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					 Lesson one
I.          Word Study Half a Day
 1. clutch (1)

            vt. to hold sth. or sb. tightly, esp. because
                   you are frightened, in pain, or do not
                     want to lose something
 Example:
      A drowning man will clutch at a straw.
          (to try hard to find a sign of hope or a solution, even when they are not likely to exist
 in a difficult or dangerous situation)

     clutch at (2)

       to try hard to hold sth., esp. when you‘re in
       a dangerous situation
 Examples:
         Tom fell to the ground, clutching his
       stomach.
         A woman clutching a baby stole an elderly
       woman‘s purse.

 2. convince
                 vt. to make sb. feel certain that sth.
                    is true

 Examples:
          I couldn‘t convince him of his mistake.
          How can I convince you of my sincerity?
          I managed to convince them that the story
        was true.
          a convincing argument
          convincing evidence
 3. vast (1)
   a. extremely large; spreading a great
                  distance
 Examples:
      The vast plains of this country spread for hundreds of miles.
      He is very valuable to his employer because of his vast experience in the business.

 vast (2)
Examples:
          The group of actors was brought from New
       York to London at vast expense.
          The refugees came across the border in vast
       numbers.
          The vast majority of young people don‘t take
       drugs.
4. intricate
          a. containing many detailed parts which
                 make it difficult to understand
Examples:
           It is an intricate idea and would need a lot of
         intricate work.
           A touch of paranoia is not a bad thing to
         bring to the computer-software business,
         where shifting alliances, rapid technological
         changes and intricate co-dependencies make
         plotting long-term strategies hazardous.
5. overlook
                 vt. a. to have a view of sth. from above
                      b. to fail to see or notice; pay no
                            attention to
Examples:
•           Our room overlooks the ocean.
•           My garden is overlooked by the neighbours.
•           I‘m afraid I overlooked your name; I‘ll add
         it to the list immediately.
•           I‘ll overlook your mistake this time.

6. variety (1)

          n. number or range of different things

Examples:
            The T-shirts are available in a wide variety
         of colors.
            The students come from a variety of
         different backgrounds.
variety (2)
     n. quality of not being the same, or not
          being the same at all times

      There was little she could do to add variety to
     her daily routine.
        She didn‘t like the work, because it lacked
      variety; she was doing the same things all
      the time.
        Variety is the spice of life.
      (=Doing a lot of different things, meeting
      different people, etc. is what makes life
      interesting.)
1) Customs vary from country to country.
2) Human nature, in all its many and varied
       forms, is very complex and hard to
       understand.
3) Of all the various ways of cooking an egg,
       I like boiling best.
4) There are wide regional variations in house
       price.
5) There are too many variables in the
       experiment to predict the result accurately.
6) Consumers‘ preferences are so variable
       that planning is almost impossible.
1) 风俗随国家不同而有所变化。
2) 人类本性,多种多样,变化多端,复杂难解。
3) 在各种各样做鸡蛋的方法中,我最喜欢煮鸡蛋。
4) 房价有很大的地方性差异。
5) 实验存在太多的变量,无法准确预测实验结果。
6) 消费者的喜好是如此反复无常以致于不可能形成
       什么计划。
7. revolve
    v. a. to spin around or make sth. spin
                           around, on a central point
                     b. (fig.) to think about
Examples:
     The metal disc revolves at high speed.
     The earth revolves round the sun.
     The story revolves around a young girl who runs away from home.
     He revolved the matter in his head/mind.
   8. present (1)

    v. (reflex) to appear; attend
Examples:
    When the chance to study at Harvard presented itself, I jumped at it.
    He was ordered to present himself at the chairman‘s office at nine o‘clock next morning.
  present (2)
         v. a. to give; offer; put forward; submit
                b. to show or reveal
                     c. to put on; produce (a play)

           David‘s manager presented him with the award for best sales in the region.
           His sudden resignation presents us with a tricky situation.
           The National Theatre is presenting ―King Lear‖ next month.
      9. trace (1)
                 n. a. a small sign that shows that sb.
                           or sth. was present or existed
              b. very small amount
       It vanished/disappeared/without trace.
       Petra‘s lost all trace of her German accent.
            Age has left its traces on his face.
       There are traces of poison in the man‘s blood.
       A mere trace of smile passed over her face.
           trace (2)
      v. a. to follow the marks to find sb. or sth.
           b. to find the origin of sth.
                 c. to study or describe the history,
                            development or progress of sth.
               Examples:
                     She had given up all hope of tracing her missing daughter.
                     The style of these paintings can be traced back to early medieval influences.
                     His book traces the changing nature of the relationship between men and women.
      10. daze
                   n. a confused state of mind
                   v. to make (sb.) feel stupid or unable to
                         think clearly

      Examples:
           I‘ve been wandering around in a daze all day.
           If someone gave you a heavy blow on the
          head, you would probably feel dazed.
           Dazed survivors staggered from the
          wreckage.

II.          Phrases and Expressions
      1. throw sb. into/out of a place
                   to force sb. to enter/leave a place
      Examples:

          They‘ll throw me out (of school) if I fail three exams.
          Nick got thrown out of college in the second
          year for taking drugs.
          Anyone who opposes the regime is liable to
    be thrown into jail/prison.
2. make (a useful man) out of a boy

      to make a boy become useful
Examples:

     The army made a man of him.
     The four brothers all made a success of their
   lives.
     He said the Government were frightened of
   nothing. The real trouble was that we were
   making a mountain out of a molehill (小题大做).
3. There is no good to be had in doing sth.

= It is no good/use doing sth.

Examples:

    There is no good to be had in buying a boat when you don‘t have enough spare time to
    use it.
    I don‘t see there is any good to be had in downsizing the company.

it is no (not much) good
it is no (not any, hardly any, little) use
it is useless
it is not the slightest use
it is worth (worthwhile)
there is no (good, use)

Example:

    There is no good denying that women are playing an important role in the world today.

4. cling to

 to hold tightly; not release one‘s grip on

Examples:
    The little child clung to his mother for comfort.
    Some of the victims of the fire climbed out of the building, clung to the window ledges
    for a minute or two and then dropped to their death a hundred feet below.
Cf.
    cling to the belief
    cling to the hope
      cling to one‘s own view
      cling to the habit
      cling to one‘s possessions
Cf.
     固守信念
     抱着一线希望
     坚持己见
     固守着某种习惯
     坚守财产不肯放弃
5. burst into
 to begin, suddenly and/or violently, to
               cry, laugh, sing, etc.

Example:
       Aunt Annabel, who has been nervous and
     jumpy lately, suddenly burst into tears.
      As the comic got into his stride, the audience
    burst into hoots of laughter/a guffaw.
      The aircraft crashed into the hillside and
    burst into flames.
      The orchards seemed to have burst into
    blossom overnight.
      The entire hall burst into thunderous
    cheers/applause.
      Everyone on the bus burst into song as we
    got closer to home.



      As they left the club the revellers broke into
    song/loud curses.
      I mentioned the incident later to a tailor
    friend and he burst out laughing/crying.
   6. a matter of
   a subject/situation that involves sth.
Examples:
      Learning is a matter of seeing much, suffering
    much and studying much.
      The King‘s mental state was becoming a
    matter of concern.
      Personally I can‘t stand rock music, but I
    suppose it‘s all a matter of opinion.
      I can‘t say which wine is best—it‘s a matter of
    personal taste.
7. fool around/about
 to waste time behaving in a silly way

Examples:

    He spent the whole afternoon just fooling around.
    Stop fooling around otherwise you‘ll never amount to anything.

 to make sth. happen

Examples:
      Computers have brought about many changes
    in workplace.
      I offered to act as mediator and try to bring
    about a reconciliation between the two parties.
      That unpopular measure finally brought about
    the downfall of the government.
 to make sth. happen

8. bring about
  to make sth. happen

Examples:
       Computers have brought about many changes
     in workplace.
       I offered to act as mediator and try to bring
     about a reconciliation between the two parties.
       That unpopular measure finally brought about
     the downfall of the government.
Cf.
    bring down
    bring forth
    bring forward
    bring on
    bring out
    bring off
    bring in
    bring home to sb.
Cf.
    打倒; 击落;降低
    使产生
    提出;使涌现出;显示
    引起,导致;使发展(或前进)
    使(意义等)明白表示出来
    使成功;完成
     收(庄稼)等;引来,引进(风尚等)
     使某人深切地感到(或清楚地认识到)
9. give rise to
 to be the reason why sth. esp. sth. bad or
                unpleasant happens

Examples:
       Two phenomena are giving rise to world-wide
     concern—mass unemployment and mass
     migration into cities.
       Most people argued that poverty had given
     rise to the crimes in the town.
    10. resort to
 to make use of ; to turn to sth. (esp.
                  sth. bad) as a solution

Examples:
      There is no right to resort to violence when
    you don‘t get your way.
      Terrorists resorted to bombing city centers as
    a means of achieving their political aims.
      Differences and disputes should be resolved
    through dialogue and negotiation rather than
    by resorting to force or terrorist actions.

11. take advantage of
  to use a particular situation to do or get
                 what you want

Examples:
      I took advantage of the weather to paint
     the shed.
      Don‘t lend them the car—they‘re taking
    advantage of you!

       For certain types of work wood has/
     gains/wins advantages over plastic.
       New tax regulations had given them an
     advantage over their commercial rivals.
       You have the advantage of me.
       Candidates with computer skills will be at an
     advantage.
       Do take more exercise. It is to your
     advantage.
12. in vain
                     without the desired result

Examples:
      I tried in vain to get Sue to come with us.
      Don‘t let your time go by in vain.
      In vain did he try to convince the jury of his
    innocence.
13 find one‘s way to

   to arrive or get to a place

Examples:
      After being lost for two days, the little dog
    finally found its way back to its owner‘s house.
      Because of the dense fog, the traveller
    couldn‘t find his way to his camp.

    make one‘s way to/towards the door
    bow her way out of the room
    push her way out of the hall
    shoulder her way through the crowd
    worm his way into the organization
    beg her way back home
    inch one‘s way up the mountain

14. show off
     a. to attract attention to
                      b. to try to impress people and make
                            them admire your abilities,
                            achievements or possession
Examples:
      It was said that Mrs. Perkins only went to church
    to show off her new clothes.
      She was always at any function or gathering
    where her accomplishments could be shown off.
      Pay no attention to Susan—she‘s just showing off.
15. let up
     a. to stop or become less strong or
                          serious
                      b. to slacken one‘s efforts

Examples:
     When will the rain let up?
      Keep plodding away at your task, no
     matter how difficult it is; don‘t let up on it.

uni-: one; single

     uniaxial
     unicorn
     unicameral
     unicellular
     unicycle
     unidirectional
     unilateral
     uniped
     unipod
     unipolar
     unisexual
     (有)单轴的
     独角兽
     (议会)一院(制)的
     单细胞(组成)的
     单轮脚踏车
     单向性的
     一方的;单边的
     独脚的;独腿的
     独脚架
     单级的
     单性的;雌雄异体的
    over- (1): to excess; too much
     overtalk
     overpraise
     overpay
     overuse
     overdrink
     overeat
     overwork
     overcharge
     过分多言
     过奖
     多付(钱款)
     使用过度
     饮酒过甚
     吃得过多
     过度劳累
     索价太高
    over- (2): above; across; beyond
     overbridge
     overcoat
     overshoe
     overfly
     oversea(s)
     overleap
     overlook
     跨线桥;天桥
     外套;外衣
     套鞋
     飞越
     海外的
     跳过
     俯视
    over- (3): upset
     overturn
     overthrow
     overset
     倾覆,倾倒
     推翻
     翻转;翻倒
    Root: var(i): diverse;to change
     vary
     variation
     various
     variety
     varied
     variable
     variant
     (使)不同;        (使)变化
     变异;差异
     不同的;各式各样的
     变化性;多样性
     各种不同的;多变化的
     变量;变数
     不同的;变异的;替换的
    modal verb—would

      1. to express past habits
            On Sundays he used to/would get up early and go fishing. He used to/would spend
the whole day by the river and in the evening used to/would come home with marvellous
stories of the fish he had nearly caught.
           2. to express a characteristic action, usually one
                 which annoys the speaker
               Bill objects/objected.—He would object! (He always objects.)
           3. to comment on a past action
               —He actually got a job as an astrologer.
               —I wouldn‘t have thought that it was possible
                   to do that.
           4. to express past intention
                 He knew he would be late.
                 He said that he wouldn‘t lend me a penny.
           5. would think so/not
                  —Will it be expensive?
                  —I would think so./I should think it would.
                  (= probably ―Yes‖)
            or: I wouldn‘t think so./I would think not.
                   (= probably ―No‖)




Lesson Two              Going Home

 I.          Word Study
      1. vanish

                  v. to disappear suddenly, esp. in a way
                        that cannot easily be explained

      Examples:

             I turned around again, the boy had vanished.
             It is a bad idea to let Tom Cruise vanish for
           almost an hour in the middle of his picture.
             Many species in South America have
           vanished completely.
          vanish from sight
      vanish into the void
      vanish into thin air
      vanish without
      trace/vanish off the
      face of the earth

       消失不见
       化为乌有
 从人间蒸发掉
 消失得无影无踪
Cf. varnish, tarnish, furnish
varnish: to cover with 给······涂清漆
          He varnished the wooden table.
          After he fixed the shelf, he varnished
      the whole to a high shine.
tarnish: (esp. of metal surfaces) to lose; cause the loss of brightness (尤指金属表面)使失
去光泽
          The damp atmosphere has tarnished the
       gilt.
          His reputation is tarnished.
furnish: to supply or provide; put furniture in
           The records furnished the
         information required.
           The president‘s office is
         tastefully furnished with modern
         furniture.
2. stain

v. a. to accidentally make a mark on sth. esp.
                      one that cannot be removed
       b. to change the color of sth., especially sth.
                      made of wood, by using a special liquid
                       (Syn. dye)
Examples:
    This tablecloth stains very easily.
    Her fingers were stained yellow from years of smoking.
    Stain the table before you varnish it.

      stain sb.‘s name/reputation/honor
      stain with
      leave a stain
      blood/ink/wine stain
      a stain on sb.‘s character/reputation
      remove/get rid of a stain
      stubborn stains

A sudden gust of rain dashed against the red bricks that were already stained in patches by
water.
Her fingers were stained with dirt, her nail varnish chipped.
How do you get wine stains out of a tablecloth?
There was a dark red stain on the carpet.
Water is a miraculous substance remover; it will remove probably 85 percent of all stains.
3. stand
           v. a. to bear, tolerate
                  b. to be or stay in a particular state or
                        condition
                  c. to be proved to be true, correct, useful,
                        etc. when tested
 can't stand the heat       (room)stand idle
 stand wear and tear         (door)stand open
 stand up under close scrutiny
 stand up well to cross-checking
        can't stand (sb./sth.) doing sth.
        can't stand to do sth.
        can't stand the sight/thought, etc. of
I can't stand people smoking around me when I'm eating.

She can't stand to hear her parents arguing about her personal affairs.

I know he can't stand the sight of me.
She couldn't stand the thought of losing her children.
a music stand
a fruit stand
a stand for taxi
make one‘s stand clear
come to a stand
international stand
standing committee/army
standing joke/jest
take/make/mount a stand against sth.
 乐谱架
 水果摊
 出租汽车停车处
 表明立场
 陷于停顿
 国际地位
 常务委员会/常备军
 老笑话
 反抗,抵抗
4. something
 n. a thing or a person of some value or
                 importance

Examples:
   He considers himself to be something, but actually he is nothing.
   She thinks she‘s something since she won the beauty contest.
make something of yourself
(= to become successful )

be (really/quite) something
(= spoken used to say that something is very good and impressive)

there's something in/to something
(= used to admit that someone's words are true or their ideas are successful, etc.)



       He looked like a man who might be able to
     make something of himself if a good woman
     took him in hand.
       Running your own company at 21 is really
     something.
       They had to concede that there was
     something in his teaching methods.
     5. approach

v. to move towards or nearer to someone
                   or something

Examples:
       I heard footsteps approaching.
       Everyone prepared celebrations as the year
     2000 approached.
       As I approached the forest, a hare ran out of
     the trees.
He is hard to approach.
他很难接近。

His best approach to the great man lay through a mutual friend.
对他说来,要接近那位伟人,最好的办法是通过一个双方都认识的朋友。



Researchers are looking for new ways to approach the problem.
研究人员正在寻找新的处理这个问题的方法。

6. scream

v. a. to give a loud, sharp cry or cries as of
                       fear or pain
                 b. to cry sth. in a loud shrill voice
      Examples:
           As a child, I used to wake up screaming with terror in the middle of the night.
           Adam screamed, loud and violent, in his attempt to absorb the pain.
           She screamed out that there was a burglar under the bed.
      7. triumph
                     n. a. [C] an important victory or success
                                 after a difficult struggle
                            b. [U] a feeling of pleasure and
                                satisfaction that you get from victory or
                                success
      Examples:
             Winning the scholarship is a great personal triumph.
           The Government Commission was established here in triumph, and sank here into
           obscurity.
           A fine sweat was beading his forehead but there was a grin of triumph on his face.
      8. exaltation
       n. a very strong feeling of happiness

      Examples:
            My depression had lifted and my mood had changed to exaltation.
            Teammates who were strangers before the party are instantly bonded, and victory is
            celebrated with fists-in-the-air exaltation.
      9. stun
       v. to surprise or upset someone so much that they do not react immediately

      Examples:
            His words stunned her, and she stared at him in disbelief.
            Sara was too stunned by what had happened to say a word.
            Suminski in love: the idea stuns her.
      10. misty
       a. a. (eyes) full of tears, esp. because you are remembering a time in the past     b.
      not clear or bright
            c. (weather) with a lot of mist
      Examples:
          Toward evening, the weather turned and, as they approached the dock, the sky was gray
          and misty.
          He paused, his eyes growing misty.
          Without my glasses everything is just a misty blur.

II.          Phrases and Expressions
      1. dream of/about
       to imagine and think about sth. that you would like to happen

      Examples:
     The girl dreamed of becoming a movie star.
     Some thought it was the breakthrough scientists had dreamed of.
     He's got the sort of money that you and I can only dream about.
2. pass through
 to go through a town, etc., perhaps stopping there for a short time, but not staying

Examples:
    As they passed through the flooded areas, they felt bad.
    We passed through the gates into a courtyard behind.
    We were just passing through (= travelling through a place) and thought we'd drop in to
    see you.
pass (a place)
        to go past a place without entering

Examples:
        On her way to work she passed a
      supermarket.
        We passed a group of students outside the
      theatre.
        I pass the sports centre on the way to work.
3. pull into
 (of a vehicle) to arrive at (a station); move in towards

Examples:
     They will pull into the station at 7 sharp.
     The train pulled into the station on the stroke of 12.
     Let‘s pull into the parking lot and have a rest.
pull out
      if a train pulls out, it leaves a station

Examples:
    The three-thirty is pulling out of platform four.
    We got there just as the train was pulling out.
4. wonder about/at

          to feel curious about; be doubtful about

Examples:
      John says he didn‘t do it, but I am still
    wondering about that.
      Sometimes I wonder about his behaviour.
      He wondered at her ability never to reveal
    the slightest disquiet in front of her
    husband.
5. engage sb. in
 to make sb. take part in sth.

Examples:
        She tried to engage her roommate in a philosophical discussion.
        They spoke little about life outside the organization despite my efforts to engage them
     in conversation about it.
        They engaged him in a new project.
6. retreat into/to
 to yield; move back to

Examples:
        The soldiers were ordered to retreat to safer
      positions.
        At last we forced the enemy to retreat into
      the mountains from the town.
        More and more she retreated into books.
Cf.
     retreat into oneself
     retreat into one‘s shell
     retreat into fantasy
7. forget about
       a. to lose remembrance of; fail to keep in memory; fail to recall
                  b. to stop thinking or worrying about someone or something
                  c. not to care about or give attention to someone or something any longer
Examples:
     She forgot all about their anniversary.
     Once they have money, some people forget about all their old friends.
     I'd completely forgotten about our bet until Bill reminded me.
8. come through
  to arrive as expected

Examples:
     Has the train come through?
     We're still waiting for our exam results to come through.
     There is news just coming through of an explosion in a chemical factory.
Cf.
    come about
    come across
    come down with
    come off
    come out
    come through
    come up with
      come up to
Cf.
    发生,产生
    偶然遇见,碰上
    得,染上(病)
    发生,举行;结果;成功
    (书等)出版,发行
    胜利,成功;经历······仍活着
    提出,想出
    等于,比得上,达到(标准等
9. be/get caught up in
     to be completely absorbed in or get
                    involved in
Examples:
      I was caught up in conversation with a friend when someone knocked at the door.
      I am painfully aware of how we get caught up in our times and become contaminated by
    our own hypocrisy.
        I didn't want to get caught up in endless petty arguments.
Cf.
      catch at
      catch on
      catch up
      catch out
      catch up with
      catch up on

Cf.
      拼命抓住
      懂得,理解;流行起来
      把······缠住,把······卷入
      发觉(某人)有错误(或做坏事)
      赶上,追上
      赶完,弥补(耽误的工作等)                    ;
  (事后)得到关于······的消息
10. fortify oneself against
                     to strengthen (sth. or oneself) so as
                     to be able to deal with (i.e. an attack)
Examples:
       Have some hot ginger soup to fortify yourself against cold.
      He fortified himself against the cold with a heavy coat.
11. make one‘s way to
                  to go forward with difficulty

Examples:
             They made their way through the crowd.
             I made my way to the center of the town.
             The two women made their way into the woods.

       1) give way

       2) go out of one‘s way

       3) have a way with

       4) learn sth. the hard way

       5) the other way about/round

       6) by way of
       1)让路,让位,让步
       2)特地,不怕麻烦地
       3) 善于处理,有能力对付
       4)经过艰难困苦后学会······
       5) 相反地,倒过来
       6) 经由,取道

III.       Word Building
       Prefix----ex-
                        a. former
                        b. out of
                        c. to make… to do…
        ex-con                  ex-wife/husband
        exalt                     export
        expel            excavate
        expurgate            ex-mayor/president
        extract



       Root – alt

       ex-to make…, to do…
       alt-high

       altitude
       alto
       exalt
       exaltation
       altar
      altimeter
      altimetry
      altocumulus
      altostratus
      高,高度
      (音乐)男生最高音
      提高,举高,提升
      升高,提高,晋升
      [一块高地]祭坛
      测高计,高度表
      测高法
      高积云
      高层云

      Suffix – en
       (adj.+-en= v. ) to make, cause to be
                        (n.+-en= adj. ) made of
                        (n.+-en=v.) to fill with

      Examples:
           to tighten (= make or cause to be tight)
           to sharpen (= make or cause to be sharp)
           golden (= made of gold)
           woolen (= made of wool)
           to strengthen (= fill with strength)

IV.        Grammar
      I. Observe the following sentences, studying the preposition ―in‖ in each sentence.

              Vingo nodded in sleep.
              He sat in complete silence.
              … all of the young people were up out of their seat, … shaking clenched fists in
           triumph and exaltation.
              … but then some boys began to glance at me in curiosity. (Lesson 1)
              Good God! I was in a daze. (Lesson 1)
      II. What is the grammatical structure here?
      He sat in front of the young people, his dusty face masking his age…
      a present participle clause with its subject

  What is absolute construction?
  It is essentially a non-finite or verbless clause with an expressed subject of its own. It is
    commonly used in written English.

      Weather permitting, the cricket match will take place on Wednesday.
      Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move.
      A number of official followed the emperor, some to hold his robe, others to adjust his
      girdle.




Lesson Three               Message of the Land
 I.          Word Study
      1. forefather
            n. a. (usu. pl.) the people, especially men,
                                  who were part of your family a long
                                  time ago in the past
                             b. someone in the past who did
                                  something important that influences
                                  your life today
      Examples:

            What would our forefathers have thought?
            Several of his forefathers emigrated to America.
            Two hundred years ago our forefathers
            established this nation.
          2. infancy
      n. a. early childhood
            b. early stage of development or growth

      Examples:
           In the past, many children died in infancy.
           He came to England in his infancy.
           The research stretched from the infancy of radio broadcasting through to today.
           Genetic engineering is still in its infancy.
      3.afford

                    v. a. to have enough money/time to do sth.
                           b. (with can/could) to run a risk by doing
                                 sth.
                           c. (fml.) to provide; give
       afford a new car           afford this high price
       afford the rent  afford a clue to
       afford a chance       afford a pleasant shade
       (can‘t) afford to neglect one‘s work

      4. bully
       v. a. to threaten to hurt someone or frighten
                   them, especially someone smaller or
                   weaker
    b. to put pressure on someone in order to
                   make them do what you want
Examples:
   The child was bullied almost out of its life.
   Don't let them bully you into working on Saturdays.

    a local bully
     play the bully
     a bully idea
     a bully good dinner
     Bully for you!
     bullyboy
    土豪
     横行霸道,恃强欺弱
     绝妙的主意
     极其丰盛的饭菜
     干得好!
    (受人雇佣且尤指与政治集团有关的)流氓,打手

5. insult

v. to offend someone by saying or doing
                   something they think is rude

Examples:
        I hope Andy won't be insulted if I don't come.
        She insulted him by calling him a coward.
        You insult my intelligence with your crude
      methods! (= to say or do something that
      suggests you think someone is stupid)
6. pierce
            v. a. to make a small hole with a sharp point
                   b. (of cold, pain, sound) to force a way into
                   c. to force a way through something

Examples:
      She had her ears pierced in order to be able to
    wear earrings.
      Her shrieks pierced the silence.
      Her memories sometimes pierced her heart.
      Our forces pierced through the enemy‘s lines.
7. fertile
     a. a. (of land, plants) producing much
                  b. (of a person, his mind) full of
                        ideas, plans
                           c. a fertile situation is one in which
                                 something can easily develop and
                                 succeed

    Examples:

             This shrub likes sun and water as well as a
          fertile well-drained soil.
             a fertile imagination/mind/brain
             He is always fertile in new plans.
             That period had made the city a fertile news
          ground for freelancers such as myself.
   8. bleed
    v. a. to lose blood, esp. because of an injury
           b. to force someone to pay an unreasonable
                            amount of money over a period of time
   Examples:
         Tragically, she bled to death.
         A deep cut on her wrist was bleeding profusely/heavily.
         Marcia bled him for every penny he had.
         The soldiers are ready to bleed for their country.
   9. replace
        v. a. to take the place of
                 b. to get a new one for sth. broken or stolen
                 c. to put back in its place
   Examples:
         Lectures have replaced the old tutorial system.
         I'll replace the vase I broke as soon as possible.
         He replaced the book on the shelf.
   10. litter
           v. to make untidy with scattered rubbish
    n. light rubbish (bits of paper, wrappings)
Examples:
         The desk was littered with papers.
         I am tired of picking up litter thrown by other people.
         People who drop litter can be fined in some cities.
   11. fashionable
    a. a. popular, esp. for a short period of time
                   b. popular with, or used by, rich people
Examples:
           Strong colors are very fashionable at the
   moment.
          It suddenly became fashionable for politicians
   to talk about green issues.
          He runs a very fashionable restaurant near
   the Harbor.
         after a fashion
          after the fashion of
          come into fashion
          follow the fashion
          go out of fashion
          in (the) fashion
          make fashion
          out of (the) fashion
          set a (the) fashion
          be all the fashion
         勉强,马马虎虎
          像,跟……一样;模仿
          开始风行
          赶时髦
          不再风行
          合于时尚
          装装样子
          不合时尚
          开创新时尚
          (服装,举止等)极时髦,风行一时
    12. strike
            v. if lightning strikes something, it hits
                      and damages it
Examples:
            The temple burned down after it was struck
     by lightning last year.
            Lightning struck the barn and set it on fire.
            Lightning never strikes twice.
     (= Something bad or unpleasant is not likely
     to happen to the same person or in the same
     place twice.)

          strike sb. on the head
          poverty-stricken area
          strike fear/terror into sb.‘s heart
          strike a blow against/to/at
          strike a balance between
          strike a bargain/deal
          strike a match
            strike oil/gold
            strike a name out from the list
            strike a pose/an attitude
            The solution struck me
    immediately.
      打中某人的头
      贫困区
      使某人产生害怕/恐惧
      给予一击
      在……之间达成平衡
      成交
      划火柴
      发现石油/金矿
      从名单上把名字划去
      摆姿势/态度
      我立刻想到这个解决办法。
     13. shame
                 n. a. sad or disappointing feeling
                    b. guilty or embarrassing feeling
Examples:
              It was a crying/great/terrible shame that they
      lost the game.
              "Please don't tell my dad about this," he said,
      blushing with shame.
              He's brought shame on the whole family.
              I bow my head in shame when I think of how I
      treated her.
     14. condemn
    v. a. to disapprove sth. or sb., esp.
                 because you think it is morally wrong
           b. to give judgment against
Examples:
          Local authorities have been condemned for failing to tackle the problem of homelessness.
          The law has been condemned as an attack on personal liberty.
          He was found guilty and condemned to death.
15. scarcity
      n. a situation in which there is not enough
                        of something

Examples:
        The scarcity of medical supplies was becoming critical.
        The world is entering a period of protein scarcity, the report says.
        An independence based upon an abundance of goodwill may be found even where there
 are scarcities in power resources.
16. lust
 n. a very strong desire to have something,
                 usu. power or money
           v. to want sth. very much, esp. sth. that you
                 do not really need
Examples:
           Her lust for money is insatiable.
           Throughout his career he was motivated by a
     lust for power.
           Publishers worldwide must be lusting for it.
17. strip
  n. a long narrow piece of

Examples:
       a strip of paper/cloth/board/tape
       some strips of dried meat
       a strip of sand between the cliffs and the sea
       She then snipped the satin into thin strips.
       You will need a strip of stiff cardboard to make this hat.

          a blue strip of sky
          strip cartoon/comic strip
          a strip show
          do a strip
          Gaza Strip
          landing strip
          a highway strip
          a blue and white strip
          tear sb. off a strip
         一线天
          报刊上的连环漫画
          脱衣舞表演
          表演脱衣舞
          (中东)加沙地带
          简易跑道,简易机场
          逶迤的公路
          蓝白条子球衣
          把某人骂得体无完肤,怒斥某人
18. heal
     v. a. (esp. of wounds) ( to cause) to become
                       healthy and sound
                 b. to (help sb.) become mentally or
                       emotionally strong again after a bad
                   experience

Examples:
         It took three months for my arm to heal properly.
         The trauma of divorce can often be healed by successful remarriage.
         Time heals all sorrows.
19. ripen
 v. to become ripe or to make something ripe
Examples:

         Strawberries do not ripen after picking.
         Fruits ripened on the vine are tasty but soft
   and difficult to transport.
         They contain more moisture than other ripened
       cheeses.
    20. ripple

    v./n. a. to move in small waves
                b. to pass from one person to another
                                 like a wave
Examples:
        Before her a green sea rippled, melting into azure where it met the sky.
        Panic rippled through Hollywood as the murders were discovered.
        A ripple of laughter ran through the audience.
   21. shimmer
    v./n. to shine with a soft light that looks
                      as if it shakes slightly
Examples:
        The lake shimmered in the moonlight.
        He'd reached to click off the light, and the room shimmered again with the faintest light
        from the moon.
        She likes the shimmer of glasses in the candlelight.



Ⅱ.Phrases and Expressions
   1. now and then

         now and again; occasionally

Examples:
   Now and then we heard shots in the woods.
   He loses his temper now and then, but not often.
   I hear from him every now and then.
        here and there
      up and down
      ups and downs
      the ins and outs
      back and forth
    处处,到处
      上上下下,起伏地,来回地,详尽地
      盛衰,浮沉
      种种复杂详情
      来来回回地
2. mind one‘s own…
   to take care of one‘s…

Examples:

     Will you mind my bag while I buy my ticket?
     I was minding my own work when he rushed in.
     My father was just driving along, minding his own business, when suddenly a brick came
     through the window.
     mind one‘s own business
       mind one‘s own p‘s and q‘s
       mind one‘s manners
       mind your footing
       mind your back
       Mind how you go.
     别管闲事
       注意举止言行
       注意举止行为
       小心,站稳了
       当心;让开
     (道别时说)您慢走。
3. in spite of
        without being affected or prevented by
                 something

Examples:
    But in spite of the hardships, real efforts and progress are being made.
    We went out in spite of the rain.
    Kelly loved her husband in spite of the fact that he drank too much.
4. barter… for
     to exchange (goods, property, etc.) for
     other goods, etc. without using money

Examples:
    I had to barter with the locals for food.
      In the local market, meat and vegetables
    are bartered for electrical goods.
      The prisoners tried to barter with the
    guards for their freedom.
5. spring up
 to appear, develop, grow, etc. quickly or
                suddenly

Examples:
      New houses were springing up all over the
    town.
      Dozens of websites have sprung up to provide
    information for travelers.
      New dot-com companies are springing up all
    the time.

    spring to one‘s feet
    spring to sb.‘s assistance
    spring to mind
    spring into fame
    spring to life
    spring out of bed
    spring a surprise on sb.
    spring up like mushrooms
    spring from aristocracy

     一跃而起
     十万火急地赶去救援某人
     在脑海中突然闪现
     一举成名
     焕发生机
     从床上跳起来
     使某人大吃一惊
     雨后春笋般地涌现
     出身于贵族
6. tend to
 to be inclined to; have a direction

Examples:
      People tend to need less sleep as they get
    older.
      Young children tend to get sick more often
    than adults.
      Recent studies show that girls tend to be
      better at languages than boys.
7. give sb. a (good/…) beating
 to hit sb. as a punishment

Examples:

     His father took him to the barn and gave him a good beating.
     Our soldiers gave the enemy a thorough beating.
8. as for
 with reference to (sometimes suggesting
                indifference or contempt)

Examples:
       As for you, I never want to see you here again.
       As for the burglar, he escaped through the
     window.
       As for my past, I‘m not telling you anything.
Cf.
    as against
    as from
    as good as
    as it is/was
    as it were
    as regards
    as to

Cf.
     与……比较,与……相对照
     自……起
     与……几乎一样;实际上等于
     实际上
     可以说,在某种程度上
     就……而论,按照,依照
     关于,至于
9. occur to
 if an idea or thought occurs to you, it
                suddenly comes into your mind
Examples:
        I suppose it didn't occur to you to phone the
      police.
        It never seems to occur to my children to
      contact me.
        It had never occurred to him that he might
      be falling in love with her.
10. a bag of bones
 a very thin person or animal

Examples:
        The cat was just a bag of bones.
        Lack of enough food reduced refugees to bags
      of bones.
Cf.
     a bone of contention
     (as) dry as a bone
     (as) hard as a bone
     bare bones
     bred in the bone
     cast a bone between
     in sb‘s bones
     feel (it) in one‘s bones
Cf.
     争端的起因,争议点
     干透,十分干燥
     极为坚硬
     基本要点,梗概
     与生俱来的,改不掉的
     在……之间引起争端,离间
     在某人的本性中
     从内心(预)感到;              (凭直觉)确信
11. in rags
 wearing old and worn or torn clothes

Examples:
      He gave five dollars to a tramp dressed in rags
    and tatters.
      Children in rags begged money from the
    tourists.
      There are areas where every child is in rags
    and learns to be a thief from the age of three.



from rags to riches

becoming very rich after starting your life
             very poor

Examples:
    He likes to tell people of his rise from rags to
   riches.
     I used the analogy of a family that goes from
   rags to riches and back to rags in three or four
   generations.

12. at peace with
           in a situation in which there is no war or
              fighting; in harmony with

Examples:
       The two countries are at peace with each other.
       The country is at peace with its neighbors for
     the first time in years.
       If you do this, you will not be at peace with me
        in the future.
Cf.
      be at peace with oneself
      be at peace with the world
      disturb/break the peace
      make one‘s peace with
      may sb. rest in peace
      a peace settlement
      achieve/bring about peace
      preserve peace
      conclude (sign) a peace
Cf.
      心平气和
      与世无争
      扰乱治安
      (同……)和解,修好
      愿某人的灵魂安息
      和平解决
      取得/带来和平
      维护和平
      缔结(签订)合约
13. tie… down
 to restrict sb./sth. to certain conditions

Examples:
      Children do tie you down, don‘t they?
      She didn't want to be tied down by a full-
    time job.
      A plan of union ties the negotiations down to
    real facts and real pieces of church life.
    tie... up
v. a. to tie sb.'s arms, legs, etc. so
                            that they cannot move
                      b. to be very busy, so that you cannot
                            do anything else
Examples:
        Her hair was tied up in a hair net and the hat
      was removed and placed to the right of her
      chest.
        I'm sorry, he's tied up at the moment. Could
      you call back later?



     The early bird catches the worm.
     A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
     Birds of a feather flock together.
     It‘s an ill bird that fouls its own nest.
     Kill two birds with one stone.

早起的鸟儿有虫吃。
双鸟在林不如一鸟在手。
物以类聚,人以群分。
恶鸟渎巢(指家丑不可外扬)
一石二鸟(一举两得)
早起的鸟儿有虫吃。
双鸟在林不如一鸟在手。
物以类聚,人以群分。
恶鸟渎巢(指家丑不可外扬)
一石二鸟(一举两得)
15. pass… on to
 to hand or give sth. to sb. else, esp. after
                receiving or using it oneself
Examples:
      I passed her message on to her mother.
      Pass the book on to me when you‘ve finished
    with it.
      It was discovered that he had been passing
    secrets on to the Russians whilst working at the
    Pentagon.
Cf.
     pass away
     pass by
     pass down
     pass for
      pass off
      pass out
      pass over
      pass through
      pass up
Cf.
        (婉)去世
      消逝,
      经过,忽视,放过
      把……往下传,递下来
      充作,被看作,被当作
        (顺利)完成;忽视;回避
      停止;
      分发,分配;昏倒,失去知觉
      忽略,原谅
      通过;经历,遭受
      拒绝,放弃/过(机会等),向上递



Ⅲ.Word Building
    Prefix—fore
forefather fore-: before; in front of

foretell
foresee
forerun
forecast
foreword
forearm
foreleg
foresight
foreground
forerunner
预言
预见
先驱,前驱
预报
前言,引言,序
前臂
前腿
现见,预见
前景
先驱者,先锋

       Root—curcur/cour/cours: run
excurse
intercourse
concourse
cursory
incursion
precursor
concur
recur
[ ex- 外,出;―跑出去‖ ]远足,旅游,旅行
[ inter- 在……之间;―彼此之间往来‖]     交往/际;交流[con- 共同,一起;―跑到一起来‖ ]
汇合;集合
[ curs- 跑,急行;-ory ······的]仓促的;草率的
[in- 内,入内; curs- 跑,行走;―走入‖]进入;侵入/犯[pre -先,前, -or 者]先行
者;先驱者;前任/辈
[con- 共同;―共同跑来‖]同时发生;同意
[re- 回,复;―跑回‖ 重来]再发生;复发

      Suffix—able/ible
a. a. (n.+able) showing the qualities of
      b. (v.+able) that can be; fit to be
Examples:
       fashionable (= showing the qualities of fashion)
       eatable (= that can be eaten; fit to be eaten)
    regret
      respect
      response
      sense
      conduct
      enjoy
      read
      imagine
      think
      resist
      corrupt
    regrettable
      respectable
      responsible
      sensible
      conductible
      enjoyable
      readable
      imaginable
      thinkable
      resistible
            corruptible

    Ⅳ. Grammar
My husband moved into our house as is the way with us in Esarn. (1)
What is the use of ―as‖ here?
         relative clause introduced by ―as‖
Definition:
The ―as‖ in the as-clause is like ―which‖ in a relative clause. Used in this way, it introduces a
comment on what you are saying.
         Relative clause introduced by ―as‖
    He opposed the idea, as could be expected.
―As‖ serves as subject, referring to the whole thing mentioned ahead.
He was an Englishman, as they perceived by his accent.
         ―As‖ serves as object, referring to the whole thing mentioned ahead.
Such snobbish people as you describe are very rare today.
―As‖ serves as object, referring to ―snobbish people‖.

Such people as knew Tom thought he was a talented young man.
―As‖ serves as subject, referring to ―people‖.
          I have the same trouble as you (have).
―As‖ serves as object, referring to ―trouble‖.
I feel the same as you do.
―As you do‖ modifies ―the same‖.
          She is a teacher, as is clear from the way she
    talks.
            Randy was the last to leave, as is often the
    case.
            Let‘s discuss only such questions as concern
    everyone of us.
            Such people as knew Tom admired him.
            My trouble is the same as yours is.
            I live in the same place as Jane does.


Lesson Four               The Boy and the Bank Officer

  I.           Word Study
       1. account

               n. an arrangement that you have with a bank to pay in or take out money
       Example:
       My salary is paid directly into my bank account.

       ① take account of sth./take sth. into account: to consider or include particular facts or details
when making a decision or judgment about sth.
Example:
These figures do not take account of changes in the rate of inflation.
② on account of: because of sth. else, especially because of a problem or difficulties
Example:
He can‘t run very fast on account of his injured leg.
2. authority

          n. the power you have because of your official position or because people respect
your knowledge and experience
Example:
None of us questioned my father‘s authority.

① the voice of authority: a way of speaking that makes people respect you
Example:
William spoke in the voice of authority.
         n. (the authorities) organizations that are in charge of a particular country or area

Example:
British police are in cooperation with the Malaysian authorities.
3. damn
             adj. (only before noun) spoken used to show that you are angry or annoyed with sb.
or sth.
Example:
I can‘t get this damn button undone.

          adv. used to emphasize how good sth. is, how bad sth. is, etc.
Example:
We‘ve been so damn busy all day; I‘m shattered.
damn well: used to emphasize how determined or sure you are about sth.

Example:
I damn well will go, and I‘d like to see anyone try and stop me!
n. (spoken)
① not give a damn: used to show that you do not care about sth.
Example:
I don‘t give a damn about her.

② not worth a damn: used to say that sth. has no value at all
Example:
Her promise isn‘t worth a damn.
v.
① damn you/them/it, etc.: used to show how you are extremely angry with sth. or sb.
Example:
Damn you! If you think you can do this to me, you are wrong!

② to state that sth. is very bad
Example:
The critics damned the play on the first night.
4. fortyish

          adj. at about the age of forty

-ish
1) somewhat, near to: reddish, greenish,
       yellowish, darkish
2) in the manner of: foolish, childish, boyish,
       womanish, snobbish
3) of a country, such as Irish, Polish, Finnish,
       Spanish, etc.
5. interfere
           v. to deliberately get involved in a situation that does not concern you and in a way
that annoys people

Example:
I wish you stop interfering—you‘ve caused enough problems already.

the interfering old busybody 爱管闲事的老家伙
① interfere with: to prevent sth. from succeeding or from happening in the way that was
planned

Example:
Anxiety can interfere with children‘s performance at school.
Compare
intervene
                    v. to do sth. to stop a quarrel, or a war,
or to deal with a problem, especially one that
you are not directly involved in

Example:
The police don‘t usually like to intervene in
disputes between husband and wife.

The Federal Reserve Bank had to intervene to
protect the value of the dollar.
6. mustache
                     n. hair growing on a man‘s upper lip, esp. deliberately grown into a
particular shape
      7. neighborhood
      n. all the various homes and businesses in a small area within a larger town or city

      -hood
      (in noun) the state or time of being sth.
      Example:
      a happy childhood
      growing to manhood
      There is no much likelihood. 那不太可能。
      8. shrug (Body Language)
         In North America
         this gesture means
         ―I don‘t know‖.

      9. withdraw
                           v. a. to take money out of a bank account
      Example:
      Liz withdrew $100 from her account.

                                b. to remove sth. or take it away or take it back, often because of an
      official decision
      Example:
      She withdrew a document from her briefcase.

                                c. not to take part in
      Example:
      Injury forced Clare to withdraw from event.
                            d. to leave a place, esp. in order to be alone or go somewhere quiet
      Example:
      We withdrew to the garden for a private conversation.

                           e. to become quieter, less friendly, and more concerned about your own
      thoughts
      Example:
      The little girl seemed to withdraw into a private world.

      withdrawal n.

II.           Phrases and Expressions
      1. wear an expression of
                v. with
            Example:
            Petra looked at her plate wearing an expression
       of disgust.

2. turn to
            v. to move (part of) one‘s body or head so as to face (sb. or sth.)
        Example:
        She turned to look back at him as she got on
        the plane.
3. think twice
              v. to think very carefully before deciding to do sth.,
      because you know about the dangers or problems
      Example:
      I will think twice before taking out such a large loan
      again.

4. as to
          prep. according to a particular standard or principle
      Example:
      The fabrics were arranged as to size and color.
5. move
① move in sth.
       v. to live, be active, pass one‘s time, etc. in a
     particular social group
Example:
She always moves in the best circles.

② move in for sth.
       v. to become active in doing sth.
Example:
I moved in for the kill.
5. move
③ move in on sb./sth.
             v. to approach sb./sth. esp. in a threatening way

Example:
The police moved in on the terrorists.
6. zero in on sb./sth.
            v. a. to aim guns, etc. at or find the range of
                        (a particular target)
Example:
Artillery and mortars were zeroed in on all avenues
of approach.

                 b. to fix attention on sb./sth.; focus on
                       sb./sth.
       Example:
       We should zero in on the key issues for discussion.
       7. shake sb. down
                  v. to get money from sb. by using threats

       Example:
       Some neighborhood bully has been shaking
       this boy down for more than a month.
       8. be on the case
                   prep. be in charge of or dealing with a particular crime
       Example:
       Inspector Hacker is on the case.

       9. happen to do
                  v. to occur by chance
       Example:
       She happened to be out when he called yesterday.
       10. more than & more… than…
       ① more than (colloq.)
                    very; extremely; beyond
       Example:
       They were more than willing to help.

       ② more… than…
                     used to emphasize that one thing is truer,
             more important, etc. than sth.
       Examples:
       The child was more frightened than hurt.
       He always seemed old to me, more like a grandfather
       than a father.
       ③ no more than
                  a. only; just
       Example:
       It cost me no more than $5 to buy the book.

                 b. the same as
       Example:
       He‘s no more able to read Spanish than I am.
       11. Once bitten, twice shy.
                       (saying) After an unpleasant
              experience one is careful to avoid sth.
              similar.

III.        Word Building
  Suffix—ish
  -ish: typical of or like a particular type of
              person; the ending of some
              adjectives that show disapproval;
              rather; approximately
  bookish
  brownish
  childish
  feverish
  selfish
  yellowish
  好读书的;迂腐的
  呈棕色的
  幼稚的
  发热的;狂热的
  自私的
  微黄的;带点黄色的

2. Suffix—hood
-hood: used to refer to a period of
               time or a state; the people
               who belong to a particular group
boyhood
falsehood
likelihood
livelihood
manhood
neighborhood
少年时代;童年
虚设;谎言
可能性
生活;生计
成年;    [集合用法]成年男子
临近地区

3. Prefix—inter
inter- (enter-/intel-): between or
              involving two or more different
              things, places, or people
intercept
interchange
interfuse
interlude
interior
      international
      interpret
      interrupt
      entertain
      中途拦截;截获
      交换;轮替
      使混合;弥漫
      间奏(曲)
      内陆的;内部的
      国际的;国际性的
      解释;阐明
      中断;妨碍
      款待;使娱乐

IV.          Grammar
      The Past Continuous Tense
      The past continuous tense is formed by the past
      tense of the verb ‗be‘ +the present participle.

      Example:
      I was working.
      I was not working.
      Was I working?

             Main Uses
             I.  Chiefly used for past actions which continued for some time but whose exact
                 limits are not known and are not important.

            I.    Used without a time expression, it can indicate gradual development.
            Example:
            It was getting darker.

             I. Used without a point in time, it expresses an action which began before that time
                and probably continued after it.
            Example:
                        At eight he was having breakfast.
            I.  The action in the past continuous started before the action in the simple past and
                probably continued after it.
                        Example:
                        When I arrived, Tom was talking on the phone.

             I.   Used in descriptions.
                          Example:
                          A wood fire was burning on the hearth, and a cat
                           was sleeping in front of it. A girl was playing the
                           piano and singing softly to herself. Suddenly
                           there was a knock on the door. The girl stopped
                           playing. The cat woke up.




     Lesson Five               Angels on a Pin
I.         Word Study
     1. barometer

               n. a. an instrument that measures the air             pressure and shows when the
                          weather is going to change
     b. something that shows or gives an idea
                          of changes that are happening
     Examples:
              Infant mortality is a highly sensitive
           barometer of social condition.
              The barometer falls.
              the barometer of public opinion
       -meter
     a. forming nouns denoting measuring                              instruments
     b. the basic metric unit of linear measure



     Examples:
            thermometer, barometer, gasometer
            kilometer, centimeter, milimeter
     2. competence
             n.        a. [U] the ability and skill needed to do a                        particular
     job
                   b. [U] a special area of knowledge

     Examples:
            No one questioned his competence as a doctor.
            It is not within my competence to make such
          judgment.
     competent:
           adj. having enough knowledge and skill to
                       do something to a satisfactory standard

     Examples:
            a competent cook
          competent knowledge
          He is competent for the task.
          If you want to learn English, you must
        first find a competent teacher.
          It was competent to him to refuse.
3. deserve

   v. to have earned something by good or bad
          action or behaviour
Example:
            You‘ve been working all morning—I
           think you deserve a rest.
deserve to do sth.
Example:
            This team deserves to win.
deserve it
Example:
            Yeah, I hit him but he deserved it.
adj. needing help and support, especially financial support
Example:
          Grant will only be awarded to deserving
        applicants.
be deserving of: to deserve something
Example:
          This stupid-looking hat is deserving of
        ridicule.
4. dilemma
        n. a difficult choice to be made between
               two courses of action which seem to be
               equally bad
Phrases:
          be in dilemma
          be caught in a dilemma
Other expression in slang:
          between a rock and a hard place
Example:
            I‘m in a dilemma about this job offer.
5. impartial
adj.     not giving special favour or support
              to any one person or group; fair

Example:
             We offer impartial advice on pensions
           and investments.
6. proportion
       n. a. the relationship between the amounts,
                     numbers, or sizes of different things
                     that go together to form a whole
 b. a part or share of a large amount

Examples:
        A quite high proportion of their incomes are
       spent on fuel.
        A large proportion of the people are illiterate.
in proportion: the correct relationship in size, degree, importance, etc. between one thing and
another or between the parts of a whole
e.g. The length and height of the room was in
         proportion.

in proportion to: relative to
e.g. Imports will be allowed in proportion to
        export.

out of proportion: greater or more important, serious, etc. than it really is or should be
e.g. When you are angry, you often get things
         out of proportion.
Compare: ratio
 n. a relationship between two amounts that is represented by a pair of numbers showing
how much greater one amount is than the other

Example:
     The ratio of nursing stuff to doctor is 2:1.
7. sophisticated
adj. a. having a lot of experience of life , good
                  judgement about socially important things
                  such as art, fashion, etc.
           b. having a lot of knowledge experience of
                  difficult or complicated subjects and
                  therefore able to understand them well
Examples:
          a play that will only appeal to a sophisticated
       audience

          British voters today are more sophisticated
        than they were in the 60‘s.
8. superintendent
    n.     somebody who is officially in charge of a place, job, activity, etc.
        super-
        a. above; over; upon: superstructure
        b. superior in size, quality, number, or degree:
             superfine, superpower, superman, supermarket
        c. exceeding a norm:
             supersaturate, supersonic, supernatural
        d. excessive in degree or intensity: supersubtle
        9. temptation
           n. a strong desire to have or do
                 something even though you know you
                 should not

        Example:
                  There might be a temptation to cheat
                if students sit too close together.



  II.        Phrases and Expressions

1. receive a call
    to take a phone call
Example:
         I received a call from Jane in Australia last week.

2. do sb. a favor
     to help sb.
Example:
           Would you do me a favor and turn off that light?
3. be about to
     be just going to (do sth.); on the point
                 of (doing sth.)
Example:
                Sit down everyone. The film is about to
        start.
 4. with the aid/help/using of
               assisted by; using as an instrument to
               help one
Example:
                He was able to prove the existence of
        supergun with the aid of a photograph.
5. on the other hand
         used to indicate contrasted points of
         view, arguments, etc.
Example:
              On the one hand I want to sell the house,
      but on the other hand I can‘t bear the
      thought of moving.
6. dash off
     a. to draw, paint or write hurriedly
          b. to leave quickly; rush off violently

Example:
        She dashed off a quick letter excusing him from school that day.
        Harry dashed off before she had a chance to thank him.
7. mark off
    to measure; make lines to show the position of or to separate
Example:
        The competitors‘ arena had been marked off with cones.

8. in principle
    as regards the general truth or rule
Example:
        The scheme seems OK in principle, but I want to know more details.
9. work out

a. to calculate an answer, amount, price, or
      value
b. to think about sth. and manage to
      understand it
c. to think carefully about how you are going
       to do sth. and plan a good way of doing it
d. to get better
e. to excise
                You can work out the answer by adding
         all the numbers.
                The plot is complicated; it will take you a
         while to work it out.
                UN negotiators have worked out a set of
         compromise proposals.
                I hope it all works out between Gina
         and Andy.
                He works out with weight twice a week.
10. as follows
          as comes next
Example:
          The result are as follows: first was Sweden, then Germany, then Ireland.
11. be fed up with = be tired of
       (infml.) to be at the end of one‘s patience; be bored to death; be disgusted
Example:
       I was fed up with standard       answer to standard questions.




Lesson Six The Monsters Are Due on Maple Street

  I.        Word Study
       1. atmosphere
       n. the air surrounding the Earth at a particular height
       spher = ball (root)
       atmo(s) = vapor
       Examples:
        sphere 球;球体
        spherometer 球面计; (meter = measure)
        hemisphere 半球 (hemi = half)
        spheroid 椭圆体 (oid = resembling)
       2. awful
       adj.
       a. very bad or unpleasant
       Examples:
                   a really awful book
                   The weather was awful.
                   I felt awful about not being able to help.
       b. [only before noun] spoken used to emphasize how
             much or how good, bad, etc. sth. is
       Examples:
                     an awful lot = a very large amount
                     It made him look like an awful fool.
       c. look/feel awful
        to look or feel ill
       Example:
                   You look awful―what’s wrong with you ?

       adv. AmE spoken
        very
       Example:
                   That kid’s awful cute, with her red curls.
       3. concern
       v.
       a. to be of interest or importance to
Example:
   an article that concerns the plight of homeless people

b. to have to do with or relate to
Example:
     This problem concerns all of us.
c. to engage the attention of; involve

Examples:
     We concerned ourselves with accomplishing the task at hand.
     Don’t interfere in things that don’t concern you.
d. to cause anxiety or uneasiness in
Example:
     The firm's weak financial posture is starting to concern its stockholders.

n.    a feeling of worry, especially one that is shared by many people
Example:
     The managing director's only concern was how to improve the quality of their products.
4. conscious
adj. aware; knowing
Examples:
            He was very conscious of his shortcomings.
            There is still prejudice , even if it is not always
           conscious.
Compare: aware, sensible
Examples:
            She was conscious that someone was watching
          her.
            I was too sleepy to be aware of how cold it was.
            Her gift was sensible from her manner.
n. consciousness
Compare: conscience
Example:
            a movement aimed at raising the general
           public's consciousness of social injustice
            His conscience troubled him after he took the
           money.
5. electrical
adj. relating to electricity
Example:
            electrical work
COMPARE electric
Examples:
            An electric machine, light, etc. works using
           electricity.
             electric rice cook
6. gossip
         n.      (disapproving) informal talk or stories about other people’s private lives, that
may be unkind or not true
Examples:
             Some people are fond of gossip.
             We had a nice gossip with an old friend this
            morning.
             Mother said that the peddler was a gossip, so
           she took dinners to sell at the factory.
            n. rumor
            a piece of information, or a story, that people
            talk about, but that may not be true
Examples:
             spread rumor
             I don’t believe any rumor about the Joneses.
             The rumor passed from mouth to mouth.
Association:
bad mouth v.
Example:
             Don’t bad mouth others in background.
blabber-mouth         n.
 someone who tells secrets because he always           talks too much 多嘴多舌者
chatter box n.
 someone, especially a child, who talks too much 话匣子,喋喋不休的人
Association:
chatty
 adj. liking to talk a lot in a friendly way
Example:
             Lorna’s normally very quiet, but she was quite
            chatty yesterday.
loquacious
 adj. liking to talk a lot, sometimes too much
 话多的,饶舌的
7. menace
n. a. something or someone that is dangerous
Example:
             The criminals are the menace to society.
        b. a threatening quality or manner
Example:
             There was menace in her eyes when she spoke.
v. (fml.) to threaten
Example:
           Two strangers menaced him with pistols and
          forced him to give up his money.
8. optimistic
adj. a. believing good things will happen in the future
Example:
            Foreign bankers are cautiously optimistic about
          the country’s economic future.

           b. thinking that things will be better, easier or more
                 successful than actually possible
Example:
           They’re being over-optimistic if they think that car can
           make an 80 miles trip.

ANTONYM pessimistic
         adj. expecting that bad thing will happen in the   future or that a situation will have
a bad result
Examples:
           He remains deeply pessimistic about the peace process.
           a pessimistic view of life

9. portable
adj. light and able to be carried or moved easily
Examples:
            a portable typewriter
            a portable computer (a laptop computer)
            portable phone
Other expressions:
            mobile phone
            cell phone
            cellular phone
10. residential
adj. a residential part of a town that consists of
          private houses, with no offices and factories
reside v.
residence n.
resident adj. & n.
Examples:
            Their residential building is located next to
           the park.
            The reality resides in the people.
Examples:
            He has a residence in the country.
            City residents complain that migrant workers
          have threatened to take already scarce urban
          jobs.
           the resident population 现住人口

dwelling n. a house, apartment etc where people                live
dwell v.
dweller n.
11. sense
n.    a feeling about sth. important
Example:
     A sense of humor is a great asset for a person.

v.  to become aware of sth. even though you cannot see it, hear it, etc.
Example:
   He sensed that his proposals were unwelcome.

in a sense 在某一方面;就某种意义来说

make sense 有 意义;意思清楚;有道理

make sense of        理解;懂;明白

There is no sense in…理解;懂;明白

the senses (= the five senses) 五官

a sense of sight (hearing, smell, taste, touch) 视觉······

a sense of humor 幽默感

a sense of duty 责任感

sense of righteousness 正义感

the sense of locality (direction) 对方位(向)的识别力

a man of sense 有理智的人

common sense         常识(理)

good sense 通情达理

keen (dull) sense of smell     敏锐(迟钝)的嗅觉
         have plenty of sense 富有见识
        12. sidewalk
        sidewalk        AmE
        pavement BrE

        Related expressions:
        crosswalk 人行横道
        pedestrian 行人
        13. spot
        n. a small round area that has a different
         color or feels different from the surface it is on
        Examples:
             Which has spots, the leopard or the tiger?
             spot light
        stain       n. a dirty mark on sth., that is difficult to remove
                                污点,污渍
        Example:
             a blood / a coffee / an ink stain
        dot         n. a small round mark, especially one that is
                                printed 小圆点
        Example:
             There are dots above the letters i and j.
        point       n. a thing that sb. says or writes giving their
                                opinion or stating a fact 论点,      (讨论的)点
        Example:
             She made several interesting points in the article.



  II.        Phrases and Expressions
        1.lean against sth.

up against

Examples:
                 Gail leant his head against his shoulder.
                 She was leaning against a wall with her
           face buried in her hands.
2. cut through a place
       to cut (sth.) with sharp metal through (sth.)

Examples:
                   I’ll cut through the backyard.
                   We can cut our way through the forest
              with knives.
3. a couple of
a number of

Examples:
                I saw a couple of men get out.
                We went there a couple of years ago.
4. check with sb.
         a. to agree with
Example:
          Does the merchandise check with the invoice?

          b. to consult; ask sb. (about sth.); get permission
                  from sb. (to do sth.)
Example:
           It’s wise to check with your doctor before
        going on a diet.
5. go off (said of power)
        a. to explode
Example:
              The bomb went off at 6:30 this morning.
        b. to become unavailable (water, gas,
               electricity, power)
Example:
              The power went off in several parts of the
        country during the high wind.
6. get sth. straightened out
          to settle a difficult situation by dealing with
          the things, e.g. the cause, problems or confusion

Examples:
                It will take a while before the two countries
         can straighten out their differences.
                There are a few things that need straightening
           out between us.
7. fill up
            a. to make or become completely full
Example:
               He has filled up the tank with petrol.
BrE b. to complete (a form, etc.)
Example:
               Fill up the questionnaire, please.
8. make sense
         a. to be sth. you can understand or explain;
               have a meaning that can be understood;
             not be different or strange
Example:
             It just doesn’t make sense—why did she do a
        thing like that?

       b. to be or seem sensible, wise, correct
Example:
             It makes sense to save money while you can.
9. come by

       a. to obtain sth. that is rare or difficult to find
Example:
       How on earth did you come by these tickets?

         b. to make a short visit to a place on your way to
               somewhere else
Example:
         I’ll come by your house and get my stuff later,
10. kneel down
        to (cause to) move or stay down on one’s knees
Examples:
         Christians often kneel down to say their prayers.
         I knelt down to play with the baby on the floor.
11. shut off
        a. (of a machine or switch) to (cause to ) stop
              working
Example:
         The machine shuts off by itself at the end of the recording.
         b. to make (sth. like water or electricity) stop
               coming; cut off; interrupt
Example:
         He hadn’t paid for his water so the company shut it off.
12. whirl around
     to (cause to) turn round fast
Examples:
         He whirled round at the sound of his name.
         The snowflakes whirled around when they fell to the ground.
13. be conscious of
            to be aware of sth.; notice sth.
Examples:
         I was very conscious of the fact that I have to make a good impression.
         He became acutely conscious of having failed his parents.
14. cut in
      a. to interrupt another person or a conversation between two other persons
Example:
       I wish you would not cut in when I’m speaking.

       b. to take in; include
Example:
        It will be better to cut in this paragraph.
15. make up
       a. (of parts) to constitute; compose; complete by fitting or assembling; form
Example:
        All matter is made up of atoms.

      b. to invent; think and say sth. that is new or
            not true; improvise
Example:
       There isn’t any little boy called Manuel: she’s just made him up.




Lesson Seven                Mandela‘s Garden
  I.           Word Study
       1. arrange
          v. to plan or make preparations for; organize

       Examples:
             I‘m trying to arrange my work so that I can have a couple of days off next week.
             They arranged to have dinner the following month.
             I‘ve already arranged with him to meet at the cinema.
       a. arranged
                  an arranged marriage
       n. arrangement

       Examples:
             They have made all the arrangements for a
             huge party.
             Arrangements were made to move the
           prisoners to another jail.
       2. constant
       a. staying the same; not getting less or        worse

       Examples:
           The fridge keeps food at a constant temperature.
           He‘s in constant trouble with the police.
           They make constant use of their computers.
n. constancy
ad. constantly

Fill in the following blanks with the appropriate form:

     She has the television on _________.
     The _________of your love for football amazes me.

3. construct
v. to build; put together different parts to form a whole

Examples:
      The company has won the contract to construct the new bridge.
      The crow constructs its nest out of sticks.
You can also construct a story, a sentence, an argument or a theory.
n.       construction/constructor
a.    constructive
ad. constructively

Examples:
        She works in the construction industry.
        She criticized my writing but in a way that was very constructive—I learned a lot from
     her.
4. cultivate
v. to prepare (land) and grow crops on it, or grow (a particular crop)
Example:
     Most of the land there is too poor to cultivate.
to cultivate a friendship/relationship/contact
a. cultivated
          cultivated fields/soil
a cultivated person: a person having a good education and knowing a lot and liking art, music
and painting
n. cultivation
a. cultivable, cultivatable
5. decline
v. to go, often slowly, from a higher or better position to a lower or worse one

Examples:
       His interest in the project declined after his wife died.
       The party‘s popularity has declined in the opinion polls.
       They declined to tell me how they had got my address.
n. decline
Examples:
    We are pleased by the decline in the number of unemployed.
     She seemed to be recovering and then she went into a decline.
     Home cooking seems to be on the/in decline.
6. dump
n. a place where people are allowed to leave their rubbish    (also a rubbish dump)

Examples:
       I‘m going to clear out the shed tomorrow
     and take everything I don‘t want to the
     dump.
       His room is a dump.
v. dump
     to put down or drop something in a careless way; get rid of

Examples:
     He came in with four shopping bags and dumped them on the table.
     Several old cars had been dumped near the beach.
7. eliminate
v. to remove or take away

Examples:
    We eliminated the possibility that it could have been an accident because it was so
   well-timed.
    He was eliminated after/in the third round of the competition.

n. elimination
elimination of disease/pain
8. empty
a. with nothing inside

Examples:
   The village is far from empty of people who would be willing to help with the appeal.
   I‘ve never imagined someone‘s life could be so empty of happiness.
n.     emptiness

Please translate the following sentences.
     You should not go to work on an empty stomach.
     The union‘s leaders have promised their members that they will not return from the wage
     negotiations empty-handed.
     That‘s probably the most empty-headed idea I‘ve ever heard you come up with.
9. enduring
a. continuing in existence; lasting for a long time
Examples:
      enduring memories
      This type of music has an enduring appeal.
v. endure
to experience and bear (sth. painful or unpleasant) calmly for a long time

Examples:
   We had to endure a nine-hour delay at the airport.
   The little boy found it difficult to endure spending his summer holidays with his uncle.
n. endurance
a. endurable

10. eventually
ad. in the end; at last
Examples:
     Although she had been ill for a long time, it still came as a shock when she eventually
     died.
     Don‘t worry, he‘ll do it eventually, but he might take a long time to get round to it.
a. eventual: happening or existing at a later time or at the end
Examples:
     Although the original budget for the project was $1 billion, the eventual cost is likely to
     be 50% higher.
     There are still many problems to be resolved, but we remain optimistic about an eventual
     agreement.
a. eventful: full of interesting or exciting events

Examples:
   We had quite an eventful journey—the police stopped us twice.

n.       eventuality: something unpleasant or unexpected that might happen or exist in the
future
     I‘m looking for a travel insurance policy that will cover me for any eventuality.
11. failure
      n. a. lack of success in doing or achieving sth. b. a person, an attempt or a thing that
fails
            c. not doing sth. or forgetting to do sth.

Examples:
    The whole project was doomed to failure right from the start.
    The meeting was a utter failure.
    His failure to return her phone call told her that something was wrong.
v.     fail
 a.   failed                    a failed marriage
Examples:
    The two sides in the negotiations have failed to come to an agreement.
    The reluctance of either side to compromise means that the talks are doomed to fail.
    He promised to help, but he failed to arrive on time. (not do sth. that one should do)
v. & n. fail: not pass

Examples:
     He failed in chemistry.
     A lot of people failed their driving test the first time.
     The examiners failed him because he hadn‘t answered enough questions.
     He got three passes and four fails in his exams.
12. intellectual
             a. of or connected with a person‘s powers of reasoning
n. intellect: the ability to think intelligently
Examples:
        intellectual property
      I like detective stories and romances— nothing too intellectual.
intellectual: n. a highly educated person whose interests are studying and other activities
involving careful thinking and mental effort
13. issue
n. a subject or problem which people are thinking and talking about

Examples:
        environmental/scientific/ethical/personal
      issues
        The group had prepared a report on the
      issues of management and staff training.
Idiomatic Expressions:
not make an issue of sth.: not to try to make it seem more important than it should be
     I don‘t want to make an issue of your lateness, but I would like you to try to improve.
take issue with sb./sth.: to disagree with strongly
     I took issue with him over his interpretation of the instructions.
v. to produce or provide (sth. officially)

Examples:
   The office will be issuing permits on Tuesday and Thursday mornings.
   A terrible scream issued from the room.

n. issuance (U)
14. legal
 a. connected with or allowed by law
Examples:
     legal advice/a legal obligation/legal status/legal proceedings/the legal system
ad. legally
n.     legality
v.      legalize
15. manual
a. done with the hands

manual labor/work: work involving physical work                     rather than mental work

Examples:
     Computer-controlled robots are taking over manual jobs in many industries.
     750 manual workers will lose their jobs as a result of company cutbacks.
            n. a book which gives you practical instructions on how to do sth. or how to use
sth., such as a machine

Example:
   He learned how to mend a leaking pipe by reading a DIY manual.

ad. manually
16. nourish
 v. to provide with food in order to make them grow and keep them healthy
Examples:
         Children need plenty of good fresh food to
       nourish them.
         After an illness, nourish yourself on/with
       healthy soups.
a.        well-nourished
a.        nourishing
n.        nourishment
17. offer
 v. a. to ask sb. if they would like to have
                b. to provide or supply
             n. offer
Examples:
       They‘re offering the first three runners money prizes.
       My father has very kindly offered to take us to the airport.
       It‘s an organization that offers free legal advice to people on low incomes.
18. organize
 v. a. to make arrangements for sth. to happen
                b. to do or arrange sth. according to a
                       particular system

Examples:
     She has organized a car to meet me at the airport.
    The books were organized on the shelves according to their size.
n.    organization/organizer or organiser
a.     organized
a.     organizational        organizational ability
19. patch
 n. a small area which is different in some way from the area that surrounds it
Examples:
         There were lots of icy patches on the road this morning.
to go through a bad/difficult/rough/sticky patch: to experience a temporarily difficult situation
       He‘s going through a bit of a rough patch at the moment.
a. patchy
20. pursue
 v. a. to follow or search for in order to catch
                      or kill
                b. to try to achieve
Examples:
     The hunters spent hours pursuing their prey.
     He was killed by the driver of a stolen car who was being hotly pursued by the police.
     She is ruthless in pursuing her goals/aims.
n. pursuer/pursuit

Examples:
   The robbers fled the scene of the crime, with the police in pursuit after them.

n. pursuance
    In pursuance of his aims, he has decided to stand for parliament.

21. remove
 v. to take sth. away from a place

Example:
      This detergent will remove all stains from your clothes.
a. removable
n.        removal (U)
      the removal of a tyrant from power
22. survive
 v. to continue to live or exist

Examples:
   Animals that have been reared in captivity can find it difficult to survive in the wild.
   They‘re struggling to survive on very little money.
   They were lucky to survive the accident.
a. survivable/surviving (before a noun)
n. survival/survivor

Examples:
     Her chances of survival as prime minister now look slim.
     He was the sole survivor of the plane crash.
23. tend
v. to care for (sth. or sb.)

Examples:
     He carefully tended his sunflower plants all summer.
     The nurse gently tended the patient‘s cuts and bruises.
     to tend to another customer
24. trial

 n. a test, usually over a limited period of time, to discover how effective or suitable sth. or sb.
is

Example:
     They are doing clinical trials on a drug in America which they hope might control the
     symptoms.
trial and error: a way of achieving an aim or solving a problem by trying a number of different
methods and learning from the mistakes that you make

Example:
     There‘s no instant way of finding a cure—it‘s just a process of trial and error.
25. warder
 n. a person who is in charge of people in prison
           female    wardress

ward: one of the parts or large rooms into which a hospital is divided
   a psychiatric ward

warden: n. a person who is in charge of a particular building
26. wither
 v. a. to (cause to) become weak and dry and
                      decay
                b. to become weaker, often before disappearing
                      completely

Examples:
   The hot dry wind withered the plants.
   She forgot to ask someone to water her plants while she was away over the summer and
   they withered (away) in the heat.



    Their hopes gradually withered away.

a. withered
Example:
   His hands were all withered from constant exposure to the wind and cold.
II.       Phrases and Expressions
      1. at length

      a. 详细的,周密的
            b. 最后

      Examples:
           He spoke at great at length on his plans for the future of the industry.
           He told Philip the story at length.
           He explained the difficulty at great length.
           At length he came to understand it.
           At length they reached their destination.
      2. at heart

             a. in one‘s real nature; in contrast to how one may appear         从内心来说
             b. (多和 have 连用)关心,想到

      Examples:
         I have many acquaintances, but fundamentally, at heart, I‘m a lonely man.
         At heart he is a simple, generous fellow.
         He has the welfare of the poor at heart.

      get to the heart of 抓住症结所在(中心内容)
      break one‘s heart
      have a heart of gold/stone 心地善良/铁石心肠
      have one‘s heart in 用心
      have the heart to do sth. 有勇气做某事
      3. at the time
            那时候
      Examples:
           It seemed like a good idea at the time. (at the particular point at which it was thought of)
           I told you at the time that I thought you were stupid.

      against time 抢时间,尽快
          We are working against time to complete the house by Christmas.
      ahead of time 提前



      all the time 一直 continuously
      Examples:
           It rained all the time.

      at all times 在任何时候,经常
    We should at all times be aware of our own shortcomings.
at one time 一度,曾经
    At one time I lived in Japan.
at times 有时候

be pressed for time   时间紧迫
in no time      马上
behind the times    过时
behind time      晚点
for a time     一时,一下
for the time being   暂时
4. bring… back to life/health
 使复生(恢复键康)

Examples:
     Anyway he was dead, and I couldn‘t bring him back to life.
     Her stay among the mountains brought her back to health.
5. cut out
(1) 删掉
     You can cut out what you like./Let‘s cut out the unimportant details.

(2) 停止
    Let‘s cut out the talking and get back to work!
    You blame me for everything that goes wrong and I wish you‘d cut it out.

(3) 戒掉,不吃
    He has decided to cut out smoking and drinking.

(4) 剪下来,剪裁
    The first step in making a dress is to cut out the pieces according to the pattern.

be cut out for/to be 适合当(做)           ,是······的材料
    The boy is cut out for an artist.
    He isn‘t really cut out for this kind of work.
    She is cut out to be a politician for politics.

cut back/on 减少
    They cut on production during the power cuts.
    They were forced to cut back production.
cut down 削减,减少,压缩,砍倒
Examples:
    We must cut down our expenses.
    Is George trying to cut his weight down?
    If you cut down all the trees you will ruin the land.
        cut in=cut into the conversation 插话
        cut off 切断,停掉
             The supplies were cut off./Our troop cut off the enemy‘s retreat.



 III.       Word Building
        Suffix-- -al

        noun suffix
         from Latin, added to verbs to form nouns meaning ―the act of‖

        Examples:
             to arrive—arrival
             to try—trial
             to refuse—refusal
           deny
            survive
            rehearse
            renew
            withdraw
            dismiss
            approve
            disapprove
            propose
           denial
            survival
            rehearsal
            renewal
            withdrawal
            dismissal
            approval
            disapproval
            proposal

 IV.     Grammar
Adverbial clause of manner

The following conjunctions can be used to introduce adverbial clauses of manner: as, as if, as
though, the way, how, and the subordinate clause is normally after the main clause.

Example:
You ought to write as he does.
You answer as if you did not know this rule.
She closed her eyes as though she were tired.
Example:
Do it the way you were taught.
Do it how you can. (=in whatever manner)

The adverbial clause of manner introduced by ―as‖ is normally put after the main clause. If it is
put before the main clause, the main one is often introduced by ―so‖.
Example:
As you treat me, (so) I shall treat you.

Pay attention. The following two clauses introduced by ―as‖ are in fully-inverted order。

Example:
Jack likes sports, as do many of his friends.
He was exhausted, as were all the others in the team.


Lesson Eight My Personal Manager
  I.        Word Study

       1.   blush
       2.  bother
       3.  block
       4.  commercial
       5.  concentrate
       6.  chuckle
       7.  dramatics
       8.  dig
       9.  earth
       5.  embarrass
       6.     exaggerate
   I.         flush
  II.         good
 III.         grin
IV.         groan
  V.        knee-high
VI.         mob
VII.        nonsense
      19. pat
      20. peck
      21. plead
      22. point-blank
      23. promote
      24. stiff
25. tear
26. through
27. tiptoe
28. touchy
29. volunteer

v. to become pink in the face, usually from embarrassment

Examples:
       I always blush when I speak in public.
       I blush to think of what a fool I made of
     myself last night.
       He blushed at the thought of what he‘d done.
n. blush
Example:
       A blush of shame crept up his face.



v. a. to make an effort to do something , or to
             take the trouble to do something
       b. to annoy, worry or cause problems for
             somebody

Examples:
      He hasn‘t even bothered to write.
      Don‘t bother (about/with) doing the laundry.
      Why did nobody bother to tell me something
    was wrong?
Examples:
      He walked out of the office without
    bothering to say goodbye.
      I‘m sorry to bother you, but could you direct
    me to the station.
      She threatened to call the police if he didn‘t
    stop bothering her.

bothersome
a. causing annoyance or trouble
Example:
       a bothersome little man



vt. to prevent movement through, prevent something from happening
Examples:
       A fallen tree is blocking the road.
       All the roads out of the town were blocked off
     by the police.
       My view was blocked by a tall man in a hat
     standing in front of me.
n. blockage
a. blocked
Examples:
       The roads are blocked (up).
       I‘ve got a sore throat and a blocked nose.



n. an advertisement which is broadcast on TV or radio
Example:
        a commercial break
commerce
n. all the activities connected with business; trade
Example:
        the world of commerce and industry
a. commercial              ad. commercially
Examples:
        a commercial organization
        The commercial future of the company looks
        very promising.
v. commercialize            n. commercialization
Example:
        It‘s a pity Christmas has become so
      commercialized.




v. a. to direct (your mental power or your
             efforts) towards a particular activity
       b. to bring or come together in a large
             number or amount in one particular area
Examples:
      Can you turn the music down, please? I can‘t concentrate on my work.
      If you want to pass your exams , you will have to concentrate (your efforts) on your
      listening skills.
Examples:
         The company is concentrating on developing
       new products.
         Most of the country‘s population is
     concentrated in the north.
n. concentration
Example:
       I find that yoga improves my powers of
     concentration.

a. concentrated
Example:
      The company is making a concentrated effort
    to broaden its market.




vi. to give a low or quiet laugh
Example:
        She was chuckling as she read the letter.

n.
Example:
     He gave a chuckle in response to her question.




drama
n. a play
Example:
        She studied English and drama at college.

a. dramatic         ad. dramatically
v. dramatize          n. dramatization
n. dramatist/playwright
drama
n. an event or situation esp. an unexpected one, in which there is anxiety or excitement and
usually a lot of action

Example:
       We had a little drama last night when the oil
     in the pan caught fire.
a. dramatic
Example:
       There have been some fairly dramatic
    developments on the political scene recently.

ad. dramatically            a. dramatic
Example:
      The new treatment could dramatically alter
    the life of people suffering from this disease.




v. a. to move and break up (earth) using a tool,
             a machine or your hands
       b. to search for or find after looking
Examples:
         They are digging up the road outside in order
        to repair electricity cables.
           After a lot of searching, I‘ve managed to dig
        out (find) those photographs you wanted.
           I‘ve been doing some research on our family
        history and I‘ve dug up (found) some
        interesting information.
dig one‘s own grave: to do sth. that causes you harm, sometimes seriously
Example:
         You‘re digging your own grave by eating so
       much fatly food.

dig up: to break up soil by digging; to remove sth. from the ground by digging; to discover
information, etc. to reveal sth.




come back/down/ back down to earth: to return to reality
Examples:
      The realization of how little work I‘d done for
    the exams brought me abruptly back down to
    earth.
      When his money ran out, he came down to
    earth (with a bang/bump).
down-to–earth
a. practical, direct
Example:
      She‘s a down-to-earth sort of woman with no
    pretensions.




vt. (usually passive) to cause (somebody) to feel anxious or uncomfortable
Example:
       He embarrassed everyone by saying the
     picture was dreadful.

a. embarrassing         ad. embarrassingly
Example:
      It‘s embarrassing to be caught telling a lie.
n. embarrassment
Examples:
      She blushed with embarrassment.
      My parents are an embarrassment to me.

a. embarrassed
Example:
      embarrassed about/at something




v. to make something seem larger, more important, better or worse than it really is

Examples:
       The threat of attack has been greatly
      exaggerated.
       A spokeswoman said that the pollution
     caused by the factory had been wildly
     exaggerated by environmentalists.
ad. exaggeratedly

n. exaggeration
Example:
       It‘s not an exaggeration to say that her work
     has saved lives.




v. (of a person) to become red in the face, esp. as a result of strong emotions, neat or alcohol
Examples:
        She flushed with pleasure as she accepted the
      prize.
        The champagne had caused his face to flush
      and his eyes were bright.
        She flushed red with embarrassment at the
      suggestion.
n. (C usually single )
Example:
     The thought of Richard with another woman
    brought a flush of anger to her cheeks.

a. flushed
Examples:
       You look flushed—are you hot?
       flushed with anger




a. (before noun; not gradable) large in amount
Examples:
      We walked a good distance today.
      You are looking a good deal (much) better
      now.
a. more than
Example:
      The police said a good 20 kilos of explosive
      were found during the raid.




n. (C) a wide smile
Example:
       He gave a broad grin when he saw her.

v.
Example:
       Janice grinned broadly/mischievously at
       him.
to grin and bear it: to accept something, without complaining

Example:
       I don‘t want to stay there for a week on my
    own, but I suppose I‘ll have to grin and bear
    it.




v. to make a deep sound showing great pain or
      unhappiness; to complain
Example:
       What are you moaning and groaning about?
n. (C)
Example:
       Susan looked at the untidy room and gave a
     groan of dismay.




a. tall enough to reach one‘s knees
Examples:
        knee-high grass/boots
        My dad has been taking me to hear jazz ever
      since I was knee-high.

knee-high to a grasshopper: very small or young
knee-length: long enough to reach the knee
Examples:
       knee-length socks
       The skirt should be knee-length.




n. a large group of people involved in similar activities, which are often violent or lacking in
order
Examples:
       The usual mob was/were hanging out at the
      bar.
       The angry mob outside the jail was/were
      ready to riot.
v. to gather around (somebody) in a crowd to express admiration, interests or anger
Example:
        They were mobbed by fans when they arrived
      at the theater.




n. ideas, opinions, statements, etc. that are not true or that seem very stupid
Examples:
        Those accusations are absolute / complete
      / mere / utter nonsense.
        It‘s nonsense to say that he‘s too old for the
      job.
a. nonsensical
Example:
       It‘s nonsensical to blame all the world‘s
     troubles on one man.




n. ideas, opinions, statements, etc. that are not true or that seem very stupid
Examples:
        Those accusations are absolute / complete
      / mere / utter nonsense.
        It‘s nonsense to say that he‘s too old for the
      job.
a. nonsensical
Example:
        It‘s nonsensical to blame all the world‘s
      troubles on one man.




v. to touch (sb. or sth.) gently and usu. repeatedly with the hand flat

Examples:
       He patted my head / patted me on the head
     affectionately.
       My teacher patted me on the back for getting
     top marks in my English essay.
n. (C)
Examples:
       I gave the little boy a pat on the head.
       Mark got a pat on the back from the boss for
     his excellent work. (i.e. He was praised by
     the boss.)




v. a. (of a bird) to bite, hit or pick up (sth. small)
            with the beak
        b. to give someone a quick kiss, esp. on the
              side of the face
Examples:
        The parrot pecked my fingers through the bars
        of the cage; it really hurt.
        The children just pecked at their food, eating
        hardly anything. (i.e. only ate small quantities)
Example:
       He pecked his aunt on the cheek.
n. peck
Examples:
       The hen moved the chicks along with pecks and
     flaps of her wings.
       She gave him a light peck of farewell.




v. a. to make an argument, emotional statement
              or request for something
        b. to make a statement of what you believe to
              be true
Examples:
      He was on his knees, pleading for mercy with kidnappers.
      A middle-aged woman had climbed on the tank to plead with the soldiers not to shoot.
      The defendant pleaded guilty/innocent to robbery with violence.
a. pleading                          ad. pleadingly
Example:
         a pleading tone
plea
n. (C) an urgent and emotional request
Examples:
         He made a plea for help/mercy.
         The Archbishop today made an emotional plea
        for peace.




ad. (of a gun being fired) from a very close position

Example:
      Two bullets had been fired nearly point-blank
    into the window of the car.

ad. say something very clear in very few words, without trying to be polite or pleasant

Examples:
      He asked me to work on the weekend, but I
    refused point-blank.
      She asked me point-blank whether I would
    help her.
vt. to encourage the popularity, sale, development or existence of (something)
Examples:
        Advertising companies are always having to
      think up new ways to promote products.
        It has long been known that regular exercise
      promotes all-round good health.

n. promoter
n. promotion
Examples:
         There was a promotion in the supermarket
      and they were giving away free glasses of
      wine.
         Obviously as sales manager he‘ll be very
        involved in the promotion and marketing of
        the product.
a. promotional
promote
vt. to raise somebody to a higher or more important rank or position
Example:
         If I am not promoted within the next 2 years
      I‘m going to change jobs.

n. promotion
Example:
      The job offers excellent promotion prospects.

demote
vt. to lower in rank or position
Example:
        The captain was demoted to sergeant for
      failing to fulfill his duties.




a. severe, difficult to deal with
Example:
       The athletes was given a stiff punishment for
      using drugs.

v. stiffen
ad. stiffly
n.    stiffness
a. firm or hard
Examples:
        a stiff collar
        If you are stiff or part of your body is stiff,
      your muscles hurt when they are moved.
        We went for a long walk yesterday and I‘m
       rather stiff today.
        Sitting still at a computer terminal all day can
      give you a stiff neck.




v. (tore, torn) (infml.) to move hurriedly; to rush (usually with ad./prep.)
Examples:
        He went tearing along the road after the
      bus.
        They tore out of town on their motorbikes.




v. (tore, torn) (infml.) to move hurriedly; to rush (usually with ad./prep.)
Examples:
        He went tearing along the road after the
      bus.
        They tore out of town on their motorbikes.




26. through
a./ ad. finished or completed
Examples:
        Are you through with that atlas?
        I‘ve got some work to do but I should be
     through in an hour if you can wait.
        I‘ll never get through this report by Friday.




27. tiptoe
on tiptoe(s): if you stand or walk on tiptoe, you stand or walk on your toes, in order to make
yourself taller or in order to walk very quietly
Examples:
        The children stood on tiptoe in order to pick
       the apples from the tree.
       They walked on tiptoe across the hot sand.
tiptoe
v. to walk quietly and carefully on tiptoe
Example:
        He waited until his daughter was asleep,
      then tiptoed quietly out of the room.




a. easily offended or upset
Examples:
        She‘s very touchy about the fact that her
       husband has been married before.
        This is a touchy subject/issue/point, so
       we‘d better avoid it.
ad. touchily
n.    touchiness
a. touched, touching
Examples:
        He was touched that you remembered his
     birthday.
        The way she looked after her little sister
     was really touching.
        The TV report about the children‘s work for
     charity touched us.
ad. touchingly




29. volunteer

n. (C) a person who does sth., esp. helps other people willingly without being forced or paid
to do it

Example:
        Since it would be a highly dangerous
      mission, the captain asked for volunteers.
volunteer
v. to offer to do or give sth. without being forced
Examples:
        During the emergency many staff
      volunteered to work through the weekend.
        He volunteered for the army.
a. voluntary: done, made or given willingly
      Examples:
             It‘s a charitable organization, depending
          for its income upon voluntary contributions
          from the public.
             She does voluntary work for the Red Cross
            two days a week.

II.       Phrases and Expressions

           a laughing stock
           blow out
           brush by/past
           go through with
      7. how come
      8. let loose
      7. make the best of
      8. run into
      9. the last straw
      10. tower over



      someone or something which seems stupid or ridiculous esp. by trying to be serious or
      important and not succeeding.
      Examples:
            Another performance like that will be the
          laughing stock of the league.
            Stop fooling around you‘re making a
          laughing stock of yourself.

      make a laughing stock of oneself




      (of a flame, etc.) to be put out by the wind, etc.
      Examples:
              After the dinner party had ended she blew
            out the candles.
              The sudden breeze made the candles blow
            out.
              The storm raged all night but by morning it
             had blown over/blown itself out. (stopped)
to walk quickly past them, usu. because you don‘t want to speak to them
Examples:
       Ignoring their protests, Newnan brushed
     past waiting journalists.
       She brushed straight by, without even
     looking at me.




to do (sth. unpleasant or difficult that has already been agreed or promised)
Examples:
       He‘d threatened to divorce her but I never
     thought he‘d go through with it.
       When the auctioneer‘s hammer falls, the
     buyer is legally obliged to go through with
     the deal.
       She decided not to go through with the
     operation.
       He‘s determined to go through with the
     marriage despite his parents‘ opposition.




This phrase is used to express surprise.
Examples:
      So how come you got an invitation and not
     me?
      — I don‘t think I‘ll be able to go swimming
           tomorrow.
     — How come/so?




If you let loose sth. such as bullets or bombs, you release a lot of them altogether.
Example:
       He let loose a shriek of delight.




to make an unsatisfactory situation as pleasant as possible (BrE: make the best of a bad
job/situation)
Example:
      We‘ll have to spend the night in this awful
     place, so we might as well make the best of it.
make the most of sth.: to take full advantage of sth., as long as it continues
Example:
      It‘s a lovely day; we must make the most of it.




to accidentally drive (a vehicle) into sth.
Examples:
       I had to stop suddenly, and the car behind
     ran into me.
       He ran his motorbike into a tree.
       If you run yourself into the ground, you
     make yourself very tired by working too hard.
run into (sb./sth.): to meet sb./sth. by chance
Examples:
       Graham ran into someone he knew at school
     the other day.
       We‘ve run into bad weather/debt /trouble/
     difficulties.
to have (an amount, esp. a cost) as a total
Example:
       The repairs will probably run into thousands
     of pounds.

run after: to chase
Example:
       She has spent her life running after fame
     and fortune.

run away: to leave a place or person secretly
Examples:
       Malcolm and my sister are planning to run
     away together to get married.
       She accused him of running away from his
     responsibilities.
run off: to leave suddenly; to print (copies) of
                   sth.
Examples:
       Amy's husband had run off and left her with
     two children to bring up.
       Could you run me off five copies of this?
run off with: to steal
Example:
       He ran off with $100,000 of the company‘s
     money.
run out: to finish or be finished; to be used
                    completely
Examples:
       I‘ve run out of milk/patience.
       Time is running out for the men trapped in the car.

run through: to practise, to rehearse
Example:
      The director wants us to run through the 1st
     act this morning.
run up against: to meet (unexpected difficulty)最终无法忍受的事,终于导致垮台的因素
Example:
       The community scheme has run up against
      strong local opposition.




a problem which can be dealt with on its own, but which makes a situation very difficult when
it‘s added to existing problems
Examples:
        Losing my job was bad enough, but being
      evicted from my house was the straw that
      broke the camel‘s back.
        She‘s always been rude to me, but it was the
      last straw when she started insulting my
      mother.
throw straws against the wind: 螳臂挡车
draw straw/a straw: 抽签
a straw man/a man of straw: someone, often an imaginary person, who is used to hide an
illegal or secret activity 用作做掩护的人,被用作挡箭牌的人
Example:
        The fraud depended on hundreds of bank
        accounts being opened on behalf of straw
        men.
straws/a straw in the wind: sth. that suggests what might happen 迹象,预兆,苗头
Example:
        There were a few straws in the wind
        yesterday which indicated that an air attack
        was imminent.
       snatch/clutch/grasp at straws: to try all possible means to escape from a difficult situation,
       even though there seems to be little hope of doing so 捞救命稻草,作最后挣扎

       A straw shows which way the wind blows.
       草动见风吹。




       to be much higher or taller than people or things close by
       Examples:
              Although he‘s 12, Tom towers over/above his
            mother.
              One computer manufacturer towers above all
            the rest.

III.       Word Building
       root – sens
       -sens-: from Latin, meaning ―feel, sense‖
       consensus 一致同意

       extrasensory 超感官的
       insensitive 无知觉的
       sensation 对······没有感觉的 感情
       sensational 使人感动的
       sense 感觉
       senseless 无感觉的
       sensitive 敏感的
       sensor 传感器
        sensory 感觉的,感官的

       -sent-   root, from Latin, meaning ―feel‖. It is related to the root ―-sens-‖.

       assent 赞成,同意
       dissent 不同意
       consent 同意,赞成,答应
       presentiment 预感,预觉
       resent 愤恨,怨恨
       resentful 愤恨的,怨恨的
       scent 气味
       sentence 句子
       sentient 有感情的
       sentiment 情感,情绪
     prefix – non
    non-: from Latin, meaning
                ―not‖
    1. used before adjectives and adverbs and means a simple negative or absence of something
          nonviolent, nonliving, nonexistent, nonverbal
    2. used before a noun of action and means the failure of such action
          nonpayment, nonviolence, nonexistence
    3. used before a noun to suggest that the thing mentioned is not true, real, or worthy of the
    name
          nonsense, non-event, non-resident, nonmember

     prefix – under
    under- is from old English
    2. meaning ―a place or situation below or beneath‖
          underbrush, undertow, undershirt, undersea
    2. meaning “lower in grade, rank or dignity‖
          undergraduate, understudy
    3. before adjectives to mean ―of lesser degree extent, or amount‖
          undersized, underage, underplay
    4. ―not showing enough, too little‖
            underfed, undercharge, underdeveloped

     suffix – tion
    used after verbs to form nouns that refer to actions or states of the verb
    Examples:
           abbreviation
           action
           promotion
           relation



 IV.      Grammar
Subjunctive mood
It is funny you should say that. (1)
        Subjunctive mood can be used in some clauses to express the subject‘s emotions such as
surprise, relief, disappointment or doubt.
Subjunctive mood
          Used in subject clauses. The predicate is in the form of ―should do‖ or ―should have
          done‖, and the sentence pattern is ―It is/was +adjectives‖.
Examples:
          It is strange that he should feel so angry.
          It was extraordinary to me that you should have seen this.
        Subjunctive mood
      These adjectives include: amazing, annoying, curious, dreadful, incredible, odd, peculiar,
queer, regrettable, remarkable, disappointing, embarrassing, pleasing, strange, surprising, etc. and
nouns are words like ―pity‖, ―a shame‖, etc.
2. Used in object clauses. The predicate is normally in the form of ―should do‖ or ―should have
done‖.
      Subjunctive mood
Examples:
           I regret that she should be so stubborn.
           We never expected that he should have
     forgotten that.
The most frequently used verbs in the main clause include: marvel, puzzle, regret, rejoice, wonder.
When the verbs ―believe‖, ―expect‖, ―think‖, etc. are used in negative or interrogative form, then
the predicate in the object clauses is in the form of ―should+do‖.
Subjunctive mood
3. Used in complement clauses of adjectives. The predicate in subordinate clauses is in the form of
―should be‖ or ―should have done‖.

Examples:
       I am amazed that he should get the post.
       I am so vexed that such a thing should have been discussed before that child.
       I am ashamed that you should have done such a thing.
The most frequently used adjectives are amazed, disappointed, pleased, sorry, surprised, etc.

Adverbial clause of time introduced by noun phrases
The first time I saw Carlos I would never have believed he was going to change my life. (2)

In this complex sentence the noun phrase ―the first time‖ is used to introduced adverbial clause of
time.

Anyway, every time I blew out my birthday candles and made a wish, it was for a date with Reed
Harrington. (3)
Here ―every time‖ is used to introduce adverbial clause of time, meaning ―whenever‖.

Other noun phrases which can be used to introduced adverbial clause of time are                 the
minute/moment/day, each/ever/next time, the first/second/last time, etc.

Examples:
             Next time you come here, you must let me
     know.

Examples:
           The minute he saw the painting he fell in love
     with it.
           The day he returned home, his father was
   already died.
         Every time I listen to your advice, I get into
   trouble.




Lesson Nine Against All Odds
             Word Study
  1. adapt

  v. to change (sth. or yourself) to suit different conditions or uses
  Examples:
          We had to adapt our plans to fit Jack‘s
        timetable.
          David is busy adapting Paul‘s latest novel for
        television.
          The good thing about children is that they
        adapt very easily to new environments.
   a. adapted
  Example:
          Both trees are well adapted to London‘s
        climate and dirty air.
  a. adaptable
  Example:
          The survivors in this life seem to be those
        who are adaptable to change.

  n. adaptability
       adaptation
  2. blossom
  v. & n. to produce flowers before producing edible fruit; (of a person) become more attractive,
  successful or complete
  Examples:
         The cherry tree is beginning to blossom.
         She is suddenly blossoming into a very
       attractive woman.
         Sean and Sarah‘s friendship blossom into love.
  Examples:
         The grass was covered with white blossoms.
         All along the road the trees are in full blossom.

  3. clumsy
  a. awkward in movement or manner
ad. clumsily
n. clumsiness
Examples:
         The first mobile phones were heavy and
       clumsy to use but nowadays they are much
       easier to handle.
         I tried to excuse myself for missing her
       party but my attempts were very clumsy.
     (not said well)
4. cover
v. a. to deal with or direct attention to
       b. to report
Examples:
         The new regulations cover precisely where
       and when protest marches can take place.
         She is covering the American election for the
       BBC television.

n. coverage
cover sth. up/ cover up sth.: to keep sth. unpleasant secret or hidden
Example:
       The company tried unsuccessfully to keep
     these embarrassing pollution statistics
     covered up.
5. downplay

vt. to make sth. seem less important or less bad than it really is; play down
Example:
        The government has been trying to downplay
      the crisis.
      overplay
      vt. to make sth. seem more important than it really is
      Examples:
        I think she‘s overplaying the significance of
            his remarks.
        The findings of the research committee have
            really been overplayed in the media.
      6. drag
      v. to move (sth. heavy) by pulling it along the ground
      Examples:
        I had to drag the screaming child out of the
            shop.
        I‘m ready to go home now but I don‘t want
            to drag you away if you‘re enjoying yourself.
      All that stress at work had begun to drag
         him down and he was badly in need of a
         holiday. (to make him feel weak or unhappy)
     Examples:
      Don‘t drag me into your argument, it‘s
         nothing to do with me.
      You will never tell me how you feel—I always
         have to drag it out of you.

    to drag one‘s heels/feet: to do sth, slowly because one doesn‘t want to do it
    Example:
      I suspect the government is dragging its
          heels over this issue.
    7. enable
    vt. to make sb. able to do sth., by providing them with whatever is necessary to achieve it;
make (sth.) possible
    Examples:
      Computerization should enable us to cut
          production cost by half.
      The increased volume of water enables large
          areas to be irrigated.
    8. humiliation
    vt. humiliate: to make (sb.) feel ashamed or lose their respect for themselves
    Example:
      How could you humiliate me by questioning
          my judgment in front of everyone like that?
    a. humiliated                humiliating
    Examples:
      I‘ve never felt so humiliated in my life.
      The government suffered a humiliating defeat
          in yesterday‘s debate.
    n. humiliation (C/U)
    Examples:
      Being forced to resign was a great humiliation
          for the minister.
      After the humiliation of last week‘s defeat,
          the Mets were back on top in today‘s game.
    9. nasty
    a. very unpleasant to see, hear, smell, taste, touch or experience
    Examples:
      There‘s a nasty smell—has somebody left
          the gas on?
      The car has a nasty habit of breaking
          down just when I really need it.
    to have a nasty feeling about sth./that: to think that it‘s likely to happen or to be true
    Examples:
      She‘d always had a nasty feeling about
          Geoff, and now events had proved her to
          have been suspicious.
      I‘ve got a nasty feeling that I forgot to tell
          Joe I couldn‘t come.
    ad. nastily
    n. nastiness
    10. odds
    n. [plural] the probability that a particular thing will or will not happen
    Examples:
      Judging by how ill she looked yesterday, I
          think the odds are she won‘t be coming in
          today.
      If you drive a car all your life, the odds are
          that you‘ll have an accident at some point.
      What are the odds on him being late again?
            (Do you think he will be late again?)
    give long odds on/against sth. happening: believe/not believe sth. will happen
    Example:
      I‘d give long odds against that marriage
          lasting more than a couple of years.
    lengthens/shortens/increases/decreases the odds on sth.: to make sth. less/more likely to
happen
    Example:
      If you want to live to a ripe old age, giving
          up smoking does tend to shorten the odds.
    against all (the) odds: regardless of strong opposition or great disadvantages
    Example:
      Against all odds, he managed to walk again
          after the accident.

     odds-on: very probable
     Example:
       It‘s odds-on she‘ll be late and I‘ve rushed
           for no reason!
     at odds: in disagreement
     at odds with sb. over/on sth.
     Example:
       He‘s been at odds with his brother ever
           since I‘ve known him.
     odds: noticeable difference
     Examples:
       I don‘t mind whether you come or not—it
           makes no odds to me.
       Does it make any odds whether you use
           butter or oil in this recipe?
     odds and ends: various items of different types, usu. small and unimportant or of little
value
     Example:
       I‘ve taken most of the big things to the new
           house, but there are a few odds and ends
           left to collect.
     11. point
     a. pointless: if sth. is pointless, it means it has no purpose and it‘s a waste of time doing
it
     Examples:
       It‘s seemed pointless to continue.
       It‘s pointless arguing with him.

     ad. pointlessly
     12. predict
     vt. to say that (an event or action) will happen in the future, esp. as a result of knowledge
or experience
     Examples:
       Nowadays it‘s possible to predict the time of
           eclipses with great accuracy.
       Who could have predicted that within ten
           years he‘d be in charge of the whole
           company?
       The storms are predicted to reach the north
           of the country tomorrow morning.
     a. predictable
     ad. predictably
     n. predictability
             prediction
     Examples:
       We are not yet able to make a prediction
           about when the next earthquake will happen.
       No one believes her prediction that the world
           would end on Nov. 12.
     13. recur
     vi. to happen again; happen repeatedly
     Examples:
       The symptoms tend to recur.
       The themes of freedom and independence
             recur throughout much of his writing.
     a. recurring
     Example:
       A recurring back problem has put him out of
           action for most of this season.
     n. recurrence
     Example:
       The doctor told him to go the hospital if there
           was a recurrence of his symptoms.

     occur, incur, concur
     14. shut
     v. to prevent (sb./sth.) leaving or entering a place
     Examples:
       He was so upset that he shut himself in his
           bedroom and refused to come out for the rest
           of the evening.
       She pulled the quilt over her head to try to
           shut out the light.
       She finds it impossible to shut out the
           memory of the accident.
     Example:
       What are chances of peace if the terrorists are
           shut out of the negotiations?
     to shut away sb. or to shut sb. away: to put sb. in a place which he/she can not leave
     Examples:
       He was six years old when he was shut away
           in an asylum for stealing an apple.
       The jury was shut away for a week to consider
           its verdict.
     to shut oneself away: to put oneself in a place that they are unwilling to leave and where
they don‘t want to be interrupted by other people
     Example:
       Andy shuts himself away in his studio for
           hours on end when he‘s recording a song.
     to shut off sb., to shut sb./sth. off: to separate them from their surroundings
     Examples:
       When her husband died she seemed to shut
           herself off from her friends and family.
       The houses are shut off from the outside
           world by high walls and hedges.
     to shut up a person/an animal, to shut a person/an animal up: to keep them in an enclosed
place
     Examples:
       She can‘t spend her whole life shut up in her
           office.
       I think it‘s cruel to keep animals shut up in
           cages.
     to shut down: to stop operating
     Examples:
       Two thousand people will lose their jobs if the
           factory shuts (down).
       The company recently announced plans to
             shut down two factories and reduce its
             workforce by 4,000.
     to shut out sb., to shut sb. out: to prevent (the competitor in a sports competition) from
scoring any points
     Example:
       She had shut out two of her first four
           Wimbledon opponents by identical 6-0, 6-0
           scores.
     to shut (sb.) up: to stop talking or making a noise, or to make sb. do this
     Examples:
       I wish you‘d shut up for a moment and listen
           to what the rest of us have to say.
       My dad never stops talking. It‘s impossible to
           shut him up!
     15. slow
     Examples:
       If I run with Christina she tends to slow me
           down.
       They slowed the film down to see if they
           could identify any of the faces.

     antonym: speed up
     16. slur
     v. to pronounce (the sounds of a word) in a way which is unclear, uncontrolled or wrong
     Example:
       Her speech was slurred but she still denied
           she was drunk.
     n. slur (U)
     Example:
       The drug affected her vision and made her
           speak with a slur.
     slur
     slur (C): a critical remark which is likely to have a harmful effect on the reputation of the
person it is made about
     Examples:
          His comments cast a slur on the integrity of
             his employees.
     v.
       The report fails to give a complete picture of
           the school and slurs both the teachers and
           pupils.
     17. span
     n. (C usu. sing) the length or period between two points, esp. of time
     Examples:
       Over a (time) span of only 2 year, the new
           government has transformed the country‘s
           economic prospects.
       That child‘s concentration/attention span is
           poor—he only listens to the teacher for a few
           seconds at a time.
     v. to include all of a period of time
     Examples:
       Tennis has a history spanning several
           centuries.
       Her knowledge spans the whole political
           history of Senegal.
     18. stride
     v. (strode, strode/stridden) to walk somewhere quickly with long steps
     Examples:
       She strode purposefully up to the desk and
           demanded to speak to the manager.
       After several difficult years, the company is
           now striding forward into the future.
     n. stride (C): a long step when walking or running
     Example:
      She attributes her record-breaking speed to the length of her stride.
     to get into one‘s stride: to begin to do sth. with confidence and at a good speed after
being slow or hesitating
     Examples:
       We ought to wait until she‘s got into her stride
           before we ask her to negotiate that contract.
       She found the job difficult at first, but now
           she‘s really getting into her stride.
     to take a problem or difficulty in (one‘s) stride: to deal with sth. calmly and do not let it
have an effect on what you‘re doing
     Example:
       When you become a politician, you soon learn
           to take criticism in your stride.
     stride (C): an important positive development
     Examples:
       The West made impressive strides in
           improving energy efficiency after the huge
           rises in oil prices during the seventies.
       She made a giant stride toward power in last
           year‘s elections.
     19. supervise
     vt. to watch over sth./sb. to make certain that it‘s done correctly
     Examples:
       The UN is supervising the distribution of aid to
           those areas worst affected by the fighting.
       Her new job involves supervising the
           company‘s operation in Japan.
       The teachers take it in turn to supervise the
           children at playtime.
     19. supervise
     vt. to watch over sth./sb. to make certain that it‘s done correctly
     Examples:
       The UN is supervising the distribution of aid to
           those areas worst affected by the fighting.
       Her new job involves supervising the
           company‘s operation in Japan.
       The teachers take it in turn to supervise the
           children at playtime.
     n. supervision          (under the supervision of…)
             supervisor
     a. supervisory
     Example:
       We need to employ more supervisory staff.

         Phrases and Expressions
1. break out
(of violent events) to start suddenly
Example:
       Rioting broke out between rival groups of fans.
break out (of sth.)
to escape from a place or a situation, esp. by using force
Examples:
       Several prisoners broke out of the jail.
       She felt the need to break out her daily routine
     and do something exciting.
皮肤突然出现(斑、疹等)
break out (in sth.)
Examples:
       He has broken out in a rash.
       His face broke out in spots.
break through
突破,穿透,取得重大成果
Examples:
       The crowd broke through the lines of police.
       Scientists hope to break through soon in their
     fight against heart disease.
break up
散(会)      ,驱散(群众等)            ,分开,分散,拆散
Examples:
       After midnight, the party broke up.
       They broke up the meeting.
       They broke up the household after the mother
     died.
break with
和······决裂,和······断绝关系,破除
Examples:
       He broke with the Democratic Party on the
     question of increasing taxes.
       It‘s difficult to break with old habits.
break off
突然停止,中断(谈判)                  ,断绝(关系)
Examples:
       They broke off their conversation.
       The fight broke off shortly after sunset.
       Those two countries have broken off relations.
break into
强行进入,突然······
Examples:
       The thieves plan to break into a bank.
       The audience broke into applause.
       Everyone broke out into roars of laughter.
break in
非法进入,插嘴
Examples:
       He broke in and stole my money.
       I could tell the story much more easily if you
     didn‘t break in so often.
break down
坏了,失败,          (身体、感情)垮了
Examples:
       We‘re sorry to arrive late, but the car broke
      down.
        The negotiations broke down because neither
      side would compromise.
        His health broke down.
break away
突然逃离,断绝往来,改掉(习惯)                          ,破除
Examples:
        The man broke away from his guards.
        He broke away from his family and has gone to
      live in Australia.
        I should break away from such habits.
2. come to terms with
terms: conditions which control an agreement, arrangement or activity
Examples:
        We will have to discuss your terms of
      employment.
        I bought this dishwasher on favorable terms.
        Consider it in terms of investment.
to bring sb. to terms: to force sb. to accept particular conditions
Example:
        The UN tried to bring the warring sides to
      terms to put an end to the war.
to come to terms with sb.: to agree with sb. about sth.
Example:
        We‘ll have to come to terms with him about
      how many hours a week he is going to work
      for us.
to come to terms with sth. unpleasant or difficult: to learn to accept it and deal with it
Example:
       He has come to terms with his wife‘s illness and says he will nurse her at home.
in terms of sth.: from the basis of; as regards sth.
Example:
        A 200-year-old building is very old in
      American terms/in terms of American history.
on equal/the same terms: in the same way
Example:
        We can‘t work on equal terms unless we speak
      a common language.
be on good/friendly/bad terms with sb: to have a good, friendly, bad relationship with
Examples:
        I‘ve always been on good terms with my
      neighbours.
        be on speaking terms
3. end up
to reach or come to a certain place, state or action, esp. by a long route or progress
Examples:
        They‘re traveling across Europe by train and
      are planning to end up in Moscow.
        Much of this meat will probably end up as
      dog food.
        She‘ll end up penniless if she carries on
      spending as much as that.
Example:
        After working around the world, she ended
      up teaching English as a foreign language.
end in: to have sth. as a result or conclusion
Examples:
        Their marriage ended in divorce.
        The match ended in a draw.
        She ended (her speech) on an optimistic
      note.
        I‘d like to end in with a song from my first
      album.
4. feel like sth.
to think that one would like to do/have sth; to want (to do) sth.
Examples:
        I feel like (going for) a swim. Do you want
      to come?
        I feel like having a drink.
5. just around the corner
near; likely to happen soon
Examples:
        They only live just around/round the corner,
       so we see them all the time.
        Everything is a bit depressing at the moment
      but I carry on in the belief that good times
      are just around the corner.
        The fortune teller told Jane that there was an
       adventure for her just around the corner.
6. live for sb./sth.
to regard sb./sth. as the aim or purpose of one‘s life
Example:
        She lives for her work.
live off sb./sth.: to receive what one needs to live from sb./sth. because one has no money
oneself
Examples:
        She has an inheritance to live off so she doesn‘t
      need to get a job.
        He only agreed to marry her so he could live
      off her money.
live on: to continue to live or exist
live on sth.: to have sth. as one‘s food or to depend on sth for financial support
Examples:
        His wage won‘t be enough to live on if we
      have another child.
        The natives live on a diet of meat and
      occasionally fruit.
live up to sth.: to achieve (what is expected, esp. high standards)
Examples:
        The concert was brilliant—it lived up to all
      our expectations.
        It‘ll be difficult to live up to the standards
      set up by our last captain.
live out sth.
a. to do in reality what one thinks about,
      believes, etc.
b. to spend the rest of one‘s life

Examples:
        live out one‘s dreams/fantasies
        He lived out his days alone.
live through: to experience sth. and survive it
Examples:
        He has lived through two wars and three
      revolutions.
        He had lived through the worst years of the
      depression.
7. may/might (just) as well
to do sth. because it seems best in the circumstances, though often reluctantly
Examples:
        Since nobody else wants the job, we might as
      well let him have it.
        Since you can‘t win the race, you may just as
      well quit.
        You may as well wait upstairs.
        I might as well go.
8. go from strength to strength
to gradually become increasingly successful
Examples:
        The firm‘s gone from strength to strength since
      the new factory was built.
do sth. on the strength of sth.: to do sth. because of being influenced by sth.
Example:
        I invested in the company on the strength of
      my brother‘s advice.
9. cut sb./sth off
to cause (a person or place) to become separate or cause sb. to be or feel alone; to isolate
Examples:
        When his wife died, he cut himself off from
      other people.
        Living out in the country, she felt very cut off
      (from her city friends).
        Many villages have been cut off by the heavy
      snow.
10. be worse off
to be poorer, unhappier, etc. than before
Examples:
        I‘ve only broken my arm; other patients are
      far worse off than me.
        Now that he has lost his employment he is
      worse off than ever.
11. get into sth.
to become involved in; to start sth.
Examples:
        to get into a conversation
        Don‘t get into such a panic!
        to get into a temper
12. touch and go
      (usu. predicative) (infml.) uncertain as to the result
Examples:
        It was touch and go whether we would get to
      the airport in time.
        She was so ill that it was touch and go
      whether she would live or not.
        The doctor says that it is touch and go
      whether the patient will survive.
13. waste away
to gradually get thinner and weaker, in a way that is unhealthy
Examples:
        It‘s not death he fears, but wasting away,
      becoming dependent.
        You get thinner every time I see you, Sara—
      you‘re wasting away!
1. root –dict
-dict-: from Latin, meaning ―say, speak‖
benediction 祝福
contradict 同······矛盾
Dictaphone 口授留声机
dictate 口述,口授
dictator 口授令他人笔录者
diction predict 措辞
 dictionary 字典
 dictum 格言
 edict 布告



2. prefix –pre
pre-: from Latin
before, in front of, prior to, in advance of, being more than, surpassing
e.g. predict, preeminent, preface
Used before verbs to form new verbs that refer to an activity taking place before or instead of
the usual occurrence of the same activity.
e.g. precook
Used in forming adjectives that refer to a period of time before the event, period, person, etc.
e.g. preschool, prewar, preposition

3. root –cur
-cur-: from Latin, meaning ―run; happen
concur 同时发生
concurrence 同时(或同地)发生
currency 流通
current 当前的
curriculum 课程
cursive 草书的,草书
cursor 指针
cursory 草率的
occur 发生,出现
recurrence 复发,重现
incur 招致

4. prefix –re
re-: from Latin
1. Used before roots and sometimes words to form verbs and nouns meaning or referring to
action in a backward direction
revert, recede
2. To form verbs and nouns showing action in answer to or intended to undo or reverse a
situation
rebel, remove, respond, restore, revoke
re-: from Latin
3. To form verbs or nouns showing action that is done over, often with the meaning that the
outcome of the original action was in some way not enough or not long lasting, or that the
performance of the new action brings back an earlier state of affairs
recapture, reoccur, repossess, resole, retype

5. prefix –en
en- prefix from Latin, used before adjectives and nouns to form verbs
1. Meaning ―to cause (a person or thing) to be in (the place, condition, or state mentioned)‖;
―to keep in or place in‖
enrich, entomb, endanger, encase
2. Meaning ―to restrict on all sides, completely‖
encircle




       Grammar
Adverbial clause of concession
Crazy as it may seem, ALS is simply not that important to him. (8)
Although it may seem crazy.
When an adverbial clause of concession is introduced by ―as‖, the subordinate clause should
be used in inverted order. That is, subject complements and adverbials are normally put before
―as‖. Besides ―as‖, ―that‖ can also be used to introduce adverbial clause of concession.
1. In the clauses introduced by ―as‖, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs and verbs+objects are
put before ―as‖.
Examples:
       Fool as he looks, he always seems to make
     the wisest proposals. (before the noun,
     there are not any pre-determiners)
       Powerful man as he may be, he is a coward
     before his wife.
       Old as I am, I can still fight.
More Examples:
       Try as you may, you will never succeed.
       Fail as he did, he was not disappointed.
       Much as I respect him, I don‘t agree with
     him on this.
       Detest him as they may, he grows richer
    and richer.

2. In American English, only nouns can be put before the conjunction ―that‖. In British
English, adjectives are also acceptable.

Examples:
     Child that he is, he can ride a horse.
     Old that he was, he continued writing.
Subjunctive mood
Without the help of Jane, he almost certainly would not have been able to carry on or had the
will to do so. (9)
If Jane had not helped him, he almost certainly would not have been able to carry on or had
the will to do so.
The phrase introduced by ―without…‖ is an example of implicit condition. It is an unreal
condition. The predicate in the main clause is in the form of ―should/would be or would
/should have been‖.
The implicit conditional clauses are divided into five types.

1. Introduced by prepositional phrases

Examples:
        What would Peter have done without his wife?
        It would be easier to do it this way.
        But for your help we couldn‘t have succeeded
      in the experiment.
2. Introduced by infinitive phrases

Examples:
        He would be stupid not to accept that
      suggestion. (if he didn‘t accept that suggestion)
        You would have laughed to see him jump aside.
      (if you had seen him jump aside)
3. Introduced by participle phrases

Examples:
        Coming yesterday, the rain would have
      spoiled our party. (if it had come yesterday)
        Surrounded longer by the enemy, the city
      couldn‘t have maintained itself and would
      have surrendered. (if the city had been
      surrounded longer by the enemy)
4. Introduced by nouns or pronouns

Examples:
       A less difficult problem would have been
     solved. (if the problem had been less difficult)
       Anyone in my position would have done the
     same.
       A gentleman wouldn‘t have done the same.
5. By ―or‖ or ―otherwise‖

Examples:
            Be honest, or nobody would trust you.
          (if you were not honest)
            He must be crazy, otherwise he wouldn‘t
          have divorced her. (if he hadn‘t been crazy)




     lesson Ten          The Green Banana
I.           Word Study
     1. acceptance
      n. ≠ refusal, rejection

     Examples:
         The new policy gained widespread acceptance.

             Ten acceptances and one refusal have been
            received since the invitations were sent out.
     2. appreciate
      v. to understand and enjoy sth.
     Examples:
           I really appreciate your help.
           The judge appreciated the courage students had displayed in the speech contest.
           It‘s hard to fully appreciate the essence of foreign literature in translation.
     3. assure
                   v. to tell sb. that sth. is sure to happen so
                         that he does not have to worry

     assure sb./oneself (of sth.): to cause sb. to feel
                  certain about sth.
     rest assured (that…): to be certain that…
     Examples:
               I can assure you that he is an honest person.
               You may rest assured that everything is
               developing smoothly as you wish.
     4. breakthrough
            n. a. the act of making a sudden, quick
                        advance through an enemy‘s defenses
                  b. the important discovery or development
     Examples:
          a major breakthrough in clone research 克隆研究方面的重大突破
          a breakthrough in negotiations 谈判的重大进展
     5. casually
            adv. the state of being informal or happening
                        by chance
Examples:
    Jerry met his ex-girlfriend on his way home casually.
    It‘s embarrassed to dress so casually in this kind of situation.
casual adj.
    a casual remark
      a casual encounter
      a casual attitude
      a casual inspection
      a casual disregard for
   rumors
      casual wear
      a casual laborer
      a casual acquaintance
      a casual correspondence
   with a friend
 即席发言
 邂逅
 漫不经心的态度
 草率的检查
 对流言蜚语毫不在乎

 便装/休闲装
 临时工
 泛泛之交
 与朋友的不定期通信
6. destination
 n. a place sb. is going to

arrive at/reach one‘s destination

Examples:
     Lhasa is the destination of our trip.
     Keep your confidence up, and you‘ll reach your destination.
7. encounter
               v. to meet sb. or experience sth.
                     suddenly or unexpectedly
               n. sudden or unexpected meeting
encounter with sb./sth.
Examples:
       Catherine encountered an old friend in the
     shopping center.
       The players encountered a lot of difficulties
     when they first started the training.
       He had an encounter with an angry client.
8. occasion
      n. special time for sth.
on occasion: now and then; whenever there is a
                              need
on the occasion of sth.: at the time of a certain
                                                    event
Examples:
    Jean had met him on several occasions before they knew each other in the real sense.
    She goes to the cinema on occasion.
    She was still absent-minded even on the occasion of her own wedding.
Please fill in the blanks below and compare the usage of prepositions in the following phrases
of ―在······情况下‖.
    ( ) the occasion
     ( ) the situation
     ( ) the circumstances
    on
    in
    under

9. origin
     The origins of the custom are unknown.
     The practice has its origin in the people.

10. identity
 n. who or what sb./sth. is
identity card (ID card): an officially issued card, often with a photograph, to show who a
person is
Examples:
     There is no clue to the identity of the murderer.
     The cheque will be cashed on proof of identity.
identify
      v. to ascertain the origin or characteristics of
Examples:
             Can you identify the robber from the group
         of people?
             She identified the man with the scar as her
         attacker.
11. ignorance
            n. having no knowledge or information

ignorance of sth.
ignore              neglect
ignorant            negligent
                    negligible
 v. 忽视/略
adj. 无知的

v. 忽视,疏忽
adj . 疏忽的
adj. 可以忽略的
      12. instantly
adv. at once; immediately

instant adj.

        an instant success
        instant hot water

          instant noodles/coffee
      /powdered milk
          in instant need of help
     很快达成的成功
       瞬间致热的热水(一开水龙头水就热)
       快餐面/速溶咖啡/速溶奶粉
       需要紧急援助
13. leak
v. a. to escape or pass through
      b. to reveal (information)
leak sth. to sb.

Examples:

             The water is leaking in.
             The damaged reactor leaked
           radioactivity into the atmosphere.
             Don‘t leak the secret to anyone.
             The information was leaked to the press
           unavoidably.
14. numerous
adj. many; countless
Examples:
     She takes pride in having numerous friends.
     On numerous occasions, Kate couldn‘t help crying when she heard the same song.
Please fill in the blanks with correct verbs and articles.
        There___ ___number of
      students in the classroom.
        ____ number of the
      students in the classroom
    ____still unknown.
 (are; a)

 (The; is)
15. perspective
 n. a way of thinking about or looking at sth.

Examples:
     Stand here and you can get a perspective of the whole valley.
     The vase on the right of the picture is out of perspective.
     Please draw the building in perspective.
     We can view the matter in the historical perspective.
16. potential
       n. a. the possibility that sth. will have a
                    certain effect
              b. qualities that exist and can be developed
Examples:
           We recognized the potential for error in the
         method being used.
           The company did a survey to investigate the
         potential for further investment.
           The boy has the potential as a composer.
           The potential of the product is immeasurable.
17. relate
  v. to bring into or link in logical association
relate to: to be connected with sb./sth.; understand
Examples:
     Please relate the cause and effect of the case.
     Some adults can‘t relate to children.
     The cost relates directly to the amount of time spent on the job.
18. scattered
 adj. spread all over a large area
Examples:
     The weather forecast says that tomorrow will be sunshine with scattered showers.
     After the meeting, there was wasted paper scattered about.
19. tease
              v. to make jokes or laugh at sb. in
                             order to have fun either in a friendly
                             way or in an unkind way
Examples:
            They teased the child because of his
          innocence.
            Don‘t take the words seriously. It‘s only
          teasing.
20. tend
 v. to be likely to behave in a certain way
Examples:
     She tends to get up early every day.
     People tend to gain weight on holidays.
1. call
call for: to demand; require; need
Examples:
     The occasion calls for prompt action.
     Your promotion calls for a celebration.

call sb./sth. up: to telephone to/ bring back to mind/ summon for military service
Examples:
     I will call you up in the morning.
     The scenes called up my childhood memory.
call off: to cancel; give up
Examples:
     You‘d better call the deal off.
     The football match was called off due to the fog.

call by: to visit briefly when passing a house 顺便拜访
call on/upon sb.: to make a short visit to    短暂拜访
call on/upon sb. to do sth.: to require sb. 要求,恳请
                                                                                     呼吁,号召



2. consist of:       to include as its main parts
                                  or aspects

Examples:
                                  consists of
                                  is composed of
    The book        is made up of        eight chapters.
                                  falls into

     Eight chapters constitute the book.
3dawn on
 to make sb. realize
Examples:
     It finally dawned on me that he doesn‘t like me.
     Through investigation, the truth of the case began to dawn on him gradually.
     Realization of the menace dawned on them.
4. meet one‘s deed
 to satisfy the requirements
Example:
            The child was spoiled because his parents
          met his need without a sense of principle.

make ends meet: to earn enough money to
                 live without getting into debt
Example:
            It was hard for him to make ends meet
          without the support of parents when he
          was in university.
5. reflect on/upon sth.
           to think carefully about sth.
Example:
              We have to reflect on what you have
           mentioned.

Compare:
reflect (well/badly…) on sth./sb.: to show that
           sth./sb. is sound/unsound 显示某事/某人健全
           或不健全······
Example:
             The scandal reflected badly on the President.
6. strain up
 to make a great effort to move upward

Example:
            The car strained up in the sun.

strain every nerve to do sth.: to spare no efforts;
                 try hard to do sth.
Example:
               In order to attain the goal, he strained
             every nerve to accomplish the given job.
7. ―time‖
 all the time: always
Examples:
      She was the center of attention in the crowd all the time.
      I‘ll be with you all the time.
from time to time: now and then; occasionally
Example:
      The daughter visited her parents in a near city from time to time.
for the time being: until some other arrangement is made
Example:
     You can stay with us in this apartment for the time being before you find a new place.
at times: sometimes 有时,间或
at all times: always      随时,永远
at a time: separately; in sequence
                        逐一,依次
at the time: at a certain moment in
                           the past     在那时
at times: sometimes 有时,间或
at all times: always      随时,永远
at a time: separately; in sequence
                        逐一,依次
at the time: at a certain moment in
                           the past     在那时
Examples:
     He felt very nervous in public at times.
     I‘m at your service at all times.
     You can take it a bit at a time.
     Jeniffer decided to marry Ben at the time, but later changed her mind.
in the nick of time: at the last moment 在最后时刻
Example:
     We got the railway station in the nick of time and caught the train finally.

a race against time: being desperate to do sth. before a certain time 争分夺秒
Example:
     It was a race against time to save people buried under the collapsed building.
8.work out
                    to turn out; be capable of being solved;       find the answer to

Examples:
     How will things work out?
       This problem will not work out.
       They‘ve worked out a method of sending a
     spacecraft to Mars.

Word Building
Prefix—re-: (from Latin) again
refill= fill again
rearrange 重新布置/整顿/安排
rearrest 再次逮捕
reconsider 再斟酌
reconstruct 重建/改造
remarry 再婚
      rename 重命名
      reopen 再开始/重开
      reorganize 重建/编;改组
      reprint 再印/版;翻印
      reproduce 再现/生;生殖
      revisit 再访;重游
      rewrite 改写;重写

      Please translate the following words by yourself.
      reappear 复发;再出现
      rebuild 重建;改造
      reeducate 再教育;改造
      reemploy 再聘
      regroup 重新组合
      rejoin 重返;重新加入
      remake 重制;翻新
      retell 复述
      reunite 重聚;再结合
      Suffix –ance (-ence)
      -ance (-ence): (from Latin) forming nouns,
                                     meaning ―the action, quality
                                     or state of doing sth.‖
               accept
               attend
               depend
               occur
               perform
               prefer
               refer
               assist
               appear
               differ
           acceptance
           attendance
           dependence
           occurrence
           performance
           preference
           reference
           assistance
           appearance
           difference

II.         Grammar
     Parallelism

     Definition:

     Parallelism is the similarity of structure in a pair or series of related words, phrases, or clauses.
     Parallelism is a basic organization mode for discourse, and as such can take place on a large
     scale (affecting the arrangement of an entire unit of discourse) or a small one. Parallel
     elements may range from a minimum of two to any number required.
     Every place has special meanings for the people in it, and in a certain sense every place
     represents the center of the world.
           (Para. 7)
     the similarity of structure in a pair of related phrases
     We all tend to regard as the center that special place where we are known, where we know
     others, where things mean much to us, and where we ourselves have both identity and
     meaning: family, school, town and local region could all be our center of the world. (Para. 6)
     the similarity of structure in a pair of related clauses
     Anadiplosis
     Definition:
     ―Anadiplosis‖ stems from two Greek words meaning "to double back again" or "to
     reduplicate" and refers to the rhetorical device where the last word(s) of one clause is taken up
     in the first word(s) of the successive clause. In other words, anadiplosis is the repetition of the
     last word (or phrase) from the previous line, clause, or sentence at the beginning of the next.
     Every place has special meanings for the people in it, and in a certain sense every place
     represents the center of the world. The world has numerous such centers, and no one student
     or traveler can experience all of them. (Para. 7)
                  The love of wicked men converts to fear,
         that fear to hate, and hate turns one or both
         to worthy danger and deserved death.
         (Shakespeare, Richard II)

                 Men in great place are thrice servants:
         servants of the sovereign or state; servants
         of fame; and servants of business. (Francis
         Bacon)


     Lesson Eleven              The Midnight Visitor
I.         Word Study
     1. accent
               n. a. the way a person pronounces the
                           words of a language showing which
                           country or which part of a country
                           he comes from
                     b. stress
Examples:
        He speaks with a strong American accent.
        He speaks English with a foreign accent.
        a primary accent
2. automatic
             adj. self-regulating
Examples:
     an automatic rifle
     an automatic washing machine
     It‘s his automatic answer, which is likely to be more reliable.
3. blink
               v. to shut and open the eyes quickly
blink at sb.
blink one‘s eyes
blink away one‘s tears: to try to hide tears by
blinking
blink the fact that…: to refuse to consider; ignore
Examples:
        Why are you blinking at me constantly?
        The little girl blinked away her tears, and
      stood up quickly.
4. command
                            v. a. to order
                                   b. to control; hold back
Examples:
     The officer commanded his men to fire.
     The officer commanded that his men (should) fire.
     You‘d better learn to command yourself/ your temper.
      commanding

                                 adj. powerful and impressive
Examples:

         He said in a commanding tone.
         He is now in a commanding position.
5. concerning
            prep. about

Examples:
      This book deals with questions concerning
    China‘s diplomatic policies.
      The President answered nothing concerning
    his love affair with a model in the press
      conference.
6. confounded
           adj. a. damned; used to show you are
                                   annoyed
                             b. confused

Examples:
   You‘re a confounded nuisance.
   A group of confounded customers surrounded the counter.

           v. a. to damn
                           b. to perplex; puzzle
                           c. to mix; confuse
Examples:
     Confound it! 真讨厌! Confound you! 去你的!
     Her strange behavior confounded everyone
           in the hall.
     I was confounded to hear that he had               resigned.
     They confounded Jack with Jimmy. They are twins.
7. disillusioned
       adj. feeling disappointed and unhappy
                 because sb./sth. is not as good as you
                 thought
disillusioned with sb./sth.

Examples:
      Disillusioned Susan decided to forget the
    man she had loved for many years.
      He was disillusioned with life in many
    aspects.

        8 explanatory
adj. meant to explain

Examples:
     explanatory notes 注释
     It‘s the President‘s explanatory speech.
9. glance
               v. to take a quick look
Examples:
     She glanced at the watch and continued the
             reading.
     A man glanced round the room and stepped back.
1. 尤指以 赞赏、愉快、好奇或饶有兴趣的神态长时间地盯着看,常常达到出神的地步;
2. ―盯着瞧‖,尤指吃惊、恐惧、愤怒或无礼地瞪大眼睛目不转睛地看;
3. ―看一眼‖, ―扫视‖,强调匆忙快速的动作过程;
4. ―瞥见‖,强调动作的偶然性和所见到事物的不充分、不全面。
10. stiffly
            adv. without being able to move one‘s body

Example:
      The old man bent down stiffly.
       stiff adj. a. difficult to bend; rigid; not flexible
                               b. thick and hard to stir
                               c. hard; difficult
                               d. severe; tough
                               e. (of a price) too high
                               f. (of a breeze) blowing strongly
                               g. (of an alcoholic drink) strong
                               h. not friendly
     Exercise
Please give the correct explanation of ―stiff‖ in the following phrases and translate them.
      a stiff neck           僵硬的脖子 a.
        stiff manners 生硬的态度 h.
        a stiff drawer 很紧的抽屉 a.
        a stiff wind              强风 f.
        a stiff drink            烈酒 g.
        a stiff hike 艰难的跋涉 c.
        a stiff penalty 严厉的惩罚 d.
        a stiff price        过高的价格 e.
        a stiff hinge                  不易活动的枢纽 a.
        a stiff paste           很稠的糊 b.
11. frustrated
adj. feeling upset and impatient because you cannot control a situation or achieve sth.
Examples:
           He once got very frustrated in work, but
         fortunately he had been through that period.
           She was a frustrated actress.
frustrating adj.
It is frustrating that she is not good at learning foreign languages.
12. extend
                 v. a. to continue for a particular
                              distance or a period of time
                        b. to stretch out the body or a limb
                              at full length
                        c. to offer
Examples:
        My boss agreed to extend my stay in
      HongKong for a few days.
        The bird extended its wings in flight.
        The queen extended a warm welcome to the
      distinguished guest from afar.
13. hesitate
              v. to be slow in deciding

hesitate at/about/over sth.
hesitate to do sth.

Examples:
         She is a girl who hesitates at nothing.
         You can hesitate before replying.
         Don‘t hesitate to tell me if you have any
       problem.
14. risk
 v. to put sth. in a situation in which it can
                    be lost, destroyed, or harmed
            risk+ n./doing
Examples:
     To save that traveler, they had to risk getting caught in the storm.
     He just wanted to obtain as much money as possible, even risking life.
       at risk: to be in danger
       take a/the risk: to do sth. that involves failure/danger
       at the risk of : with the possibility of danger, etc.
Examples:
        They didn‘t want to put your life at risk.
        She is too sensible to take a risk when driving.
        At the risk of being hated, he decided to reject
      the proposal.
        He was determined to get there even at the risk
    of his life.
15. slip
       v. a. to give sb. sth. quietly and secretly
              b. to slide accidentally
              c. to go somewhere quietly and quickly, in
                    order not to be noticed
Examples:
     The thief slipped the watch into his pocket.
     The little girl slipped (on the ice), but she
            laughed.
     A man slipped out by the back door.
16. stammer
    v. to speak with difficulty, repeating
          words or sounds because one is nervous or
          afraid
Examples:
        He was too nervous to stop stammering.

         The child stammered out a request to his
       father.
17. start
       n. sudden movement of surprise, fear, etc.
Examples:
     He sat up with a start.
     The news gave him a start.

Cf. startle v. to give a shock or surprise to
     She was startled to see that man so pale.
     What startling news it was that the building caught fire!
18. figure
      n. a. symbol for a number
            b. diagram
            c. human form
            d. person, esp. person of influence
Examples:
     He has an annual income of six figures.
     The blackboard is covered with geometrical
         figures like squares and triangles.
     I saw a figure approaching in the darkness.
     Alexander the Great is a great historical figure.
19. swiftly
        adv. fast; rapidly
Examples:
     She rushed in and then out of the room swiftly.
     swift-running 急速跑动
     a swift reaction 迅速的反应
20. thrill
n. a. a sudden strong feeling of excitement
               and pleasure
Examples:
     a thrill of horror/fear/joy
     the thrills and spills: excitement caused by taking part in or watching dangerous sports or
     entertainments. 紧张和刺激
     He got his thrills from car racing.
        b. novel, play or movie that involves an
               exciting and gripping plot
II.           Phrases and Expressions
      1. check on
      check (up) on sb.: to investigate one‘s behavior, background

      check (up) on sth.: to examine sth. to discover whether it is true/safe/correct

      Examples:
           The police are checking on the man.
           The police are checking on the fingerprints on file.
      2. deal with
      a. deal with + sb.: to tackle the problem set by
                    sb.; behave towards sb.

      b. deal with +sth.: to manage/cope with sth.; discuss sth.

      c. deal with + sb./sth.: to have social/business
                    relations
      Examples:

          a. How would you deal with angry and impolite
                      customers?
          b. 1) You‘d better learn to deal with an
                      awkward situation tactfully.
                      2) This chapter deals with British literature
                      in the 1980‘s.
          c. 1) I hate dealing with rude people.
                      2) Our school seldom dealt with companies.
           deal in

      a. to trade in sth.
      b. to indulge in sth. (derogative) 沉溺于某事(贬义)

      Examples:
           The businessman dealt in shoes.
           She is a woman who always deals in gossip
                 and slander.
      3. raise the devil with sb.
             to behave in an angry and threatening
                      way

      Examples:
         She raised hell when she found she had been cheated.
         He raised the devil with me when I received a call from my ex-boyfriend.
       4. stand aside
       a. to move to one side
       b. to do nothing
       c. to withdraw, eg as a candidate in an
             election
       Examples:
                Please stand aside to let me pass.
                I feel guilty that you have done all the work
              and I‘ve just stood aside.
                If you stand aside right now, you‘ll do a
              great favor to other applicants.
       5. take chances
                 to behave riskily

       Example:
               Don‘t take your chances when driving a car.
       take a chance (on sth.): to take a risk
       Example:
               He left home and decided to take a chance on
              pursuing a career in acting.

       take one‘s chance: to benefit as much as
              possible from one‘s opportunities
       Example:
               If you want to work in a creative field, you
             should learn to take your chance.

III.         Word Building
       1. compound nouns
       n.+n.          doorbell              seaside
       n.+v.                          heartbeat       headache
       adj.+n.                   greenhouse shorthand
       n.+gerund           daydreaming sun-bathing
       gerund +n.          frying-pan      sleeping-bag
       v.+adv.        breakthrough dropout
       adv.+v.        income outbreak
       n.+prep.+n.         sister-in-law mother-in-law
       v.+pron.+adv. forget-me-not touch-me-not
       2. compound adjectives
       n.+-ed                  thunder-struck         sun-tanned
       n.+-ing             peace-loving         fault-finding
                                      meat-eating          English-speaking
       n.+adj.             seasick                             taxfree
                                      knee-deep                     nation-wide
      adj.+-ed           open-minded             hot-tempered
                                  quick-witted                  cool-headed
      adv.+-ing          hardworking                  everlasting
                                  well-behaved                  new-built
      3. compound adjectives formed from phrases

    Examples:
           They kept a round-the-clock watch on the house.
           The police made an on-the-spot inspection.
           Jack is of the look-before-you-leap sort.
           He told the whole story in a matter-of-fact tone.
           I‘ll cherish those never-to-be-forgotten days.
           You will see a paper… come to me in the next-
         last-step of its journey into official hands.
    ―-ed‖ -adjectives
    Definition:
IV.               ―-ed‖ –adjectives belong to the group of ―-ed‖ participles. They have a few
        Grammar
    grammatical functions.

      Examples:
      Fowler felt disappointed. (para. 1)
      ―disappointed‖ is used as the predicative.
      This is the second time in a month that somebody has gotten into my room off that
      confounded balcony! (para. 11)
      ―confounded‖ is used as the attribute.
      White faced and shaking, Fowler started after him. (para. 25)
      ―white faced‖ is used as the adverbial.
      Keeping his body twisted so that his gun still covered the fat man and his guest, …
      (para. 22)
      ―Twisted‖ is used as the object complement.
      ―-ed‖ -adjectives
              You have been bored.

              The United States is a developed country.

              I‘m afraid we have no food left.


      Lesson 12           The Kindness of Tstrangers

 I.            Word Study
      1. addict (I)
      vt. a. to devote or give (oneself) habitually or
            compulsively
      b. to cause to become compulsively and
            physiologically dependent on a habit
            forming substance

Examples:
       She was addicted to rock music.
       He was addicted to cocaine.
1. addict (II)

     n. a. one who is addicted, as to narcotics
           b. a devoted believer or follower

Example:
        We are all addicts of Communism.
2. attentive
adj. a. giving care or attention; watchful
             b. expressing affectionate interest through
                  close observation and gallant gestures

Examples:
    In class, some students are very attentive, and some are not.
    He played the attentive suitor, complete with roses.
3. amaze
         vt. to shock or surprise someone

Examples:
       Her knowledge amazes me.
       Visitors were amazed at the achievements in
    the car manufacture of the city during the
    past decade.
     I was amazed by the news of George‗s
    sudden death.
4. compassionate (I)
              adj. feeling or showing compassion
                  v. to pity

 Examples (making a comparison):
   a humane physician
   We should compassionate toward disadvantaged people.
   The government released the prisoner for humanitarian reasons.
   He is merciful to the repentant.
一位人道的医生;
对残疾人有同情心;
出于人道主义原因释放囚犯;
仁慈地对待悔悟者
5. conquer
 v. to win over or take over

Examples:
         The Roman Empire conquers most of Europe
       and south of Africa.
         scientists battling to conquer diseases; a
       singer who conquered the operatic world
         I finally conquered my fear of height.
6. intrigue
                n. a secret or underhand scheme; a plot
                v. a. to engage in secret or underhand
                             schemes; plot
                       b. to arouse the interest or curiosity of

Examples:
     The general intrigued with the enemy to overthrow the government.
     Hibernation has long intrigued biologists.
     The notice intrigued many students.
7. lurk
          v. a. to lie in wait, as in ambush
                 b. to move furtively; sneak
                 c. to exist unobserved or unsuspected

Examples:
         danger lurking around every bend
         There's somebody lurking behind that bush.
         Some anxiety still lurked in her mind.
         The villagers reported that the lion from
       the zoo was still lurking close to the village.
8. patriotic
 adj. feeling, expressing, or inspired by love
                      for one's country
Examples:
     patriotic members of the public
     patriotic support, fervor
     patriotic songs
9. readiness
          n. a. willingness or eagerness
                  b. quickness and facility
      c. state of being ready or prepared
 readiness of tongue
 readiness to learn
 everything in readiness

10. revelation
 n. a. the act of revealing or disclosing
                 b. something revealed, especially a
                      dramatic disclosure of something not
                      previously known or realized
                 c. Revelation (Bible)
Examples:
     the revelation of his identity
     His Hamlet was a revelation to the critics. (They did not expect him to act so well.)
     scandalous revelation in the press
11. schedule n. & v.
• a bus schedule
•      finish the project on
    schedule
•     a schedule of guided tours
•     Can you fit me into your
    schedule Tuesday afternoon?
•    I haven't scheduled the coming
    week yet.
•    schedule a trip in June
•    He was scheduled to arrive
    Monday.
   汽车时刻表
    按计划完成工程项目

 导游时间表
 你能在日程计划中把我安
       在星期二下午吗?
 我还没有为下周制定
       计划。
 计划在六月进行一次旅行
 他计划星期一到达。
12. shelter
n. something that provides cover or
       protection, as from the weather
v. a. to provide cover or protection for
       b. to take cover; find refuge

Examples:
      A cold frame provides shelter for the
    seedlings.
        He sheltered at the bus stop during the
       heavy rain.
        We took shelter from the storm in a barn.
13. skid (I)
 v. to slide sideways while moving because
                 of loss of traction
 slide, slip, glide, coast, skid
 These verbs mean to move smoothly and continuously over or as if over a slippery surface.
 Slide usually implies rapid, easy movement without loss of contact with the surface.
      coal sliding down a chute 煤从滑道上滑下来
13. skid (II)
Slip can refer to smooth, easy, and quiet passage;
accidental sliding resulting in loss of balance or foothold.
          slipped on a patch of ice and sprained his ankle

Glide refers to smooth, free-flowing, seemingly effortless movement.
        Four snakes glided up and down a hollow.
        A submarine glided silently through the water.

Skid implies an uncontrolled, often sideways sliding caused by a lack of traction.
         The bus skidded on wet pavement.
14. solely
 adv. a. alone; singly
                      b. entirely; exclusively
Examples:
         You should be solely responsible for the
       whole accident.

           His wife did it solely for love.
15. symbol
 n. (of sth.) image, sign which represents an
                 idea or value
Examples:
         The cross is the symbol of
       Christianity.

        On maps, a cross is the symbol
      for a church.

1. as a matter of course
      as a regular habit or usual procedure

Examples:
    I check my email every morning as a matter of course.

    They helped the old man clean his house as a matter of course.
2. be in need
           to be in a condition of poverty or misfortune



Examples:

    The family is in dire need.

    The hungry children were in need of food.

    He is in great need.
3. be scheduled for (to do)
        to be included in a schedule; be arranged to do

Examples:
   The sale is scheduled for tomorrow.
   She is scheduled to give a speech tonight.
   He had been scheduled to arrive in Beijing the next week.

4. have one‘s thumb out
         to thumb a lift; hitch-hike

Example:

        He stood beside the road and had his
      thumb out.
5. pass by (sb./sth.)
            to go past

Examples:

         I saw the procession pass by.
         The army passed right by my front door.
6. pitch a tent
             to set up a tent

More collocations:

         pitch camp
         pitch a stake
                  pitch a stall in a market
                  This pitched him into the political arena.
       7. rely on
              a. to be dependent for support, help, or supply
              b. to place or have faith or confidence



       Examples:
              Scarlet relies on her parents for tuition.

                 The old man relied on them to tell him the
               truth.
       8. (run/be) contrary to
                   opposed, as in character or purpose

       Examples:

           We shouldn‘t do things that run contrary to our code of ethics.
           We thought Mary would pass and John would fail, but contrary to expectation it was the
           other way round.
       9. watch out for
              to be alert so that one notices sb./sth.; look
              out for sb./sth.

       Examples:
               The staff were asked to watch out for
             forged banknotes.
               The mother asked the boy to watch out for
             cars when he passed the street.
               Watch out for the man standing there!
       10. would rather… than…
                   to prefer to

       Examples:
             I‘d rather walk than take a bus.
             She‘d rather die than lose the children.
             ― Some more wine?‖ ― Thank you, I‘d
           rather not, I have to drive home.‖

 II.           Phrases and Expressions
III.        Word Building
       ad-: to (去)
       adherent n. 拥护者
       adjoin v. 邻接
      adjourn v. 延期
      advent n. 来临
      adversary n. 对手
      contra, contro, counter: against 对抗
      con (short for contra) adj. 反对的 n. 反对的理由
      contraband n. 违禁品;走私品
      controversy n. 争论
      contravene vt. 违反
      countermand vt. 下相反的命令取消
      counter adv. 背道而驰地;相反地
      incontrovertible adj. 不容置疑的

      Suffix— -ic & -ical
       adj.
      Comparison:
            a classic performance—classical music
            a comic masterpiece—comical behaviour
            an economic miracle—economical arrangement
            a historic building—historical research
            an electric fan—electrical energy
      Suffix— -ic & -ical
             难忘的演出——古典音乐
             喜剧杰作——滑稽的举动
             经济上的奇迹——节约的安排
             有历史意义的建筑——历史研究
             电扇——电能

IV.         Grammar
      Participial Adjective
      -ing form
              annoying, exasperating, frightening, gratifying
      -ed form
              excited, interested, frightened, annoyed
      Most participial adjectives can be used both attributively and predicatively:
      Attributive                        Predicative

      That's an irritating noise.        That noise is irritating.

      This is an exciting film.          This film is exciting.

      He's a talented footballer.        That footballer is talented.


      Many participial adjectives, which have no corresponding verb, are formed by combining a
      noun with a participle:
              alcohol-based chemicals
         battle-hardened soldiers
         drug-induced coma
         energy-saving devices
         fact-finding mission
         purpose-built accommodation
These, too, can be used predicatively (the
chemicals are alcohol-based, the soldiers
were battle-hardened, etc).
When participial adjectives are used predicatively, it may sometimes be difficult to distinguish
between adjectival and verbal uses.
Consider the following pair:

[1] The noise is annoying.
[2] The noise is annoying the neighbours.

In [1], we can modify annoying using very:
[1a] The noise is (very) annoying.

But we cannot modify it in the same way in [2]:
[2a] *The noise is (very) annoying the neighbours.
We can distinguish between the following pairs using the same criterion:
Adjectival                       Verbal
                                 This film is terrifying the
This film is terrifying.
                                 children.
Your      comments         are   Your     comments         are
alarming.                        alarming the people.

The defendant's       answers    The defendant's answers
were misleading.                 were misleading the jury.

We can also identify -ing forms as verbal if it is possible to change the -ing form into a
non-progressive verb:
Progressive                         Non-progressive

The children are dancing.           The children dance.

My eyes are stinging.               My eyes sting.
The wood is drying.                 The wood dries.
Compare these changes from progressive to non-progressive with the following:
The work is rewarding.
The job was exacting.

Your paper was interesting.


~*The work rewards.
     ~*The job exacted.


     ~*Your paper interested.

     In these instances, the inability to produce fully acceptable non-progressive sentences
     indicates adjectival use.
     Exercise:

          In each of the following sentences, indicate whether the highlighted word is A. a
     participial adjective or B. a verb.

     1. He told me a moving story about his childhood.
     2. Our piano was tuned by Mr. Beethoven.
     3. I spent four hours calculating your tax returns.
     4. His new novel is open-ended.
     5. The whole affair became terribly complicated.
     AA B AA


     LESSON 13            Christmas Day in the Morning

I.             Word Study
        1. bar
     v. (often passive)
           a. to close with a bar
           b. to make… safe by putting metal bats across it
           c. to stop going in a certain direction
     n. place to drink in; piece of metal/wood; barrister,
            the profession of lawyer, etc.
     Examples:
          to bar the door
          The windows are barred.
          He stood in the door and barred my way.
          behind the bar; go to the bar
     2. brisk
     adj. a. marked by speed, liveliness, and vigor;
                      energetic
                b. keen or sharp in speech or manner
                c. stimulating and invigorating
                d. pleasantly zestful
     Examples:
          He had a brisk walk in the park.
          a brisk greeting
          a brisk wind
      a brisk tea
3. creep
v. to move slowly and quietly with the body
        close to the ground (usu. stealthily)
Examples:
      a creeping plant
      The hours crept by.
      We took off our shoes and crept cautiously along the passage.
4. fade
v. a. to lose brightness, loudness, or brilliance
             gradually; dim
       b. to lose freshness; wither
       c. to lose strength or vitality; wane
       d. to disappear gradually; vanish
Examples:
      The lights and music faded as we set sail from the harbor.
      summer flowers that had faded
      youthful energy that had faded over the years
      a hope that faded
    5. gleam
 v. a. to give out a bright light
        b. (of a feeling) to be expressed with a sudden
              light in the eyes
Examples:

     The furniture gleamed after being polished.
     Amusement gleamed in his eyes.
6. grant
vt. a. to give what is wanted/requested
         b. to admit the truth of sth.
Examples:
     They were granted a holiday for their achievement.
     I had to grant him the reasonableness of his argument.
7. loiter
v. to move on/about with frequent stops
loiter the whole afternoon
loiter along the street
loiter over a job
You should not loiter your time away.
 闲逛了一下午
 在街上徘徊
 在一项工作上浪费时间
 你不应该虚度光阴。
8. queer
adj. deviating from the expected or normal;
             strange
Examples:
     a queer situation
     to speak a queer language
     I am feeling queer.
9. seal
1. We hunted five seals this month.
2. a black book stamped with the Presidential seal
3. A last-minute goal set the seal on our team‘s victory.
4. Don‘t seal the envelope.
5. The window has been sealed up for years.
6. My lips are sealed.
7. He was about to say the words that would seal my fate for ever.
Translation:

• 海豹
• 印章,印鉴
• 使确定,使成定局
• 粘住
• 把封住,封闭
• 我一定会守口如瓶。
• 决定某人的命运(尤指厄运)
10. slip (1)
v. a. to pass gradually, easily, or imperceptibly
       b. to move smoothly, easily, and quietly
       c. to slide involuntarily and lose one's balance
             or foothold
Examples:
      It is necessary to write, if the days are not to slip emptily by.
      She slipped away without being seen.
      He slipped the money into his pocket.
      She slipped on the shiny floor and fell.
10. slip (2)
v. a. to put on or remove (clothing) easily or quickly
       b. to escape, as from a grasp, fastening or
             restraint
n. a slight error or oversight, as in speech or writing
Examples:
      slip on a sweater
      slip off her shoes
      slip away from his pursuers
      a slip of the tongue
11. sob
      cry, weep, wail, whimper, sob, blubber

      These verbs mean to make inarticulate sounds of grief, unhappiness, or pain.
      Cry and weep both involve the shedding of tears; cry more strongly implies accompanying
      sound.
                   And when he died the little children cried in
                the streets.
                   I weep for what I'm like when I'm alone.
      Wail refers primarily to sustained, inarticulate mournful sound.
                 The women… began to wail together;
               they mourned with shrill cries.
      Whimper refers to low, plaintive, broken or repressed cries, as those made by a child.
                 The condemned prisoner cowered and
               began to whimper for clemency.
      Sob describes weeping or a mixture of broken speech and weeping marked by convulsive
      breathing or gasping.
                 sobbing and crying, and wringing her
               hands as if her heart would break
      Blubber refers to noisy, unrestrained shedding of tears accompanied by broken or inarticulate
      speech.
                 He blubbered like a child who had been
               spanked.
      12. stumble
      v. a. to miss one's step in walking or running; trip
                  and almost fall
             b. to proceed unsteadily or falteringly
             c. to stop or make a mistake when you are
                  reading to people or speaking
             d. to come upon accidentally or unexpectedly
      Examples:
            She stumbled on the stairs and fell forward to the bottom.
            She stumbled at/over the long word.
            While in the country, she stumbled upon/on/across some fine antiques.
      13. trim
      v. a. to make neat or tidy by clipping, smoothing, or
                    pruning
             b. to remove (excess) by cutting
      n. state of order, arrangement, or appearance
      Examples:
            trim his moustache
            trim a budget
            in good trim

II.          Phrases and Expressions
1. along with
                together with

     Along with the letters there are answers written by people who are supposed to know
    how to solve such problems.

Translation:
 与这些读者来信一起还刊登对这些问题的回答,由那些被认为能够解决这些问题的人来
撰写。
2. as long as

                     on the condition that
Examples:
     I will cooperate as long as I am notified on time.
     You may borrow this book as long as you promise to give it back. (= so long as)
3. burst with
    a. to be or seem to be full to the point of breaking open
      b. to come apart or seem to come apart because of overwhelming emotion
Examples:
     The sacks were bursting with grain.
     His heart would burst with happiness, when he met her on the street.
     burst out laughing; burst into tears
4. cling to
 to hold fast or adhere to something, as by grasping, sticking, embracing, or entwining
Examples:
     The baby monkey clung to its mother.
     He clung to the rope to keep from falling.
     cling to the idea/hope
5. get across
              (cause sth. to) be communicated or
              understood
       Your meaning didn‘t really get across.
       He‘s not very good at getting his ideas across.

get by
      a. to continue one‘s way of life
     You can‘t get by on such a small income.
      b. to be good enough but not very good; to be
                   accepted
     Your work will get by, but try to improve it.
     get off
     a. to leave work
     b. to stop riding a horse or bicycle
     c. to start a journey; leave
       d. [vt., vi., (with)] (to cause) to escape
                        punishment
     The man went to prison but the two boys went off with a warning.
        get on
                  to become late/older
     Time is getting on.
     Grandfather is getting on for 80.
 get over
       a. to return to one‘s usual state of health,
                        happiness after a bad experience
     get over an illness
     She can‘t get over the man she was going to marry; he disappeared so unexpectedly.
     get over a shock
       b. to find a way to deal with; overcome
     get over the difficulty
       c. to reach the end of (usu. sth. unpleasant)
     get the operation over
get through
              to reach sb. by telephone
     I called you but could not get through.

get through (with)
           a. to finish
           b. to cause to pass; come successfully to
                 the end of
     get through an exam/the winter
     get sb. through an exam
6. make sure (of sth.)
to establish something without doubt; make
certain
Examples:
     Make sure he writes it down.
     Please make sure of the date when we will have the meeting.
7. slip back (in time)
       to recall things in the past/let one‘s thoughts go back to the old days
Examples:
     The old man slipped back in time. He was then twenty years old and was serving in the
     army.
     Miss Smith slipped back and sat there without saying a word.
8. take to
a. to have recourse to; go to, as for safety
 b. to develop as a habit or a steady practice
 c. to become fond of or attached to
Examples:
           To escape from the chasing of the police, the criminal took to the woods.
           He took to drugs after losing his eyesight in a boxing game.
           ―Two keen minds that they are, they took to each other.‖

III.         Word Building
       Prefix– a-

       1) in a particular condition or way (from
                Old English)
                alive=living, aloud, asleep=sleeping, awake, afloat
       2) in, at, on or to
                ashore=on the shore, aboard=on the board
       3) showing an opposite or the absence of something; not; without                      amoral=not
           moral
       Prefix– over-
       overhanging branches
       overactive
       overbuild
       oversupply
       overcapacity
        活动过度
        建得过多的
        供应过多
        超出容量

IV.          Grammar
       The past perfect tense

       Definition:
       The past perfect tense expresses action in the past before another action in the past. That is the
       past in the past.

       Example:
       It was four o‘clock, the hour at which his father had always called him to get up and help with
       the milking. (Para. 1)
       The task went more easily than he had ever known it to before. (Para. 25)

       Exercises: Put in the appropriate form of the given verbs.

       They ____(be) hungry. They ___________ (eat) for
       five hours.

       I didn't know who he _____ (be). I _____________ (see) him before.
"Mary ______ (be not) at home when I _______ (arrive)."
"Really? Where _____she ______ (go)?"

He _____ (tell) us that the train _______(leave).

He explained that he _________ (close) the window because of the rain.


LESSON 14               After Twenty Years
1. beat
    n. the area regularly covered by a reporter, a police officer, or a sentry

Examples:
           a policeman out on the/his beat
        外出辖区执行巡逻任务的警察
           television's culture beat
        电视的文化专题采访
2. cast
 v. a. to throw with force; hurl
      b. to turn or direct
      c. to throw off; remove; get rid of
         As soon as they reached the fishing area,
       the fishermen cast their nets into the sea.
         All eyes were cast upon the speaker.
         As soon as he became rich he cast aside
       all his old friends who gave him some help.
3. avenue
            n. a. wide road or path, often lined with trees, esp. one that leads to a large house
                b. wide street lined with trees or tall buildings
In New York city, the streets running from the west to the east are called streets, such as 31st
street, and those running from the north to the south are often called avenues, such as the Fifth
Avenue.
4. barely
       ad. a. almost not; only just; scarcely; hardly
    b. in a bare way; sparsely
Examples:
     We barely had time to catch the train.
     He can barely read or write.
     I can barely make both ends meet. How can I buy a car?
     The room was furnished barely. (=with very little furniture)
5. gust
       n. sudden violent rush of air, or of rain, smoke, etc.; an outburst of emotion

Examples:
         The gust of wind blew the door shut.
         fitful gusts of wind 阵阵的狂风
         a gust of anger 勃然大怒
6. empty
   v. to transfer or pour off completely;
       to remove the contents of; to become empty
Examples:
        empty one‘s glass into the sink
        The traveler emptied out all his pockets onto
     the table, but still couldn't find his passport.
        This dreadful film soon emptied the cinema of
     people.
7. club
         n. a. heavy stick with one end thicker than          the other, suitable for the use as a
weapon
              b. an implement used in some games to drive a ball
          v. a. to strike or beat with a club
              b. to join or combine for a common purpose
          v. a. to strike or beat with a club
              b. to join or combine for a common purpose
8. slight
    a. not serious or important; small
Examples:
      The differences between the two pictures are very slight.
      do something without the slightest difficulty, or with no difficulty at all
      She takes offence at the slightest things. (= She is very easily offended.)
9. down
       ad. towards the direction in which one is
facing; toward or in the south; southward; away
from a place considered a center of activity, such
as a city or town
Examples:
      He lives just down the street.
      Go down the road till you reach the traffic lights.
      fly down to Florida
      He was sent down to work at the firm's regional office.
10. lean
       v. (against/on something) to rest on
  something in a sloping position for support
Examples:
      a ladder leaning against the wall
      The old man leant upon his stick.
      lean on somebody‘s arm, one‘ s elbows, etc.
11. straight
      a. a. accurate and without additions; not
    modified or elaborate
           b. (of a person, his behavior, etc.) honest;
    truthful
Examples:
     tell a straight story 实事求是地讲一件事
     give a straight answer to a straight question 直率地回答直率的问题
     I do not think you are being straight with me. 我认为你对我不够坦诚.
     It is time for some straight talking. (= some frank discussion)
12. strike
        v. to hit sharply or forcefully; to collide or
 crash into; to make an attack; to ignite by
 friction; to come suddenly to the mind of
Examples:
     He struck his opponent a tremendous blow on the jaw.
     Lightening struck in several places but no one was hurt.
     These damp matches won‘t strike.
     A thought struck him like a silver dagger.
13. keen
    a. a. (of the senses) highly developed
          b. (of the mind) quick to understand
          c. (of the points and cutting edges of
   knives, etc.) sharp
Examples:
     Dogs have a keen sense of smell.
     a keen wit/intelligence
     a keen blade/edge
        sharp
  a. a. having a fine edge or point; capable
      of cutting or piercing; not blunt
                    b. quickly aware of things; acute; alert
                    c. quick, brisk, vigorous
                    d. intended or intending to criticize,
      injure, etc.; harsh; severe
Examples:
     The shears aren't sharp enough to cut the grass.
     It was very sharp of you to notice the detail straight away. 你真机灵,一下子就注意到
     这一细节。
     a sharp struggle 激烈的斗争
     She was very sharp with me when I forgot my book.
14. oddly
      ad. in a strange or peculiar manner
Examples:
     behave oddly 行为怪异
    be oddly dressed 衣着奇异
    She looked at him very oddly. 她怪模怪样地看着他。
    Oddly enough, we were just talking about the same thing. 说来也奇怪,我们刚谈的正是
    这件事。
15. figure
     v. to think; to consider or regard; to calculate;
          to conclude, believe, or predict
Examples:
         I figured that you would not come.
         I figured them as con artists.
         I never figured that this would happen.
         Sam couldn‘t figure out how to print a
       program until the teacher showed him how.
16. exclaim
       v. to cry out suddenly and loudly from pain,
 anger, surprise, etc.
Examples:
    ―What,‖ he exclaimed, ―Are you leaving without me?‖
    He could not help exclaiming at how much his son had grown.
    He exclaimed that it was untrue.
17. moderately
       ad. to a moderate extent; not very; quite; not
 too well, not too badly either
Examples:
    a moderately good performance

    a moderately expensive house

    She only did moderately well in the exam.
18. outline
     v. to give a short general description of
(something); to summarize
     n. a statement, summary of a written
work or speech; a preliminary draft or plan
Examples:
      an outline of American literature
      We outlined our main objections to the
     proposal.
19. brilliant
       a. a. very bright; sparkling
             b. very intelligent; highly skilled or talented
             c. causing admiration; outstanding;
                  exceptional
Examples:
      brilliant sunshine
      a brilliant diamond
      a brilliant scientist
      She has a brilliant mind.
      a brilliant achievement
      The play was a brilliant success.
20. release v.
Examples:
      He was released from the prison.(let free)
      The news was released in yesterday‘s New York Times. (made known)
      She needed to do something to release her tension. (get rid of)
      We could release you from your duties for two days. Meanwhile, you take a good rest.
      (allow you not to do your work)
21. steady
       a. firmly fixed, supported, or balanced;
not shaking, rocking or likely to fall over
Examples:
      He‘s not very steady on his legs after his illness.
      Such fine work requires a steady hand and a steady eye.
      She was trembling with excitement, but her voice was steady.
22. air
       n. impression given; appearance or
manner
Examples:
         smile with a triumphant air
         do things with an confident air (confidently)
         The place has an air of mystery.
       (The place looks mysterious.)
1. (every) now and then/again
 at irregular intervals; occasionally

Examples:
   I like to go to the opera now and then.
   Now and then she went upstairs to see if he was still asleep.

2. up (to sb./sth.)
      so as to be close to (a specified person
or thing)
Examples:
     He came up to me and asked the time.
     She went straight up to the door and knocked loudly.
     A car drove up and he got in.
3. make certain
          a. make certain (that…): to inquire in order
                 to be sure about sth.
          b. make certain of sth./of doing sth.: to do
                 sth. in order to be sure of (doing) sth. else
Examples:
      I think there‘s a train at 8:20 but you
     ought to make certain.
      You‘d better leave now if you want to
     make certain of getting there on time.
4. tear down
          to bring sth. to the ground by pulling sharply; demolish sth.; take apart; disassemble

Examples:
        They‘re tearing down these old houses to
      build a new office block.
        tear down an engine
5. on one‘s way
She is __________ out the door.
I ran into them __________.
Winter is __________.
I like the new styles, ________.
We can‘t see the sea well because there are some buildings _______________.

6. bring up
 to raise, rear, or educate sb.

Examples:
     She brought up five children.
     Her parents died when she was a baby and she was brought up by her aunt.
     He was brought up to respect authority
7. for a time
for a fairly short time; for a short period
Example:
        For a time he was one of my best friends.
Cf. Translate these sentences:
1. I slept for ten hours at a time last night.
2. At one time they used to mine coal in these valleys.
3. Can you share a room for the time being? We‘ll let you have one on your own next week.
4. She will back in time to prepare dinner.
8. keep track of
          to pay attention to sb. or sth. so that you know where they are or what is happening to
them
Cf. lose track of: fail to do sth.

Examples:
        Have you kept track of the stock market?
        I have lost track of its latest development.
9. turn up
            to find or to be found; to happen
unexpectedly; to arrive or to appear; to fold
or be capable of folding up
Examples:
     Something turned up and I was unable to go.
     The papers will turn up sooner or later.
     The police were ordered to arrest him as soon as he turned up.
     A tall man, with collar turned up to his ears, hurried to him.
     The hall was full and hundreds of fans had to be ________.
     We politely ______ the invitation.
     She ______ the problem in her mind.
     The movie ______ to be a great success.
     It really ___ me ___ to see you biting your fingernails.
     This is a poor piece of work you‘ve ______.
     I can‘t tell my parents about it; I don‘t know who to ______.
10. arm in arm
 adverbial use of these noun phrases, other
expressions of the same pattern are shoulder to
shoulder, face to face, hand in hand and so on.
Examples:
     They fought shoulder to shoulder against their common enemy.
     Let us sit down and discuss the matter face to face.
     He had to move inch by inch toward the top of the mountain.
     We don‘t see eye to eye on this problem.
     We must lower our taxes step by step.
11. gaze upon/at/into
 to look at sb./sth. steadily, intently, and with a fixed attention

Examples:
     She was the most beautiful woman he had ever gazed upon.
     She sat gazing at the fire/gazing out of the window.
Stare is to gaze fixedly, indicating curiosity,    boldness, insolence, or stupidity.
       He stared at me, trying to remember who I was.
Gape suggests a prolonged open-mouthed look reflecting amazement, awe, or lack of
intelligence.
       They gaped at me when I told them about the
    gold I had found.
Glare is to fix another with a hard, piercing stare.
       She glared furiously at me when I contradicted
    him.
12. under arrest
  under here means being in the state
or the process of sth.

Examples:
   under control
   under heavy influence
   under attack
   under repair
   under construction


Word Building

Prefix—tele-
telescope
telecommunication
teleconference
telephone
teleplay
television
telegraph
望远镜
电讯
电话会议
电话
电视广播剧
电视
电报
Suffix— -ian
Exercises:
       A _________ is a person whose job is to play
     a musical instrument.
       A _________ is a skilled scientific or industrial
     worker.
       A ________ is a person who works in politics.
Exercises:
      A ______ is someone in stories who can use
    magic.
      A _______is someone whose job is to tell
    jokes and make people laugh.
      A _________ is a formal word for ‗doctor‘ in
    American English.
Exercises:
      A ___________ is a person who studies,
        understands or uses mathematics in his work.
          A librarian is a person who
        _________________________________.
          A historian is a person who
        ________________________________.
     Exercises:
          An electrician is a person whose job is
        _________________________________.
          A vegetarian is a person who
        _________________________________.
          A beautician is a person whose
        job_______________________________
        ________.


     Grammar

     The past participle
     1. 她的工作就是照料这个伤员。
          (作前置定语)
     2. 他生长在乡下,对这座大城市感到迷惑。                            (作原因状语)
     3. 她虽然爬得很累, 但她仍继续前进。                        (作让步状语)
     4. 火情据报已被控制。
          (作主语补足语)
     5. 那人掏出一块漂亮的怀表,表盖上镶满了钻石。                               (独立结构
     1. Her job was to take care of the wounded soldier.
     2. Born and bred in the countryside, he was bewildered by the big city.
     3. Although exhausted by the climb, she continued her journey.
     4. The fire is reported controlled.
     5. That man pulled out a handsome watch, the lid of it set with small diamonds.
     1. His tiepin was a large diamond, oddly set. (para. 6)
     2. The few foot passengers in that quarter hurried dismally and silently along with coat collars
     turned high and pocketed hands.
     (para. 18)
     3. The man from the west unfolded the little piece of paper handed to him. (para. 32)
     4. I was at the appointed place on time. (para. 33)
     5. … I saw it was the face of the man wanted in Chicago. (para. 33)




     Lesson 15          Touched by the Moon
I.         Word Study
     1. awe
         n. a mixed emotion of reverence, respect, dread, and wonder inspired by authority, genius,
great beauty, sublimity, or might
      v. to inspire with awe
Cf.
awe-struck (= awe-stricken)
awe-inspiring                   an awe-inspiring sight
令人望而生畏的情景
     Savages often live in awe of nature.
       They were awed into silence at the sight of          Qomolangma.
       We stood in awesome silence before the ancient ruins. (a. inspiring awe)
2. bottomless
Examples:
     a bottomless gorge (too deep to be measured)
     one of the bottomless mysteries of life (difficult or impossible to understand)
     bottomless reserves of energy (having no limitations or bounds; limitless)
       a deep metaphysical theory
                深奥的形而上学理论
3. caretaker
     n. a person whose job is to look after a building such as a school; a person who looks
after the rest-house
Cf.
     carefree
                  a. without responsibilities, or worries; cheerful (逍遥自在的)
     careworn
       a. showing signs of much worry (忧心忡忡的)
Example:
              an old and careworn face
     fire fighter
     football player
     trouble maker
     mountain climber
     weight lifter
     carmaker

     cotton-grower
     house-keeper
     beer-drinker
truck-driver
4. chink

    n. narrow opening; crack; slit
Examples:
     Sunlight entered the room through a chink in
   the curtains.
     He peeped through a chink in the fence.
   a chink in sb.’s armour (idiom): weak point or
                  flaw in sb.‘s argument, character, etc.
   5. concerning
   Examples:
        a letter concerning your complaint
        I spoke to him concerning his behavior.
   Cf. concerned
               a. interested and involved; anxious; troubled
          Send a memorandum to those concerned.
          She looked up with a concerned air.
        So (As) far as I am concerned, this arrangement
         is satisfactory. (就······来说,就······而论)
   6. constant
Examples:
        He was tired of his wife‘s constant complaints.
        The birthrate in some countries is constant.
        The guiding dog was the blind man‘s constant companion.
   7. flank
    a. of very great size or extent

    Examples:
       a gigantic person, with a gigantic proportions
       a gigantic effort, improvement, success, etc.
       a problem of gigantic proportions

    Synonyms:
    enormous, monumental, huge, tremendous
    immense, vast, mammoth, colossal
    8. gigantic
    9. gleam v./ n.
               The moonlight gleamed on the river.
              月光在河面上闪烁。
           Amusement gleamed in his eyes.
              他眼睛流露出愉快的神情。
           A faint light glimmered at the end of the corridor.
              走廊的尽头闪着一星微光。
           The metal glowed in the furnace.
     金属在熔炉里发出灼热的光。
            A hot sun glared down on the desert.
               火热的太阳强烈地照射在沙漠上。
    10. harsh
     a. (light) unpleasant and too bright;
unpleasantly rough or sharp, esp. to the
senses
Examples:
           a harsh texture, voice, light, taste, climate, punishment, words, etc.
           be harsh to the ear/eye/touch
     11. hiss
      v. to make a sound like that of a long ―s‖
Examples:
           Snakes hiss when angry.
           The stream escaped with a loud hissing noise.
           A fire hisses if water is thrown on it.
           The goose hissed at me angrily.
           The audience hissed its displeasure.
           12. rest-house
      n. a house for the use of travelers, esp. in areas where there are no hotels
rest-cure
n. long period of rest, usually in bed, as medical treatment for stress, anxiety, etc. (休养疗法)
rest-home
n. place where old or convalescent people are cared for (养老院, 疗养院)
rest-room
n. public lavatory in e.g. a theatre, store (洗手间)
     13. supernatural
              a. that cannot be explained by natural or physical laws; of the world of spirits, magic,
etc.
      super 超级 + natural 自然的
Examples:
           supernatural beings: angels and devils
           Witches are believed to have supernatural powers.
Translation:
超级大国 superpower
超级明星 superstar
超市 supermarket
超人 superman
高速公路 superhighway
     14. swollen

      a. (a past participle of swell) of an
increased size, bigger than usual; (fig.)
overblown; exaggerated

Examples:
        Her eyes were red and swollen with weeping.
        The river was swollen with melted snow.
        He‘s very swollen-headed about his success. (自高自大)
        a swollen opinion of oneself
   15. tumble
         v. to fall or roll end over end; spill or roll out in confusion; pitch headlong; collapse; come
upon accidentally
         The kittens tumbled over each other.
          Schoolchildren tumbled out of the bus.
          The old man tumbled on a patch of ice.
          The walls came tumbling down.
          We tumbled on a first-rate restaurant.
    16. underneath
         prep. beneath; below
Examples:
         She found a lot of dust underneath the carpet.
         What does a Scotsman wear underneath his kilt?
         Caving means exploring the passages underneath the hills.
    16. underneath
Under and below are similar in meaning.
Under is the most common word; beneath is a bit old-fashioned.
Cf.
on the desk,
over the desk,
above the desk,
under the desk,
below the desk,
underneath
(beneath) the desk


    Phrases and Expressions

     1. be typical of
         to have the usual features or qualities of a particular group or thing
Examples:
             It is typical of the weather in Beijing. The
      winter is long and the spring is very short.
             My father never throws away anything. That is
      quite typical of his generation.
             This is a building typical of the Baroque Period.
      (典型的巴洛克时期的建筑)
2. drive out
     1. drive out
     2. drive away
     3. drive to
     4. drive off
     5. drive in
     6. drive at
   7. drive out of
1. 风吹打着我的脸。
2. 我不明白您的意思。
3. 他们驱车去超级市场。
4. 风把云刮走了。
5. 他试图打消失败的念头。
6. 饥饿迫使她们出卖自己的肉体。
7. 中国人民八年抗战赶走了日本侵略者。
8. 我只好用扇子驱赶苍蝇。
   1. The wind drove in/into my face.
   2. I don't understand what you're driving at.
   3. They drove to (prep.) the supermarket.
   4. The wind drove the clouds away.
   5. He tried to drive out any thought of failure.
   6. Hunger was driving them to (to do) sell their bodies.
   7. It took the Chinese people eight years to drive
    out the Japanese invader.
8. I had to drive off the flies with a fan.
   1. 3. drum into
       to make known to or force upon (a person) by constant repetition
Examples:
              Our teacher used to drum our multiplication
    tables into us.
              drum the answers into my head
            He was drummed out of the army.
             They drummed the captain off the ship.
             The minister has managed to drum up some support
      for the idea.
   4. due to

              1. be due to do sth.: expected or scheduled
              2. due to (prep.)= because of
     Examples:
           The Global Forum is due to last for three days.
           The team‘s success was largely due to her
         efforts.
           He arrived late due (owing) to the storm.
           Mistakes due to carelessness may have
         serious consequences.
           Due to the change, a scheduled visit to a
         factory has been cancelled.
     5. fall on
fall for
fall back
fall down
fall into
fall off
fall out
fall to
     1. The wolf fell on the lamb and devoured it.
     2. What day does Christmas fall on?
     3. My wife fell for the cottage as soon as she saw it.
     4. As the enemy advanced we fell back.
     5. The old lady fell down on a patch of ice and broke her leg.
     6. He all at once fell into a state of profound melancholy.
     7. Sales are falling off for no apparent reason.
     8. Everything fell out as we had planned.
     9. The author fell to writing again.
fall on         在(某一天)        ;猛攻,向······猛扑
fall for       爱上, 喜欢; 听信,接受
fall back 后退, 后撤
fall down 跌倒,垮下来;失败,不解决问题
fall into    开始······起来;陷入某种状态
fall off       减少; 质量下降, 水平降低
fall out      解散;发生,结果,发展;争吵,不合
fall to        开始(做某事)
     6. mean sth. to sb.

          to be of value or importance to sb.

   Examples:
        You do not know how much you mean to me.(how much I like you)
        Your friendship means a great deal to me.
        Money means nothing to him.
Other possible uses:
        1) what do you mean by opening all these windows?
       to mean + n./pron.
        2) The rain means delaying the harvesting time.
       to mean + gerund (phrase)
        3) I‘m sorry for what I said. I didn‘t mean to hurt you.
       to mean + to-infinitive (phrase)
        4) This means that it is impossible to change his mind.
       to mean + that-clause
        5) The boxes of food and medicine are meant for people in the area hit by the flood.
       to be meant + for...
   1. 7. measure out

      to give a measured quantity of sth.
Example:
             He measured out the right quantity of medicine.

Cf.
             Does he measure up for the job?
             I measured the coat against her and found it
     was too long.
             He measured off 6 yards of material.
          8. reflect on
            to think deeply about, or remind oneself of
past events; consider; give evidence of the
qualities of
Examples:
          I need time to reflect on your offer/what you offered.
          She reflected on his argument about that problem.
          The hasty preparation of this report reflects on you.
     这份仓促而就的报告使你受到指责。
    9. point to
       to show sb. sth. by holding up a finger toward it

Cf.
      to point sth. at sb.: to aim sth. at sb.
             He pointed a gun at me.
      to point out: to tell sb. sth. that he/she did
       not know or has not thought about
              He pointed out my mistakes.
         10. the sight of
sth. worth seeing; a spectacle
Examples:
          the sights of London 伦敦的风光

      a sight of: a large number or quantity
            A sight of people were there.

      Word Building
     1. Suffix -ous
This suffix, from French, is used to form adjectives meaning ―full of, or having‖.
e.g. glorious = having glories
     anxiety courage envy
     grace
     humor mountain mystery danger ridicule
     fame
     poison religion
anxious
courageous
envious
gracious
humorous
mountainous
mysterious
dangerous
ridiculous
famous
poisonous
religious
     2.Suffix –ist
This suffix, from French and Latin, is used to form nouns meaning ―a person who practices or is
concerned with sth.‖.

e.g. typist = a person whose job is to type letters and reports, etc. in an office
         artist 艺术家
           chemist 化学家
           economist 经济学家
           industrialist 工业家
           novelist 小说家
           pianist 钢琴家
           scientist 科学家
           sociologist 社会学家
           specialist 专家
         environmentalist 环保主义者
           realist 现实主义者
           idealist 理想主义者
           internationalist 国际主义者
           socialist 社会主义者
           receptionist 招待员
           typist 打字员
           terrorist 恐怖分子
           rapist 强奸犯

     Grammar

       verb + -ing

 verb + -ing word can be used in the following situations:

a.   Present participle used as adverbial
b.   Present participle used as attribute
c.   Gerund used as object
d.    Gerund used as object complement
e.    Adjectives used as attributive (名词前定语)
     (1) (a) Driving to a friend's house on a recent evening, I was awe-struck by the sight of the
         full moon (b) rising just above Manila rooftops, huge and swollen, yellow through the
         dust and smoke of the city. (Para. 1)

(2) I stopped to watch it for a few moments, (a) reflecting on what a pity it was that... (Para. 1)
     (3) He grew up (a) living in a forest in Europe, and the moon meant a lot to him then. (Para.
          2)

(4) It had touched many aspects of his life, including those (b) concerning his ordinary daily life.
(Para. 2)
     (5) I can remember (a) going out at 10pm and (a) seeing the great Nanda Devil mountain like
         a ghost on the horizon, (b) gleaming white in the moonlight... (Para. 3)

(6) ... we stayed in village style clay huts at the edge of a wheat field, with a cold river (d)
tumbling over rocks a few yards away. (Para. 4)
    (7) ... and we could see the stones in the river, and watch the deer and antelope (a) crossing,
         almost half a kilometre away. (Para. 4)

(8) I also remember (a) sitting on the beach at San Antonio in Zambales, one night in the
Philippines about two years ago, (a) watching the South China Sea hiss against the sand. (Para. 5)
1. I‘m sorry the furniture seems ______ by some insects.
     A. to be largely eaten
     B. to have been largely eaten
     C. being largely eaten
     D. having been largely eaten
2. It was impossible to avoid _____ by the stormy weather.
     A. being much affected
     B. having much affected
     C. to be much affected
     D. to have been much affected
3. As I will be away for at east a year, I‘d
     appreciate _____ from you now and then telling
     me how everything is going on.
     A. to hear             B. hear
     C. hearing                  D. having heard
4. We were compelled to dismount, ______.
     A. the hillside was too steep
     B. the hillside being too steep
     C. the hillside was being too steep
     D. for the hillside being too steep
5. _____ three times, I must keep silent now; it is no
     use to say anything more.
     A. Advising him                 B. Having advised him
     C. Advised him                            D. To advise him
6. John has the report _____ as soon as he finished
       _____ it.
     A. to be typed, to write        B. typed, to write
     C. being typed, writing          D. typed, writing
7. Even if ______ , I won‘t go.
     A. invited                 B. being invited
     C. having been invited            D. being known
8. A few animals sometimes fool their enemies ______
     to be dead.
     A. appear           B. to appear
     C. by appearing           D. to be appearing
9. ______ , a man who expresses himself effectively is
     sure to succeed more rapidly than a man whose
     command of language is poor.
     A. Other things being equal
     B. Were other things equal
     C. To be equal to other things
     D. Other things to be equal
10. All things ______, the planned trip will have to be
        called off.
        A. considered          B. be considered
        C. considering         D. having considered
B A C B B
D A C A A

				
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