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					                                                                                                      Vol 5 – Issue 2 – June 2009

                                               Drums of Chang e
                                                  A quarterly newsletter of the Peace and Development Platform

         Contents                              Investing in Agriculture
           Investing in
          Agriculture ...1

      The African Peer Review
          Mechanism ...2

            Editorial ... 3

      Food Security Situation
          in Malawi ... 4

         Gomoza – a Small
           Miracle ... 5

     Local Mediation Initiative
     Making a Breakthrough in
       Kitgum, Uganda ...7

                                               Countries in Africa face many challenges as they try to raise economies, deal with increasingly
          Acronyms                             integrated world markets, and meet the Millennium Development Goals, especially those focused
                                               on hunger and poverty. This situation is exacerbated by the declining external assistance due to
AU        – African Union
                                               the global economic crisis, and many competing demands on resources. Development assistance
CSO       – Civil Society Organisation
                                               for agriculture in the developing world has declined over the last two decades, leaving many poor
ICC     – International Criminal Court
                                               countries more vulnerable to hunger and poverty especially in sub-Saharan Africa, agriculture has
PSC     – Peace and Security Council
                                               been plagued by low productivity and under-investment, which makes it difficult for Africans to
ECOSOCC – Economic ,Social and
                                               feed themselves and earn an income from farming. The spike in food prices in 2008 jeopardized
          Cultural Council
                                               even more people in poor countries as the price of imported foods such as rice, wheat, and maize
EU        – European Union
                                               peaked. This resulted in a negative economic impact on families, who often spend at least half of
UNAMID – United Nations-African
                                               their income on food.
         Union Mission in Darfur
UNMEE – United Nations Mission in              In the long term food security and economic growth will depend on investing in agriculture which is
         Ethiopia and Eritrea                  essential for growth, poverty reduction and food security, especially for the poorer countries on the
AMISOM – African Union Mission in              continent. However, additional funds for agriculture and rural development should be accompanied
         Somalia                               by measures to enhance the performance of agricultural projects and programmes and the absorptive
IDPs   – Internally Displaced Persons          capacity of the sector. Donor coordination has to be stepped up and public expenditure processes have
PAD       – Peace and Development Platform     to be reformed to respond to demand and promote private sector activity.
SADC      – Southern African Development
                                               Investing in agriculture will help Africa’s poorest people earn their way out of poverty. This is
                                               especially true in sub-Saharan Africa, where agriculture is the backbone of most economies and

                                   Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)                          1
employs nearly two-thirds of the population.        because most of the poor and hungry live in           has caused countries that were formerly self-
In addition to fuelling economic growth,            rural areas where they depend on agricultural         sufficient and exporters of food to become net
investment in agriculture will also enable          activities for their livelihoods. This is why it is   importers of food.
Africa’s poorest countries to better feed their     highly important that agricultural growth be
people and weather shocks caused by changing        at the centre of any development strategy.            Governments can introduce measures
global food prices.                                                                                       for disaster prevention, mitigation and
                                                    Enhanced resource mobilization for agriculture        preparedness to make societies more resilient to
In the long-term, food security and economic        and rural development is an essential                 shocks. This may include adjusting agricultural
growth will require investing in agriculture.       ingredient of a poverty reduction strategy, but       production systems, putting food and non-
With stronger infrastructure, improved              investment in agriculture alone is not sufficient     food based safety nets in place, ensuring that
technology and training, farmers could benefit      for achieving the poverty and hunger reduction
                                                                                                          adequate credit is available to finance recovery,
from increased crop yields and stronger             rates the region needs. This mobilization must
                                                                                                          and decentralizing decision making for disaster
connections to domestic, regional, and              be undertaken in an environment of supporting
                                                                                                          risk management.
international markets. Tools such as fertilizer     access to assets by the poor, improving human
and seeds are also urgently needed to help          capital, and investing in health, education and       Despite their seriousness, the problems facing
communities deal with the immediate impacts         social services.                                      agriculture in Africa are not insurmountable.
of the food crisis.                                                                                       The problems can be overcome if political will
                                                    With increases in population, Africa’s
In most African countries, accelerated              traditional cultivation and resource utilization      can be found and if resource mobilization for
agricultural growth can play a decisive role in     methods have become unsustainable and soils           the sector is improved. With the theme of the
generating economic growth, employment              in African countries have become weathered            13th AU Summit being “Investing in Agriculture
and trade as well as in poverty and hunger          by high rainfalls and temperatures. They are          for Economic Growth and Food Security,” signs
reduction, because in most African countries,       becoming poorer in nutrients, farmlands suffer        are that the importance of agriculture in the
agriculture is a major productive sector and        soil erosion and rangelands are degraded. This        region is being increasingly recognised.

 AU Peer Review Attacks
 Development Model
 The African Peer Review Mechanism (MARP)*
 Forum warns, in its self-evaluation report,
 published in February, that Mozambique’s
 development model is creating a wide moat,
 separating rich and poor, which can generate
 serious conflicts.
 The consumer society is creating serious
 frustrations in the group that is excluded,
 which could lead to social convulsions in the
 medium term. The population is already taking
 justice into its own hands because it no longer
 trusts state institutions. This is a very strong
 statement from a very establishment body. The
 MARP Forum is a joint government-civil society
 body of 58 people, including three governors,
 the governor of the Bank of Mozambique,
 representatives of eight parliamentary             The principle beneficiaries of growth have            government and donor claims of dramatic
 commissions, civil society, the private sector,    been a tiny group and ‘the most credible              reductions in poverty. The Forum calls
 and members of the Agenda 2025 commission.         indicators show an increase in absolute               for the creation of a development bank.
 The Forum president is Lourenço do Rosario,        terms in the number of people below the               Additionally, recognising that Mozambique
 rector of Universidade Politécnica.                minimum subsistence line’, thus rejecting             has electricity from the Cabora Bassa dam,
                                                                                                                                       continued on pg 4

                                2    Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)
 v From the Peace and Development Platform (PAD) v

                                                                  By Clever Chikwanda

The June/July AU Heads of State Summit in Libya     On the other hand, the continent celebrates          the continuous inclusion of the bloated
comes at a time when, again, the continent          Africa Day during this period. As Africans, we       youth militias and other ghost workers on
finds itself wallowing in the quagmire inflicted    should seize this moment and take time to            the government payroll; the long overdue
by the global economic recession. Arguably, it      reflect on who we are as a people. This is the       legislative reforms which seek to address issues
is Africa that pays the heaviest price, through     moment when we need to pull together as a            relating to the Electoral Act; proper freedom of
decreased donor aid, escalation of food prices,     united force for Africa’s economic emancipation.     assembly and association; and constitutional
job losses, hunger, poverty, further increase       For those, particularly in South Africa, this        reform. It also points to the deliberate delay
in the gap between the rich and the poor – a        period vividly reminds them of the infamous          in convening the National Security Council.
fertile recipe for more conflicts. The theme of     xenophobic attacks of last year. To this, Africa     The political violence and continued farm
the summit therefore seems to be well thought       should stand up and say, “Never again shall          invasions by alleged ZANU [PF] supporters and
out, provided the aspect of food security will      we allow this to happen on this, our land, both      the failure by the service chiefs to recognise the
be addressed. The continent awaits the              during our life time and in the future.”             legitimacy of the Executive Prime Minister are
innovativeness of the Heads of State to craft                                                            other burning issues. This has compelled the
                                                    The summit takes place against a background
objective resolutions and proactive policies                                                             MDC to launch an appeal to SADC to convene
                                                    of the recently held general elections in South
that mitigate the effects cited above and that                                                           an extra ordinary summit which would address
                                                    Africa and Malawi. The South African poll
are also responsive to the real needs of the                                                             these and other issues as the sine qua non for
                                                    received a “seal of approval” by the majority
                                                                                                         any envisaged free and fair elections in the
populace on the continent.                          of observer teams deployed there. The same
                                                    however cannot entirely be said of those in
This summit needs to recommend practical and
                                                    Malawi. While the Zimbabwean delegation              The intervention in Uganda by Kitgum Mediation
sustainable solutions to conflicts that continue
                                                    in the SADC Parliamentary Forum described            Initiative is another success story. Peace-
to affect the continent, if our dreams to advance
                                                    it as a “hallmark of all plebiscites in Africa”,     builders, the world over, now overwhelmingly
and catch up with the rest of the world are to
                                                    John Kufuor, the Chair of the Commonwealth           agree on the efficacy of marrying modern and
ever become a reality. Of much disturbance is
                                                    Observer Group stated that “the overwhelming         traditional methods of conflict transformation.
the surge in fighting in Somalia and the DRC, the                                                        This has been eloquently demonstrated by this
                                                    impact of the exploitation of the incumbency
issue of child soldiers in Chad and the seemingly   advantage, especially the unashamed bias of          peace initiative.
endless conflict in the Niger Delta between the     the state TV and radio which created a markedly
Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger                                                               The Gomoza experience highlighted in this
                                                    unlevel playing field….” This is a wakeup call       issue is another eloquent demonstration of how
Delta and the Nigerian Government. Of equal         to all electoral stakeholders, especially in the
concern is Niger’s President, Mamadou Tandja’s                                                           peace-builders can endeavour to successfully
                                                    face of the very same discrepancies that were        build peace within their communities. For a
planned referendum allowing him to seek a           identified during Malawi’s 2004 elections.
third term in office, contrary to the ruling by                                                          long time, Zimbabweans have been brutalized
that country’s constitutional court. Indeed this    It is also taking place against the backdrop of      and forced to accept living in an atmosphere
is a typical setback for the democratic gains       Zimbabwe’s Government of National Unity              of extreme fear while perpetrators of violence
                                                    between the MDC and ZANU [PF], which                 walked scot free, thanks to the excesses
Africa had made.
                                                    has survived the first few months. Already,          of patronage politics. The intervention by
Moreover, China’s entrance into and its             however, the opposition accuses the former           Grace to Heal came at a time when the level
purported endeavour to end the conflict in          ruling party of lacking commitment to the            of polarization was way beyond any level of
Sudan is another development which is sure          success of this arrangement, citing its failure to   imagination. As the Peace and Development
to spur lots of debate. Again, the issue of fresh   solve contentious issues such as: the unilateral     Platform, it is our hope that this work should
elections in Mauritania and Madagascar should       appointment of the Governor of the Reserve           be emulated by all peace-builders both within
be dealt with conclusively by this summit.          Bank of Zimbabwe and the Attorney General;           and without our network. Thank you.

                                Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)                                   3
 continued from pg 2
it calls for electricity prices to be reduced for    evaluates the performance of member states         African States announced that it would send a
the production sector. Because of the bias           on a range of issues.                              ministerial delegation to Bissau to ‘engage all
to the social sector, only 3.5% of the state                                                            stakeholders in an effort to restore confidence
budget is allocated to agriculture and rural         On Madagascar                                      among the political actors, civil society and
development. This should be increased to                                                                security services and return the country to
                                                     The African Union suspended Madagascar as a
the 10%, as recommended by various African                                                              constitutional normalcy’.
                                                     member, the strongest condemnation yet by
Union Heads of State Summits and NEPAD.              the international community after opposition
‘Mozambique’s present development model,             leader Andry Rajoelina took power with the         On the indictment of Sudanese
based on free individual initiative and the          support of the army. The AU decision echoed        President Omar al-Bashir
principles of economic liberalism’, is seen as       criticism by SADC, the European Union and
                                                                                                        The Peace and Security Council of the AU
creating unemployment and leaving many               United States. Weeks of political unrest in
                                                                                                        condemned the arrest warrant issued by the
families without enough to survive, especially       Madagascar have killed at least 135 people,
                                                                                                        International Criminal Court against Sudanese
in urban areas. This is polarising society, and      devastated the economy and worried foreign
                                                     investors.                                         President Omar al-Bashir and recommended that
creating ‘serious risks’ of conflict. In a survey,                                                      the chairperson of the AU Commission, Jean Ping,
half of respondents say unemployment is the                                                             send a delegation to the UN Security Council with
most serious threat to peace, stability and          On Guinea Bissau
                                                                                                        the aim of stopping the indictment.
security. The report repeatedly uses the word        The chairperson of the AU Commission, Jean
‘fosso’, meaning a constructed moat or ditch,        Ping strongly condemned the assassination          On the Upcoming AU Summit
to describe the widening gap between rich            of the President of Guinea Bissau, João
and poor. The report also warns ‘corruption is       Bernardo Vieira hours after that of his army       Libya is holding the AU Heads of State Summit
growing because of impunity.’ *MARP is the           chief of staff, General Batista Tagme Na Wai       which was supposed to be held in Madagascar
Mecanismo African de Revisão de Pares, the           and called on political leaders in the country     in July. The theme of the Summit is “Investing
African Union/NePAD Peer Review Mechanism,           to rally behind the legitimate authorities.        in Agriculture for Economic Growth and Food
under which a team of eminent persons                Meanwhile, the Economic Community of West          Security”.

                                                                       M AL AWI

                       Food Security Situation in Malawi
By Jacinta Chisi                                     this disease on agriculture is often difficult     accumulation and saving mechanism, labour
Nutritional problems continue to affect large        to distinguish from factors such as drought,       out-migration has traditionally served as
proportions of the population in Malawi and          war/civil strife and other shocks and crises.      mechanism for rural capital accumulation and
                                                     Furthermore, the effects of the epidemic           savings though remittances.
contribute significantly to infant and child
                                                     on agriculture tend to be subtle and largely
mortality.                                                                                              In brief HIV/AIDS constitutes more than a
                                                     invisible, while parameters of impact are highly
The rate of food security has been improved          complex and often hard to quantify. Moreover,      threat to households’ foods security in Malawi.
since President Dr Bingu Wa Muntharika came          what we know about the impact of HIV/AIDS          It can create livelihood crises among rural
into power in 2004. He introduced subsidy            on rural households has been based on studies      households. For this reason, there is a need to
programmes where farmers, especially the             from very small areas, often single villages.      go beyond agro-vulnerability mapping so as
poor, are accessing fertilizer at reasonable         HIV/AIDS induced structural changes with           to enable policy makers to measure broader
prices. In Malawi, we have NGOs that promote         relevance to agricultural production that need     based vulnerability.
irrigation farming schemes which enhance             to be monitored include:                           Despite the current food security, there are
the harvesting of variety of food. Since 2004,                                                          some parts of Malawi that are experiencing
                                                     Alteration in typologies of farm households
Malawi is food secure.                                                                                  food insecurity due to floods and dry spells, just
                                                     (young adult widow headed households,
Malawi is one of the countries greatly affected      orphans headed households and household            to mention a few districts in Balaka, Salima,
by the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The impact of              without young adults).Rural capital                Kalonga, Nkhotakota and part of Nsanje.

                                4     Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)

      Gomoza: A small miracle
By Dumisani Ngwenya, Grace to Heal                    ZANU [PF] then sent its youths to all known MDC
                                                      supporters’ homes and forcibly took plates and
While the use of violence as a political and
                                                      pots to replace the ones destroyed at the base.
campaign tool has become entrenched in the
                                                      Several MDC youths were arrested yet no ZANU
Zimbabwean social psyche, its after-effects
                                                      [PF] supporter was arrested. One of the MDC
on communal relations are often ignored or
                                                      top officials had to flee his home and live in the
overlooked. However the damage done by such
                                                      bush for a while for fear for his life. Traditional
violence, especially where it pits the community
                                                      leaders were also harassed and the headman
against itself should never be underestimated.
                                                      was made to jog from his homestead to the
Neighbours, long time friends, relatives and
                                                      “base” which is quite far from his home.
even family members no longer speak to
each other, let alone participate in family and       Despite the violence eventually dying down,
community activities.                                 it left a much polarised community. People
                                                      no longer trusted each other. At gatherings,
A community that has recently experienced
                                                      people sat according to their affiliations. One
this is Gomoza in Lupane District in the
                                                      could only drink beer with people from one’s
Matabeleland North Province of Zimbabwe.
                                                      party because they were afraid they might be
On 20 June 2008, ZANU [PF] supporters went
                                                      poisoned. The polarisation even crept into the
on a rampage, beating up MDC supporters in
                                                      church as well. This community was on such
preparation for a rally that was to be held the
                                                      a knife edge that it was no longer possible
following day on the 21st. In fact a “base” was
established just outside the primary school in a      for community meetings and development
dilapidated building from where attackers were        programmes to continue. The simple procedure
sent out to targeted individuals. People were         of convening the community became
visited at their homesteads and beaten up. In a       impossible as attendance now depended on
bizarre incident, one of the leaders sent people      who called the meeting. Neither the councillor
to beat up his sister, the child of his father and    nor the headman could call a meeting and get
                                                      the whole community to attend. People would              “Farmers from poor and rich
mother, simply because she belonged to the
opposition. This man is now ostracised from           come or stay away depending on whether the             countries alike want to get more
his family as the family members refused to go        person who called the meeting was perceived            funds for agriculture, saying the
to him or assist, when he lost a child. He in turn    to be for or against them.
                                                                                                              sector has been neglected since
is unable to attend family funerals. It really is a   The unforeseen consequence of this whole
crying shame when relationships are sacrificed        incident was that the violence spilled into
                                                                                                             the economic crisis broke out…
at the altar of political expedience. In the heat     South Africa where the children of the victims          Billions of dollars were poured
of the frenzy, people never think about the           were reported to have assaulted the children          out to prop up ailing banks, while
consequences of their actions until it is too late,   of the ZANU [PF] supporters. It was also feared           funds are drying up to help
then they become outcasts in the communities          that when these children came home, violence
and live miserable lives.                             might flare up and it would affect ZANU [PF]              the world’s almost 1 billion
The MDC supporters decided enough was                 more. One young man is said to have written                  hungry, advocates for
enough. On the day of the rally, they ambushed        to his mother, a councillor and at the forefront                 the poor say.”
ZANU [PF] supporters coming from the rally by         of the violence, to stop forthwith as his life was
                                                                                                                         AJAy VASHEE
the bridge. It was then very dark and people          now in danger.
were beaten up indiscriminately and dogs set
upon them. School children and the elderly            The intervention
were also on the receiving end of the revenge         When we heard about the violence, one of our
attack. After that they went to the “base” and        staff members visited the area and met the
destroyed cooking utensils.                           wounded from both parties, as the violence
                                                                                   continued on pg 6

                                 Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)                                5
continued from pg 5

was dying down. In early October we went            present including a significant number of           meetings. Working through this issue will
back into the community to help with a Conflict     young people.                                       pose a challenge as both sides lost property,
Resolution workshop attended by church,             After words encouraging the community to            including precious jewellery and party regalia.
traditional and political leaders from the two      get back to how they were before the violence,      The question would be who will compensate
parties. There were thirty five people in all.      party representatives for both sides stood up       who for what? Should both sides call it
                                                    and offered apologies on behalf of their parties.   “square?” If they do, what about the individuals
Since then we have been working in the
                                                    (These parties were represented at local and        who are now struggling to cook because of the
community, visiting individual leaders, i.e.
                                                    district levels). The highlight of the day was      loss incurred? When does compensation stop?
church, political and traditional, trying to
                                                    the frank and sincere admission by the vice         What happens to those who had limbs broken
understand their perspectives on the violence                                                           and maybe incurred huge medical costs?
and its impact on their community. Follow up        chairman of ZANU [PF] that they indeed were
meetings for the traditional leaders and the        the originators of the senseless violence.          It is clear though that some sort of communal
politicians were held separately in an effort                                                           consensus satisfactory to all affected must
to empower the traditional leaders who have                                                             be found before people can continue with
been overpowered and used to further the                                                                the journey towards reconciliation and
interests of one political party. The traditional     “The greatest trait needed                        forgiveness.
leaders pointed out that their people wanted           by any people involved in                        We believe that the deconstruction of a culture
the political leaders, as the instigators of the                                                        of violence and constructing one of peaceful
violence, to apologise publicly to the people.
                                                      social transformation is ‘a                       and nonviolent conflict resolution is a long
After further work, particularly with the local
                                                        sense of the possible’’                         term objective that goes beyond a generation.
politicians, it was eventually agreed that                          Camilo Cavour                       So while we may celebrate the miracle in
                                                                                                        Gomoza we are under no illusion whatsoever
Grace to Heal facilitates a church service that
                                                                                                        about the work that still remains to help create
could be used as a platform to express the
                                                                                                        a nonviolent community. We believe however
public apology and to seek forgiveness and try      Unfortunately there are still two or so high        that this goal is attainable in every society.
working towards reconciliation.                     ranking officials who remain unrepentant and
                                                    unable to offer an apology. These however have      The senselessness of the Gomoza violence is
Working with churches in Lupane                     become isolated and with little if any support      clearly illustrated by the ironic fact that this
Centre                                              from their party members. They are no longer        place is one of the three places in which ZANU
                                                    respected within the community.                     [PF] won the local council elections. Why they
4 December 2008 was set as the day for the                                                              decided to use violence for the presidential
service. On this day, pastors from Bulawayo,        The service was the beginning of the communal
                                                                                                        rerun remains a mystery even to some of those
and Tsholotsho, the headman from the                healing; more work awaits us this year as
                                                                                                        more level-headed within the party. One thing
                                                    we visit individual victims to offer psycho-
neighbouring area, and a colleague from                                                                 for sure is that just about the whole community
                                                    social support. The issue of restitution has
Harare made the trip to Gomoza. The meeting                                                             has passed a vote of no confidence, in not just
                                                    been brought up by several people at several
was well attended with 500-600 villagers                                                                the councillor, but the party as a whole.

                               “We thank you for intervening in this conflict and for
                              bringing us together so that we can resolve our conflict.
                                 I for one was at loss as to how to bring the whole c
                                        ommunity together to deal with this”
                                                         JOSEPH MOyO, ZANU [PF] VICE CHAIRMAN.

                                6     Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)
                                                         in unity
                                                      hand in hand
                                                    hearts held safely
                                               in comfort’s gentle embrace
                                            in this moment...we become one
                                                   God WILL bless Africa
                                                  and we shall overcome

                                                                 UG ANDA

    Local Mediation Initiative making a
     breakthrough in Kitgum, Uganda
By Jackson Omona, National Peace-building       In December 2007, I talked to several elders       from the LRA attack was an obligation of the
Coordinator                                     of Pubec and Pajong and later undertook an         government of Uganda and therefore Pubec
                                                analysis of the conflict to identify the parties   clan would not take responsibility for that.
Pajong and Pubec clans had a wrangle over a
                                                and the power relationships, the context,          The two clans agreed to hold a reconciliation
land boundary in the early 1990s which led
                                                the root causes as well as the gaps in the         ceremony after completing payment of the
to the arrest and detention of Obonyo Alfred
                                                previous attempts to resolve the conflict. It      reparation in February 2009. Owing to this
of Pajong, who later died of pneumonia
                                                was clear that the conflict was very complex.      intervention, the two clans are now able to
on 29 August 1992, after being subjected        I recommended to the district authorities
to harsh conditions in the police cells. This                                                      interact at social functions such as funerals,
                                                to constitute a mediation team that was            traditional marriages and at markets.
marked the beginning of a rift between the      impartial. A ten man team was appointed, led
two clans who had lived in harmony in the       by the Retired Bishop of Kitgum Macleod Baker      World Vision Uganda played an important
same village for many years.                    Ochola II and started work in March 2008.          role in facilitating the mediation process
The conflict was exacerbated by the massacre    As the IDPs were resettling their former           through the Kitgum Peace-building Project.
of 56 civilians by the Lord’s Resistance Army   villages, Pubec clan remained in the IDP           The long mediation process came after
(LRA) on 24 July 2002, which is alleged to      camp. However the mediation team has made          several unsuccessful attempts by cultural
have been triggered by Otim, a member           a breakthrough in resolving the conflict. As a     leaders and other civil society organisation
of Pubec clan who escaped from the              social responsibility, Pubec clan has agreed       to seek a settlement. It has also helped to
LRA captivity with a gun. It also led to the    to pay reparation for the late Obonyo to           build local community capacity to resolve
massive displacement of the community           Pajong clan to be followed by a traditional        conflicts. This achievement is attributed to
from the whole of Mucwini Sub County into       reconciliation ceremony - mato oput. It was        the fact that the mediation team remained
the IDP camp.                                   also agreed that protecting the 56 civilians       impartial and focused on the cause.

                           Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)                                   7
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                                                                                           Action Support Centre (ASC)
                                                                                              Peace and Development
                                                                                                  Platform (PAD)
                                                                                            Johannesburg, South Africa

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                                                                                              Editorial Team
                                                                                                    Sandisiwe Qweni
                                                                                                      Richard Smith
                                                                                                    Clever Chikwanda
                                                                                                       Simon Taylor
                                                                                           Funded by: Christian Aid, Norwegian
                                                                                                People’s Aid (South Africa),
                                                                                           Christian Aid, Charlotte and Douglas
                                                                                                       Roberts Trust

                                                                                                     Graphic design:
                                                                                                    Hot Dog Design cc
                                                                                                      (011) 477 0425

                          8    Drums of Change Peace and Development Platform (PAD)