Memorandum of Understanding Biofuels

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Memorandum of Understanding Biofuels Powered By Docstoc
					          MINISTRY OF FOREIGN RELATIONS

     Subsecretary-General of Energy and High Tecnology



          Brazil’s Strategy of
International Cooperation in Bioenergy
                                        Ambassador André Amado
Energy is one of the priority items on the current international stage:

 •    Security
       – The growing world demand for energy has led to countries seeking energy
         supply security and privileged access to sources, with obvious effects on
         international stability.

 •    Development
       – There is no economic growth or social development without an increase in
         energy consumption.
 •    Climate change
       – The production and use of energy is the main source of emission of greenhouse
          gases, especially in relation to fossil fuels.




     Biofuels are a part of the answer to these three challenges


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    Biofuels and security


3
        Biofuels and energy security
•   The concentration of energy supply in a few oil producing countries puts the
    energy security of the planet at risk.

•   Biofuels can be produced by at least 100 countries, especially in Africa.
    These could therefore contribute to the de-concentration of energy supply,
    as well as to the reduction in the unequal access to energy. At the same
    time, they could play a decisive role in the global and national diversification
    of energy, including by means of cogeneration.

•   Dependence on energy imports increases the vulnerability of developing
    countries, placing their economic prosperity at risk. Biofuels represent a
    unique opportunity for developing countries to reduce oil imports.




4
    Biofuels and development


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    Biofuels: a means of sustainable
              development
•   Brazil defends the idea that the sustainability of biofuels should be
    appraoched in its social, environmental and economic aspects.
    Biofuels have never been a threat to food production or been a factor in
    encouraging deforestation.

•   However, the definition of parameters of sustainability should be done in
    a balanced way: the analysis should take into consideration all the
    potential benefits and not just the risks.




7
    Biofuels and climate


8
Just a handful of countries are responsible
     for most of the world’s emissions
                              World emissions of GHG in 2006

Per capita emissions in 2006                      GHG emissions by region




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Source: World Energy Council (2008), ENERDATA
                                   World energy mix
                                      Primary sources (2005)

                                                                 Hydroelectric       Biomass and
                                                       Nuclear   2.2%                residues
                            Natural Gas                6.3%                          10.0%
                            20.7%
                                                                                         Other
                                                                                         “Alternatives”
                                                                                         0.5%




                                                                                 Coal
                                   Oil                                           25.3%
                                   35.0%

                                          Renewable Sources < 13%

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Source: Agencia Internacional de Energy (AIE) / OCDE
                      The Brazilian energy mix
                                       Primary sources (2008)

                                                   Other
                                                   renewables
                            Sugarcane              3.4%                       Oil and
                            17.0%                                             derivates
                                                                              36.6%



Fire-wood
and charcoal
11.6%




                        Hydro-electric
                                                                Natural Gas
                        14.0%                    Nuclear
                                                         Coal   10.3%
                                                 1.5%
                                                         5.8%

                                          Renewable Sources: 46%

Source: Balanço Energético Nacional 2009 – EPE                                            11
     Sharing the Brazilian Experience



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           Biofuels: summary of the Brazilian experience
-    Brazil has the world’s highest level productivity of ethanol, as well as
     being highly energy efficient
-    Ethanol from sugarcane contributes to mitigation of climate change and
     to reducing atmospheric pollution of city centers
-    Expansion of ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil does not threaten the
     Amazon
-    Food vs. fuel is a false dilemma - biofuels help organize the countryside
     and improve agricultural infra-structure
-    Biofuels are a factor in social inclusion and in generating income in the
     countryside
-    Public subsidies are not necessary, just public mandates for
     consumption (E20-25 in Brazil)
-    Production of biofuels enable cogeneration of electricity (in Brazil,
     cogeneration should top 12GW by 2020)
-    As demonstrated by Brazil, biofuels contribute to economic and social
     progress in developing countries


13
         Sharing the Brazilian experience (1)
     Initiatives by Brazil in conjunction with international bodies




•    United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)
      Meeting with DE Achim Steiner (October 2009)
      – Brazil and UNEP should collaborate in carrying out feasibility studies for
         production and sustainable use of biofuels in developing countries.




•    United Nations for Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
      Visit by DG of UNIDO, Kandeh Yumkella, to Brazil (May 2010)
      – Brazil and UNIDO should collaborate in carrying out feasibility studies for
         production and sustainable use of biofuels in developing countries.




14
        Sharing the Brazilian experience(2)
               Trilateral initiatives by Brasil


• Memorandum of Understanding Brazil – USA
     Signed March 2007
     – Trilateral effort: for dissemination of biofuels to other countries through
        elaboration of detailed feasibility studies
     – Phase II in Africa: Senegal and Guinea-Bissau.



• Brazil–EU Initiative
     Adopted during the third Brazil – EU Summit (October 2009)
     – Commitment by Brazil and the EU to work in a joint initiative for sustainable
       development of bioenergy in Africa, emphasizing biofuels and bio-electricity.
     – Elaboration of detailed feasibility studies in African countries to be selected on
       the basis of Brazilian expertise in sustainable production of biofuels and bio-
       electricity.




15
Sharing the Brazilian experience (3)

      Brazil-China?




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     Brazil has a clear international strategy
              in the bioenergy area
• To promote sustainable development
     – With its energy mix being one of the cleanest in the world, Brazil hopes
       to contribute to the development of more sustainable global standards
       for the production and use of energy.

• Sense of mission
     – To share technological solutions and public policies with developing
       countries which help energy generation as well as social and economic
       progress, on a sustainable basis.

• Building a global biofuels market
     – Making biofuels international commodities.




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