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									Ma   n t
Quality Producer of Sintered NdFeB Magnets
                                    History
                                          1989
          Outokumpu Magnets Oy created production of sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets in
                    Ulvila at a pilot plant with state-of-the-art equipment .




                                          1991
     Outokumpu Magnets Oy acquired the production license from Sumitomo Special Metals.




                                          1995
The ownership of Outokumpu Magnets Oy was expanded and Neorem Magnets Oy was established.




                                          1997
  Neorem Magnets Oy's ownership has grown and included Finnish National Fund for Research
   and Development(SITRA), management of the company, Outokumpu Oyj, Karhu Venture
   Capital and Ganal Venture Capital. Neorem Magnets Oy has become to be the second largest
                               sintered NdFeB producer in Europe.




                                          2004
              China subsidiary, Neorem Magnets Ningbo Co. Ltd. was established.
                                                                Introduction




Neorem Magnets Oy is one of the most modern NdFeB magnet factories in the Western World. The
modern automated plant is located in Ulvila, Finland . Neo rem M agnet s Oy p roduces ma gn ets
fo r w in d power turbines, large mo tors and telecommunications, etc.
Neorem Magnets Oy offers:
 Full range of un iaxial, transv erse and isostatic NdFeB grades
 Full range of different shape s
 Nickel, Tin, and other special coatings
 Assemblies of magnetic circuits and rotors
 Magnet circuit design

Neorem Magnets Oy serves its customers with good quality and flexibility. Fast sample deliveries
and quick answers to customers are carrie d out with the he lp o f t he s ki lled p ers on nel in orde r
to a c hi e v e the most o ptimal solution to the magnet selections, Neorem Magnets Oy offers also
its designing skills for the customer's application.

In addition to manufacturing activities, Neorem Magnets Oy offers also service to source magnets for its
clients in the global market.
Neorem Magnets Oy adopts Environmental Policy, conforming to the objectives of ISO 14001:2004,
based on the commitment to sustainable development in product design, i.e.to protect the
environment, minimize the waste of renewable and non-renewable resources and to reduce energy
consumption as a part of a continuous improvement program.

Neorem Magnets Oy values also the importance of creating a work environment that is socially
responsible and that favors the professional growth of all employees, in compliance with local and
international laws and human rights.
Manufacturing processes
                    Process route
                          NdFeB alloys


                     Hydrogen Decrepitation


                            Jet Miling


                   Alighment in Magnetic Field


                             Pressing


                   Sintering and Heat treatment
 Ulvila, Finland                                        Ningbo, China
 Piece by piece                                         Large blocks,
pressed magnets                                   to be cut into final shapes



Surface Grinding                              ID slicing or wirecutting


     Coating                                             Coating


Quality Control                                     Quality Control


  Magnetizing                                        Magnetizing


 Packaging and                                       Packaging and
   Dispatch                                            Dispatch
Manufacturing
process

The alloy is pulverized by hydrogen decrepitation into particles.
Jet milling is in order to achieve the right particle size range of fine powders.
The particles are pressed in a magnetic field to align their polarity, magnets are either
individually die pressed to end shape or to large blocks, the large blocks are to be
cutted into end shapes after sintering and heat-treatment.
The material is sintered at a temperature over 1,000℃, and heat treated.
At Ulvila plant, the end-shaped magnets are ground. At Ningbo plant, magnet blocks
must be purchased either from Ulvila or other block suppliers, through ID slicing,
wire-cutting operations, the final magnet shapes are formed.
Surface coating
Quality Inspection
Magnetizing
Packaging and dispatch




                                            Raw Materials
                                           Neorem Magnets has two types of raw materials in use : ordin ary
                                           book mold and strip cast alloys. Strip cast alloys are the latest
                                           development in production technology for casting rare earth alloys
                                           and they provide a more homogeneous microstructure and better
                                           chemical stability.


                                           Ordinary book mold alloys are used for the Neorem 400 series, where
                                           over 15 different grades are available.


                                           Over 10 different grades of the Neorem 500 series are based on strip
                                           cast alloys. This series is recommended especially for servo motor
                                           applications.
Hydrogen Decrepitation                                                  Nd2 Fe14 B
                                                                                     +Hydrogen

Crushing                                                                Nd-rich



The lumps and strips of the alloys are pulverized with the hydrogen
decrepitation process. When exposed to hydrogen at room temperature
hydrates are formed inside the metal in an exothermic process which
creates large stresses and microcracks inside the alloy and the metal
is crushed into particles (< 2 mm).
Fine Milling
After the hydrogen decrepitation process the alloys are milled into very fine particles (3-5 microns)
in a jet mill. In a jet mill the coarse particles in the milling chamber are agitated vigorously with high
pressure nitrogen so that the particles hit each others and mill themselves. A cyclone separates the
finest particles an d the rig ht p owde r fraction is homogenized in a conical m ixer. The powder is
stored in special powder vessels under a shielding gas.
Alignment in Magnetic
Field
     A xial        Transverse        Dia metrical                                                            R adial



      N           N          S

                      Pressing
    Pres sing




                  N          S




Magnets are either individually die pressed or machined from isostatically pressed blocks. Isostatic
pressing (i-grades) gives a 3-5 % higher reman ence than ax ial die press i ng. In die p re ssi n g the
powde r p articl es are aligne d before compaction by a magnetic fi eld. The magnetic field is either
parallel ( axial, a-grades) or perpen dicular (tran sverse, t-grades) to the direction of pressing. Better
alignment and higher remanence are achieved by transverse pressing than by axial pressing.

In axially pressed arc segment the alignment can be either diametriacl or radial.
In isostatic pressing the powder which is inside the rubber mold is aligned in a pulse magnetizer.




                                              .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .                                                                        .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   . .   . . . .   .   .   .
                                              .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .                                                                        .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   . .   . . . .   .   .   .
                                              .   . . .     .   . .     ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .                                                                        . .     ..    . .     .   ..   .   . .   . . ..    . .     .
                                              .   . . .     .   . .     ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .                                                                         . .    ..     . .    .   ..   .   . .   . . ..     . .     .




Grey: Pressing force             Isostatic
Blue: Magnetic field             pressing                                                                                                                                                                                                             Perpendicular
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      pressing


                                                                                                                                                                                       Parallel
                                                                                                                   .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                   .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                   .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .
                                                                                                                   .   .   . .   .   .   .   ..   .   .   .   .   . . .   .   .   .




                                                                                                                                                                                       pressing
Pressing




Neorem Magnets has mechanical and hydraulic presses from 6 tons to 140 tons with fully
automatic handling of green compacts. The si ze of die pressed m agnets varies from some
grams up to kilograms. Our 140 tons press allow s the p ressin g of la rge m agnets for ex ample
100x100x25mm.


Neorem has very flexible computer assisted tool design syste m. A press tool can be obtained
within 3-6 weeks depending on the size. In several cases the delivery time can be shortened.
Sintering and Heat Treatment
There are three different process steps in sintering and annealing: sintering,
post-sinter annealing and heat treatment.
Porosity of green comp acts disappears during sintering and they become
fully dense metallic parts. The other steps are needed for optimum intrinsic
coercivity.
Neorem Magnets has the most modern sintering furnaces which together
with the process control system guaran tee optimum and consistent
magnetic properties.
Machining
Neorem Magnets has a large variety of grinding and slicing machines: through feed and batch
surface grinders, through feed arc segment grinding machines, centerless grinders, grinding
machine for rings, CNC profile grinding m achin e, OD diamond slicing machines, ID diamond
slicing machine.
Neorem has developed fully automatic feeding of arc segments into the through feed grinding
machine where the position of the magnet in f eeding is determin ed by laser which en abl es
one oper ator to use s eve ral mach ine s simultaneously.
Coating
Neodymium Iron Boron magnets are susceptible to corro sion and
consideration should be given to the operating environment to determine
if coating is necessary. In environments where corrosion is possible, the
magnets can be protected with epoxy-, metallic epoxy- or metal coatings.
Neorem has an in -hous e automatic electrolytic Ni- an d Ni+Sn- coating       Plating
                                                                              so lution   Anode
line. Together with sub contractors Neorem can offer epoxy, for example
                                                                                          Cathode
black epoxy and metallic epoxy coatings.                                      Magnets     contacts
Depending on the environment and the use of the magnets, Neorem and
subcontractors will find the m ost suitable protection for each application
due to our know-how and experience in this field. Magnets can also be
delivered phophatized for protection during transportation and storage.
Coatings are tested with salt spray tests, autoclave tests or any other
specified tests up on customers specifications.
Magnetizing and Packing
Permanent magnet materials are composed of small regions i.e. "domains" each of which exhibit a net
magnetic moment. In an unmagnetized magnet grains consist of antiparallel multiple domains, providing
a net magnetic moment of zero. Magnetizing fields move the domain boundaries so that the grains become
parallel single domains to give a net, externally observable field.

The magnetization of magnets is done in a copper coil with a pulse magnetizer. In the pulse magnetizer
banks of capacitors are charged with electricity which is transferred via a semiconductor switch into the
coil in a few milliseconds. The magnetic field strength needed for the sintered Nd-Fe-B magnets is 2400
kA/m.




                                                               1

                                                              0,9

                                                              0,8
                                                                                                            C
Unmagnetized (A)   Partially magnetized (B)   Saturated (C)   0,7

                                                              0,6

                                                              0,5

                                                              0,4                               B
                                                              0,3

                                                              0,2       A
                                                              0,1

                                                               0
                                                                    0   50 0   1000     15 00       2000   2500   300 0

                                                                                      H ( kA/m )

The magnets are visually inspected a nd packed f or dis patch in our packi ng de partm ent. Neorem is
open to discuss the most cost efficient packing with the customer.
Quality Control
Q ua li ty C on tro l i s a c ri ti cal s te p i n o ur m anu factur i ng pr ocess and the
leadership in Ne orem has put great emphasis i n its quality management.
The Ch i na s u b s i d i a ry s o o n a f t er i t s es t a b l is h m en t h a s a l r e ad y b e en
g i ve n s tro n g f o c u s t o f o ll o w IS O 9 00 1 : 2 00 0 q ua li ty standard in its
production, and quality syste ms were aud ited and ce rtified respe ctively
by Lioyds Registe r and Swiss S GS for Ulvila and Ningb o sites .
The Neorem process is designed to produce high quality. Statistical Process
Control is utilized at every process stage. The magnetic properties are
checked both after sintering and prior to delivery.




Checking of magnetic properties:
Hysteresisgraph:
Hysteresisgraph is used for measuring the demagnetization curve, including
the remanance, Br, and intrinsic coercivity force, J H C.
Ne o r em M ag n e t s h a s com p ut e r i z ed hy ste re s isgrap h b ot h at U lvi la and
Ni ng bo si tes. Th e ge n eral p urpos e instrumen t can be used to analyze all
type s of pe rm an ent ma gn ets .The m easur eme n ts at elevated temperature can
also be performed with a particular fixture.




Although the demagnetization curve includes most magnetic information, its
measurement is rather time consum ing and expensive. Fo r p r o duc t i o na l
pu r p os e checkin g of magnetic properties are often conducted by Helmh oltz
coil measurements. With the calibrated Helmholtz coil and integrated fluxmeter,
given volume of the magnets, the magnetic moment o f a sample can the n be
calculated b ase d o n the flux reading.
Density of the magnets is also a critical property of the sintered material,
failing of achiev ing of the right density can also lead to un satis fie d
mag netic properties. Neorem has routine control of the density to all the
produced magnets.




Dimension Checking by Micrometer and Image Analyzer

Magnets are carefully sampled according to the statistic rules and Cpk
value is m easure d; For irregular shaped m agnets , imag e analyzer is used
to determine the curve shapes.




Environmental testing :
For coated NdFeB magnets, sometimes environmental testing, i.e. S a l t
spray and PCT, are required to predict product stability and performance
in a wide range of conditions. In these tests m aterials are exposed to
various environments and the quality of the coating can be checked.
Magnetic Circuit Design for Customer solutions

In order to guarantee all the magnets’ functionality in sensor application, Neorem has special
dedicated teachnical team in its organization to design new magnets for any appli cations.
The o utput of the design will give recommendations to customer in relation to following aspects:

 The magnet dimension and shape
 Magnetization direction
 Magnet grade
 Surface protection
 Temperature tolerance
 Every variation in every property of the magnet
 To gurantee the perfect working of the magnetic circuit.




  Magnetic trajectory



            Magnetic polarization




   Hall-sensor detection direction
                                                   To achieve the goal, Neorem has specially developed
                                                   Softw are base d on a 2D/3D s m odel to simulate the
                                                   m agn et wo rki ng e n v i ro n m en t and t ak in g m agne t
                                                   trajectory factors into consideration.
Products




Neorem Grades
                                                  Remanence     Coercivity          Intrinsic        Energy   Product
   400-        500-                                             normal
  Series      Series       IEC- Pressing            B r [T]                                                       3
                                                                    H c [KA/m]         H c [KA/m]      BHMax [Kj/m ]
  product     product      name method                          B                  J


                                                  Nom    Min    Nom        Min     Nom        Min     Nom       Min
             NEOREM 503i 360/95.0 Isostatic       1.41   1.38   1010        910    1050       950      380      360
NEOREM 412i NEOREM 512i   330/105    Isostatic    1.36   1.31   1040        1000   1120       1050     350      330
NEOREM 437i NEOREM 537i   310/120    Isostatic    1.32   1.27   1010        970    1350       1200     330      310
NEOREM 412t NEOREM 512t   310/105    Transverse   1.33   1.28   1020        980    1120       1050     340      310
NEOREM 437t NEOREM 537t   3000/120 Transverse     1.29   1.25   990         960    1350       1200     320      300
NEOREM 453t NEOREM 553t   280/140 Transverse      1.26   1.22   960        930     1500       1400     300      280
NEOREM 400a               280/95.0      Axial     1.28   1.23   970        920     1000        950     310      280
NEOREM 410a               270/100       Axial     1.25   1.20   950        890     1200       1000     300      270
NEOREM 412a NEOREM 512a   300/105       Axial     1.30   1.27   1000        950    1120       1050     320      300
NEOREM 437a NEOREM 537a   250/120       Axial     1.23   1.17   930         870    1350       1200     290      250
NEOREM 450a               220/140       Axial     1.15   1.10   870         820    1500       1400     250      220
NEOREM 453a NEOREM 553a 250/140         Axial     1.22   1.16   920         860    1500       1400     280      250
NEOREM 476a NEOREM 576a 250/155         Axial     1.20   1.15   910         860    1750       1550     270      250
NEOREM 490a             200/170         Axial     1.09   1.04   830         770    1900       1700     230      200
NEOREM 491a NEOREM 591a 230/170         Axial     1.16   1.11   880         830    1900       1700     250      230
NEOREM 493a NEOREM 593a 220/180         Axial     1.15   1.10   870         820    2100       1800     250      220
NEOREM 495a NEOREM 595a 200/210         Axial     1.10   1.05   830         780    2400                230      200
                                                                                              2100
NEOREM 499a NEOREM 599a 170/300         Axial     1.00   0.95   760         710    3200       3000     190      170




Note 1:All a-grades are also available in t- and i- grades
Note 2: t- grades and i- grades are available for limited dimensions and shapes only
The curve shapes of each magnet grade can be downloaded from Neorem Company web site:
www.neorem.fi
                                      Markets
From different kind of motors, generators to loudspeakers, and sensors, sintered NdFeB magnets or Neo
magnets are used in a wide range of applications. Neo magnets have the highest energy of all permanent
magnets, enabling the overall weight of a magnet system to be minimized. Since it was founded in 1989,
Neorem Magnets has become one of Europe' s leadi ng suppliers of the se magnets.


Ne ore m cu rren tl y p rod uces o ve r 2 0 di ffe re nt grad e s of N eo m a gnets . Th e c om pa ny specializes
in producing magnets for different motors, generators, as well as other applications, like sensors.
Neorem is a leading supplier of magnets for large motors and generators.


Corrosion-resistant grades - included in the Neorem 500 series - are available for servo motors and other
applications where enhanced corrosion resistance is called for. These grades give adequate protection
ag a i n st h u m i d i t y i n motor applications, so surface treatment is not needed. Their good corrosion
resistance is based on the use of strip cast alloys. Neorem is the only company in Europe with the special
production technology re quired for these alloys.
Growth in several areas

The use of sintered NdFeB magnets is expected to have significant increase in a
number of application areas in the years to come, including hybride vehicles,
special electric motors - for use in applications such as lifts, marine motors, and
paper production machinery - telecommunications, and wind power systems.

Neorem will now increase the capacity to produce large magnets for wind power
turbines, large motors, and similar applications, and the China inv estment has
also expanded its small magnet production capacity. This will help to bring
Neorem into much wider market opportunities.
                                Ma         n t

Head Quar ter:                                                   China Factory:
Neor em Ma gnets Oy, Fr iitalan tie 5, 2 8400 ULVIL A FIN LAND   Neorem Magnets Ning bo Co. Ltd.
Tel. + 358 2 52271                                               Nordic Industrial Park, 315221, Ningbo, China
Fax + 358 2 52272 27                                             Tel. +86-5 74 8630 5920 / 8630 5963
E-ma il: info @neo rem.fi                                        Fax +86-574 863 0 592 2
                                                                 E-mail: sales@n eorem.com.cn

								
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