexible. 115. This ove goal was successfully achieved over a two-year period, and follow-up research seven years later indicated that many of the changes were durable. 116. Cities hold little att for him, as he misses the quiet and peaceful country life very much. 117. She is fascinated with detective stories, among which "Murder on the Oriental ( 东 方 的 ) Ex " is her favorite. 118. The amusement park was badly si . There were chemistry factories close to it. 119. This could be seen as a sign of healthy growth and change; yet the new equipment installed are usually totally ins to the design quality of the original. 120. The government's rev is made up chiefly of the money people pay in taxes. 121. It predicted that the company would lose 20 million US dollars in the current fin year and continue losing money for one more year. 122. The surgeon's pre that the patient would be recovering in a week came true. 123. In summer, many people are taken on by the theme park as sea employees to cope with the large number of visitors from different parts of the world. 124. In addition to causing errors, faults may also slow down the execution (执行) of programs and cause a decrease of storage cap . 125. The corporation was severely h by the scandal, and the manager had to resign for the irrecoverable losses. 126. However, while all people experience similar changes, the degree of change is very wide-ranging and there is considerable var both between individuals and between socio-cultural groups. 127. Together, these minerals today am to nearly two-thirds of Australia's mineral exports. 128. In some ways this boom is even more extra , because it represents not only a new taste but a subtly different attitude towards works of art. 129. Another potentially misunderstanding factor is that whilst average incomes can be compared between one country and another, they do not of themselves reveal the true com______ standard of living, nor the com potential markets for all products. IV. Fill in the Blanks Directions: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate preposition or adverb. Fill in each blank with only ONE word. (35 points) 130. The TGV station is being built in front of the main entrance of Euro Disneyland, and is scheduled to come service in 1994. 131. the other hand, when television reports of unemployment almost ceased in the third week, public demand for political debate on the issue also dropped slightly, from 66 per cent to 56 per cent. 132. She recognized that her son had not always been as attentive expected towards his wife or the children and that he spent too much time with friends like Camilla Parker-Bowles. 133. Clearly, costs have been geared a revenue level that has not been achieved, and the company is beginning to drop hotel prices that have been widely described as exorbitant. 134. She also thinks that men tend to choose women who make up their own shortcomings. 135. Perhaps those who believe the ideas will be self-confident that they will control the presses and the television studios and dominate the 'free market in ideas'. 136. When the kitchen is finished I'm going to focus my attention the garden and get that sorted out. 137. China reacted angrily the US announcement on Sept. 2 that it had agreed to sell 150 F-16 fighter planes to Taiwan. 138. The Disney management is stressing this tradition in apparent response suggestions that it is culturally insensitive. 139. Remarkable, she thought, how many of these terms were familiar quite young children. 140. Pakistan denied that any missile sites were construction on her soil and pointed out that the Soviet Union had been supplying arms and other military installations to countries in the neighborhood of Pakistan. 141. all its concern about foreign cultural invasion, France's Socialist government has been untroubled about putting such a huge American symbol on the doorstep of the capital. 142. Would it be more sensible the long run to buy a second-hand television rather than to rent one? 143. They're threatening to take the company court for violating their privacy. 144. For all babies, breastfeeding is far superior bottle-feeding. 145. Civilian casualties (伤亡人员) seem to have amounted some 400 (the exact figures are unknown), while the soldiers lost 26 dead with some 200 wounded. 146. The company announced revenues of 2.47 billion francs ($492 million), but gave no profit or loss figures in line the French practice of only giving such figures at year's end. 147. Still, huge doubt hangs the company's plans to keep the theme park open through the cold European winter. 148. If natural selection was to account the evolution of man's higher faculties, as Darwin was convinced it could, then those faculties must have a material basis. 149. Most experts say that the happiest — and longest — relationships are based close friendship and shared interests, not just strong feelings. 150. Our mission is to seek the enemy and destroy them. 151. The Euro Disney had to contend many difficulties when the first financial year ended. 152. Female employees are banned wearing short skirts and fancy stockings while working in Euro Disney. 153. The defense the pollution of the French language by English words always arouses great interest amongst Frenchmen. 154. Officials pointed that the central figure of the park is based on the illustrations in a medieval European book. 155. Kylie never tires telling interviewers that life at home at Camberwell High School was just as normal as it could possibly be. 156. The amusement park was opened immense celebration and widespread predictions of immediate success. 157. Studies show that women workers the average lose no more work hours because of illness than do men. 158. The government invested a lot of money and effort this project to ensure its final success. 159. The football match was way between China's national team and a team from England. 160. When they reached the top of Mount Jolmo Lungma, the mountaineers didn't find any living thing sight. 161. He said their proposed tax-raising bill in Scotland would set the country on the road bitterness, conflict and separation. 162. The managing director believed that workers had the right to participate fully policy making process. 163. Nowadays women are mobilized (动员) for work outside home a very large scale. 164. In selecting applicants for jobs, they give preference those who have worked in the relevant field for no less than two years. V. Replacement Directions: Replace the underlined words in the following sentences with words, expressions or phrases by using the key word(s) supplied in the brackets. Please take care to use the right form and keep the original meaning. (12 points) 165. Considering yourself more important than anyone else is very selfish. (put) 166. It appears that our company has agreed to let them do it in order to reach a settlement. (concession) 167. Does the question of cost have a part in your plans? (figure) 168. They have been ready for a big export drive. (gear) 169. There is always doubt surrounding the possibility of changes in the law. (hang) 170. What they did seemed to be similar to our practice. (line) 171. We're going to be meeting there regularly . (basis) 172. You never know how she's going to act in response to our suggestions. (react) 173. We have a relationship infinitely better than those of many of our friends. (superior) 174. One can quickly lose interest in a city view, but never in a beautiful country scene. (tire) 175. He sued the railroad because his cow was killed by the engine. (court) 176. We shall have to have the repairs done in the end , so we may as well have them done now. (run) VI. Cloze (With No Choices Provided) Directions: Fill in each of the following blanks with one word. In each case, use the exact word that appears in your textbook. (10 points) A labor inspector took the Disney organization to(177) this week, (178) that the company's dress and appearance code — which (179) moustaches, beards, excess weight, short skirts and fancy stockings — (180) individual liberty and violates French labor law. The case is an(181) of some of the (182) cultural issues the company faces as it gets ready to open its theme park 20 miles (32 kilometers) east of Paris in five months' time. The Disney management, which is(183) what it calls a "cast" of 12,000 to run the theme park, argues that all employees, from bottle washers to the president, are similar to actors who have to obey rules about (184) . Anyway, a company spokesman says, no one has yet (185) his moustache before a job. As one new "cast member" put it: "You must believe in what you are doing, (186) you would have a terrible time here." VII. Cloze (With Four Choices Provided) Directions: Read the following passage carefully and choose the correct ONE from the four choices given to fill in each blank. (20 points) Disney has reacted to accusation (指责)(187) (which, that, why, how) it shows a lack of sensitivity (188) (to, of, for, with) cultural concerns by (189) (paraphrasing, inventing, creating, emphasizing) the European origin of (190) (much, more, many, lot) of the legends and (191) (fairy, fascinating, fancy, fantastic) tales featured in the park. It has also (192) (reacted, exclaimed, claimed, discovered) that the park will have a uniqueness (193) (approximate, appropriate, appreciate, associate) to its European setting. All the direction (194) (sentences, languages , words, signs) in the park will be in French (195) (as far as, as long as, as well as, as much as) English. Some performers in the park will (196) (chat, check, change, challenge) in French, Spanish and English.(197) (In, On, With, By) the other hand, Disney does (198) (condemn, conceal, concede, comprise) that the park in essence (本质) does have an American (199) (economical, social, personal, cultural) focus. Disney sees this (200) (as, into, through, to) the main selling (201) (value, point, information, place) to attract both the 320 million Western European citizens who live (202) (with, without, within, between) two-hour flight (203) (and, but, also, then) the additional millions of Eastern Europeans who (204) (build, visit, manage, run) the park on their first (205) (order, step, round, trip) to Western Europe. One thing is undeniable though: all other (206) (previous, precious, precise, obvious) theme parks in Europe have been unsuccessful. VIII. Translation from Chinese to English Directions: Translate the following into English (12 points) 207. 我没有按时支付账款，因此她威胁说要送我上法庭。 208. 通货膨胀是供不应求的结果。 209. 他们认为使用自动武器是违反了传统的国际法。 210. 祖父召集了所有家庭成员参加一年一度的野餐。 211. 这列火车预定 8：45 分到达，但是它误点了 20 分钟。 212. 该城市在提供广泛的闲暇活动设施方面是独特的。 213. 有一些人没有打算自己独立地生活。 214. 有人告诫我不要到东海岸去，因为那儿游客爆满。 215. 他似乎认为这等于做了极大的让步，这点让她很生气。 216. 制造公司花费了几百万英镑试图使客户相信他们的产品比其他公司的好。 217. 考虑到她对小孩很感兴趣，我肯定教书对她来说是最恰当的职业。 218. 船长不断的四处张望，准备对任何可疑情况做出反应。 IX. Translation from English to Chinese Directions: Translate the following into Chinese (12 points) 219. "We were geared up for a very high level of operations," John Forsgren, the company's chief financial officer said in a telephone interview. "It has been very strong, but not as strong as we geared up for." 220. "While attendance is very strong," he said, "our cost levels do require adjustment for the current revenue level." 221. Mr. Forsgren said he thought the market had "reacted a bit emotionally to preliminary information." 222. He added that "by all objective standards the park is very successful. The long-term acceptance is strong, the rest is just details." 223. The company said that 3.6 million people had visited the park from April 12 to July 22, a performance it said was superior to that of comparable start-up periods at other Disney theme parks. 224. Reacting to the announcement, stock market experts Paribas Capital Markets Group issued a "sell" recommendation on Euro Disney stock, saying that attendance levels for the period were 15 percent below its expectations and spending on food and other goods was 10 percent below. 225. The stock's still too expensive, but I think in the long term they'll get it right. 226. For its third quarter ending June 30, the first in which the park had been operating, the company announced revenues of 2.47 billion francs ($492 million), but gave no profit or loss figures in line with the French practice of only giving such figures at year's end. 227. With school in session every weekday plus Saturday morning 10 months of the year, Japanese students have almost 60 more class days annually than their American peers. 228. Under pressure from the United States and other trading partners, who complain about the labor force working too much, Japan is working hard at the notion of working less hard. 229. Some companies require employees to take longer vacations, and others are moving to eliminate the traditional Saturday workday so that people will get out and relax. 230. He also acknowledged that the lowest-priced rooms at the resort had been cut to 550 francs from 750 francs at the time of the opening, and that some rooms were being offered at 400 francs for the winter season. X. Vocabulary and Structure Directions: Choose the best one to complete each sentence. (46 points) 231. You would be ___________ a risk if you let your child go to school by himself. A) omitting B) affording C) attaching D) running 232. He is always here; it's __________ you've never met him. A) unique B) rare C) strange D) seldom 233. There is a great increase in retail sales, __________? A) does there B) hasn't there C) isn't there D) isn't it 234. We'd like to __________ a table for five for dinner this evening. A) preserve B) retain C) reserve D) sustain 235. Although a teenager, Fred could resist __________ what to do and what not to do. A) being told B) to be told C) telling D) to tell 236. The European Union countries were once worried that they would not have __________ supplies of petroleum. A) proficient B) potential C) efficient D) sufficient 237. In fact, Peter would rather have left for San Francisco than __________ in New York. A) to stay B) staying C) stayed D) having stayed 238. He soon received promotion, for his superiors realized that he was a man of considerable __________. A) ability B) possibility C) future D) opportunity 239. Britain has the highest __________ of road traffic in the world — over 60 cars for every mile of road. A) popularity B) intensity C) density D) prosperity 240. How is it __________ your roommate's request and yours are identical? A) if B) what C) so D) that 241. In my opinion, he's __________ the most imaginative (富有想象力的) of all the contemporary poets. A) in all B) for all C) at best D) by far 242. He didn't have time to read the report word for word: he just __________ it. A) skimmed B) overlooked C) observed D) glanced 243. The leader of the exploring team __________ everyone to follow his example. A) promoted B) sparked C) reinforced D) inspired 244. What a lovely party! It's worth __________ all my life. A) remembering B) to be remembered C) to remember D) being remembered 245. Who would you rather __________ with you, George or me? A) going B) have gone C) to go D) went 246. The owner and editor of the newspaper __________ the conference. A) were attending B) is to attend C) were to attend D) are to attend 247. We left the meeting, there obviously __________ no point in staying. A) were B) to be C) being D) having 248. Their products are frequently overpriced but __________ in quality. A) influential B) superior C) inferior D) subsequent 249. The neighborhood boys like to play basketball on that __________ lot. A) valid B) vacant C) vain D) vague 250. These people once had fame and fortune; now __________ is left to them is utter poverty. A) all that B) all which C) all what D) that all 251. To our __________, Geoffrey's illness proved not to be as serious as we had feared. A) anxiety B) view C) relief D) judgment 252. Many people like white colors as it is a __________ of purity. A) symbol B) signal C) sign D) symptom 253. The residents, __________ had been damaged by the fire, were given help by the Red Cross. A) all of their homes B) whose all homes C) all their homes D) all of whose homes 254. I would never have __________ a court of law if I hadn't been so desperate. A) sought for B) turned up C) accounted for D) resorted to 255. Investigators agreed that passengers on the airliner __________ at the very moment of the crash. A) should have died B) must have died C) must be dying D) ought to die 256. The energy __________ by the chain reaction is transformed into heat. A) transferred B) delivered C) released D) conveyed 257. __________ their work will give us a much better feeling for the wide differences between the two schools of thought. A) To have reviewed B) Reviewing C) Having reviewed D) Being reviewed 258. During the process, great care has to be taken to protect the __________ silk from damage. A) sensitive B) delicate C) tender D) sensible 259. For one to two years before Election Day, a presidential candidate travels ________ around the country debating national and international issues. A) extensively B) officially C) rapidly D) practicably 260. Many local authorities realize the need to make ________ for elderly people in their housing programs. A) assistance B) conditions C) provision D) rooms 261. To treat someone medically is to accept him as a patient, to diagnose his illness and to help to ________ it. A) resist B) relieve C) recover D) restrain 262. As my exam is coming in the next week, I'll take advantage of the day off to ________ on some reading. A) catch up B) pick up C) hurry up D) make up 263. It was not until he arrived at the railway station ________ he realized he had forgotten his ticket. A) before B) since C) when D) that 264. A new technique ________, the yields as a whole increased by 20 percent. A) worked out B) has worked out C) having been worked out D) to have been worked out 265. Hardly ________ time to settle down when he sold the house and left the country. A) he had B) he had had C) had he had D) had he 266. If the work ________ by the end of the month is delayed the construction company will be fined. A) to be completed B) will be completed C) has been completed D) being completed 267. I don't think it's wise of you to ________ your knowledge in front of the director, for it may offend him. A) show up B) show out C) show in D) show off 268. Please _____ yourself from smoking and spitting in public places, since the law forbids them. A) restrain B) hinder C) restrict D) prohibit 269. The last man ________ the sinking ship was the captain. A) left B) to be leaving C) to leave D) leaving 270. There ________ no further business, the meeting came to a stop. A) being B) been C) was D) had been 271. She was arrested for ________ state secrets to a foreign reporter in return for her son going abroad. A) getting away B) giving away C) breaking away D) putting away 272. Can you ________ furnishing your house luxuriously at a time when the company is losing so much money? A) verify B) identify C) justify D) clarify 273. _______, a man who expresses himself effectively is sure to succeed more rapidly than a man whose command of language is poor. A) Other things being equal B) To be equal to other things C) Were other things equal D) Other things to be equal 274. I'd rather you ________ make any comment on the issue for the time being. A) don't B) couldn't C) didn't D) shouldn't 275. We regret ________ you that the materials you want to order are out of stock. A) informing B) to inform C) having informed D) to have informed 276. Sir Denis, who is 78, has made it known that much of his collection ________ to the nation. A) has left B) is to leave C) leaves D) is to be left XI. Short Answer Questions Directions: Read the following passage(s) carefully and give brief answers to the questions (10 points) Text 1 Americans are people obsessed (困扰) with child rearing. In their books, magazines, talk shows, parent training courses, White House conferences, and chats over the back fence, they endlessly debate the best way to raise children. Moreover, Americans do more than debate their theories; they translate them into action. They erect playgrounds for the youngsters' pleasure, equip large schools for their education, and train skilled specialists for their welfare. Whole industries in America are devoted to making children happy, healthy and wise. But this interest in childhood is relatively new. In fact, until very recently people considered childhood just as a brief, and unimportant prelude (序幕) to adulthood and the real business of living. By and large they either ignored children or beat them, much as we would amuse ourselves with some little dogs. When they gave serious thought to children at all, people either conceived (认为) of them as miniature (小型的) adults or as peculiar, unformed animals. Through the ages the experiences of childhood have been as varied as its duration. Babies who have been nurtured (养育) exclusively by their mother in one generation are left with day-care workers in another. In some places children have been trained to get through dangerous mountain passes, and carry heavy objects on their heads. In other places they have been taught complicated piano concertos (协奏曲). But diverse as it has been, childhood has one common experience at its core and that is the social aspect of nurture. All children need adults to bring them up. Because human young take so long to become independent, we think that civilization may have grown up around the need to feed and protect them. (words: 296) 277. What is the passage mainly about? 278. How were children treated in the past? 279. What were children regarded as in the past? 280. What do the examples in Para. 3 try to illustrate? 281. According to the author, what do children need most? Text 2 When a consumer finds an item she or he bought is faulty or in some other way does not live up to the manufacture's claim for it, the first step is to present the warranty (担保书), or any other records which might help, at the store of purchase. In most cases, this action will produce results. However, if it does not, there are various means the consumer may use to gain satisfaction. A simple and common method used by many consumers is to complain directly to the store manager. In general, the "higher up" the consumer takes his or her complaint, the faster he or she can expect it to be settled. In such a case, it usually settled in the consumer's favour, assuming he or she has a just claim. Consumers should complain in person whenever possible, but if they cannot get to the place of purchase, it is acceptable to phone or write the complaint in a letter. Complaining is usually most effective when it is done politely but firmly, and especially when the consumer can demonstrate what is wrong with the item in question. If this cannot be done, the consumer will succeed best by presenting specific information as to what is wrong, rather than by making general statements. For example, "The left speaker does not work at all and the sound coming out of the right one is unclear" is better than "This stereo (立体声收音机) does not work." The store manager may advise the consumer to write to the manufacturer. If so, the consumer should do this, stating the complaint as politely and as firmly as possible. But if a polite complaint does not achieve the desired result, the consumer can go a step further. She or he can threaten to take the seller to court or report the seller to a private or public organization responsible for protecting consumers' rights. (words: 313) 282. What is the passage mainly about? 283. What should a consumer do first if he finds that his purchase has a fault in it? 284. What is most likely to happen if a consumer complains directly to a store manager? 285. Why should the consumer present specific information about the purchase in question? 286. What does the author suggest if a polite complaint doesn't work? XII. Reading Comprehension Directions: Read the following passage(s) carefully and do the multiple-choice questions. (20 points) Text 1 In the 1960s, medical researchers Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe developed a checklist of stressful events. They appreciated the tricky point that any major change can be stressful. Negative events like "serious illness of a family member" were high on the list, but so were some positive life-changing events, like marriage. When you take the Holmes-Rahe test you must remember that the score does not reflect how you deal with stress — it only shows how much you have to deal with. And we now know that they way you handle these events dramatically affects your chances of staying healthy. By the early 1970s, hundreds of similar studies had followed Holmes and Rahe. And millions of Americans who work and live under stress worried over the reports. Somehow, the research got boiled down to a memorable message. Women's magazines ran headlines like "Stress causes illness!" If you want to stay physically and mentally healthy, the articles said, avoid stressful events. But such simplistic advice is impossible to follow. Even if stressful events are dangerous, many — like the death of a loved one — are impossible to avoid. Moreover, any warning to avoid all stressful events is a prescription (处方) for staying away from opportunities as well as trouble. Since any change can be stressful, a person who wanted to be completely free of stress would never marry, have a child, take a new job or move. The notion that all stress makes you sick also ignores a lot of what we know about people. It assumes we're all vulnerable (脆弱的) and passive in the face of adversity (逆境). But what about human initiative and creativity? Many come through periods of stress with more physical and mental vigor than they had before. We also know that a long time without change or change can lead to boredom, and physical and mental strain. (words: 312) 287. The result of Holmes-Rahe's medical research tells us ________. A) what should be done to avoid stress B) rethink educational strategies C) what kind of event would cause stress D) how to cope with sudden changes in life 288. The studies on stress in the early 1970's led to ________. A) widespread concern over its harmful effects B) great panic over the mental disorder it could cause C) an intensive research into stress-related illnesses D) popular avoidance of stressful jobs 289. The score of the Holmes-Rahe test shows ________. A) how much pressure you are under B) how positive events can change your life C) how stressful a major event can be D) how you can deal with life-changing events 290. Why is "such simplistic advice" (Line 1, Para. 3) impossible to follow? A) No one can stay on the same job for long. B) No prescription is effective in relieving stress. C) People have to get married someday. D) You could be missing opportunities as well. 291. According to the passage people who have experienced ups and downs may become ________. A) nervous when faced with difficulties B) physically and mentally strained C) more capable of coping with adversity D) indifferent toward what happens to them Text 2 Most episodes of absent-mindedness — forgetting where you left something or wondering why you just entered a room — are caused by a simple lack of attention, says Schacter. "You're supposed to remember something, but you haven't encoded it deeply." Encoding, Schacter explains, is special way of paying attention to an event that has a major impact on recalling it later. Failure to encode properly can create annoying situations. If you put your mobile phone in a pocket, for example, and don't pay attention to what you did because you're involved in a conversation, you'll probably forget that the phone is in the jacket now hanging in your wardrobe (衣柜). "Your memory itself isn't failing you," says Schacter. "Rather, you didn't give your memory system the information it needed." Lack of interest can also lead to absent-mindedness. "A man who can recite sports statistics from 30 years ago," says Zelinski, "may not remember to drop a letter in the mailbox." Women have slightly better memories than men, possibly because they pay more attention to their environment, and memory relies on just that. Visual cause can help prevent absent-mindedness, says Schacter. "But be sure the cue is clear and available," he cautions (警告). If you want to remember to take a medication (药物) with lunch, put the pill bottle on the kitchen table — don't leave it in the medicine chest and write yourself a note that you keep in a pocket. Another common episode of absent-mindedness: walking into a room and wondering why you're there. Most likely, you were thinking about something else. "Everyone does this from time to time", says Zelinski. The best thing to do is to return to where you were before entering the room, and you'll likely remember. (words: 291) 292. Why does the author think that encoding properly is very important? A) It helps us understand our memory system better. B) It enables us to recall something from our memory. C) It expands our memory capacity considerably. D) It slows down the process of losing our memory. 293. One possible reason why women have better memories than men is that ________. A) they have a wider range of interests B) they are more reliant on the environment C) they have an unusual power of focusing their attention D) they are more interested in what's happening around them 294. A note in the pocket can hardly serve as a reminder because ________. A) it will easily get lost B) it's not clear enough for you to read C) it's out of your sight D) it might get mixed up with other things 295. What do we learn from the last paragraph? A) If we focus our attention on one thing, we might forget another. B) Memory depends to a certain extent on the environment. C) Repetition helps improve our memory. D) It we keep forgetting things, we'd better return to where we were. 296. What is the passage mainly about? A) The process of gradual memory loss. B) The causes of absent-mindedness. C) The impact of the environment on memory. D) A way of encoding and recalling. Text 3 It is hard to track the blue whale, the ocean's largest creature, which has almost been killed off by commercial whaling and is now listed as an endangered species. Attaching radio devices to it is difficult, and visual sightings are too unreliable to give real insight into its behavior. So biologists were delighted early this year when, with the help of the Navy, they were able to track a particular blue whale for 43 days, monitoring its sounds. This was possible because of the Navy's formerly top-secret system of underwater listening devices spanning the oceans. Tracking whales is but one example of an exciting new world just opening to civilian scientists after the Cold War as the Navy starts to share and partly uncover its global network of underwater listening system built over the decades to track the ships of potential enemies. Earth scientists announced at a news conference recently that they had used the system for closely monitoring a deep-sea volcanic eruption (爆发) for the first time and that they plan similar studies. Other scientists have proposed to use the network for tracking ocean currents and measuring changes in ocean and global temperatures. The speed of sound in water is roughly one mile a second — slower than through land but faster than through air. What is most important, different layers of ocean water can act as channels for sounds, focusing them in the same way a stethoscope (听诊器) does when it caries faint noises from a patient's chest to a doctor's ear. This focusing is the main reason that even relatively weak sounds in the ocean, especially low- frequency ones, can often travel thousands of miles. (words: 279) 297. The passage is chiefly about __________. A) an effort to protect an endangered marine species B) the civilian use of a military detection system C) the exposure of a U.S. Navy top-secret weapon D) a new way to look into the behavior of blue whales 298. The underwater listening system was originally designed __________. A) to trace and locate enemy vessels B) to monitor deep-sea volcanic eruptions C) to study the movement of ocean currents D) to replace the global radio communications network 299. The deep-sea listening system makes use of __________. A) the sophisticated technology of focusing sounds under water B) the capability of sound to travel at high speed C) the unique property of layers of ocean water in transmitting sound D) low-frequency sounds travelling across different layers of water 300. It can be inferred from the passage that __________. A) new radio devices should be developed for tracking the endangered blue whales B) blue whales are no longer endangered with the use of the new listening system C) opinions differ as to whether civilian scientists should be allowed to use military technology D) military technology has great potential in civilian use 301. Which of the following is true about the U.S. Navy underwater listening network? A) It is now partly accessible to civilian scientists. B) It has been replaced by a more advanced system. C) It became useless to the military after the Cold War. D) It is indispensable in protecting endangered species. Text 4 The fitness movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s centered around aerobic exercise (有 氧运动). Millions of individuals became engaged in a variety of aerobic activities, and literally thousands of health spas developed around the country to capitalize (获利) on this emerging interest in fitness, particularly aerobic dancing for females. A number of fitness spas existed prior to this aerobic fitness movement, even a national chain with spas in most major cities. However, their focus was not on aerobics, but rather on weight- training programs designed to develop muscular (肌肉的) mass, strength, and endurance in their primarily male enthusiasts. These fitness spas did not seem to benefit financially from the aerobic fitness movement to better health, since medical opinion suggested that weight-training programs offered few, if any, health benefits. In recent years, however, weight training has again become increasingly popular for males and for females. Many current programs focus not only on developing muscular strength and endurance but on aerobic fitness as well. Historically, most physical-fitness tests have usually included measures of muscular strength and endurance, not for health-related reasons, but primarily because such fitness components have been related to performance in athletics. However, in recent years, evidence has shown that training programs designed primarily to improve muscular strength and endurance might also offer some health benefits as well. The American College of Sports Medicine now recommends that weight training be part of a total fitness program for healthy Americans. Increased participation in such training is one of the specific physical activity and fitness objectives of Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. (words: 268) 302. The word "spas" (Line 2, Para. 1) most probably refers to __________. A) sports activities B) places for physical exercise C) recreation centers D) athletic training programs 303. Early fitness spas were intended mainly for __________. A) the promotion of aerobic exercise B) endurance and muscular development C) the improvement of women's figures D) better performance in aerobic dancing 304. What was the attitude of doctors towards weight training in health improvement? A) Positive. B) Indifferent. C) Negative. D) Cautious. 305. People were given physical fitness tests in order to find out __________. A) how well they could do in athletics B) what their health condition was like C) what kind of fitness center was suitable for them D) whether they were fit for aerobic exercise 306. Recent studies have suggested that weight training __________. A) has become an essential part of people's life B) may well affect the health of the trainees C) will attract more people in the days to come D) contributes to health improvement as well XIII. Short Composition Writing Directions: Write a short composition of about 150 words on the topic given below according to the structure you have learned. (30 points) A short composition with a general statement supported by details: Euro Disney represents a painful clash of two cultures. A short composition with a general statement supported by details: There are ways to cut down managing costs for Euro Disney.