幻灯片1 by wanghonghx

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									Lecture Three

Translation Methods
         Teaching Procedures

 I. Discussion of Assignment
II. Translation methods
    Step 1 Questions for discussion
    Step 2 Literal translation & free translation
    Step 3 Application of literal &free translation
    Step 4 Remedial Methods
    Step 5 Foreignizing & domesticating method
    Step 6 Other translation methods
III. Summary
IV. assignments
        Discussion of Assignment
•   I. Put the following into English or vice versa:
•    A)
•   1. delicate skin        娇嫩的皮肤
•   2. delicate porcelain 精致的瓷器
•   3. delicate living      奢侈的生活
•   4. delicate health 虚弱的身体
•   5. delicate stomach 容易吃坏的胃
•   6. delicate vase      易碎的花瓶
•   7. delicate diplomatic question 微妙的外交关系
•   8. delicate difference      细微的差别
•   9. delicate surgical operation 难做的外科手术
•   10. delicate sense of smell 灵敏的嗅觉
•   11. delicate touch     生花妙笔
•   12. delicate food      美味食品
         Discussion of Assignment

• B)
•   1. 申请书    letter of application
•   2. 报告书        report
•   3. 协议书       agreement
•   4. 说明书      directions/instruction
•   5. 旅行委托书        booking form
•   6. 成交确认书       sales confirmation
•   7. 电视机使用说明书 TV operation guide
•   8. 白皮书   white book/statement, document
•   9. 家书               letter (from) home
•   10. 文凭/毕业证书        diploma/degree certificate
         Discussion of Assignment
• C) Functional equivalent:
• 1. A little flattery would set him carried away.
       他只要听到几句恭维话就会得意忘形。
•   2. You can never be too careful in answering an English paper.
       答英语卷越认真越好。
•   3. Sumptuous banquets, financed by state money, have long been a
    bane on Chinese society.
      公费吃喝是群众反映强烈的不良之风之一。
•   4. The raising of twenty-five thousand pounds was a task altogether
    beyond her powers.
•     要筹集2万5千英磅她完全无力办得到。
•   5. The man who is above his business may one day find his business
    above him.
     不屑于干自己工作的人终有一天会发现自己不配干那份工作。
•   6. Money can make a mare go. 有钱能使鬼推磨。
•   7. 他非常讨厌多愁善感无病呻吟。
       He has a strong dislike for the sentimental.
•   8. Do you see any green in my eyes? 你认为我幼稚可欺吗?
           Translation Methods
Step 1 Questions for discussion
  What translation methods have you ever heard? What
      are they?
    What is word-for-word translation?
    What is dynamic translation?
    What is literal translation? What is the difference
     between word-for-word translation and literal
     translation?
    How do you understand domesticating and
     foreignizing?
    How do you understand the relationship between
     “literal translation and dynamic translation” and
     “domesticating and foreignizing”?
           Translation Methods
Step 2: Literal Translation &Free Translation

 What is literal translation?



     Literal translation is to translate something literally,
 that is, the translation will be definitely determined word
 for word, phrase for phrase, and the sequences of words
 and phrases will not be changed. The expression in the
 target language must be expressive and readable.
         Translation Methods
Step 2: Literal Translation &Free Translation
 For examples:

 to fish in troubled water 浑水摸鱼
 to add fuel to the fire 火上加油
 a gentleman’s agreement      君子协定
 paper tiger 纸老虎
 Blood is thicker than water. 血浓于水
 crocodile’s tears 鳄鱼的眼泪
         Translation Methods
Step 2: Literal Translation &Free Translation
 For examples:
 地方保护主义                     regional protectionism
 反不正当竞争 campaign against competition by inappropriate me
 礼仪小姐               ritual girl
 一国两制         one country, two system
 人才市场         talent market
 绿色长城            the Green Great Wall
 支柱产业             pillar industry
 追星族              star chaser
              Translation Methods
    Step 2: Literal Translation &Free Translation
     What is free translation?

•     Free translation, also called dynamic translation, is an
      alternative approach which is used mainly to convey the
      _________and_________ of the original without trying
      meaning          spirit
                        sentence patterns
      to reproduce its _______________or figures of speech   .
      A translator pays more attention to _________ and
                                           smoothness
•       elegance
      ___________ . But he or she has to be careful with
      faithfulness. Otherwise, it is not accepted translation.
             Translation Methods
                 Free Translation
Step 2: Literal Translation &Free Translation
 For examples:
1) Adam’s apple 喉结
2) biological parents 亲生父母
3) It rains cats and dogs (elephants and whales). 大雨滂沱
4) Will a duck swim?       那还用说吗?
5) Do you see any green in my eye? 你以为我是幼稚可欺的吗?
6) a nuclear family 小家庭
7) Justice has long arms.     天网恢恢,疏而不漏。
8) Last night I heard him driving his pigs to market.
    昨夜我听见他鼾声如雷。
9) The talk about raising taxes was a red flag to many voters.
     关于增税的谈论激怒了许多选民 。
10) They ran away as fast as their legs could carry them.
     他们拼命奔逃,连吃奶的力气都用上了。
                Translation Methods
Step 3: Application of Literal Translation &Free Translation
      a. Total equivalents :
     1. to go through fire and water   赴汤蹈火
     2. as easy as turning over one’s hand 易如反掌
     3. to kill two birds with one stone
                                           一石二鸟; 一箭双雕
     4. hang by a hair        千钧一发
     5. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.

           双鸟在林不如一鸟在手
     6. Beauty lies in the lover’s eyes.   情人眼里出美人
     7. More haste, less speed.
                                    欲速则不达
                Translation Methods
Step 3: Application of Literal Translation &Free Translation

  b. Similar structures or tones in both the languages
   1. Partly as a result of the recently increasing demand, wholesale
     tea prices have almost doubled.
      部分由于日益增长的需求, 批发茶价几乎翻了一翻。
   2. I read this letter with both surprise and excitement, surprise
      because he is still around, excitement because he didn’t even
      forget me.
       我读到他的信时即惊又喜, 惊的是他还健在, 喜的是
       他一直没有忘记我。
               Translation Methods
Step 3: Application of Literal Translation &Free Translation
     For examples:
     1.   draw blood 伤人感情; 惹人生气
     2.   hang on sb’s lips 言听计从
     3.   to be full of beans 精神旺盛; 精力充沛
     4.   bury one’s head in the sand 采取鸵鸟政策
     5.   move heaven and earth 想方设法; 千方百计
                Translation Methods
Step 3: Application of Literal Translation &Free Translation

     For examples:

     1. 黑心棉
          waste cotton
     2. 二进宫
         to get re-arrested by the police
     3. 四有新人
    a new generation of well-educated and self-disciplined
    people with lofty ideas and moral integrity
         Translation Methods
    Step 4           Remedial Methods
      Literal translation with explanations
 For examples:
1) 姜太公钓鱼, 愿者上钩。
  Like the fish rising to Chiang Tai Gong’s hookless and baitless
  line—willingly fall into the snare
2) 杞人忧天:
 like the man of Chi who was haunted by the fear that the sky might fall---
 unnecessary anxiety.
3) 史记: Shiji, Historical Records by Simaqian
4) 离骚: Li Sao, a long poem of patriotism
5) 红楼梦:
A Dream of Red Mansion/Shitouji/the Story of the Stone, Red Chamber,novel
in the early Qing Dynasty by Cao Xueqin
                    Translation Methods
               Step 4 Remedial Methods
Combination of literal and free translation with explanations
      For examples:
      1) 民工潮
        Farmers’ frenzied hunt for work in cities

      2) “三讲”教育:
         “Three emphasis ” education (to stress theoretical study, political
         awareness and conduct

      3) 安居工程:
           Housing project for low-income family
           Translation Methods
Step 5: Domesticating and Foreignizing
  • Foreignizing:
  • shed crocodile tears: 洒鳄鱼泪
  • have an ace up your sleeve:
       袖中藏有王牌(锦囊妙计, 归化)
  •   be armed to the teeth: 武装到牙齿
  •   keep face: 保全面子
  •   a stick-and-carrot policy:
      大棒加胡萝卜政策(打一巴掌再给个甜枣, 归化)
  •   They dare say no to the superpowers!
       他们敢对那些超级大国说不!
           Translation Methods

Step 5: Domesticating and Foreignizing
Domesticating:
• 一箭之遥: at a stone’s throw
• 挂羊头卖狗肉: cry wine and sell vinegar
• 鹤立鸡群: stand out like a peacock in a barnyard
• 山中无老虎,猴子称大王:
   Among the blind the one-eyed man is king.
• 过着牛马不如的生活: live a dog’s life
• 说曹操,曹操到:
    Talk of the devil, and the devil comes.
            Translation Methods
Step 5: Domesticating and Foreignizing
 Domesticating:
 • 一箭之遥: at a stone’s throw
 • 挂羊头卖狗肉: cry wine and sell vinegar
 • 鹤立鸡群: stand out like a peacock in a barnyard
 • 山中无老虎,猴子称大王:
    Among the blind the one-eyed man is king.
 • 过着牛马不如的生活: live a dog’s life
 • 说曹操,曹操到:
     Talk of the devil, and the devil comes.
         Translation Methods
Step 6   Other Translation Methods

 1.推演法(deduction)
   community
   business community
   legal community
   Sarah community
         Translation Methods
Step 6    Other Translation Methods


 2. 移植法(transplant)
   microwave
   supermarket
   right-wing
   outparty
         Translation Methods
Step 6   Other Translation Methods

 3.引申法(extension)
   brain
   mind
   bottleneck
   There is more to their life than political
    and social and economical problem;
    more than transient everydayness
         Translation Methods
Step 6   Other Translation Methods

 4. 替代法(substitution)
   Washington and Moscow still dominate
    arms market
 5. 释义法(explanation)
 6. 缀合法(combination)
    exploring and surveying
         Translation Methods
Step 6   Other Translation Methods

 7.音译法(transliteration)
   gene
   Mastercard
                    Consolidation

Judge how the following are translated.
1. Studies serve for delight, for ornament and for ability.
   Their chief use for delight is in privacy and retiring; for
   ornament, is in discourse; and for ability, is in the
   judgment and disposition of business.
  读书足以怡情,足以博采,足以长才。其怡情也,最
   见于独处幽居之时;其博采也,最见于高谈阔论之中;
   其长才也,最见于处世判事之际。
2. Our hopes and plans are scattered to the four winds.
a. 我们的希望和计划全落空了。
b. 我们的希望和计划被驱散,随风飘了。
c. 我们的希望和计划都被分散到四种风里去了。
                Consolidation



•   3. This is an “egg-and-hen” question.
•   a. 这是一个“鸡蛋和鸡”的问题。
•   b. 这是一个“先有鸡还是先有蛋”的问题。
•   c. 这是一个长期争论不休的问题。

• 4. Unemployment has stubbornly refused to contract for
  more than a decade.
• a. 十多年来, 失业人数一直顽固地拒绝压缩。
• b. 失业人数总是居高不下,已经十多个年头了。
• c. 失业人数总是不收缩, 这个问题已经持续多年了。
                Summary



1.   Literal translation & free translation
2.   Application of literal &free translation
3.   Remedial Methods
4.   Foreignizing & domesticating method
5.   Other translation methods
             Assignments



• I. Do the exercises printed on the
• handouts.

• II. Search on the Internet about
• tanslation works on demasticating
• and foreignizing.
                             Assignments
I. Put the following into Chinese or vice verse, paying attention to the
      underlined part.
  1.     They asked long lists of questions, numerically
       arranged, about the climate, products, laws, business
       chances, and statistics of the country in which the
       consul had the honor of representing his government.
       他们一、二、三、四地列了一个很长的问题表, 向那位领
       事问了一连串的问题, 诸如领事派驻国的气候、物产、法
       律、贸易机会以及种种的统计资料。
  2. One day he tried to sneak across the heavily guarded
     Swiss border to offer his services as a spy to the British.
     He was captured by the Germans, but he talked his way
     out.
       他们一、二、三、四地列了一个很长的问题表, 向那位领
       事问了一连串的问题, 诸如领事派驻国的气候、物产、法
       律、贸易机会以及种种的统计资料。
                      Assignments

3. Many retirees are couch potatoes who like popping cold beers and
  relaxing in front of their $2500 wide screen high definition
  television set.
  许多退休者喜欢窝在沙发里长时间地看电视, 一边手拿冰镇
  啤酒, 一边轻松地观赏价值 2500美元的大屏幕\高清晰度电
  视里的节目。

4. 语言这东西不是随便可以学好的, 非下苦功不行.

 The mastery of language is not easy and requires painstaking effort.

5. 会议开得冷冷清清, 有时甚至开不下去了。
  The meetings were marked by such absence of lively discussions
  that at times they were almost on the point of breaking up.
                        Assignments
II. Judge how the following are translated.
  • 1. I prefer driving to being driven.
         我喜欢开车, 不喜欢坐车。
  • 2. Our hopes and plans are scattered to the four winds.
        我们的希望和计划全落空了。
  • 3. This is an “egg-and-hen” question.
      这是一个长期争论不休的问题。
 • 4. Companies with a big staff in Beijing find themselves
   squeezed between high
       失业人数总是居高不下,已经十多个年头了。
 • 5. Unemployment has stubbornly refused to contract for
   more than a decade.
      北京的一些员工队伍庞大的公司承受着运行成本高
      和业务不断萎缩的双重压力, 颇感处境艰难。
                      Assignments
•   6. 熟悉多种文化背景, 能操两种语言的管理人员在发展中的亚
    洲十分抢手。
     Multi-cultured and bilingual managers are most sought after in
     developing Asia.
•   7. 有些厕所似乎仍是这次卫生打扫除的死角。
     Some toilets seem immune to the clean-up campaign.
•   8. 美国不再是从经济角度来说的头等大国, 即超群的世界强
    国, 世界上也不再是仅仅有两个超级大国。当我们从经济角度
    和经济潜力来考虑问题时,可以看到当今世界上共有五大力量
    中心。
     America is no longer No.1 in the world from an economic
     standpoint, the pre-eminent world power and there are no
     longer only two superpowers in the world. When we think
     in economic terms and economic potentialities, there are
     five great power centers in the world today.
•   10. 这个摊贩叫卖道:“ 快来买呀, 过了这个村可没这个店
    了。”
     The peddler hawked:” Now or never!”
             Reference Books




• 1. Peter Newmark, A Textbook of
•          Translation by Peter Newmark
•          [m].Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign
•          Language Education Press
•          Chapter 7 : 67-93
• 2. 范仲英,实用英语翻译教程,外语教
•         育与研究出版社Chapter: P87-95

								
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